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Android (operating system)

Android (operating system)
Android

Company / developer Working state Source model Initial release Latest stable release Kernel type License Website

Open Handset Alliance Current Free and open source software 2008-10-21 1.5 Release 1 / 2009-04-27 Monolithic (Linux) Apache 2.0 and GPLv2[1] android.com

Android is a software platform for mobile devices, powered by the Linux kernel, initially developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance.[2] It allows developers to write managed code in the Java language, controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries.[3] Applications written in C and other languages can be compiled to ARM native code and run, but this development path is not officially supported by [4][5] Google. The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 48 hardware, software, and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.[6][7] Google released most of the Android code under the Apache license, a free-software and open source license.[8]

Alternative logo. and interface development at WebTV[13]). At the time, little was known about the functions of Android, Inc. other than that they made software for mobile phones.[9] This began rumors that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market, although it was unclear what function it might perform in that market. At Google, the team, led by Rubin, developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux operating system which they marketed to handset makers and carriers on the premise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. It was reported that Google had already lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.[14][15][16] More speculation that Google would be entering the mobile-phone market came in December 2006.[17] Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google-branded handset.[18] More speculation followed reporting that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was

History
In July 2005, Google acquired Android, Inc., a small startup company based in Palo Alto, California, USA.[9] Android’s co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger[10]), Rich Miner (cofounder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.[11]), Nick Sears (once VP at TMobile[12]), and Chris White (headed design

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Android (operating system)
unveiled their first product, Android, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6.[2] On 9 December 2008, it was announced that 14 new members would be joining the Android project including: ARM Holdings Plc, Atheros Communications, Asustek Computer Inc, Garmin Ltd, Softbank, Sony Ericsson,Toshiba Corp, and Vodafone Group Plc.[22][23] Google Chairman and CEO Eric Schmidt took some time in the official press release to dispel all previous rumors and speculation about the existence of a stand-alone Google phone.[2]

Licensing
Since 21 October 2008, Android has been available as open source. Google opened the entire source code (including network and telephony stacks[24]), which had previously been unavailable, under an Apache license.[25] With the Apache License, vendors are free to add proprietary extensions without submitting those back to the open source community. Android had been criticized for not being all open-source software despite what was announced by Google. Parts of the SDK are proprietary and closed source and some believe this is so that Google can control the platform.[26][27][28][29] The Android Software Development Kit License Agreement[30] states that: 3.2 You agree that Google (or Google’s licensors) own all legal right, title and interest in and to the SDK, including any intellectual property rights which subsist in the SDK. Use, reproduction and distribution of components of the SDK licensed under an open source software license are governed solely by the terms of that open source software license and not by this License Agreement. Until the SDK is released under an open source license, you may not extract the source code or create a derivative work of the SDK. However, Google has since announced that all parts of the Android will be released

Android at Googleplex. showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. As many as 30 prototype phones were reported to be operating "in the wild."[19] In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.[20][21]

Open Handset Alliance founded
"Today’s announcement is more ambitious than any single ’Google Phone’ that the press has been speculating about over the past few weeks. Our vision is that the powerful platform we’re unveiling will power thousands of different phone models." —-Eric Schmidt, Google Chairman/CEO[2] On 5 November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Broadcom Corporation, Google, HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell Technology Group, Motorola, NVIDIA, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile, and Texas Instruments, was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices.[2] Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance, the OHA also

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under the Apache License where applicable and under the GPL elsewhere.

Android (operating system)
• Ability to automatically connect to a Bluetooth headset within a certain distance • New widgets and folders that can populate the desktop • Animations between screens • Copy and paste[37]

