OBJECTIVES Beginning with the life and legend of the Buddha, the chapter includes sections on the teachings of the Buddha and the major forms of Buddhism—Theravada, Mahayana, Vajrayana, Zen, and Pure Land. Concluding sections describe the development of Buddhism in the West, and Buddhist involvement in social issues. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the origins, the major beliefs, and the practices of Buddhism. 2. Recognize and discuss major divisions of Buddhism (similarities & differences). 3. Recognize Buddhist traditions in the West. 4. Explain the Buddhist role in social issues. 5. Define important names and terms such as Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, dharma, bhikshus, bhikshunis, sangha, nirvana, "Four Noble Truths," dukkha, anicca, anatta, "Eightfold Path of Liberation," karma, samsara, arhant, Tipitaka or Pali Canon, "Triple Gem," stupas, Bodhisattvas, sutras, yanas, sunyata, lamas, Dalai Lama, mandalas, Zen, satori, koan, Buddha-nature, zazen, kensho, Pure Land Buddhism, Amida, and zendo. Buddhism differs from many of the other major religions in its • • • • belief in salvation through one's own efforts. belief in one major deity. belief in life after death. any of these. The Buddha's teachings on the truths of reality and right conduct are called • the dharma. • the karma. • the Pali Canon. • the samsara. The future Buddha was born into a family belonging to the traditional Hindu caste called the • • • • kshatriyas. Brahmins. vaishyas. shudras. The Buddha developed a systematic approach to bring people to liberation called • • • • Dhammapada. Four Noble Truths. the Eightfold Path of Liberation. Three Gems. The ultimate goal in the practice of Buddhism is • • • • forgiveness of sins. nirvana. becoming one with an ultimate reality or deity. any of these. The Pali Canon, also known as the ___________, includes the rules for sangha members and a record of the Buddha's teaching stories. • • • • Dhammapada Tipitaka Hinayana Triple Gem All Buddhists "take refuge" in the __________, consisting of the Buddha, the dharma, and the sangha. • • • • Pali Canon Triple Gem Dhammapada Eightfold Noble Path In Theravada Buddhism, mindfulness meditation techniques called ____________ are used as a method for focusing the mind. • • • • Yanas Deity Yoga Vipassana Zendo Bodhidharma's form of Buddhism, called Ch'an in China, became known as __________in Japan. • • • • Theravada Pure Land Nichiren Zen In Zen Buddhism, zazen, a term that means ___________, is an important method of experiencing the Buddha-nature. • • • • "sitting meditation“ "higher meditation“ "mindful meditation“ "standing meditation" The ultimate purpose of Zen practice is • • • • salvation. satori or enlightenment. becoming one with god. any of these. In the Pure Land Buddhism belief system, followers do not have to rely on their own efforts for liberation. They call on _____________ who prepares a place of bliss for any who call on his name. • • • • Dalai Lama Bodhisattva of Superb Action Bodhidharma Amida The thirteenth-century Japanese fisherman's son Nichiren stressed the importance of reforming _____ as well as oneself. • • • • the family Society Government any of these. A zendo is a • • • • Zen meditation practice. Zen meditation hall. Zen follower. collection of Zen writings. This converted Buddhist activist, born an untouchable Hindu, helped return Buddhism to its native India, and as the chief architect of India's democracy, fought to end the oppression of the Hindu caste system. • B. R. Ambedkar • A. T. Ariyaratne • Dalai Lama • Mahatma Gandhi #1 ____ Buddha ____ Dharma ____ Bhikshunis ____ Bhikshus ____ Sanga #2 ____ Nirvana ____ Dukkha ____ anaitya or anicca (Pali) ____ anatman or anatta (Pali) ____ karma #3 ____ Samsara ____ Arhant ____ Stupas ____ Sutras ____ Bodhisattvas #4 ____ Sunyata ____ Lamas ____ Mandalas ____ Zazen ____ Kensho a. the Buddha's teachings b. Buddhist nuns c. "Enlightened One" d. Buddhist monks e. the order of Buddha's disciples a. our acts of will b. liberation from ego c. no eternal soul d. suffering e. impermanence a. a saint b. Mahayana scriptures c. cycle of life, death, rebirth d. mounds containing Buddhist relics e. beings dedicated to helping others attain enlightenment a. emptiness b. the highest gurus or teachers c. sudden burst of enlightenment d. "sitting meditation" e. visual aids to concentration Discussion Questions: 1. What basic beliefs do Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism have in common? How do they differ? 2. What are koans? Examine the koans. Read several koans presented here and discuss the role of koans in the practice of Zen. 3. Buddhists, like Hindus and Jains, believe in reincarnation. Unlike those two religions, however, Buddhists do not believe in an eternal soul. If there is no soul, how can there be reincarnation? 4. Describe the life of the Buddha. What events led to his emergence as the leader of a future world religion? 5. Describe the basic beliefs and practices of Pure Land, Zen, and Nichiren Buddhism. 