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The word girl first appeared during the Middle Ages between 1250 and 1300 CE and came from the Anglo-Saxon words gerle (also spelled girle or gurle), likely cognate with the Old Low German word gör (sometimes given as kerl).[2] The Anglo-Saxon word gerela meaning dress or clothing item also seems to have been used as a metonym in some sense.[3] Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. According to Erikson, the young adult stage involves the personal need for intimacy and sex. Failure to achieve this need results in isolation, which is avoided, and as a result the young adult strives for love and compassion. The young adult learns that love and compassion may get him or her what he or she wants. In modern societies, young adults in their late teens and early 20s encounter a number of issues as they finish school and begin to hold full-time jobs and take on other responsibilities of adulthood. In the late teens and early 20s, young adults become individuals and will set themselves apart. Self becomes the main reliance. Young adults will strive to become independent from parents, take responsibility for themselves and make their own decisions. During the young adult stage, mainly the majority think in a more mature manner and take issues more seriously. They focus on the construction of a better future. Adolescents are generally regarded as naïve and inexperienced, but are expected to grow into mature adults in their 20s. Young adults in this stage of human development learn value in both tangible and intangible objects. Their relationships with their parents and older adults change. However, in many cases, young adults and adolescents have enormous talent that can, in cases, outstrip some adults' talents. In many cases, problems such as lack of time (schooling and other commitments) and lack of money can arrest the adolescent's development in terms of intellectual and t

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Sex Economic Slavery of Women

Picture Book International
Bedrock Bedroom Boardroom Emotional Experience Education Evolution

2008 Nudity Adult Version

The Slavery of Women at Work & Home

n sociology,


is the process of deliberately enticing a person to engage in some sort of behavior, frequently sexual in nature. The term may have a positive or negative connotation. Famous seducers from history include Cleopatra, Giacomo Casanova, and the character Don Juan.[ PeopleNology explores the Evolutionary Nature, Inclinations of the Human Being. Sexual behavior is one of the key components to life. Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Nollijy University Research Institute Harvard School Powerful Human Development publishes the most historicaly correct pictorial of the human female. This adult education series is one of the most important books ever published by a noteable author and historian. The picture perfect human nudity explains the oral and written history of women around the world. This exciting journey shows clearly the Slavery of Women, The actual slavery of Woman since the beginning of history. PeopleNology expodes and at the same time explores the evolution, history, myths and society beliefs and values of the women at work, the young girl not yet the women, the choices to be made from dating, mating, sexual intercourse, school, work, teenager love letters and the entire culture of a women living today. Gregory Bodenhamer, the renowned historian,

ounder oof PeopleNology, PeopleTopia, ParentTopia, PeopleTopianism is the new authorized science of social engineering, pshychology, around the world.
Seduction involves temptation and enticement, often sexual in nature, to attract or influence the behavior of another. Traditionally, the word implied leading someone astray, as when a woman lured a man into a sexual relationship[citation needed]. In contemporary usage, seduction is frequently used more broadly as a synonym for the act of charming someone—male or female—by an appeal to the senses. The seducing agent may even be nonhuman, such as music or food.
This Book Has A Market Value of $100,000,000.00 and is Protected by Law USD 2008 and is fully protected under International Copyright Protection Laws, Copyright 2008 United State of America Gregory Bodenhamer

Nollijy University Research Institute PeopleNology of America

Seduction is a popular motif in legend and literature. According to tradition, the biblical Eve was a classical seductress who enticed Adam to eat the forbidden fruit; the Sirens of Greek myth lured sailors to their death by utilizing symbolically feminine wile; and Cleopatra beguiled both Julius Caesar

and Marc Antony. Famous male seducers, their names synonymous with sexual allure, range from Casanova to James Bond. In biblical times, because unmarried females who had lost their virginity had also lost much of their value as marriage prospects, the Old Testament Book of Exodus specifies that the seducer must marry his victim or pay her father to compensate him for his loss of the marriage price: "And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife. If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins."[2] English common law defined the crime of seduction as a felony committed "when a male person induced an unmarried female of previously chaste character to engage in an act of sexual intercourse on a promise of marriage." A father had the right to maintain an action for the seduction of his daughter (or the enticement of a son who left home), since this deprived him of services or earnings.[3] In more modern times, Frank Sinatra was charged in New Jersey in 1938 with seduction, having enticed a woman "of good repute to engage in sexual intercourse with him upon his promise of marriage. The charges were dropped when it was discovered that the woman was already married."[4]

PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks Biological point of view Thierry Lodé, a French biologist, proposed in his book [5] that seduction could result from the supranormal stimulus. The trend towards exaggeration is a fundamental biological component which explains the exuberance of certain sexual traits; for instance: the peacock’s tail and the uca crab's pincers. Sexual selection and sexual conflict could amplify the

aintenance of extreme specific characters by intensifying sexual desire. The bilateral symmetry is also an essential characters in life. Most animals prefer to mate with sexual partners exhibiting symmetric pattern. Actually, symmetric traits are largely altered by growth and health, and asymmetry often reveals genetic problem or immune system (MHC) deficiencies. • • • • • • • • • Beauty Courtship Charisma Eros (love) Flirting Persuasion Physical attractiveness Romantic love Seduction Community

Persuasion is a form of social influence. It is the process of guiding people toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational and symbolic (though not always logical) means. It is strategy of problem-solving relying on "appeals" rather than strength. Manipulation is taking persuasion to an extreme, where the one person or group benefits at the cost of the other. Aristotle said that "Rhetoric is the art of discovering, in a particular case, the available means of persuasion."

Principles of persuasion According to Robert Cialdini in his book on persuasion, he defined six "weapons of influence": • Reciprocation - People tend to return a favor. Thus, the pervasiveness of free samples in marketing. In his conferences, he often uses the example of Ethiopia providing thousands of dollars in humanitarian aid to Mexico just after the 1985 earthquake, despite Ethiopia suffering from a crippling famine and civil war at the time.

• Commitment and Consistency - If people commit, verbally or in writing, they are more likely to honor that commitment. Even if the original incentive or motivation is removed after they have already agreed, they will continue to honor the agreement. For example, in car sales, suddenly raising the price at the last moment works because the buyer has already decided to buy. See cognitive dissonance. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • • Social Proof - People will do things that they see other people are doing. For example, in one experiment, one or more confederates would look up into the sky; bystanders would then look up into the sky to see what they were seeing. At one point this experiment aborted, as so many people were looking up that they stopped traffic. See conformity, and the Asch conformity experiments. • Authority - People will tend to obey authority figures, even if they are asked to perform objectionable acts. Cialdini cites incidents, such as the Milgram experiments in the early 1960s and the My Lai massacre. • Liking - People are easily persuaded by other people that they like. Cialdini cites the marketing of Tupperware in what might now be called viral marketing. People were more likely to buy if they liked the person selling it to them. Some of the many biases favoring more attractive people are discussed. See physical attractiveness stereotype. • Scarcity - Perceived scarcity will generate demand. For example, saying offers are available for a "limited time only" encourages sales.

Ethiopia had been reciprocating for the diplomatic support Mexico provided when Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1937.

Propaganda is also closely related to Persuasion. Its a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of large numbers of people. Instead of impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in order to influence its audience. The most effective propaganda is often completely truthful, but some propaganda presents facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the cognitive narrative of the subject in the target audience. The term 'propaganda' first appeared in 1622 when Pope Gregory XV established the Sacred Congregation for Propagating the Faith. Propaganda was then as now about convincing large numbers of people about the veracity of a given set of ideas. Propaganda is as old as people, politics and religion. Wars have always been a good reason for governments wanting to persuade populaces of the justness of their cause as well as hide the horrors and failures of the front line. Misinformation and disinformation are widely used to distract people.

Methods of persuasion By appeal to reason: • Logical argument • Logic • Rhetoric • Scientific method • Proof By appeal to emotion: • Advertising • Faith • Presentation and Imagination • Propaganda • Seduction • Tradition • Pity Aids to persuasion: • Body language • Communication skill or Rhetoric • Sales techniques