Updates

Features

A cupcake was placed beside Android at the Googleplex to commemorate the 1.5 release of Android. Although an open-source product, some Android software development has been continuing in a private development branch. In order to bring this software into public view, a read-only mirror branch has been created, known as cupcake. It is thought the name comes from Marissa Mayer, who has an obsession with cupcakes.[31][32] Cupcake is commonly misunderstood as the title of an actual update, but as stated on Google’s development website: "cupcake is still very much a work in progress. It is a development branch, not a release."[33] Notable changes to the Android software that will be introduced in cupcake include changes to the download manager, the framework, Bluetooth, the system software, radio and telephony, developer tools, the build system and several applications, as well as a number of bug fixes.[33] The exact update time frame remains unclear.[34] On April 30, 2009, the official 1.5 update for Android was released.[35][36] There are several new features and UI updates included in the 1.5 update: • Ability to record and watch videos with the camcorder mode • Uploading videos to Youtube and pictures to Picasa directly from the phone • A new soft keyboard with an "Autocomplete" feature

The Android Emulator home screen. Current features [38][39][40] tions: and specifica-

Hardware products running Android
Released (Preinstalled)
• The (also marketed as T-Mobile G1, Era G1 in Poland) was the first phone to the market that uses the Android platform.[44][45] The phone is part of an

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Handset layouts Storage

Android (operating system)

The platform is adaptable to larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 1.0 specifications, and traditional smartphone layouts. The Database Software SQLite is used for data storage purposes

Connectivity Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM/EDGE, CDMA, EVDO, UMTS, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi. Messaging SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging including threaded text messaging.

Web browser The web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKit application framework. Dalvik virtu- Software written in Java can be compiled into Dalvik bytecodes and executed in the Dalvik virtual machine, which is a specialized VM implementation deal machine signed for mobile device use, although not technically a standard Java Virtual Machine. Media support Additional hardware support Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats: MPEG-4, H.264, MP3, AAC, MIDI, OGG, AMR, JPEG, PNG, GIF. Android can utilize video/still cameras, touchscreens, GPS, accelerometers, and accelerated 3D graphics.

Development Includes a device emulator, tools for debugging, memory and performance environment profiling, a plugin for the Eclipse IDE. Market Similar to the App Store on the iPhone OS, The Android Market is a catalog of applications that can be downloaded and installed to target hardware overthe-air, without the use of a PC. Originally only freeware applications were supported. Paid-for apps have been available on Android Market since 19 February 2009.[41] Android has native support for multi-touch but the feature is disabled (possibly to avoid infringing Apple patents on touch-screen technology[42]). An unofficial mod has been developed that enables multi-touch.[43] • Chinese company Qigi released a version of its (formerly Windows Mobile) device running Android in December 2008.[48] The device is manufactured by Chinese ODM TechFaith.[49] • HKC Pearl, which claims to dual-boot Windows Mobile 6.1 and Android.[50] • HKC Imobile v413, an Android build similar to the HTC Touch.[51]

Multi-touch

Released (Aftermarket installations)
HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1) open standards effort of the Open Handset Alliance.[46] • The . The Magic is similar to the Dream but without the slide-out keyboard, instead using an on-screen keyboard.[47] Some users have been able (with some amount of hacking, and with limited functionality) to install Android on mobile devices shipped with other OSes: • The Openmoko phones (Neo FreeRunner and Neo 1973) have limited support since Google’s release of the Android source code on 21 October 2008.[52] As of 4 November 2008 (2008 -11-04), the whole

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source stack compiles, with the kernel, user interface and most applications working, but telephony, SMS, suspend/ resume and wifi, which rely on lower level hardware features, are not fully working.[53][54] In early 2009 Cupcake images were demonstrated and available as flashable images.[55] Motorola A1200 Ming[56] HTC Kaiser: a port is in progress, not all features work at the moment[57] HTC Vogue[58] HTC Touch Diamond: not all functions work (including Wifi)[59] HTC Touch Pro Nokia N810[60][61] Nokia 770[62] Asus EEEPC 701[63] Asus EEEPC 1000H[64] Touch Book from Always Innovating[65] Dell Axim x51v [66] HTC Touch HD: similar to the Touch Diamond, not all features work such as wifi and audio during voice calls[67]

