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Queens

Queens
Queens — Borough of New York City — Queens County

The Unisphere, sometimes used as a symbol of Queens.

Location of Queens shown in yellow. Airports in medium blue are also in Queens.

Coordinates: 40°42′15.0″N 73°55′4.0″W / 40.704167°N 73.917778°W / 40.704167; -73.917778 Country State County City Settled Government - Borough president Area - Total - Land - Water Population - Total - Density Website United States New York Queens New York City 1683 Helen Marshall (D) 178.28 sq mi (461.7 km2) 109.24 sq mi (282.9 km2) 69.04 sq mi (178.8 km2) 2,293,007 20,991/sq mi (8,104.7/ km2) Official Website of the Queens Borough President

boundaries are identical to those of the County of Queens (Queens County), a subdivision of the State of New York in the Northeastern United States. Located on the western portion of Long Island, Queens is home to two of the three major New York City area airports, John F. Kennedy and LaGuardia; it is also the location of the New York Mets baseball team; the US Open tennis tournament; Flushing Meadows Park and Silvercup Studios. As of the 2005 American Community Survey, immigrants comprise 47.6% of Queens residents.[1] With a population of 2.3 million it is the second most populous borough in New York City (behind Brooklyn) and the tenth most populous county in the United States. It is also the nation’s fourthmost-densely populated county (after the counties covering Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx).[2] The 2.3 million figure is the highest historical population for the borough.[3] Were each borough an independent city, Queens would be the fifth largest city in the United States. New York’s Five Boroughs at a Glance Jurisdiction Borough of Population Land Area County of estimate for 1 July 2008 Bronx Kings Queens 1,391,903 2,556,598 2,293,007 square square miles km 23 42 71 109 58 303 59 109 183 283 151 786

Manhattan New York 1,634,795 the Bronx Brooklyn Queens Staten Island

Richmond 487,407 8,363,710 19,490,297

City of New York State of New York

47,214 122,284

Source: United States Census Bureau [4][2][5] Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of New York and was supposedly named for the Queen consort, Catherine of Braganza (1638-1705), the

Queens is the largest in area, the secondlargest in population, and the easternmost of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York. The Borough of Queens’

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Portuguese princess who married King Charles II of England in 1662.[6][7] The borough is often considered one of the more suburban boroughs (in comparison to Manhattan standards) of New York City. Neighborhoods in central Queens (except those situated along Queens Boulevard and the neighborhoods of Flushing and Jamaica), southern Queens, and eastern Queens have a look and feel similar to the bordering suburbs of western Nassau County. In its northwestern section, however, Queens is home to many urban neighborhoods and several central business districts. Long Island City, on the Queens’ waterfront across from Manhattan, is the site of the Citicorp Building, the tallest skyscraper in New York City outside of Manhattan, and the tallest building on Long Island.

Queens
occupied throughout most of the rest of the war. Under the Quartering Act, British soldiers used, as barracks, the public inns and uninhabited buildings belonging to Queens residents, against the will of many of the local people. The quartering of soldiers in private homes, except in times of war, was banned by the Third Amendment to the United States Constitution. Nathan Hale was captured by the British on the shore of Flushing Bay in Queens before being executed in Manhattan. From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Hempstead, Jamaica, Newtown, and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead.[13][14] The seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica,[15] but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution in order to use the materials to build barracks.[16] After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 (and later completed) in an area near Mineola (now in Nassau County) known then as Clowesville.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] The 1850 census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, and several sites were in contention for the construction of a new one. In 1870, Long Island City split from the Town of Newton, incorporating itself as a city, consisting of what had been the Village of Astoria and some unincorporated areas within the Town of Newtown. Around 1874, the seat of county government was moved to Long Island City from Mineola.[28][29][30] On March 1, 1860, the eastern border between Queens County (later Nassau County) and Suffolk County was redefined with no discernible change.[31] On June 8, 1881, North Brother Island was transferred to New York County.[32] On May 8, 1884, Rikers Island was transferred to New York County.[33] In 1885, Lloyd Neck, which was part of the Town of Oyster Bay and was earlier known as Queens Village, seceded from Queens and became part of the Town of Huntington in Suffolk County.[34][35] On April

History
European colonization brought both Dutch and English settlers, as a part of the New Netherlands colony. First settlements occurred in 1635, with colonization at Maspeth in 1642,[8] and Vlissingen (now Flushing) in 1643.[9] Other early settlements included Newtown (now Elmhurst) and Jamaica. However, these towns were mostly inhabited by English settlers from New England via eastern Long Island (Suffolk County) subject to Dutch law. After the capture of the colony by the English and its renaming as New York in 1664, the area (and all of Long Island) became known as Yorkshire. Originally, Queens County included the adjacent area now comprising Nassau County. It was an original county of New York State, one of twelve created on November 1, 1683.[10] On October 7, 1691, all counties in the Colony of New York were redefined. Queens gained North Brother Island, South Brother Island, and Huletts Island (today known as Rikers Island).[11] On December 3, 1768, Queens gained other islands in Long Island Sound that were not already assigned to a county but that did not abut on Westchester County (today’s Bronx County).[12] Queens played a minor role in the American Revolution, as compared to Brooklyn where the Battle of Long Island was largely fought. Queens, like the rest of Long Island, fell under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and remained

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16, 1964, South Brother Island was transferred to Bronx County.[36]

Queens

Geography
Queens County is in the western part of Long Island and includes a few smaller islands, most of which are in Jamaica Bay and form part of Gateway National Recreation Area, which is in turn one of the National Parks of New York Harbor.[55] The Rockaway Peninsula sits between Jamaica Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. The western and northern edge of the borough is defined a watery continuum made up of Newtown Creek which flows into the tidal estuary known as the East River, which includes the associated Flushing Bay and Flushing River. The East River opens into Long Island Sound. The mid-section of Queens is crossed by the Long Island straddling terminal moraine created by the Wisconsin Glacier. This feature evolved into a land use pun due to the siting of many cemeteries. The tallest tree in the New York metropolitan area, called the Queens Giant, is also the oldest living thing in the New York metro area. It is located in northeastern Queens, and is 450 years old and 132 feet (40 m) tall as of 2005. According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 178.3 square miles (462 km2); 109.2 square miles (283 km2) of this is land and 38.7% is water.

