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Philippines

Philippines
Republic of the Philippines Republika ng Pilipinas Established Declared Recognized Attained Current constitution April 27, 1565 June 12, 1898 March 24, 1934 July 4, 1946 February 2, 1987

Area Total
Flag Coat of arms

Motto: Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan, at Makabansa[1]
("For God, People, Nature, and Country")

-

Water (%)

300,000 km2 [3](72nd) 115,831 sq mi 0.61%[3] 90.5 million[4] (12th) 88,574,614 [5] 295/km2 (32nd) 765/sq mi 2008 estimate $320.384 billion[6] $3,546[6] 2008 estimate $168.580 billion[6] $1,866[6] 45.8[3] (medium) ▲ 0.771[7] (medium) (90th) Peso (Filipino: peso (PHP) )

Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
("Chosen Land")

Population 2008 estimate 2007 census Density GDP (PPP) Total Per capita GDP (nominal) Total Per capita

Capital

Manila
14°35′N 121°0′E / 14.583°N 121°E / 14.583; 121

Gini (2006) HDI (2007/2008) Currency Time zone Summer (DST) Drives on the Internet TLD Calling code
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Largest city Official languages Recognised regional languages

Quezon City Filipino, English Bikol, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, and Waray-Waray.[2] Filipino Filipino, Pinoy Unitary presidential constitutional republic Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Noli de Castro Juan Ponce Enrile Prospero C. Nograles Reynato Puno

PST (UTC+8) not observed (UTC+0) right[8] .ph 63

National language Demonym Government President Vice President Senate President House Speaker Supreme Court Chief Justice

Spanish, and Arabic are recognized as auxiliary languages in the Philippine Constitution. Rankings above were taken from associated Wikipedia pages as of December, 2007, and may be based on data or data sources other than those appearing here.

2

Independence

from Spain from United States

The Philippines, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines, is a country in Southeast Asia with Manila as its capital city. It comprises 7,107 islands[9] in the western Pacific Ocean. The Philippines is the world’s 12th most populous country, with a population of about

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90 million people.[4][10] Its national economy is the 47th largest in the world, with an estimated 2008 gross domestic product (GDP) of over US$ 168.6 billion (nominal).[11] There are more than 11 million overseas Filipinos worldwide, about 11% of the total population of the Philippines. A former colony of Spain, and the United States, the Philippines is one of two predominant Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being East Timor. There are also a number of minority religious groups, including Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. Multiple ethnicities, and cultures are found throughout the islands. Ecologically, the Philippines is one of the most diverse countries in the world.

Philippines

A pre-Hispanic indigenous village. Another ethnic group known as the Austronesian people, a group of Malayo-Polynesian speaking people originated from the populations of Taiwanese aborigines, that settled in the Philippines approximately 6,000 years ago. They would populate an area now known as Malaysia, Indonesia, the Pacific Islands, and Madagascar.[15] The Malayo-Polynesian or Malay people, traded with other Asian countries during the Prehistoric period. Before the arrival of Islam, Animism syncretized with Hinduism, and Vajrayana Buddhism.[16][17] Those were the religions practiced by various Philippine indigenous kingdoms. There was no unifying political state encompassing the entire Philippine archipelago. Instead, the region were ruled by competing thalassocracies such as the Kingdom of Maynila, Namayan, Dynasty of Tondo, Madya-as Confederacy, the Rajahnates of Butuan, the Visayas, and sultanates of Maguindanao, and Sulu.[18][19][20][21] Some of these indigenous tribes were part of the Malayan empires of Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Brunei.[22][23] Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders, and proselytizers from Malaysia, and Indonesia.[24] By the 13th century, Islam were established in the Sulu Archipelago, and reached Mindanao, the Visayas, and Luzon by 1565. Muslims established Islamic communities. By the early 16th century there were native villages called Barangays, ruled by Datus, Rajahs, or Sultans.

Etymology
The name Philippines was derived from King Philip II of Spain in the 16th century. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos used the name Las Islas Filipinas (The Philippine Islands) in honor of the Prince of Asturias (Spain) during his expedition to the Philippines, originally referring to the islands of Leyte, and Samar.[12][13] Despite the presence of other names, the name Filipinas (Philippines) was adopted as the name of the entire archipelago. The official name of the Philippines, however, changed throughout the course of Philippine history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Philippines was officially called República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish-American War, and the Philippine-American War, until the Commonwealth period, United States colonial authorities referred to the Philippines as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the original Spanish name. It was during the American period that the name Philippines began to appear, a name that was adopted as its current official name.[3]

History
Early history
Archeological, and paleontological discoveries show that humans existed in the Philippines around 40,000 years ago.[14] The Negritos, a pre-Mongoloid ethnic group that migrated from mainland Asia, settled in the Philippines about 30,000 years ago.