Android (operating system)
• Sony Ericsson is planning to release an Android based handset in the middle of 2009.[76] • GiiNii Movit Mini is a Internet device based on Google’s Android operating system.[77] • Acer is rumored to be releasing phones called the L1, C1, E1, F1, and A1 (unconfirmed) late in 2009.[78] • Chinese ODM Yuhua’s first Android phone, the dual-SIM DSTL1 will be released under the General Mobile brand in June.[79] The company is planning more Android devices. [80] • Skytone, distributor and software developer of the Skytone Alpha-400 announced the release of an Android netbook, the Alpha-680.[81] • Kogan Technologies, an Australian technology manufacturer, has announced Android-compatible handsets: the Kogan Agora and Kogan Agora Pro. These handsets were scheduled to be released on 29 January 2009. In mid-January 2009, Kogan announced that the release of the Agora handsets has been delayed indefinitely.[82]

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Forthcoming
• In September 2008, Motorola confirmed that it was working on hardware products that would run Android.[68] • Huawei plans to release a phone that would run Android on T-Mobile. This date however is not set until after June 2009.[69] • Archos is planning to launch a new device, which would combine significant media capabilities with an Android operating system.[70] • Lenovo is working on an Android-based mobile phone that supports the Chinese 3G TD-SCDMA standard.[71] • HTC is planning a "portfolio" of Android based phones to be released in the middle of 2009,[72] including the HTC Magic, unveiled on 17 February 2009 at the 2009 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Spain. The HTC Magic will be released with the "Cupcake" build[73] with a debut on May 5.[74] • Samsung plans to release a phone (Samsung I7500) based on Google’s Android operating system in June 2009 with several more to come in the following months.[75]

Software development

Early Android device.

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The early feedback on developing applications for the Android platform was mixed.[83] Issues cited include bugs, lack of documentation, inadequate QA infrastructure, and no public issue-tracking system. (Google announced an issue tracker on 18 January 2008.)[84] In December 2007, MergeLab mobile startup founder Adam MacBeth stated, "Functionality is not there, is poorly documented or just doesn’t work... It’s clearly not ready for prime time."[85] Despite this, Android-targeted applications began to appear already the week after the platform was announced. The first publicly available application was the Snake game.[86][87] The Android Dev Phone is a SIM-unlocked and hardware-unlocked device that is designed for advanced developers. While developers can use regular consumer devices purchased at retail to test and use their apps, some developers may choose not to use a retail device, preferring an unlocked or no-contract device.[88]

Android (operating system)
keeping this arrangement private) has led to widely reported frustration within the Android developer community.[90] On 18 August 2008 the Android 0.9 SDK beta was released. This release provides an updated and extended API, improved development tools and an updated design for the home screen. Detailed instructions[91] for upgrading are available to those already working with an earlier release. On 23 September 2008 the Android 1.0 SDK (Release 1) was released.[92] According to the release notes, it included "mainly bug fixes, although some smaller features were added". It also included several API changes from the 0.9 version. On March 9, 2009, Google released version 1.1 for the android dev phone. While there are a few aesthetic updates, a few crucial updates include support for "search by voice, priced apps, alarm clock fixes, sending gmail freeze fix, fixes mail notifications and refreshing intervals, and now the maps show business reviews". Another important update is that Dev phones can now access paid apps and developers can now see them on the Android Market.[93]

Software development kit
The Android SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools.[89] These include a debugger, libraries, a handset emulator (based on QEMU), documentation, sample code, and tutorials. Currently supported development platforms include x86-architecture computers running Linux (any modern desktop Linux Distribution), Mac OS X 10.4.8 or later, Windows XP or Vista. Requirements also include Java Development Kit, Apache Ant, and Python 2.2 or later. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse (3.2 or later) using the Android Development Tools (ADT) Plugin, though developers may use any text editor to edit Java and XML files then use command line tools to create, build and debug Android applications. A preview release of the Android software development kit (SDK) was released on 12 November 2007. On 15 July 2008, the Android Developer Challenge Team accidentally sent an email to all entrants in the Android Developer Challenge announcing that a new release of the SDK was available in a "private" download area. The email was intended for winners of the first round of the Android Developer Challenge. The revelation that Google was supplying new SDK releases to some developers and not others (and