Borough of Queens
The New York City Borough of Queens was authorized on May 4, 1897, by a vote of the New York State Legislature after an 1894 referendum on consolidation.[37] The eastern 280 square miles of Queens that became Nassau County was partitioned on January 1, 1899.[38] Queens Borough was established on 1898-01-01.[39][40][41] Long Island City, the towns of Newtown, Flushing, and Jamaica, and the Rockaway Peninsula portion of the Town of Hempstead were merged to form the new borough, dissolving all former municipal governments (Long Island City, the county government, all towns, and all villages) within the new borough.[42] The areas of Queens County that were not part of the consolidation plan,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49] consisting of the towns of North Hempstead and Oyster Bay, and the major remaining portion of the Town of Hempstead, remained part of Queens County until they seceded to form the new Nassau County on January 1, 1899, whereupon the boundaries of Queens County and the Borough of Queens became coterminous. With consolidation, Jamaica once again became the county seat, though county offices now extend to nearby Kew Gardens also.[50][51] From 1905 to 1908 the Long Island Rail Road in Queens was electrified. Transportation to and from Manhattan, previously by ferry or via bridges in Brooklyn, opened up when the Queensboro Bridge was finished in 1909, and with railway tunnels under the East River in 1910. From 1915 onward, much of Queens was connected to the New York City subway system.[52][53] With the 1915 construction of the Steinway Tunnel carrying the IRT Flushing Line between Queens and Manhattan, and the emergent expansion of the use of the automobile, the population of Queens more than doubled in the 1920s, from 469,042 in 1920 to 1,079,129 in 1930.[54] Queens was the site of the 1939 New York World’s Fair and the 1964 New York World’s Fair. See also: History of New York City, List of former municipalities in New York City, and List of streetcar lines in Queens

Adjacent Counties
• • • • Bronx County Nassau County Kings County (Borough of Brooklyn) New York County (Borough of Manhattan)

Neighborhoods

A typical residential street in Jackson Heights.

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Queens

Long Island City is a neighborhood in Western Queens

Astoria do not necessarily reflect actual neighborhood names and boundaries; "East Elmhurst," for example, was largely coined by the USPS and is not an official community. Most neighborhoods have no solid boundaries. The Forest Hills and Rego Park neighborhoods, for instance, overlap. Residents of Queens often closely identify with their neighborhood rather than with the borough or city as a whole. Unlike the situation in other boroughs, postal addresses are usually written with the neighborhood, state, and then zip code rather than the borough or city. The borough is a patchwork of dozens of unique neighborhoods, each with its own distinct identity: • Howard Beach, Ozone Park, and Middle Village, are home to large Italian American populations. • Rockaway Beach and Woodside have large Irish American populations. Woodside also has a large Hispanic and Asian American population. • Astoria, in the northwest, is traditionally home to one of the largest Greek populations outside of Greece, and is also home to a growing population of Arabs as well as young professionals from Manhattan. Nearby Long Island City is a major commercial center and the home of the Queensbridge housing project. • Maspeth and Ridgewood are home to many European immigrants, including large Polish and other Slavic populations. Ridgewood also has a large Romanian and Hispanic population. • Jackson Heights, Elmhurst, and Corona make up an enormous conglomeration of Hispanic, Asian American and South Asian communities.

Forest Hills Gardens

Row houses are prominent in many Queens neighborhoods, including Ridgewood (seen here) The United States Postal Service divides the borough into five "towns" based roughly on those in existence at the time of the consolidation of the five boroughs into New York City: Long Island City, Jamaica, Flushing, Far Rockaway, and Floral Park. These ZIP codes

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• Flushing, one of the largest neighborhoods in Queens has a large Asian community. The community consists of Koreans, Chinese as well as Hispanics, Italians and Greeks. • Richmond Hill, in the south, is often thought of as "Little Guyana" for its large Guyanese community.[56] • Rego Park, Forest Hills, Kew Gardens and Kew Gardens Hills have traditionally large Jewish populations (many of these communities are Jewish immigrants from Israel, Iran and the former Soviet Union). Also known for large and growing Indian and Hispanic/Latino communities, mainly immigrants from India and South America. • Jamaica Estates, Fresh Meadows, and Hollis Hills are also populated with many people of Jewish background. Many Asian families reside in parts of Fresh Meadows as well. • Jamaica is home to large African American and Caribbean populations. There are also middle-class African American and Caribbean neighborhoods such as Saint Albans, Cambria Heights, Springfield Gardens, Rosedale, Laurelton and Briarwood along east and southeast Queens. • Bellerose and Floral Park are home to a large South-Asian population, predominantly Indian-Americans from the north-Indian state of Punjab and the south-Indian state of Kerala. There are some less diverse, but still prosperous part of Queens, such as South Jamaica. Together, these neighborhoods comprise the most diverse county in the United States.[57] Several of these neighborhoods are home to a diverse mix of many different ethnicities. See also: List of Queens neighborhoods

Queens

Queens County Courthouse

City Charter that provides for a strong mayor-council system. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Queens. The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city’s budget and proposals for land use. In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional on the grounds that Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court’s 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.[58] Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Queens’ Borough President is Helen MarParty affiliation of Queens registered voters shall, elected as a Democrat in 2001 and reParty 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 elected in 2005. 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 Democratic 62.94% 62.52 62.85 62.79 62.99 62.52 Democratic Party holds the majority The 62.30 62.27 62.28 62.33 of public offices. Sixty-three percent of reRepublican 14.60% 14.66 14.97 15.04 15.28 15.69 16.47 16.74 16.93 17.20 gistered Queens voters are Democrats. Local Other 3.88% 3.93 3.94 3.86 3.37 party platforms center on affordable housing, 3.30 3.10 3.20 3.02 2.78 No 18.58% 18.89 18.24 18.31 18.36 education and 17.79 17.77 17.69 18.49 18.13 economic development. Controversial political issues in Queens include affiliation development, noise, and the cost of housing. Since New York City’s consolidation in 1898, Queens has been governed by the New York

Government

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Presidential election results Year Republican Democratic 2008 24.4% 145,898 74.9% 447,906 2004 27.4% 165,954 71.7% 433,835 2000 22.0% 122,052 75.0% 416,967 1996 21.1% 107,650 72.9% 372,925 1992 28.3% 157,561 62.9% 349,520 1988 39.7% 217,049 59.5% 325,147 1984 46.4% 285,477 53.3% 328,379 1980 44.8% 251,333 48.0% 269,147 1976 38.9% 244,396 60.5% 379,907 1972 56.3% 426,015 43.4% 328,316 1968 40.0% 306,620 53.6% 410,546 1964 33.6% 274,351 66.3% 541,418 1960 45.1% 367,688 54.7% 446,348 1956 59.9% 471,223 40.1% 315,898 There are currently six Democrats representing Queens in the U.S. Congress: • Gary Ackerman represents the fifth district, which includes Corona, Flushing, Jamaica Estates, Bayside, and Little Neck, as well as northwest Nassau County communities from Great Neck east to Roslyn; • Joseph Crowley represents Woodside, Jackson Heights, East Elmhurst and College Point in seventh district, as well as the east Bronx from Soundview to City Island, also serves as head of the Queens Democratic Party; • Gregory Meeks represents areas in the sixth district including Jamaica, Hollis, St. Albans , Springfield Gardens, Laurelton, Queens Village and Far Rockaway - his is the only congressional district entirely within Queens County; • Anthony Weiner represents the ninth district, including Forest Hills, Rego Park, Middle Village, Fresh Meadows, Woodhaven, Ozone Park, Howard Beach and Rockaway Beach, plus such southeast Brooklyn communities as Midwood, Manhattan Beach and Mill Island; • Portions of Woodside, Maspeth, and Ridgewood are represented by Nydia Velazquez, whose largely Brooklyn-based district stretches from Red Hook to Bushwick and includes part of Manhattan’s Lower East Side; • Astoria and Long Island City are roughly geographically half and demographically a