Colonial period
In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines, and claimed the islands for Spain.[25][25] Colonization

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began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi, arrived from Mexico in 1565, and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571, they established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies.[26] Spanish rule brought political unification to a group of islands, and communities that later became the Philippines, and introduced elements of western civilisation.[27] The islands was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1565 to 1821, and administered directly from Spain from 1821 to 1898.

Philippines
In the 1700s, the Philippines opened its forts to world trade. The economy increased, and many criollos, and mestizos in the Philippines became wealthy. In the 1800s, the Suez Canal was opened, reducing travel time between Spain, and the Philippines. The influx of Spaniards secularized churches, and government positions traditionally held by the criollos. The ideals of revolution began to spread to the Philippines in the second half of the century. Criollo insurgency resulted in the Novales, and the revolt in Cavite El Viejo in 1872. The Philippine Revolution began after colonial authorities executed three priests, Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (known as Gomburza), who were accused of rebellion. [30] This would inspire a Propaganda movement formed in Spain, which included Filipino patriots José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, and Mariano Ponce, to organized political reforms through the newspaper La Solidaridad (The Solidarity). Unable to achieve complete reforms, Rizal returned to the Philippines, and established La Liga Filipina (The Philippine League). After publishing works such as Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not), and El Filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed), he was arrested by colonial authorities, and deported to Dapitan. Andrés Bonifacio established the Katipunan in 1892 that sought independence from Spain. After the Cry of Pugadlawin, Bonifacio founded the Republic of Katagalugan. Emilio Aguinaldo, a member of the Katipunan, challenged his position as the leader of the revolution, splitting into two factions, the Magdiwang, and the Magdalo. Aguinaldo took control of the leadership from Bonifacio, while other members of the Katipunan was executed by its members. Rizal was executed on December 30, 1896, on charged of rebellion.[31] The revolution began in El Viejo, Cavite, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Biak-naBato. A ceasefire was agreed at the Treaty of Biak-na-Bato, which led to the revolutionary leaders to depart for Hong Kong, in exile. Governor General Fernando Primo de Rivera proclaimed the revolution over in May 17, 1897.[32] The Spanish-American War began in Cuba in 1898, and reached the Philippines after the U.S. Army fought the Spanish Army during the Battle of Manila Bay. The Philippines declared independence from Spain on June

Facsimile of the map found aboard the "Na SA de Covadonga" after it was taken by Commodore Anson in 1743, showing the route of the Manila-Acapulco galleon through the maze of the Philippine Islands. During this period, towns, cities, and provinces were founded, and trade flourished. The Manila Galleon which linked Manila to Acapulco carried spices, porcelain, and silk to the Americas, and silver from Mexico on the return voyage to the Philippines. Spain fought indigenous rebels, pirates, and invasions from European powers such as Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Portugal. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the inhabitants to Christianity, and founded schools, hospitals, and universities. European migration to the Philippines created a new class of Criollo (Spaniard born in the Philippines), and Mestizo (mixed Spaniard, and Malayo-Polynesian). In 1863, the colonial government established free public education in Spanish.[28] The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1878. The country’s population as of December 31, 1877 was recorded at 5,567,685 persons.[29]

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Philippines
President legacy of Emilio Aguinaldo, and José P. Laurel. The 1960s were a period of economic growth for the Philippines which developed to be one of the wealthiest in Asia. Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Barred from seeking a third term, he declared Martial law on September 21, 1972, under the guise of political conflict, and resurgent Communist, and Islamic insurgencies, and governed the Philippines by decree, along with his wife Imelda Marcos.

Former President of the Philippines, Manuel L. Quezon, during his inauguration in the American period. 12, 1898, and the following year, the Primera República Filipina or the First Philippine Republic were established in Malolos, Bulacan. Spain ceded the Philippines, together with Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States for $20 million dollars, during the Treaty of Paris held in France. The Philippine-American War began in 1899 after an American soldier shot, and killed a Filipino soldier at the bridge of San Juan. Fighting would continue until Aguinaldo was captured by American soldiers on March 23, 1901. The war would continue until 1913, producing about 1,000,000 casualties. The Philippines’ status as a colony changed when it became the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when Japan invaded the Philippines. United States, and Philippine troops defeated Japan in 1944. On July 4, 1946, the Philippines gained independence from the United States. [3]

Statue of the Virgin Mary on the roof of the EDSA Shrine. Returning from exile in the United States, Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., was assassinated at the Manila International Airport (also called the Ninoy Aquino International Airport) on August 21, 1983. In 1986, the People Power Revolution occurred. The people gathered, and protested in EDSA, upon the organization of the Archbishop of Manila founded by Priest Jaime Cardinal Sin. It was to oppose the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. After losing the election to Corazón Aquino, who became the first female President of the Philippines, and the first female President in Asia. Marcos, and his allies departed to Hawaii in exile. The return of democracy, and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a Communist insurgency, and an Islamic separatist organization. The Philippine economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. Ramos, who was elected in 1992.[33] However, the economic improvements were negated at the onset of the East Asian financial crisis in 1997. The 2001 EDSA Revolution led to the downfall of the Philippine president, Joseph

Contemporary era
The Philippines faced political instability that plagued the country. Since 1946, remnants of the Hukbalahap rebel army continued to roam the rural regions of the Philippines, disgruntled after the Philippine government had rejected their contribution during World War II. Attempts of reconciliation were formed by former Philippine president, Ramón Magsaysay. In the 1960s, the Philippine national policies were initiated by Diosdado Macapagal, that included recognition of the Philippine Declaration of Independence, and the

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Ejercito Estrada. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo took Philippine leadership in 2001 following the impeachment of the Estrada government.