Android Developer Challenge
The Android Developer Challenge was a competition for the most innovative application for Android. Google offered prizes totaling 10 million US dollars, distributed between ADC I and ADC II.[94][95] ADC I accepted submissions from 2 January to 14 April 2008. The 50 most promising entries, announced on 12 May 2008, each received a $25,000 award to fund further development.[96][97] It ended in early September with the announcement of ten teams that received $275,000 each, and ten teams that received $100,000 each.[98] ADC II will be announced soon.[98]

Native code
The ADB debugger gives a root shell under the Android Emulator which allows native ARM code to be uploaded and executed. ARM code can be compiled using GCC on a standard PC.[5] Running native code is complicated by the fact that Android uses a nonstandard C library (known as Bionic). The underlying graphics device is available as a framebuffer at /dev/graphics/fb0.[99] The graphics library that Android uses to arbitrate and control access to this device is

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called the Skia Graphics Library (SGL), and it has been released under an open source license.[100] Skia has backends for both win32 and Cairo, allowing the development of crossplatform applications, and it is the graphics engine underlying the Google Chrome web browser.[101] Native classes can be called from Java code running under the Dalvik VM using the System.loadLibrary call, which is part of the standard Android Java classes.[102][103] Elements Interactive Mobile B.V. have ported their EdgeLib C++ library to Android, and native code executables of their S-Tris2 game (a Tetris clone) and Animate3D technology demo are available for download.[104]

Android (operating system)

References
[1] "Licenses". Android Open Source Project. Open Handset Alliance. http://source.android.com/license. Retrieved on 2008-10-22. [2] ^ Open Handset Alliance (2007-11-05). Industry Leaders Announce Open Platform for Mobile Devices. Press release. http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/ press_110507.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-05. [3] "Google’s Android parts ways with Java industry group". http://www.news.com/ 8301-13580_3-9815495-39.html. [4] "General Android". http://code.google.com/android/kb/ general.html#c. Retrieved on 2008-08-29. [5] ^ "Native C application for Android". http://benno.id.au/blog/2007/11/13/ android-native-apps. [6] "Open Handset Alliance". Open Handset Alliance. http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/. Retrieved on 2007-11-06. [7] http://phandroid.com/2008/12/10/sonyericsson-htc-androids-set-forsummer-2009/ [8] "Open Handset Alliance". http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/ android_overview.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-23. [9] ^ Elgin, Ben (2005-08-17). "Google Buys Android for Its Mobile Arsenal" (HTML). Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/ technology/content/aug2005/ tc20050817_0949_tc024.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-07. [10] Markoff, John (2007-11-04). "I, Robot: The Man Behind the Google Phone" (HTML). New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/04/ technology/ 04google.html?_r=2&hp=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved on 2008-10-14. [11] Scott Kirsner (September 2, 2007). "Introducing the Google Phone". http://www.boston.com/business/ technology/articles/2007/09/02/ introducing_the_google_phone/. Retrieved on 2008-10-24.

Criticisms
• The unrestrictive terms of Android’s license have allowed corporations using Android to place restrictions on their own customers. As an example, tethering (PC or laptop internet connectivity via the cell phone) is forbidden by T-Mobile USA, and Google has banned such applications for T-Mobile USA users.[105] This also means that the apps can be carrier-specific as chosen by Google.[106] • Android uses a Linux kernel, but, according to Google, it is not a Linux operating system (it neither has a native windowing system, nor supports the full set of standard Linux libraries, including GNU C Library). This specific nature makes it difficult to reuse existing Linux applications or libraries.[107] • Android does not use established Java standards, i.e. Java SE and ME. This prevents compatibility among Java applications written for those platforms and those for the Android platform. Android only reuses the Java language syntax, but does not provide the full-class libraries and APIs bundled with Java SE or ME.[108] • Android does not officially allow apps to be installed on, nor run from, an SD card. Current Android products such as the HTC Dream and Magic have limited onboard memory and many users feel restricted by this lack of functionality.
[109]

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Android (operating system)