Queens
third of the 14th district of Carolyn Maloney, the rest of whose district extends across the east side of Manhattan from the East Village through Carnegie Hill. Each of the city’s five counties has its own criminal court system and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Richard A. Brown, a Democrat, has been the District Attorney of Queens County since 1991.[59] Queens has 12 seats on the New York City Council, the second largest number among the five boroughs. It also has 14 administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents. Although it is heavily Democratic, Queens is considered a swing county in New York politics. Republican political candidates who do well in Queens usually win citywide or statewide elections. Republicans such as former Mayor Rudolph Giuliani and current Mayor Michael Bloomberg won majorities in Queens. Republican State Senator Serphin Maltese represented a district in central and southern Queens for twenty years until his defeat in 2008 by Democratic City Councilman Joseph Addabbo. In 2002, Queens voted against incumbent Republican Governor of New York George Pataki in favor of his Democratic opponent, Carl McCall by a slim margin. Queens has not voted for a Republican candidate in a presidential election since 1972, when Queens voters chose Richard Nixon over George McGovern. Since the 1996 presidential election, Democratic presidential candidates have received over 70% of the popular vote in Queens.

Economy
The economy of Queens is based on tourism, industry, and trade. Because the New York metropolitan area has three major airports, the airspace overhead is among the busiest and most regulated in the world. John F. Kennedy International Airport, alongside Jamaica Bay, is the country’s busiest airport in terms of international travelers. La Guardia Airport, on the East River, mostly serves eastern North America. Queens has witnessed the rebirth of film production — the return of an industry that had departed

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2000 Census Total population Population density Median household income (1999) Per capita income Queens 2,229,379 20,409 /sq mi $37,439 NY City 8,008,278 26,403 /sq mi $38,293

Queens
NY State 18,976,457 402 /sq mi $43,393

$19,222 23%

$22,402 27%

$23,389 24%

An aerial view of LaGuardia Airport decades earlier — notably the Kaufman Studios in Astoria and the Silvercup Studios in Long Island City, where a number of notable television shows are made, including Sesame Street. The Queens Museum of Art and the New York Hall of Science are further east, in Flushing Meadows Park — site of both the 1939 New York World’s Fair, the 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair and the annual US Open tennis tournament at the USTA National Tennis Center. Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets baseball team, is located north of the USTA National Tennis Center. The park is the third largest in New York City at 1,255 acres (5 km2), making it 412 acres (1.7 km2) larger than Central Park in Manhattan. Several large companies have their headquarters in Queens, including watchmaker Bulova, based in East Elmhurst; internationally renown piano manufacturer Steinway & Sons in Long Island City; Glacéau, the makers of Vitamin Water, headquartered in Whitestone; and JetBlue, the low-cost airline based in John F. Kennedy Airport. Long Island City is a major manufacturing and back office center. Flushing is a major commercial hub for Chinese American and Korean American businesses, while Jamaica is the major civic and transportation hub for the borough. See also: Economy of New York City

Bachelor’s degree or higher Foreign born White Black Asian Hispanic (any race)

48% 45% 19% 21% 26%

36% 45% 27% 10% 27%

20% 62% 16% 6% 14%

Demographics
Queens Compared

According to the 2005-2007 American Community Survey Estimates, the borough’s population was 45.8% White (31.0% non-Hispanic White alone), 20.3% Black or African American (18.4% non-Hispanic Black or African American alone), 0.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 21.7% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 13.4% from some other race and 1.9% from two or more races. 26.2% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[60] 48.3% of the population were foreign born (another 1.9% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or abroad to American parents), 54.5% spoke a language other than English at home and 28.0% had a Bachelor’s degree or higher.[61] As of the census of 2000, there were 2,229,379 people, 782,664 households, and 537,690 families residing in the county. The population density was 7,879.6/km² (20,409.0/sq mi). There were 817,250 housing units at an average density of 2,888.5/ km² (7,481.6/sq mi). The racial makeup of the county was 44.08% White, 20.01% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 17.56% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 11.68% from other races, and 6.11% from two or more races. 24.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

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Some main European ancestries in Queens, 2000:[62] • Italian: 8.4% • Irish: 5.5% • German: 3.5% • Polish: 2.7% • Russian: 2.3% • Greek: 2.0% In Queens, 48.5% of the population are foreign-born. Of that, 49.5% were born in Latin America, 33.5% in Asia, 14.8% in Europe, 1.8% in Africa and 0.4% in North America. The Hispanic or Latino population increased 61% between 1990-2006, now accounting for 26.5% of the borough’s total population, for a total of 597,773. • Queens has the largest Colombian population in NYC, accounting for 76.6% of the city’s total Colombian population, for a total of 80,116. • Queens has the largest Ecuadorian population in NYC, accounting for 62.2% of the city’s total Ecuadorian population, for a total of 101,339. • Queens has the largest Peruvian population in NYC, accounting for 69.9% of the city’s total Peruvian population, for a total of 30,825 • The Mexican population in Queens has increased 457% to 71,283, the second highest in NYC.[63] Queens is home to 49.6% of NYC’s Asian population. Among the five boroughs, Queens has the largest population of Chinese-, Asian Indian-, Korean-, Filipino-, Bangladeshi- and Pakistani-Americans. Queens has the largest Asian American population-by-county outside of the Western United States: According to the 2006 American Community Survey, Queens ranks 5th among US counties with 477,772 (21.18%) Asian Americans, behind Los Angeles County, California, Honolulu County, Hawaii, Santa Clara County, California, and Orange County, California. The 2000 census showed that the borough is home to the largest concentration of Indian-Americans in the nation, with a total population of 129,715 (5.79% of the borough population),[64] as well as Pakistani-Americans, who number 15,604.[65] Queens has the second largest Sikh population in the nation after California. • Chinese: 173,123; 39.8% of the city’s total Chinese population. • Indian: 147,525; 64% Asian Indian population.