Philippines
The Philippines has a presidential, unitary form of government (with some modification; there is one autonomous region largely free from the national government), where the President functions as both head of state, and head of government, and is commander-inchief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote to a single six year term, during which time she or he appoints, and presides over the cabinet.[2] The bicameral Congress is composed of a Senate, serving as the upper house whose members are elected to a six year term, and a House of Representatives serving as the lower house, whose members are elected to a three year term, and are elected from both legislative districts, and through sectoral representation.[2] The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer, and fourteen associate justices, all appointed by the Philippine President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.[2] There have been attempts since the Ramos administration to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government. [34]

Politics and government
See also: President of the Philippines and Constitution of the Philippines

Security and defense

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, the current President of the Philippines.

BRP Rajah Humabon (PF-11), the current flagship, and largest warship of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Philippine security, and defense is handled by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, which includes the Air Force, the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Philippine National Police.[35] In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the Moro National Liberation Front has also been active in keeping the peace along with the Moro Islamic

Malacañang Palace, the official residence for the President of the Philippines.

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Liberation Front. Rebel organizations, such as the New People’s Army, and the Abu Sayyaf Group, has been roaming the rural regions of the Philippines, however their presence have decreased in recent years due to successful security provided by the Philippine government.[36] [37]

Philippines
Terror. It has also committed itself in promoting democratic ideals, and values which both countries share.[35] Besides, the United States, Japan is also treated as a strong ally due to the Official Development Assistance given by the Philippines.[45] Relations with Spain has increased in recent years due to the shared history, and culture by the two nations. Middle Eastern countries, where more than two million Overseas Filipinos are employed, has been strong as remittances have remained high. Recent foreign policy has been moslty about economic relations with its South Asian, and Asia-Pacific neighbors.[35] The Philippines is a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Latin Union, the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement.[2]

International relations

The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, and has served term in the Security Council. The Philippines’ international relations is focused on its ideals on democracy, and peace as well as the well-being of the 11 million Overseas Filipinos living outside the country. It is closely aligned with several states around the world but is mostly focused on relations between its Southeast Asian, and Asia-Pacific neighbors, the United States, the Middle East, and the Vatican.[35] As a founding, and active member of the United Nations, it has been elected several times into the Security Council, and is an active participant in the Human Rights Council as well as in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor.[38] [39][40][41] [42] Aside from the United Nations, the Philippines is also a founding, and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) with the intention of strengthening relations with its Southeast Asia neighbors, and promoting economic and cultural growth between member states. [43] It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor on the direction and policies of the bloc.[44] The Philippines values its relations with the United States, and has supported most of the international policies with regards to foreign affairs.[35] As a Major non-NATO ally, the Philippines has supported the United States during the Cold War, and the War on

Administrative divisions

Provinces, and regions of the Philippines. The Philippines is divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. These are divided into 17 regions, 80 provinces,

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Region Ilocos Region Cagayan Valley Central Luzon CALABARZON MIMAROPA Bicol Region Western Visayas Central Visayas Eastern Visayas Zamboanga Peninsula Northern Mindanao Davao Region SOCCSKSARGEN Caraga Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Cordillera Administrative Region National Capital Region 120 cities, 1,511 municipalities, and 42,008 barangays.[46] In addition, the Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the Philippines has acquired islands from Sabah, North Borneo.[47] Designation Region I Region II Region III Region IV-A Region IV-B Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII Region IX Region X Region XI Region XII Region XIII ARMM CAR NCR Regional center

Philippines

San Fernando, La Union Tuguegarao, Cagayan San Fernando, Pampanga Calamba, Laguna Calapan, Oriental Mindoro Legazpi, Albay Iloilo City Cebu City Tacloban Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur Cagayan de Oro Davao City Koronadal, South Cotabato Butuan Cotabato City Baguio Manila

Geography

Chocolate Hills in Bohol. Sea on the west, and the Celebes Sea on the south. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest, and Taiwan directly located to the north. The Moluccas, and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest, and Palau is located to the east of the Philippine Sea.[2] The Philippines are divided into three island groups: Luzon (Regions I to V, NCR and CAR), Visayas (VI to VIII), and Mindanao (IX to XIII and ARMM). The port of Manila, on Luzon, is the capital city of the Philippines, and the second largest city after Quezon City.[2]