[12] "Nokia Archive". http://www.nokia.com/ patent-portfolio/. Retrieved on A4136002?newsid=918410. Retrieved on 2007-11-07. 2009-04-05. [22] Martinez, Jennifer (2008-12-10). [13] "Google Buys Android for Its Mobile "CORRECTED - UPDATE 2-More mobile Arsenal". http://www.businessweek.com/ phone makers back Google’s Android". technology/content/aug2005/ Reuters. Thomson Reuters. tc20050817_0949_tc024.htm. Retrieved http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/ on 2009-04-23. idUSN0928595620081210. Retrieved on [14] Block, Ryan (2007-08-28). "Google is 2008-12-13. working on a mobile OS, and it’s due out [23] Kharif, Olga (2008-12-09). "Google’s shortly" (HTML). Engadget. Android Gains More Powerful http://www.engadget.com/2007/08/28/ Followers". BusinessWeek. McGraw-Hill. google-is-working-on-a-mobile-os-and-itshttp://www.businessweek.com/ due-out-shortly/. Retrieved on the_thread/techbeat/archives/2008/12/ 2007-11-06. googles_android_2.html. Retrieved on [15] Sharma, Amol; Kevin J. Delaney 2008-12-13. (2007-08-02). "Google Pushes Tailored [24] eWeek article on Android source Phones To Win Lucrative Ad Market" [25] android Android is now available as open (HTML). The Wall Street Journal. source http://online.wsj.com/article_email/ [26] "When will we see more code released SB118602176520985718-lMyQjAxMDE3ODA2MjAwMjIxWj.html. licenses?". Google. under open source Retrieved on 2007-11-06. 2008-01-29. http://code.google.com/ [16] "Google admits to mobile phone plan" android/kb/ (HTML). directtraffic.org. Google News. licensingandoss.html#timeline. 2007-03-20. http://www.directtraffic.org/ Retrieved on 2008-02-03. "Over time, OnlineNews/ more of the code that makes up Android Google_admits_to_mobile_phone_plan_18094880.html. released, but at this point, we will be Retrieved on 2007-11-06. have been concentrating on shipping an [17] McKay, Martha (December 2006). "Can SDK that helps application developers iPhone become your phone?; Linksys get started. In short: Stay tuned." introduces versatile line for cordless [27] Slobojan, Ryan (2007-11-19). "Dalvik, service.". The Record: L9. Android’s virtual machine, generates [18] Ackerman, Elise (2007-08-30). significant debate". infoq.com. "Blogosphere Aflutter With Linux-Based http://www.infoq.com/news/2007/11/ phone Rumors" (HTML). Linux Insider. dalvik. Retrieved on 2008-03-01. http://www.linuxinsider.com/rsstory/ [28] Topic, Dalibor (2007-11-14). "What Does 59115.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-07. Android Mean for Sun’s OpenJDK". [19] Cox, John (2007-10-08). "Why Google’s http://ianskerrett.wordpress.com/2007/ phone won’t kill Apple’s iPhone" (HTML). 11/13/what-does-android-mean-for-sunsNetwork World. New York Times. 2. openjdk/. Retrieved on 2008-02-03. http://www.networkworld.com/news/ "Android is proprietary, despite being 2007/100807-google-gphonemarketed as open source. Android has a iphone.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-06. compatibility pledge, signed and kept [20] Claburn, Thomas (2007-09-19). "Google’s behind closed doors. Android has no Secret Patent Portfolio Predicts gPhone" governance model, nor any indication (HTML). Information Week. there will be one. Android has no spec, http://www.informationweek.com/news/ and the license prohibits alternative showArticle.jhtml?articleID=201807587&cid=nl_IWK_daily. implementations, as that’s not a use Retrieved on 2007-11-06. licensed by Google in the SDK license. [21] Pearce, James Quintana (2007-09-20). Android is completely controlled by "Google’s Strong Mobile-Related Patent Google, and Google reserves the right to Portfolio" (in English) (HTML). kill off competitors applications if they mocoNews.net. hurt Google financially, etc. It’s only as http://www.moconews.net/entry/ open as it is in Google’s financial interest 419-googles-strong-mobile-relatedto allow openness, by design."