Queens
• Korean: 65,131; 66.4% of the city’s total Korean population. • Filipino: 41,784; 61.3% of the city’s total Filipino population. • Bangladeshi: 13,470; 55.1% of the city’s total Bangladeshi population. • Pakistani: 10,884; 39.5% of the city’s total Pakistani population. According to author Mordecai Plaut, a 2002 UJA/Federation of New York study found that Queens was home to 186,000 Jewish Americans at the time.[66] Population of Queens County[67] [68][69] Census Queens Nassau Year (old) portion 1698 1771 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 3,565 10,980 16,014 16,916 19,336 21,519 22,460 30,324 36,833 57,391 73,803 90,574 9,855 10,274 11,892 13,273 13,411 15,844 18,240 24,488 28,335 34,015 6,159 6,642 7,444 8,246 9,049 14,480 18,593 32,903 45,468 56,559 87,050 152,999 284,041 469,042 7.8% 12.1% 10.8% 9.7% 60.0% 28.4% 77.0% 38.2% 24.4% 53.9% 75.8% 85.6% 65.1% Queens (new) % increase

128,059 41,009

1,079,129 130.1% 1,297,634 20.2% 1,550,849 19.5% 1,809,578 16.7% 1,986,473 9.8% 1,891,325 – 4.8% 1,951,598 3.2% 2,229,379 14.2%

According to a Census Bureau estimate, the population increased to 2,293,007 in 2008. There were 782,664 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female

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Queens

householder with no husband present, and 3. Chinese 31.3% were non-families. 25.6% of all house- 4. Korean holds were made up of individuals and 9.7% 5. Italian had someone living alone who was 65 years 6. Greek of age or older. The average household size 7. Russian was 2.81 and the average family size was 8. Tagalog (Filipino) 3.39. 9. French In the county the population was spread 10. Punjabi out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% 11. Guarani from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 21.7% 12. Arabic from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,439, and the median income for a family was $42,608. Males had a median income of $30,576 versus $26,628 for females. The per capita income for the county P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center, in the was $19,222. About 16.9% of families and Queens neighborhood of Long Island City, is 21.6% of the population were below the one of New York City’s largest art museums. poverty line, including 18.8% of those under age 18 and 13.0% of those age 65 or over. In Queens was an epicenter of jazz in the 1940s. Queens the black population earns more than Such jazz greats as Louis Armstrong, Count whites on average.[70] Many of these AfricanBasie and Ella Fitzgerald found refuge from Americans live in quiet middle class suburbsegregation in the mixed communities of the an neighborhoods near the Nassau County borough, while a younger generation — border, such as Laurelton and Cambria Charlie Parker, Sonny Rollins, Thelonious Heights which have large black populations Monk, Dizzy Gillespie, and others — were dewho’s family income is higher than average. veloping bebop in the clubs of Harlem. Also Those areas are known for their well kept in Queens was where the majority of punk homes, suburban feel and low crime rate. rock band The Ramones were raised. The migration of whites from parts of Queens Western Queens is becoming an artistic has been long ongoing with departures from hub, including SculptureCenter, the Flux Ozone Park, Woodhaven, Bellerose, Floral Factory, the Noguchi Museum, Socrates Park, and Flushing. etc (most of the outgoing Sculpture Park, Fisher Landau Center, Dorpopulation has been replaced with Asian sky Gallery Curatorial Programs , and the Americans). Neighborhoods such as WhiteMuseum of the Moving Image. The P.S. 1 stone, College Point, North Flushing, Contemporary Art Center in the neighborAuburndale, Bayside, Middle Village, Little hood of Long Island City is one of the largest Neck, and Douglaston have not had a suband oldest institutions in the United States stantial exodus of white residents, but have dedicated solely to contemporary art. In addiseen an increase of Asian population (mostly tion to its renowned exhibitions, the instituSouth Korean). Queens has recently experition also organizes the prestigious Internaenced a real estate boom making most of its tional and National Projects series, the Warm neighborhoods very desirable for people who Up summer music series, and the Young Arwant to reside near Manhattan in a less urbchitects Program with The Museum of an setting. According to a 2001 Claritas Modern Art. The current poet laureate of study, Queens is the most diverse county in Queens is Ishle Yi Park. the United States among counties of Queens is home to many other cultural in100,000+ population.[71] There are 138 lanstitutions, including among others: guages spoken in the borough.[72] The top • Jamaica Center for Arts and Learning languages include:[73] (JCAL) 1. English • Jamaica Performing Arts Center 2. Spanish

Culture

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Bowne House King Manor Kupferberg Center for the Arts [1] New York Hall of Science Noguchi Museum Queens Botanical Garden Queens Theatre in the Park Flushing Town HallHome of jazz in Queens • Thalia Spanish Theater [2] See also: Culture of New York City, Music of New York City, and List of people from Queens Queens was the setting for path breaking 1970s sitcom, All in the Family. It is featured in the Spider-Man comics and films as the home of Peter Parker and Mary Jane Watson. On Ugly Betty it is also home to Betty and her family. TV shows shot in Queens include Sesame Street (at Kaufman Astoria Studios) and 30 Rock (at Silvercup Studios, although the show’s fictional setting is across the East River in Manhattan). The two studios have also served as the site for many movies, music videos and commercials. • • • • • • • •

Queens
played at the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills. Queens is also the home of Aqueduct Racetrack, located in Ozone Park. Just over the Queens line (in Nassau County) is Belmont Park Race Track, the home of the Belmont Stakes. In the past, Extreme Championship Wrestling has been held at an Elks lodge in Elmhurst. See also: Sports in New York City

Food
Being the most diverse county in the nation, Queens is home to restaurants from all cultures. A wide variety of foods from all different cultures, particularly Chinese, Colombian, Ecuadorian, Filipino, Indian, Haitian, Korean, Mexican restaurants, along Roosevelt Avenue; Dominican food in Corona; African-American cuisine in Jamaica; and many Chinese, Korean restaurants in Flushing. Other cultures, such as Greek, Arab, Latin American, and Southeast Asian, have very prominent standings in Astoria. There are several Bukharian restaurants that serve Central Asian food all around Forest Hills and Rego Park.

Sports

Transportation

Citi Field, the new home of the New York Mets. Queens was the home of Shea Stadium, the former home of New York Mets of Major League Baseball and the New York Jets of the National Football League, as well as the temporary home of the New York Yankees and the New York Football Giants. Citi Field, the Mets’ current home, is located adjacent to where Shea once stood. The US Open tennis tournament is played at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, located just south of Citi Field in Flushing MeadowsCorona Park. The US Open was formerly An A train is about to enter the Broad Channel station. Twelve New York City Subway routes traverse Queens, serving 81 stations on seven main lines. The A, G, J, and M routes connect Queens to Brooklyn without going through Manhattan first. The F, N, and R trains connect Queens and Brooklyn via Manhattan, while the E, V, W, and 7 connect Queens to Manhattan only.

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Queens
where all the lines in the system but one (the Port Washington Branch) converge. It is the busiest commuter rail hub in the United States. Sunnyside Yard is used as a staging area by Amtrak and New Jersey Transit for intercity and commuter trains from Penn Station in Manhattan. Queens has crucial importance in international and interstate air traffic. Two of the New York metropolitan area’s three major airports are located there; LaGuardia Airport is in northern Queens, while John F. Kennedy International Airport is to the south on the shores of Jamaica Bay. AirTrain JFK provides a rail link between JFK and local rail lines. Queens is traversed by three trunk eastwest highways. The Long Island Expressway (Interstate 495) runs from the Queens Midtown Tunnel on the west through the borough to Nassau County on the east. The Grand Central Parkway, whose western terminus is the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge, extends east to the Queens/Nassau border, where its name changes to the Northern State Parkway. The Belt Parkway begins at the Gowanus Expressway in Brooklyn, and extends east into Queens, past Aqueduct Racetrack and JFK Airport. On its eastern end at the Queens/Nassau border, it splits into the Southern State Parkway which continues east, and the Cross Island Parkway which turns north. There are also several major north-south highways in Queens, including the BrooklynQueens Expressway (Interstate 278), the Van Wyck Expressway (Interstate 678), the Clearview Expressway (Interstate 295), and the Cross Island Parkway.