Mount Apo in Mindanao. The Philippines constitutes an archipelago of 7,107 islands[9] with a total land area of approximately 300,000 square kilometers (116,000 square miles). It is located between 116° 40’, and 126° 34’ E. longitude, and 4° 40’, and 21° 10’ N. latitude, and borders the Philippine Sea on the east, the South China

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Philippines

Mayon Volcano in Luzon. Most of the mountainous islands were covered in tropical rainforest, and are volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is Mount Apo located in Mindanao measuring at 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level. There are many active volcanos such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The Philippines is also located within the typhoon belt of the Western Pacific, and approximately 19 typhoons strike per year.[48] Located on the northwestern fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippine Islands have experienced frequent seismic, and volcanic activities. Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily in the Philippines, though most are too weak to be felt. The last earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.[49] The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon. Manila Bay is connected to Laguna de Bay by means of the Pasig River. Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf, and the Moro Gulf are some of the important bays. Transversing the San Juanico Strait is the San Juanico Bridge (considered a point of vital national infrastructure, and capacity), that connects the islands of Samar, and Leyte.[50]

Philippine Eagle, one of the Philippines’ most recognized bird species. Mouse deer, the Visayan warty pig,[54] and several species of bats. Rainforests boasts an array of flora, including several types of orchids, and rafflesia.[55] The narra is considered as the most important type of hardwood while banyan trees or the balete.[56] The Philippines’ major crops include rice, corn, sugarcane, coconut, abaca, and tobacco. Rice is the most important source of food along with corn. The coconut, mango, watermelon, and other native fruits are an important source of Philippine income. Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. This also allows the Philippines to become a powerhouse with regards to geothermal energy.[57][58] The Philippine territorial waters measure as much as 1.67 million square kilometers, producing a unique, and diverse marine life. Of the 2,400 fish species found in the Philippines, 65 have good commercial value. Other marine products include corals, pearls, crabs, and seaweeds.[51][59] The rain forests offer prime habitat for more than 530 species of birds, including the Philippine eagle, some

Natural resources
The Philippines provides a high environment of natural resources in areas such as agriculture, nature, and minerals. It has fertile lands, diverse flora, and fauna, extensive coastlines, and rich mineral deposits.[51] Endemic species include the tamaraw of Mindoro, and the tarsier of Bohol. The Philippines have a lack of predators, with the exception of snakes, such as pythons, cobras, and birds of prey, such as the national bird, known as the Philippine eagle.[52] Other native animals include the palm civet cat,[53] the

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800 species of orchids, and some 8,500 species of flowering plants.[60]

Philippines
The Philippines is a newly industrialized country, with an economy anchored on agriculture but with substantial contributions from manufacturing, mining, remittances from overseas Filipinos, and service industries such as tourism, and business process outsourcing.[64][65] The Philippines is listed in the roster of the "Next Eleven" economies. The Philippine economy were largely anchored on the Manila-Acapulco galleon during the Spanish period, and bilateral trade with the United States during the American period. Pro-Filipino economic policies were first implemented during the tenure of Carlos P. Garcia with the "Filipino First" policy. By the 1960s, the Philippine economy was regarded as the second largest in Asia, next to Japan. However, the leardership of Ferdinand Marcos would prove disastrous to the Philippine economy, by transforming the market economy of the Philippines into a centrally planned economy. The Philippines suffered severe economic recession, only to recover in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization, such as the impeachment of the Marcos government, and the system of cronyism under the leadership of Fidel V. Ramos. Today, the Philippines have produced a mixed economy.[33]

Climate

Limestone islands of El Nido in Palawan. The Philippines has a tropical marine climate, and is usually hot, humid, and tropical. The average yearly temperature is around 26.5°C (79.7°F). There are three recognized seasons: "Tag-init" or "Tag-araw" (the hot season or summer from March to May), "Tagulan" (the rainy season from June to November), and "Tag-lamig" (the cold season from December to February). The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the "Habagat", and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April) as the "Amihan".[61] The coolest month is January, and the warmest is May. Both temperature, and humidity levels reach the maximum in April and May.[2] Manila, and most of the lowland areas are hot, and dusty from March to May.[62] Even at this period, the temperatures rarely rise above 37°C., sea-level temperatures rarely fall below 27°C. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters in the mountainous east coast section of the Philippines, but less than 1,000 millimeters in some of the sheltered valleys. Sitting astride the typhoon belt, most of the Philippines experiences annual torrential rains, and thunderstorms from July to October.[63]

Ortigas Center Business District. The Asian Financial Crisis affected the Philippine economy to an extent, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the Philippine peso, and falls in the stock market, although the extent to which it was affected was not as severe as that of its Asian neighbors. This is largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the Philippine government partly as a result of decades of monitoring, and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund, in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.[33] By 2004, the Philippine

Economy
Skylines of Ortigas Center (left), Makati Central Business District (center), and Bonifacio Global City (right) as seen from Manila Bay. Skylines of Ortigas Center (left), Makati Central Business District (center), and Bonifacio Global City (right) as seen from Manila Bay.