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[29] Topic, Dalibor (2007-11-12). "QOTD: Google’s license for the Android SDK". http://robilad.livejournal.com/ 22312.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-03. "There is a bunch of other rather objectionable stuff, but dear me, this is pretty bad as far as license agreements for pseudo-open-source software go" [30] "Android Software Development Kit License Agreement". Google. 2007-11-12. http://code.google.com/ android/terms.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-03. [31] http://www.googleandblog.com/googleandroid-cupcake-ingredients/3650/ [32] "cupcakeUpdate" AndroidTapp.com Android Cupcake Update The Official Word [33] ^ "cupcake" development branch [34] http://www.talkandroid.com/766-androidcupcake-features/ [35] "Android 1.5 is here!". April 27, 2009. http://android-developers.blogspot.com/ 2009/04/android-15-is-here.html. [36] Raya, Nischal (April 30, 2009). "CONFIRMED: Official Cupcake Update Underway for T-Mobile G1 USA & UK!". http://phandroid.com/2009/04/30/officialcupcake-update-underway-for-t-mobileg1-usa/. [37] Raya, Nischal (April 2009). http://developer.android.com/sdk/ android-1.5-highlights.html. [38] "What is Android?" (in English) (HTML). Google. 2007-11-12. http://code.google.com/android/what-isandroid.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-12. [39] Topolsky, Joshua (2007-11-12). "Google’s Android OS early look SDK now available" (in English) (HTML). Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/ 2007/11/12/googles-android-os-earlylook-sdk-now-available/. Retrieved on 2007-11-12. [40] "Android Supported Media Formats Android Developers" (in English) (HTML). Google. http://developer.android.com/guide/ appendix/media-formats.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-01. [41] ""Paid apps appear in Android Market". http://www.engadget.com/2009/02/19/ paid-apps-appear-in-android-market/. Retrieved on 2009-04-06.

Android (operating system)

[42] CNET News - "Report: Apple nixed Android’s multitouch" (11 February 2009) [43] http://gizmodo.com/5146797/how-tohack-android-for-multitouch-webbrowsing-on-the-t+mobile-g1 [44] Montgomery, Justin (July 8, 2008). "TMobile’s HTC Dream, The First Android Phone?". http://www.informationweek.com/blog/ main/archives/2008/07/ tmobiles_htc_dr.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-03. [45] Holson, Laura M.; Miguel Helft (August 15, 2008). "T-Mobile to be first to use Google’s Android". http://www.iht.com/ articles/2008/08/15/technology/ 15google.php. Retrieved on 2008-08-20. [46] Holson, Laura; Helft, Miguel (2008-08-14). "Smartphone Is Expected via Google". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/15/ technology/ 15google.html?_r=1&ref=technology&oref=slogin. Retrieved on 2008-08-15. [47] "HTC Magic". http://www.htc.com/www/ product/magic/overview.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-28. [48] Phones Review: Qigi i6 Android based smartphone from China [49] PocketPicks: Chinese ODMs love Android (part 2) [50] http://www.engadget.com/2008/12/24/ hkcs-pearl-rips-a-rim-name-an-htcdesign-and-a-pair-of-oses/ [51] http://www.engadgetmobile.com/tag/ imobile+v413/ [52] "Android on Openmoko phones". http://wiki.openmoko.org/wiki/Android. [53] "Porting Android, Phase 3: Done". http://onlinedev.blogspot.com/2008/11/ porting-android-phase-3-done.html. [54] "Marco Trevisan’s blog (in Italian)". http://3v1n0.tuxfamily.org/tumblelog/ post/368. [55] http://digg.com/linux_unix/ Video_demo_of_Freerunner_running_Android_Cupcak [56] http://www.motorolafans.com/forums/ android-os/21887-porting-andoida1200-ming.html [57] http://forum.xda-developers.com/ showthread.php?t=396782 [58] http://it029000.massey.ac.nz/vogue/ [59] http://wiki.xda-developers.com/ index.php?pagename=RaphaelLinux

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Android (operating system)