Queensboro Bridge facing the neighborhood of Long Island City.

Streets
The streets of Queens are laid out in a semi-grid system, with a numerical system of street names (similar to Manhattan and the Bronx). Nearly all roadways oriented northsouth are "Streets", while east-west roadways are "Avenues", beginning with the number 1 in the west for Streets and in the north for Avenues. In some parts of the borough, several consecutive streets may share numbers (for instance, 72nd Street followed by 72nd Place, or 52nd Avenue followed by 52nd Road, 52nd Drive, and 52nd Court), often causing confusion for non-residents. In addition, incongruous alignments of street grids, unusual street paths due to geography, or

MTA #5949 operates in Jamaica on the Q60. About 100 local bus routes move people around within Queens, and another 15 express routes shuttle commuters between Queens and Manhattan, under the MTA New York City Bus and MTA Bus brands. A commuter train system, the Long Island Rail Road, operates 20 stations in Queens with service to Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Long Island. Jamaica Station is a hub station

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The Rockaway Peninsula does not follow the same system as the rest of the borough and has its own numbering system. Streets are numbered in ascending order heading west from near the Nassau County border, and are prefixed with the word "Beach." Streets at the easternmost end, however, are nearly all named. Another deviance from the norm is Broad Channel; it maintains the north-south numbering progression but uses only the suffix "Road," as well as the prefixes "West" and "East," depending on location relative to Cross Bay Boulevard, the neighborhood’s major through street. The other exception is the neighborhood of Ridgewood, which for the most part shares a grid and house numbering system with the Brooklyn neighborhood of Bushwick. The grid runs east-west from the LIRR Bay Ridge Branch right-of-way to Flushing Avenue; and north-south from Forest Avenue in Ridgewood to Bushwick Avenue in Brooklyn before adjusting to meet up correctly with the Bedford-Stuyvesant grid at Broadway. All streets on the grid have names.

Queens Boulevard is a major thoroughfare in the borough. other circumstances often lead to the skipping of numbers (for instance, on Ditmars Boulevard, 70th Street is followed by Hazen Street which is followed by 49th Street). This confusion stems from the fact that many of the village street grids of Queens had only worded names, some were numbered according to local numbering schemes, and some had a mix of words and numbers. In the early 1920s a "Philadelphia Plan" was instituted to overlay one numbered system upon the whole borough. Train stations were only partly renamed, thus now share dual names after the original street names. On the number 7 line in Sunnyside, there are 40th-Lowery St., 46th-Bliss St., 52nd St.-Lincoln Ave. and so forth. Numbered roads tend to be residential, although numbered commercial streets are not rare. A fair number of streets that were country roads in the 18th and 19th centuries, (especially major thoroughfares such as Northern Boulevard, Queens Boulevard, Hillside Avenue, and Jamaica Avenue) carry names rather than numbers, typically though not uniformly called "Boulevards" or "Parkways".

Waterways

Newtown Creek with the Midtown Manhattan skyline in the background. Queens is connected to the Bronx by the Bronx Whitestone Bridge, the Throgs Neck Bridge, the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge and the Hell Gate Bridge. Queens is connected to Manhattan by the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge, the Queensboro Bridge, and the Queens Midtown Tunnel; and to Roosevelt Island by the Roosevelt Island Bridge. While most of the Queens/Brooklyn border is on land, the Kosciuszko Bridge crosses the Newtown Creek connecting Maspeth to

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Greenpoint, Brooklyn. The Pulaski Bridge connects McGuinness Boulevard in Greenpoint to 11th Street, Jackson Avenue, and Hunters Point Avenue in Long Island City. The Greenpoint Avenue Bridge connects Greenpoint and Long Island City avenues of the same name, which, east of Queens Boulevard (NY-25), becomes Roosevelt Avenue. A lesser bridge connect Grand Avenue in Queens to Grand Street in Brooklyn. The Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridge traverses Jamaica Bay to connect the Rockaway Peninsula to the rest of Queens. Marine Parkway-Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge links the western part of the Peninsula with Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn’s longest thoroughfare. Both crossings were built and continue to be operated by what is now known as MTA Bridges and Tunnels. The IND Rockaway Line parallels the Cross Bay, has a mid-bay station at Broad Channel which is just a short walk from the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, now part of Gateway National Recreation Area and a major stop on the Atlantic Flyway. One year-round scheduled ferry service connects Queens and Manhattan. New York Water Taxi operates service across the East River from Hunters Point in Long Island City to Manhattan at 34th Street and south to Pier 11 at Wall Street. During baseball season, New York Waterway ferries operate to Shea Stadium for New York Mets weekend home games.[74] In 2007, limited weekday service was begun between Breezy Point, the westernmost point in the Rockaways, to Pier 11 via the Brooklyn Army Terminal. Summertime weekend service provides service from Lower Manhattan and southwest Brooklyn to the peninsula’s Gateway beaches. See also: Transportation in New York City

Queens
Most private schools are affiliated to or identify themselves with the Roman Catholic or Jewish religious communities.

Postsecondary institutions

Queens College is part of the City University of New York. • Bramson ORT College is an undergraduate college in New York City operated by the American branch of the Jewish charity World ORT. Its main campus is in Forest Hills, Queens, with a satellite campus in Brooklyn. • LaGuardia Community College, part of the City University of New York (CUNY), is known as "The World’s Community College" for its diverse international student body representing more than 150 countries and speaking over 100 languages. The college has been named a National Institution of Excellence by the Policy Center on the First Year of College and one of the top three large community colleges in the United States.[75] The college hosts the LaGuardia and Wagner Archives. • Queens College is one of the elite colleges in the CUNY system. Established in 1937 to offer a strong liberal arts education to the residents of the borough, Queens College has over 16,000 students including more than 12,000 undergraduates and over 4,000 graduate students. Students from 120 different countries speaking 66 different languages are enrolled at the school, which is located in Flushing. Queens College is also the host of CUNY’s law school. The Queens College Campus is also the home of Townsend Harris High School.

Education
See also: Education in New York City and List of high schools in New York City#Queens

Elementary and secondary education
Elementary and secondary school education in Queens is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States.