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Philippines
government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the Philippines. The Philippines is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It is also a member of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Colombo Plan, and the G-77, and other International organization.[68]

Demographics

The Philippine Stock Exchange with the statue of former Philippine politician, Benigno S. Aquino, Jr.. economy experienced six percent growth in gross domestic product, and 7.3% in 2007. The Philippine government aims to accelerate economy, and GDP growth by 2009.[66] In a bid to further strengthen the Philippine economy, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo pledged to make the Philippines a developed country by 2020. As part of this goal, she instituted five economic "super regions" to concentrate on the economic strengths of various regions of the Philippines, as well as the implementation of tax reforms, continued privatization of state assets, and the building-up of infrastructure in various areas of the Philippines. The Philippine economy is heavily reliant on remittances as a source of foreign currency, surpassing foreign direct investment. China, and India have emerged as a major economic competitors, siphoning away investors who would otherwise have invested in the Philippines, particularly telecommunications companies. Regional development is also somewhat uneven, with Luzon, and Metro Manila in particular gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions,[67] although the

Population growth of the Philippines. The Philippines is the world’s 12th most populous nation, with a population of over 90 million as of 2008.[4][10] In 2007, 8% of Filipinos are living abroad as migrant laborers. An estimated figure of half of the Philippine population resides on the island of Luzon. Manila, the capital city, is the eleventh most populous metropolitan area in the world. Life expectancy is 71.23 years, with 73.6 years for females, and 69.8 years for males. Population growth rate between 1995 to 2000 is 3.21% but has decreased to 1.59% for 2005 to 2010.

Ethnicity
Filipinos are an Asian ethnic group, a mongoloid people, part of the Austronesian group, a group of Malay or Malayo Polynesian-speaking people, a branch of the Austronesianspeaking people,[69] that migrated to the Philippines thousands of years ago from Taiwan, and brought with them knowledge of agriculture, and ocean-sailing technology. Various people of different races, and nationalities have intermarried with various indigenous ethnic groups. Their descendants are known as mestizos. The official population of all types of mixed blood individuals living in the Philippines remain unknown.

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Philippines

Map of the dominant ethnicities of the Philippines by province. Among the various indigenous ethnic groups are the Visayans, the Tagalog, the Ilocano, the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Bicolano, the Pangasinense, the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Ibanag, the Badjao, the Ivatan, and the Palawan tribes.[69] Negritos, Aetas, and the Ati, are considered the aboriginal inhabitants of the islands, and are estimated to number around 300,000 people (0.3%).[69] Other ethnic groups include Chinese, Spanish, American, Arab, British, Europeans, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Asian Indian, and other ethnic groups.

The Basilica Minore de San Sebastián, one of many Christian churches in the Philippine Islands. denominations, such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church of Christ, Iglesia Ni Cristo, and the Philippine Independent Church.[70]

Religion in the Philippines
Religion Christianity Islam Buddhism Hinduism Others Percent 90% 5% 2% 1% 2%

Religion
The Philippines is one of two predominant Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being East Timor. It is composed of several diocese, and archdiocese. More than 90% of the population are Christians. About 80% belong to the Roman Catholic Church while the remaining 10% belong to other Christian

Several Baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the San Agustín Church in Intramuros, Manila; the Paoay Church in Paoay, Ilocos Norte; the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Santa María, Ilocos Sur; the Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church

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Native Languages (2000)[72] Tagalog Cebuano Ilokano Hiligaynon Waray-Waray Capampangan Chavacano, incl. Creole in Iloilo, and the Basilica Minore del Santo Niño in Cebu. About 5% of the population are Muslim, most of whom live in parts of Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago, an area known as Bangsamoro or the Moro region. Some have migrated into urban areas like Quiapo in Manila. Most Muslim Filipinos practice Shafi’i, a form of Sunni Islam, while other tribal groups such as the Bajau, practice Animism.[70] Other religions, such as Buddhism, the Bahá’í Faith, Hinduism, Sikhism, Animism, and Athiesm form the remaining 5% of the Philippine population.[71] 22 million 20 million 7.7 million 7 million 3.1 million 2.9 million 2.5 million

Philippines

Education

Language
Over 180 native languages, and dialects are spoken in the Philippine. They are part of the Borneo-Philippines group of the MalayoPolynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family.[69] According to the 1987 Philippine Constitution, Filipino, and English are the official languages. Filipino is the de facto version of Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila, and other urban regions. Both Tagalog, and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. Major languages recognized in the constitution include Bicolano, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, and Waray-Waray. Spanish, and Arabic are both recognized as auxiliary languages.[69] Other languages, such as Aklanon, Boholano, Chavacano, Zamboangueño), Cuyonon, Ifugao, Itbayat, Ivatan, Kalinga, Kamayo, Kankana-ey, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Masbatenyo, Romblomanon, Surigaonon, Tausug, Yakan, and several Visayan languages, are dominant in their respective provinces.[69]