1. The Hindu scriptures, the Vedas, were written in a. Sanskrit. b. Aramaic. c. Hindi. d. Pali. 2. The Vedas are composed of four parts: the Samhitas, Brahmanas, the _____________, and the Upanishads. a. b. c. d. Ramayana Mahabharata Bhagavad-Gita Aranyakas 3. The Vedas are believed to have come directly from Brahman as heard by _____________, ancient wise men. a. rishis b. gurus c. priests d. brahmin 4. A(n) ______ is a monastic retreat community developed around a teacher. a. b. c. d. sangat sangha ashram mosque 5. The Upanishads, the last of the Vedas, include teachings on a) the nature of oneself. b) the nature of Brahman. c) the nature of the soul or atman. d) any of these. 6. The members of the Hindu caste system with the highest status were priests or a) Brahmins. b) Kshatriyas. c) Vaishyas. d) Shudras. 7. Members of the lowest caste group once called "untouchables" were renamed "harijans" by Mahatma Gandhi. "Harijans" means a) sons of Brahmin. b) God's chosen. c) redeemed ones. d) children of God. 8. ____________ is a poetic narrative epic depicting the struggle of Rama. a) Hanuman, the Monkey Chief b) Rama and Sita c) Ramayana d) Mahabharata 9. Krishna's teachings to Arjuna as recorded in the Bhagavad-Gita include lessons on a) how to recognize what is eternal. b) how to transcend one's self. c) the importance of loving the Eternal Being. d) any of these. 10. A Hindu male's life time is traditionally divided into four stages-student, householder, semi-retired person, and a a) guru. b) monk. c) teacher. d) sannyasin. 11. Within the Hindu religion there has developed a variety of paths to achieve liberation from suffering known as yoga. The four main yogic paths are jnana, karma, bhakti, and __________ , the path most familiar to Westerners. a) transcendental meditation b) Moksha c) Puja d) raja 12. The ultimate goal of yogic meditation is __________, a state of union with the Absolute. a) puja b) sadhanas c) nirvana d) samadhi 13. This yogic path emphasizes rational thought as the path to liberation. a) jnana b) karma c) yogi d) bhakti 14. This yogic path emphasizes helping others as the path to liberation. a) jnana b) karma c) yogi d) bhakti 15. Most Hindus worship one of these three deities. a) Vishn, Siva, Brahma b) Vishnu, Siva, Sakti c) Agni, Siva, Indra d) Vishnu, Agni, Indra 16. The worship of the feminine form of the divine has been present in India since ancient times. This divinity has been associated closely with nature including the _________ River, which is considered especially sacred to Hindus. a) b) c) d) Luni Godavari Ganges Yamuna 17. A major difference in the two major philosophical systems of Hinduism (Samkhya & Advaita Vedanta) is their understanding of reality. While Advaita Vedanta is monistic, holding that there is one reality, the Samkhya philosophy confirms that there are really _________ realities. a) two b) many c) four d) three MATCHING QUESTIONS (SOME TERMS TO KNOW) #1 ____ dharma ____ karma ____ reincarnation ____ moksha ____ samsara ____ atman a. the soul b. the transmigration of the soul into a new body after death c. actions and the results of those actions on future lives d. the continuous cycle of birth, death, and rebirth e. natural, social and ethical order; health and transcendental realization f. liberation from the cycle of suffering--life, death, and rebirth #2 ____ Brahman ____ Vishnu ____ Siva (Shiva) ____ Vedas ____ Aryans ____ Upanishads a. wisdom teachings, the last of the Vedas b. a form of the Supreme Being who incarnates again and again to save the world c. Hinduism's major religious text d. Indo-European tribes thought to have migrated to India from southern Russia e. the Absolute, Supreme Being f. Harappan civilizations may have worshipped this god, one of the major forms of the Supreme Reality worshipped today a. intense devotion to a personal god b. paths to liberation from suffering c. spiritual teacher d. worship e. linear images with cosmic symbolism used to still the mind f. verbal formulas used by priests #3 ____ mantra ____ bhakti ____ guru ____ yoga ____ yantras ____ puja SOME QUESTIONS FOR THOUGHT 1. Annie Dillard in Pilgrim at Tinker Creek writes, "The one thing that all religions recognize as separating us from our creator--our very self consciousness--is also the one thing that divides us from our fellow man." Explain how this idea applies to the basic beliefs of Hinduism. Describe the evidence that connects the Harappan civilizations to the Hindu religion that exists today. Explain the differences between the Aryan Invasion Theory and the Indian tradition regarding the origins of Hinduism. 2. 3. 4. All religious activities can be diminished by an emphasis on the exterior rather than the inner experience. With this in mind, explain the importance of Hindu rituals such as the fire sacrifice. Trace the development of the concept of bhakti in Hinduism. Describe the cycles of time in Hinduism. What evidence do you see that we are currently in the fourth cycle? Discuss the relationship of the caste system to the Hindu concept of dharma. Include a discussion of the religious roles of women. What do the major Hindu philosophical systems have in common? 5. 6. 7. 8.
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