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• Queensborough Community College, originally part of the State University of New York, is in Bayside and is now part of CUNY. It prepares students to attend senior colleges mainly in the CUNY system. • St. John’s University is a private, coeducational Roman Catholic university founded in 1870 by the Vincentian Fathers. With over 19,000 students, St. John’s is known for its pharmacy, business and law programs as well as its men’s basketball and soccer teams. • Vaughn College of Aeronautics and Technology is a private, cutting edge, degree granting institution located across the Grand Central Parkway from LaGuardia Airport. Its presence underscores the importance of aviation to the Queens economy. • York College is one of CUNY’s leading general-purpose liberal arts colleges, granting bachelor’s degrees in more than 40 fields, as well as a combined BS/MS degree in Occupational Therapy. Noted for its Health Sciences Programs York College is also home to the Northeast Regional Office of the Food and Drug Administration.

Queens

External links
• Official History Page of the Queens Borough President’s Office

References
[1] 2005 American Community Survey Fact Sheet for Queens County, New York, United States Census Bureau, accessed February 24, 2007. [2] ^ County and City Data Book:2007 Table B-1, Area and Population, retrieved on July 12, 2008. New York County (Manhattan) was the nation’s densestpopulated county, followed by Kings County (Brooklyn), Bronx County, Queens County and San Francisco, California. [3] Campbell Gibson, "Population of the 100 largest cities and other urban places in the United States: 1790 to 1990", Population Division Working Paper no. 27, United States Census Bureau, Washington, D.C., 1998 [4] American Fact Finder (U.S. Census Bureau): Table GCT-T1, 2008 Population Estimates for New York State by County, retrieved on May 15, 2009 [5] American Fact Finder (U.S. Census Bureau): New York by County - Table GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000 Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data, retrieved on February 6, 2009 [6] Queens Almanac [7] NY.com [8] "A Virtual Tour of New Netherland". http://www.nnp.org/vtour/regions/ Long_Island/mespath.html. [9] Ellis, Edward Robb (1966). The Epic of New York City. Old Town Books. pp. 54. [10] New York: Commissioners of Statutory Revision:Colonial Laws of New York from the year 1664 to the Revolution, including the Charters of the Duke of York, the Commissions and instructions to Colonial Governors, the Duke’s Laws, the Laws of the Dongan and Leisler Assemblies, the Charters of Albany and New York, and the acts of the Colonial Legislatures from 1691 to 1775, inclusive. Report to the Assembly #107, 1894. five Volumes. Albany, New York;

Public Library
The Queens Borough Public Library is the public library system for the borough and one of three library systems serving New York City. Dating back to the foundation of the first Queens library in Flushing in 1858, the Queens Borough Public Library is one of the largest public library systems in the United States. Separate from the New York Public Library, it is composed of 63 branches throughout the borough. In fiscal year 2001, the Library achieved a circulation of 16.8 million. First in circulation in New York State since 1985, the Library has maintained the highest circulation of any city library in the country since 1985 and the highest circulation of any library in the nation since 1987. The Library maintains collections in many languages, including Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Russian, Haitian Creole, Polish, and six Indic languages, as well as smaller collections in 19 other languages.

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1894 - 1896; Chapter 4; Section 1; Page 122. [11] New York: Commissioners of Statutory Revision:Colonial Laws of New York from the year 1664 to the Revolution, including the Charters of the Duke of York, the Commissions and instructions to Colonial Governors, the Duke’s Laws, the Laws of the Dongan and Leisler Assemblies, the Charters of Albany and New York, and the acts of the Colonial Legislatures from 1691 to 1775, inclusive. Report to the Assembly #107, 1894. five Volumes. Albany, New York; 1894 - 1896; Chapter 17; Section 1; Page 268. [12] New York: Commissioners of Statutory Revision:Colonial Laws of New York from the year 1664 to the Revolution, including the Charters of the Duke of York, the Commissions and instructions to Colonial Governors, the Duke’s Laws, the Laws of the Dongan and Leisler Assemblies, the Charters of Albany and New York, and the acts of the Colonial Legislatures from 1691 to 1775, inclusive. Report to the Assenbly #107, 1894. five volumes. Albany, New York; 1894 - 1896; Chapter 1376; Section 4; page 1063. [13] Walter Greenspan. "Geographic History of Queens County". http://www.rootsweb.com/~nyqueen2/ History.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. [14] J. H. French, LL.D. (1860). "Towns in Queens County, NY; From: Gazetteer of the State of New York". http://history.rays-place.com/ny/queenstowns.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. [15] "Early Five Borough’s History". http://www.hopefarm.com/5boros.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. "When Queens County was created the courts were transferred from Hempstead to Jamaica Village and a County Court was erected. When the building became too small for its purposes and the stone meeting house had been erected, the courts were held for some years in that edifice. Later a new courthouse was erected and used until the seat of justice was removed to North Hempstead." [16] "History of Queens County". http://www.bklyn-genealogy-info.com/ Queens/history/civil1.html.

Queens
[17] "Historical Essay: A Thumbnail View". Official History Page of the Queens Borough President’s Office. http://www.queensbp.org/content_web/ tourism/tourism_history.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. "From the final withdrawal of the British in November, 1783, until the 1830s, Queens continued as an essentially Long Island area of farms and villages. The location of the county government in Mineola (in present-day Nassau County) underscores the island orientation of that era. Population grew hardly at all, increasing only from 5,791 in 1800 to 7,806 in 1830, suggesting that many younger sons moved away, seeking fortunes where land was not yet so fully taken up for farming." Jon A. Peterson and Vincent Seyfried, ed. (1983). A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens and Its Neighborhood. Peterson, Jon A., ed. (1987). A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens, New York City. New York: Queens College, City University of New York. [18] "New York - Queens County - History". http://www.timevoyagers.com/bookstore/ NewYork/counties/queens.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. "History of New York State 1523-1927". The Historical Society of the Courts of the State of New York. http://www.courts.state.ny.us/history/ elecbook/sullivan/pg1.htm. Sullivan, Dr. James (1927). History of New York State 1523-1927. New York, Chicago: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc. [19] "New York State History". Genealogy Inc. 1999. http://www.mynewyorkgenealogy.com/ ny_history.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. "Under the Reorganization Act of 7 March 1788, New York was divided into 120 towns (not townships), many of which were already in existence." [20] "State of New York; Local Government Handbook; 5th Edition" (PDF). January 2000. Ch 4, p 13; Ch 5 p 2. http://www.dos.state.ny.us/lgss/pdfs/ Handbook.pdf. "The 1777 New York State Constitution, Article XXXVI, confirmed land grants and municipal charters granted by the English Crown prior to October 14, 1775. Chapter 64 of the Laws of 1788 organized the state into towns and cities...The basic