The University of Santo Tomas. Education in the Philippines is mostly Westernized, based on the American education system. In 2003, it has an average literacy rate of 93.4%[73][74] and about equal for males and females.[3][75] Spending for education composes only 2.5% of the GDP.[3] There were 42,152 elementary schools, 8,455 high schools, and a few thousand colleges, and universities registered in 2008.[76] Classes start in June, and end in March. The majority of colleges, and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October, and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs.[2] The general pattern of Philippine formal education follows six stages: • Preschool • Elementary school • High school • Post-secondary education • Graduation education • Adult education The Department of Education (DepEd), formerly (DECS), covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education; the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers the post-secondary,

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middle-level education training, and development; while the Commission on Higher Education (CHEd) supervises the college as well as graduate academic programs, and degrees as well as regulate standards in higher education.[77]

Philippines

Infrastructure
Transportation
Philippine Airlines, the Philippines’ national airline. links to various cities, and towns. In 2003, the 919-kilometer Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH) was established, and this is an integrated set of highway segments, and ferry routes covering 17 cities all over the Philippines.[80] Rivers, such as the Pasig River, and Marikina River, have air-conditioned commuter ferries run by the Pasig River Ferry Service, connecting their numerous tributaries in Manila, Makati City, Mandaluyong City, Pasig City, and Marikina City.[81] There are 262 airports in the Philippines, 75 of which have runways.[78] The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) is the main airport of the Philippines. Other important airports include the Diosdado Macapagal International Airport, Mactan-Cebu International Airport, and Francisco Bangoy International Airport. The Philippine Airlines, Asia’s first commercial airline, and Cebu Pacific, the Philippine’s leading domestic airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic, and international destinations.

Philippine jeepney, one of the Philippines most popular transportation. In spite of the mountainous terrain, approximately 14 percent of the 158,810 kilometers (98,110 miles) of roads in the Philippines are paved.[78] Buses, jeepneys, taxis, and motorcycles are available when getting around the major cities, and towns. In 2007, there are about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles in the Philippines, and an average annual registration rate of 4.55%.[79] Train service is provided by the Strong Republic Transit System, which unified the three main railway networks that provide service of different areas of Metro Manila, and parts of Luzon, that includes the Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRT), the Manila Metro Rail Transit System (MRT), and the Philippine National Railways (PNR). Seaports can be found throughout the Philippine Islands. The busiest seaports are Manila, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, and Zamboanga, which are parts of the 3,219 kilometer of waterways, and seaports.[3][78] Inter-island passenger ships, and other sea vessels such as Superferry, Negros Navigation, and Sulpicio Lines serves Manila, with

Communications
The Philippines has one of the most sophisticated cellular phone industry in the world, and one of the highest concentration of users.[82] The telecommunications company is dominated by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, which is also the largest company in the country.[82][83] Globe Telecom, Smart Communications, and Sun Cellular on the other hand, are three of its largest cellular service providers. There is an estimated 41 million cellular phone users in the Philippine Islands, the reason that the Philippines has been named as the "Texting Capital of the World",[84] and the ownership rate is increasing.[82] Text messaging have fostered a culture of quick

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greetings, and forwarded jokes among the Filipinos. Out of these growing number of avid texters, 5.5 million of them use their cellular phones as virtual wallets, making the Philippines a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks.[84] In 2007, The Philippines sent an average of 1 billion SMS messages per day.[85] Radio, television, and internet is used frequently in the Philippines. There are approximately 381 AM, and 628 FM stations, and 250 national, and 1,501 cable TV stations broadcasting throughout the Philippines.[3] The Philippines has 14 million Internet users, 16% of the total population, being served by almost 100 Internet providers.[86]

Philippines
Filipinos. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial decree, the Clavería edict, for the systematic distribution of family names, and implementation of the Spanish naming system on the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands. A Spanish name, and surname among the majority of Filipinos does not always denote Spanish ancestry.

Culture
Islamic instruments of gongs, and a drum that make up the Philippine kulintang ensemble, an example of pre-Hispanic musical tradition. The majority of street names, towns, and provinces are in Spanish. Spanish architecture made a significant imprint in the Philippine Islands. This can be seen in the country’s churches, government buildings, and universities. Many Hispanic houses, and buildings are preserved, like the towns in Vigan, and among others. The kalesas, horsedriven carriages, were a mode of transportation during the Spanish period. They are still being used today. The use of English language in the Philippines is contemporaneous, and is the United States’ visible legacy. There is also an influence of American Pop cultural trends, such as the love of fast-food, film and music. Many street corners exhibits fast-food outlets. Aside from the American commercial industries such as California Pizza Kitchen, McDonald’s, Pizza Hut, Burger King, KFC, Starbucks, TGI Fridays, and Shakey’s Pizza, local fast-food chains have emerged, including Goldilocks, Jollibee, Greenwich Pizza (acquired by Jollibee in 1994),[87] and Chowking (acquired by Jollibee in 2000).[87] Modern day Filipinos also listen, and watch contemporary European, and American music, and film. However, Original Pilipino Music (also