[60] http://www.internettablettalk.com/ ericsson-htc-planning-google-androidforums/showthread.php?p=198240 phones-for-2009/. [61] http://guug.org/nit/nitdroid/ [77] "Report: GiiNii Movit Mini". Engadget. [62] http://www.newlc.com/en/nitdroid-demo2009-01-08. http://www.engadget.com/ gnulinux-android-nokia-n770-0 2009/01/07/giiniis-movit-mini-wifi[63] http://eeepc.itrunsonlinux.com/the-news/ android-tablet-hands-on/. 1-latest-news/267-google-android-for-the[78] "Acer A1 touchscreen to arrive in asus-eee-pc-701 Google Android for the September?". Engadget. 2009-03-23. Asus Eee PC 701 http://www.engadget.com/2009/03/23/ [64] http://venturebeat.com/2009/01/01/ acer-a1-touchscreen-android-phone-toandroid-netbooks-on-their-way-likelyarrive-in-september/. by-2010/ [79] LinuxDevices: Android phone boasts [65] http://www.alwaysinnovating.com/ 5Mpix camera touchbook/ [80] PocketPicks: Chinese ODMs love Android [66] http://axdroid.blogspot.com/2009/03/ (part 1) android-is-working.html [81] Report from Engadget [67] http://forum.xda-developers.com/ [82] "Agora Android Phone Delayed". showthread.php?t=486378 slashdot.org. 2008-1-16. [68] Emigh, Jacqueline (2008-9-30). http://linux.slashdot.org/ "Motorola confirms Android plans, but article.pl?sid=09%2F01%2F16%2F096228&from=rs won’t say how big". BetaNews. [83] Paul, Ryan (2007-12-19). "Developing http://www.betanews.com/article/ apps for Google Android: it’s a mixed Motorola_confirms_Android_plans_but_wont_say_how_big/ bag" (in English) (HTML). ars technica. 1222789838. http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/ [69] "T-Mobile G3 is Huawei Android". 20071219-google-android-plagued-byPhandroid. 2009-04-03. dysfunctional-development-process.html. http://phandroid.com/2009/04/03/tRetrieved on 2007-12-19. mobile-g3-is-huawei-android/. [84] "You can’t rush perfection, but now you [70] "Archos press release". Archos. 2009. can file bugs against it". http://androidhttp://www.archos.com/corporate/press/ developers.blogspot.com/2008/01/youpress_releases/ARCHOScant-rush-perfection-but-now-you.html. TI_020909_Final.pdf. [85] Morrison, Scott (2007-12-19). "Glitches [71] "Lenovo-China Mobile’s OPhone Bug Google’s Android Software" (in spotted". modmyGphone. 2008-12-11. English) (HTML). The Wall Street http://www.modmygphone.com/forums/ Journal. http://online.wsj.com/ showthread.php?t=8461. article_email/ [72] "Sony Ericsson, HTC planning Google SB119800856883537515-lMyQjAxMDE3OTE4ODAxM Android phones for 2009". Cnet. Retrieved on 2007-12-19. 2008-12-10. http://news.cnet.com/sony[86] "Snake" (in English). http://www.androidericsson-htc-planning-google-androidfreeware.org/download/snake. Retrieved phones-for-2009/. on 2008-01-26. [73] "Second ’Google phone’ is unveiled". [87] "First Android Application - Snake" (in BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ English) (HTML). Mobiles2day. technology/7894516.stm. 2007-11-14. [74] "HTC Magic Debuts May 1st". http://www.mobiles2day.com/2007/11/ Phandroid. 2009-04-01. 14/first-android-application-snake/. http://phandroid.com/2009/04/01/htcRetrieved on 2008-01-07. magic-debuts-may-1st/. [88] "Developers use unlocked phones" (in [75] "Report: Samsung Android In June, English) (HTML). Mobiles2day. Several More To Follow". Phandriod. 2009-04-24. http://www.droidweb.com/. 2009-04-03. http://phandroid.com/2009/ Retrieved on 2009-04-23. 04/03/samsung-android-in-june-several[89] development tools more-to-follow/. [90] Cade Metz (14 July 2008). "Google plays [76] "Sony Ericsson, HTC planning Google Hide and Seek with Android SDK". Android phones for 2009". Cnet. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/07/14/ 2008-12-10. http://news.cnet.com/sony-