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composition of the counties was set in went to Jamaica. This was the only post 1788 when the State Legislature divided office in the present day Boroughs of all of the counties then existing into Queens or Brooklyn before 1803. From towns. Towns, of course, were of earlier Jamaica the mail went east along the origin, but in that year they acquired a Jericho Turnpike/Middle Country Road new legal status as components of the route and ended at Sag Harbor. The only counties." post office on this route between Jamaica [21] "HISTORY MYSTERIES: Shelter Island and Suffolk County was QUEENS Ferry/Mineola Building". established the same date as the others http://www.newsday.com/community/ on this route 9/25/1794. This post office guide/lihistory/nywas officially Queens, but I have seen the history_mysteries_hs221a,0,670882.story. area called "Queens Court House" and Retrieved on 2008-04-01. "The building was located approximately in the shown below "is one of the most Mineola-Westbury area. The courthouse important buildings in the history of was used until the 1870’s when the Mineola," wrote Jack Hehman, president county court was moved to Long Island of the Mineola Historical Society. Built in City. Later it served as the Queens 1787 and known as the "old brig," it was County Insane Asylum and still later as the first Queens County courthouse and an early courthouse for the new Nassau later a home for the mentally ill. The County, during construction of the building was at Jericho Turnpike and present "old" Nassau County Courthouse Herricks Road until 1910, when it in Mineola. It was demolished shortly burned to the ground." after 1900 ... after about 120 years of [22] "THE MINEOLA ASYLUM.; WITNESSES service of one type or the other." WHO TESTIFIED THAT IT IS AND HAS [24] "The Queens County Court-House BEEN A MODEL INSTITUTION.". New Question A New Building to be Erected York Times. 1882-08-29. at Mineola.". 1872-02-25. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ abstract.html?res=9D01E7D61430E433A2575AC2A96E9C94639FD7CF. abstract.html?res=9E05E1D8113EEE34BC4D51DFB Retrieved on 2008-04-01. "The Retrieved on 2008-04-01. "For forty investigation of the charges made years the Supervisors of Queens County against the Superintendent and keepers have been quarreling over a site for a of the Mineola Asylum for the Insane, Court-house. The incommodious building which was begun last Tuesday, was used" continued yesterday by the standing [25] Rhoda Amon (Staff Writer). "Mineola: Committee on Insane Asylums of the First Farmers, Then Lawyers". Newsday. Queens County Board of Supervisors-http://www.newsday.com/community/ Messrs. Whitney, Brinckerhoff, and guide/lihistory/ny-historytownPowell. The committee were shown hist002d,0,6131005.story?coll=ny_community_guide through the asylum, which is the old Retrieved on 2007-12-31. building of the Queens County Court[26] "1873 map of North Hempstead". house over 100 years old" http://www.bklyn-genealogy-info.com/ [23] David Roberts. "Nassau County Post Map/No.Hemp.html. Retrieved on Offices 1794-1879". http://www.bklyn2007-12-31. "bottom right by spur road genealogy-info.com/Civil/ off Jericho Tpk - location is now known Nassau.P.O.html. Retrieved on as Garden City Park. Clowesville was the 2008-04-01. John L. Kay & Chester M. name of the nearest station on the LIRR, Smith, Jr. (1982). New York Postal approximately at the location of the History: The Post Offices & First present Merillon Avenue station. The Postmasters from 1775 to 1980. courthouse (photo at American Philatelic Society. "There was http://www.newsday.com/community/ only one post office established in guide/lihistory/nypresent Nassau County when the Long hs2tmi01,0,3275994.photo ) was north of Island post road to Sag Harbor was the station." established September 25, 1794. It [27] The former county courthouse was appears that the mail from New York located northeast of the intersection of

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Jericho Turnpike (NY Route 25) and the [36] New York. Laws of New York; 1964, aptly named County Courthouse Road in 187th Session, Chapter 578, page 1606. an unincorporated area of the Town of [37] New York. Laws of New York; 1897, North Hempstead, variously referred to 120th Session, Chapter 378; Section 2; in the present day as Garden City Park Page 2. or New Hyde Park. The site is now a [38] New York. Laws of New York; 1899, shopping center anchored by a 121th Session, Chapter 588; Section 1; supermarket and is located in the New Page 1336. Hyde Park 11040 Zip Code. A stone [39] "Inventing Gotham". http://mapsites.net/ marker located on the north side of gotham01/ConsolidationDBQ.htm. Jericho Turnpike (NY Route 25), between Retrieved on 2007-12-28. Marcus Avenue and Herricks Road, [40] "Official Announcement of the Results of identifies the site. the Election". New York Times. [28] "A Queens Timeline". The Queens 1894-12-15. http://query.nytimes.com/ Tribune. http://www.queenstribune.com/ mem/archive-free/ guides/2005_PatchworkOfCultures/ pdf?res=9E0CE2D81730E033A25756C1A9649D9465 pages/QueensTimeline.htm. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2007-12-28. "The area 2007-12-23. "1874 – Queens County included a radius of twenty miles (32 Courthouse and seat of county km), with the city hall in New York as a government moved from Mineola (in center to circumscribe it" present-day Nassau County) to Long [41] Holice, Deb & Pam. "The History of New Island City." York State". http://www.usgennet.org/ [29] Rhoda Amon (Staff Writer). "Mineola: usa/ny/state/his/bk2/ch4/pt8.html. First Farmers, Then Lawyers". Newsday. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. Dr. James http://www.newsday.com/community/ Sullivan (editor). The History of New guide/lihistory/ny-historytownYork State. Book II, Chapter IV Part VIII. hist002d,0,6131005.story?coll=ny_community_guide_lihistory_promo. [42] "Before the Five-Borough City: Queens". Retrieved on 2007-12-31. "That was the http://www.bklyn-genealogy-info.com/ year when the "Old Brig" courthouse was Map/5.Bor.Q.Rich.html. This map shows vacated after 90 years of housing the boundaries of the former towns and lawbreakers. The county court moved the former city within the present from Mineola to Long Island City." Borough of Queens. [30] Geoffrey Mohan (Staff Writer) (2007). [43] "OF INTEREST TO POLITICIANS.". The "Nassau’s Difficult Birth; Eastern New York Times. 1894-09-13 (before factions of Queens win the fight to vote). pp. p 9, 620 words. separate after six decades of wrangling". http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ Newsday. http://www.newsday.com/ abstract.html?res=9C05EFDD1131E033A25750C1A9 community/guide/lihistory/ny-historyRetrieved on 2007-12-28. "The question hs615a,0,7026626.story?page=2. of the Greater New-York, which is also to Retrieved on 2007-12-31. be submitted to the people at this [31] New York. Laws of New York; 1860, 83rd coming election, involves the proposition Session, Chapter 530, pages to unite in one city the following cities, 1074—1076. counties, and towns: New-York City, [32] New York. Laws of New York; 1881, Long Island City, in Queens County; the 104th Session, Chapter 478; Section 1, County of Kings, (Brooklyn;) the County Page 649. of Richmond, (S.I.;) the towns of [33] New York. Laws of New York; 1884, Flushing, Newtown, Jamaica, in Queens 107th Session, Chapter 262, page 328. County; the town of Westchester, in [34] Beers’ Atlas of Long Island (1873) Westchester County, and all that portion [35] "LLOYD HARBOR – A BRIEF HISTORY". of the towns of East Chester and Pelham Incorporated Village of Lloyd Harbor, which lies south of a straight line drawn Suffolk County, NY. from a point where the northerly line of http://www.lloydharbor.org/village/ the City of New-York meets the centre brief_history.htm. Retrieved on line of the Bronx River, to the middle of 2009-04-09. the channel between Hunter’s and Glen Islands, in Long Island Sound, and that