An Ifugao (Malayo-Polynesian) sculpture. Philippine culture is a mixture of Eastern, and Western culture. The Hispanic influences in Philippine culture are derived from the culture of Spain, and Mexico. These Hispanic influences are most evident in literature, folk music, folk dance, language, food, art, and religion.[64] Spanish settlers introduced Iberian-Mexican customs, traditions, and cuisines. Philippine cuisine is a mixture of Asian, and European dishes. Philippine tradition exhibits festivities known as Barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate their patron saints. One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish surnames, and names among

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known as OPM), and Philippine films are also appreciated. Philippine culture has also received influence from various Indigenous culture, and other Cultures of Asia. This includes the Malayo-Polynesian, Islamic, Chinese, and other cultures.

Philippines
Aswang (Vampire), the Diwata (Spirit), and Nature. The most recognized Philippine mythology includes the Ibong Adarna, Bernardo Carpio, Lam-Ang, and Urduja. Francisco Balagtas is recognized as one of the Philippines most famous writers. His works include Florante at Laura (Florante and Laura). Other writers include José Rizal who have produced Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not), and El Filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed). Modern literature, such as Dekada ’70, and Bayan Ko (My Country), have also received Philippine recognition, that illustrates the Martial law period in the 1970s, and the Pre-colonial period. Post-modern literature has been mostly focused on humor, and everyday life, such as the works of Bob Ong.

Cuisine

Media
Philippine media is based on Filipino (a de facto version of Tagalog), and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan languages, are also used in the Philippine media. Radio is currently the most accessible type of media due to the remoteness of certain rural locations, and most Philippine languages are broadcasted in this format. The Philippine entertainment industry is vibrant with scandals, and issues among Philippine celebrities, and are the main subject in Philippine media, such as broadsheets, and tabloids.[89] Drama, and fantasy shows are anticipated in major television networks such as ABS-CBN, GMA Network, and TV5, so are Latin telenovelas, Asianovelas, and anime. Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as Eat Bulaga, Game KNB?, and Wowowee. Philippine cinema, is also appreciated, but have faced competition from American and European films. Despite this, critically praised directors, and actors remain active, including Mike de Leon, Lino Brocka, Judy Ann Santos, Vilma Santos, and Nora Aunor (notable for her role in Himala, the most critically acclaimed film in the Philippine Entertainment industry).[90][91][92][93] The Internet has gained popularity in recent years including Social networking, and MMORPGs, which are the most frequent internet activities, and has lead a Philippinebased company known as "Level Up! Games" to emerge in the Philippine industry.[94][95]

Halo-halo, one of the Philippines most popular dessert. Philippine cuisine is Malay in origin with a predominant Hispanic base, and has received varying degrees of influence from Chinese, American, and other Asian cuisine. Filipinos traditionally eat three main meals a day. This include agahan (breakfast), tanghalían (lunch), and hapúnan (dinner), plus an afternoon snack called meriénda (another variant is minandál or minindál). Dishes range from a simple meal of fish, pork, vegetable, and rice, to paellas, and cocidos. Popular dishes include lechón, chorizo, tapa, adobo, kaldereta kare-kare, crispy pata, sinigang, pancit, and lumpia. Today, Philippine cuisine continues to evolve in techniques, and styles of cooking dishes, in both traditional Filipino, and modern cuisines. Fast food is also a popular dish. American chef, and television personality Anthony Bourdain has hailed Filipino pork cuisine, and named the Philippines at the top of his "Hierarchy of Pork".[88]

Mythology and literature
Philippine literature, and mythology are literatures that focus on a collection of various topics of the Philippine life-style, nature, and spiritual beliefs. This include the paranormal stories of ghost and monster, such as the

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Philippines

Sports and recreation

References

Basketball, one of the Philippines most popular sport. Various sports are played in the Philippines including basketball, boxing, volleyball, badminton, billiards, football (soccer), ten-pin bowling, and sipa. Traditional Filipino sports are popular,[96][97] among the youth, primarily as children’s games, such as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso. Sungka, while not as popular as it once was, is still viewed as a significant part of the traditional native Filipino games. Native card games are popular during festivities, and among the poor, with some, including Pusoy, and Tong-its, being used as a form of illegal gambling. Majhong is played in some Filipino communities. Basketball is played at both amateur, and professional level, and is considered to be the most popular spectator sport in the Philippines.[98][99] In almost every corner of the Philippines, there is a basketball court as it is the favorite recreational activity by Filipinos.[100] Basketball, boxing, billiards, football (soccer), horse racing, chess, and ten-pin bowling are the most watched sports.[101] Philippine sports have produced several sports heroes, such as Flash Elorde, and Manny Pacquiao in boxing,[100] Paulino Alcántara in football (soccer), Efren Reyes in billiards,[102] Eugene Torre in chess,[103] and Rafael Nepomuceno in bowling.[104] Motocross, figure skating, cycling, and mountaineering have become popular.