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
android_developer_unrest/. Retrieved on 2008-10-23. [91] "Android - An Open Handset Alliance Project: Download the Android SDK". http://code.google.com/android/ download_list.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-24. [92] "Android - An Open Handset Alliance Project: Upgrading the SDK". http://code.google.com/android/intro/ upgrading.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-24. [93] Nischal Raya (09 March 2009). "Google releases 1.1 update for Dev Phones". http://phandroid.com/2009/03/09/ android-dev-phone-update-version-11/. Retrieved on 2009-09-03. [94] "Android Developer Challenge" (in English) (HTML). code.google.com. http://code.google.com/android/adc.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-11. [95] "The Google Phone? Not Quite" (in English) (HTML). pcfastlane.com. http://www.pcfastlane.com/columns/thegoogle-phone-not-quite/. Retrieved on 2008-01-11. [96] Android Developers Blog: The Top 50 Applications [97] Android Developer Challenge announces first-round winners [98] ^ "ADC I Top 50 Gallery". Google. http://code.google.com/android/adc/ adc_gallery/. Retrieved on 19=05=2009. [99] Cooksey, Tom (2007-11-07). "Native C *GRAPHICAL* applications now working on Android emulator". androiddevelopers mailing list. http://groups.google.com/group/androiddevelopers/msg/ ace258af92fff692?dmode=source&pli=1. Retrieved on 2008-12-13. [100]Skia source". http://src.chromium.org/ " viewvc/chrome/trunk/src/skia/. [101] oker, Alp (2008-09-06). "Skia graphics T library in Chrome: First impressions". http://www.atoker.com/blog/2008/09/06/ skia-graphics-library-in-chrome-firstimpressions/. Retrieved on 2008-12-13. [102] rinivas, Davanum (2007-12-09). S "Android - Invoke JNI based methods (Bridging C/C++ and Java)". http://davanum.wordpress.com/2007/12/ 09/android-invoke-jni-based-methodsbridging-cc-and-java/. Retrieved on 2008-12-13.

Android (operating system)
[103]java.lang.System". Android " Documentation. Google. http://code.google.com/android/ reference/java/lang/System.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-13. [104]Native C++ game S-Tris2 running on " Android!". android-developers mailing list. 2007-11-16. http://groups.google.com/group/androiddevelopers/browse_thread/thread/ f31003bbed8bf7a9/. Retrieved on 2008-12-13. [105] rs Technica: UPDATE: Google yanks A tethering app from marketplace [106] oogle’s G1 Tethering Move Sets G Precedent For Carrier-Specific Android App Markets [107] aul, Ryan (2009-02-23). P "Dream(sheep++): A developer’s introduction to Google Android". http://arstechnica.com/open-source/ reviews/2009/02/an-introduction-togoogle-android-for-developers.ars. Retrieved on 2009-03-07. "In fact, during a presentation at the Google IO conference, Google engineer Patrick Brady stated unambiguously that Android is not Linux.(...)The problem with Google’s approach is that it makes Android an island. The highly insular nature of the platform prevents Android users and developers from taking advantage of the rich ecosystem of existing third-party Linux applications. Android doesn’t officially support native C programs at all, so it won’t be possible to port your favorite GTK+ or Qt applications to Android" [108] an Gurp, Jilles (2007-11-13). "Google v Android: Initial Impressions and Criticism". http://www.javalobby.org/nl/ archive/jlnews_20071113o.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-07. "Frankly, I don’t understand why Google intends to ignore the vast amount of existing implementation out there. It seems like a bad case of "not invented here" to me. Ultimately, this will slow adoption. There are already too many Java platforms for the mobile world and this is yet another one" [109] ttp://code.google.com/p/android/issues/ h detail?id=1151&q=sd

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Android (operating system)

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • Android Market Radio Interface Layer LiMo Foundation Linux Phone Standards Forum maemo Mobilinux Moblin project Mobile World Congress Open Mobile Alliance Openmoko Symbian Foundation

External links
• Official Android page • Android Open Source Project • Android Market • Android Developers Blog • Official Android Google Code page • Android Wiki • Sergey Brin introduces the Android platform at YouTube • Mike Jennings talks about Android at the Next 08 conference (Exxplain video)

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