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part of the town of Hempstead, in Hempstead were excluded from the Queens County, which is westerly of a vote." straight line drawn from the south[50] "THE COMING GREATER CITY; easterly point of the town of Flushing in BENEFITS TO LONG ISLAND AND a straight line to the Atlantic Ocean." VILLAGES UNDER ITS CONTROL". New [44] "Vote for Greater New York". The New York Times: p. 16. 1896-06-07. York Times. 1894-10-16 (before election). http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ abstract.html?res=9E0DE3DC1038E533A65754C0A9 abstract.html?res=9D06E0D91131E033A25755C1A9669D94659ED7CF. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. [51] The borough’s administrative and court [45] "NEW-YORK’S PLACE IN DANGER; buildings are presently located in Kew CONSOLIDATION DEFEATED, SHE Gardens and downtown Jamaica MUST YIELD TO CHICAGO.". The New respectively, two neighborhoods that York Times. 1894-11-04 (before election). were villages of the former Town of http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ Jamaica. abstract.html?res=9A0DE3D71131E033A25757C0A9679D94659ED7CF. Jon A. Peterson, [52] Vincent F. Seyfried and Retrieved on 2007-12-28. History Department, Queens College/ [46] "GREATER NEW-YORK IN DOUBT; THE CUNY. "Historical Essay: A Thumbnail CITY VOTE IS FOR IT AND BROOKLYN View". Official History Page of the IS UNCERTAIN". New York Times. Queens Borough President’s Office. 1894-11-08 (before results of Queens http://www.queensbp.org/content_web/ vote known). http://query.nytimes.com/ tourism/tourism_history.shtml. Retrieved gst/ on 2007-12-31. "Even more crucial to abstract.html?res=9403E0D61531E033A2575BC0A9679D94659ED7CF. the opening of future development was Retrieved on 2007-12-28. "The increase the Queensboro Bridge in 1909. This in area and population that New-York span ended the isolation of the borough’s will acquire if consolidation becomes a road system at precisely the time when fact will become evident by a glance at mass use of the automobile was getting the following table... Flushing... *Part of underway in the United States." the town of Hempstead... Jamaica... Long [53] Vincent F. Seyfried (2004). "A Walk Island City ... Newtown... The townships Through Queens with David Hartman in Queens County that are to be included and Historian Barry Lewis". Educational in the Greater New-York have not been Broadcasting Corporation. heard from yet..." http://www.thirteen.org/queens/ [47] "REPORT FAVORS CONSOLIDATION.; history3.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. An Argument Against the Claims of the "The most momentous event in the Resubmissionists.". The New York Times. history of Queens occurred in 1909 when 1896-02-22. pp. Page 1, 5318 words. the long planned Queensboro Bridge was http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ finally opened. This ended the century abstract.html?res=9B02E3DD123EE333A25751C2A9649C94679ED7CF. and old isolation of the county Retrieved on 2007-12-28. dependence on ferries." [48] "THE EAST CITY LINE FIXED". The New [54] "US Census figures for Queens York Times. 1899-02-12. pp. page 15, 1900-1990". http://www.census.gov/ 1267 words. http://query.nytimes.com/ population/www/documentation/ gst/ twps0027.html. abstract.html?res=9C04E2DC1730E132A25751C1A9649C94689ED7CF. [55] http://www.nps.gov/npnh/index.htm Retrieved on 2007-12-28. [56] O’Grady, Jim. " NEIGHBORHOOD [49] Geoffrey Mohan (Staff Writer) (2007). REPORT: RICHMOND HILL; Making "Nassau’s Difficult Birth; Eastern Guyana More Accessible, Two Sisters factions of Queens win the fight to Start an Airline", The New York Times, separate after six decades of wrangling". January 13, 2002. Accessed September Newsday. http://www.newsday.com/ 30, 2007. "Many of them live in community/guide/lihistory/ny-historyRichmond Hill. Just as Chinesehs615a,0,7026626.story?page=4. Americans energized downtown Retrieved on 2007-12-31. "North Flushing, the Guyanese have revived a Hempstead, Oyster Bay and the rest of once-moribund shopping strip on Liberty

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Avenue between the Van Wyck Expressway and Lefferts Boulevard, now known as Little Guyana." [57] Roberts, Sam. "A 300 Millionth American. Don’t Ask Who.", The New York Times, October 18, 2006. "In Queens, the nation’s most diverse county, Emanuel Plata weighed in at 6 pounds 15 ounces (3.1 kg) at Elmhurst Hospital Center..." [58] Cornell Law School Supreme Court Collection: Board of Estimate of City of New York v. Morris, accessed June 12, 2006. [59] Queens DA site [60] http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&tree_id=3307&redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&geo_id=05000US36081&format=&-_lang=en [61] http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ ADPTable?_bm=y&geo_id=05000US36081&qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&context=adp&-ds_name=&tree_id=3307&-_lang=en&redoLog=false&-format= [62] American Factfinder 2000 Ancestry: Queens County, NY [63] http://www.queenslibrary.org/pub/ QuickFacts.asp [64] http://www.aafny.org/cic/briefs/ indianamer.pdf [65] http://www.aafny.org/cic/briefs/ pakistani.pdf [66] Mordecai, Plaut (2007-03-15). "Metropolitan New York Jewish Population Stable At 1.4 Million --

Queens

Conservative and Reform Jews Decreasing Rapidly". At the Center of the Universe: Essays on Western Intellectual Space (website). http://www.geocities.com/mplaut2/ ujafed1.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-16. [67] Greene and Harrington (1932). American Population Before the Federal Census of 1790. New York. , as cited in: Rosenwaike, Ira (1972). Population History of New York City. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. pp. 12. ISBN 0815621558. (for 1698-1771) [68] "Place:Queens, New York, United States". http://www.werelate.org/wiki/ Place:Queens,_New_York,_United_States#Population Retrieved on 2007-12-24. Forstall, Richard L. (1996). Population of the States and Counties of the United States: 1790 to 1990. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census. ISBN 0-934213-48-8. [69] "Historical Census Browser 1790-1960". University of Virginia Library. http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/ stats/histcensus/php/ newlong.php?subject=1. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. [70] Black Incomes Surpass Whites in Queens - New York Times [71] Claritas Study Ranks Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Counties Nationwide [72] Queens: An Economic Review [73] How Many Languages Are Spoken in Queens, NY? [74] Ferry Services to Shea Stadium, New York Mets. Accessed May 16, 2006. [75] "Top 3 Large Community Colleges in the U.S." Community College Survey of Student Engagement, 2002

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