See also
• List of Philippines-related topics • Outline of the Philippines

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Philippines

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reports/global/2005/pdf/HDR05_HDI.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. [74] The Philippines: People, CIA World Factbook, https://www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ rp.html#People, retrieved on 2008-01-09 [75] National Statistics Office QuickStat Index Page. Accessed January 24, 2009. [76] Department of Education: Basic Education Fact Sheets. Accessed January 24, 2009. [77] Department of Education of the Philippines [78] ^ Asian Info: The Philippine Transportation System. Accessed January 22, 2009. [79] Land Transportation Office: Number of Motor Vehicles Registered. Accessed January 22, 2009. [80] Macapagal Official website: Strong Republic Nautical Highway. Accessed January 22, 2009. [81] Government revives Pasig River ferry service. GMA News.TV. February 14, 2007. [82] ^ Forbes Magazine. September 03, 2008. [83] http://www.forbes.com/lists/2008/18/ biz_2000global08_TheGlobal-2000_Counrty_10.html Forbes Global 2000 List]. March 02, 2008. [84] ^ Cell phones double as electronic wallets in Philippines. Teves, Oliver. USA Today. September 29, 2007. [85] Filipinos sent 1 billion text messages daily in 2007. Francisco, Rosemarie. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. March 03, 2008. [86] Internetworld Stats. Accessed January 22, 2009. [87] ^ The Jollibee Phenomenon, Jollibee, Inc., Archived from the original on 2007-06-23, http://web.archive.org/web/ 20070623034806/ http://www.jollibee.com.ph/corporate/ phenomenon.htm, retrieved on 2008-01-09 ) [88] Anthony Bourdain (2009-02-16). "Hierarchy of Pork". Anthony Bourdain’s No Reservations. Travel Channel. http://anthony-bourdainblog.travelchannel.com/read/hierarchyof-pork. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. [89] "Country profile: The Philippines". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/

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asia-pacific/country_profiles/ 1262783.stm#media. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. [90] ASIA PACIFIC SCREEN AWARDS WINNERS ANNOUNCED, ebroadcast.com.au. [91] Michael Bodey, Kazakh comedy wins Asia-Pacific best movie award, Reuters India, November 11, 2008. [92] Balloon Grabs Asia-Pac Screen Award, The Australian, November 12, 2008. [93] Himala is CNN best film of all time in Asia-Pacific, GMA News, November 12, 2008. [94] "Power To The People: Social Media Tracker, Wave3". Universal McCann. March 2008. http://www.universalmccann.com/Assets/ wave_3_20080403093750.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-06-22. [95] Liao, Jerry (May 20, 2008). "The Philippines - Social Networking Capital of the World". Manila Bulletin. http://www.mb.com.ph/issues/2008/05/ 20/TECH20080520124703.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. [96] Mga Larong Kinagisnan, Hagonoy.com [97] Mga Larong Pilipino, Seasite.niu.edu [98] Philippine Sports and Recreation. Accessed January 22, 2009. [99] Asiarooms: Travel Guide to the Philippines. Accessed January 22, 2009. [100] Go Abroad website: Travel Information ^ and Guide for the Philippines. Accessed January 24, 2009. [101] ankees abroad: Sports in the Y Philippines. Accessed January 22, 2009. [102] illiards Congress of America: Hall of B Fame Inductees. Accessed January 24, 2009. [103] ide Chess Player Information. Accessed F January 24, 2009. [104] afael Nepomuceno Official website. R Accessed January 24, 2009.

External links
Government • Official website of the Philippine Government - Portal to governmental sites • Chief of State and Cabinet Members General information • BBC Country Profile on the Philippines • Philippines entry at The World Factbook

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Philippines from the United States Department of State includes Background Notes, Country Study and major report • Philippines at UCB Libraries GovPubs • Philippines at the Open Directory Project • Wikimedia Atlas of Philippines • Philippines, an external wiki • See Action For Economic Reforms to know about economic and social issues in the Philippines Maps • WikiSatellite view of Philippines at WikiMapia Other • Washington Post’s: How the Philippines Sees America

Philippines
• Philippines Daily Photos • Origins of the Filipinos and Their Languages by Wilhelm G. Solheim II (PDF) • History of the Philippine Islands in many volumes, from Project Gutenberg (and indexed under Emma Helen Blair, the general editor) • WikiAnswers: Q&A about the Philippines • Asia Philippines PHOTOS • USAID country health statistical report : Philippines (May 2008) • Philippines travel guide from Wikitravel • WOW Philippines Tourism Ad • Around Philippines PHOTOS Wikimedia • Wikimedia Philippines

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