• Personality tests and conflict style inventory help devise strategy based on an individual's preferred style of interaction Other techniques, which may or may not work: • Deception • Hypnosis • Subliminal advertising • Power (sociology) Coercive techniques, some of which are highly controversial and/or not scientifically proven to be effective: • Brainwashing • Coercive persuasion • Mind control • Torture Systems of persuasion for the purpose of seduction: • Seduction • Mystery Method Some time has been spent analyzing the means by which propaganda messages are transmitted. That work is important

but it is clear that information dissemination strategies only become propaganda strategies when coupled with propagandistic messages. Identifying these messages is a necessary prerequisite to study the methods by which those messages are spread. Below are a number of techniques for generating propaganda: "The Pope is Antichrist" - 1521 propaganda print by Lucas Cranach the Elder, commissioned by Martin Luther. • Ad Hominem: A Latin phrase which has come to mean attacking your opponent, as opposed to attacking their arguments. • Appeal to authority: Appeals to authority cite prominent figures to support a position, idea, argument, or course of action. Appeal to fear: Appeals to fear seek to build support by instilling anxieties and panic in the general population, for

example, Joseph Goebbels exploited Theodore Kaufman's Germany Must Perish! to claim that the Allies sought the extermination of the German people. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • • Appeal to Prejudice: Using loaded or emotive terms to attach value or moral goodness to believing the proposition. For example, the phrase: "Any hard-working taxpayer would have to agree that those who do not work, and who do not support the community do not deserve the community's support through social assistance." • Argumentum ad nauseam: This argument approach uses tireless repetition of an idea. An idea, especially a simple slogan, that is repeated enough times, may begin to be taken as the truth. This approach works best when media sources are limited and controlled by the propagator. • Bandwagon: Bandwagon and "inevitable-victory" appeals attempt to persuade the target audience to join in and take the course of action that "everyone else is taking." • Inevitable victory: invites those not already on the bandwagon to join those already on the road to certain victory. Those already or at least partially on the bandwagon are reassured that staying aboard is their best course of action. • Join the crowd: This technique reinforces people's natural desire to be on the winning side. This technique is used to convince the audience that a program is an expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it is in their best interest to join.

• Black-and-White fallacy: Presenting only two choices, with the product or idea being propagated as the better choice. (e.g., "You are either with us, or you are with the enemy") Beautiful people: The type of propaganda that deals with famous people or depicts attractive, happy people. This makes other people think that if they buy a product or follow a certain ideology, they too will be happy or successful. (This is more used in advertising for products, instead of political reasons) PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks •

• Big Lie: The repeated articulation of a complex of events that justify • subsequent action. The descriptions of these events have elements of truth, and the "big lie" generalizations merge and eventually supplant the public's accurate perception of the underlying events. After World War I the German Stab in the back explanation of the cause of their defeat became a justification for Nazi re-militarization and revanchist aggression. According to Robert Conquest, Soviet authorities also adopted this Hitler's propaganda technique to deny artificial famines in the Soviet Union and the existence of Gulag labor camp system. [4] Common man: The "'plain folks'" or "common man" approach attempts to convince the audience that the propagandist's positions reflect the common sense of the people. It is designed to win the confidence of the audience by communicating in the common manner and style of the target audience. Propagandists use ordinary language and mannerisms (and clothe their message in face-to-face and audiovisual communications) in attempting to identify their point of view with that of the average person. For example, a propaganda leaflet may make an argument on a macroeconomic issue, such as unemployment insurance benefits, using everyday terms: "given that the country has little money during this recession, we should stop paying unemployment benefits to those who do not work, because that is like maxing out all your credit cards during a tight period, when you should be tightening your belt." PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • • Demonizing the enemy: Making individuals from the opposing nation, from a different ethnic group, or those who support the opposing viewpoint appear to be subhuman (e.g., the Vietnam War-era term "gooks" for NLF soldiers), worthless, or immoral, through suggestion or false accusations.

World War I poster by Winsor McCay, urging Americans to buy Liberty Bonds • Direct order: This technique hopes to simplify the decision making process by using images and words to tell the audience exactly what actions to take, eliminating any other possible choices. Authority figures can be used to give the order, overlapping it with the Appeal to authority technique, but not necessarily. The Uncle Sam "I want you" image is an example of this technique. • Euphoria: The use of an event that generates euphoria or happiness, or using an appealing event to boost morale. Euphoria can be created by declaring a holiday, making luxury items available, or mounting a military parade with marching bands and patriotic messages. • Disinformation: The creation or deletion of information from public records, in the purpose of making a false record of an event or the actions of a person or organization, including outright forgery of photographs, motion pictures, broadcasts, and sound recordings as well as printed documents. • Flag-waving: An attempt to justify an action on the grounds that doing so will make one more patriotic, or in some way benefit a group, country, or idea. The feeling of patriotism which this technique attempts to inspire may not necessarily diminish or entirely omit one's capability for rational examination of the matter in question. The Finnish Maiden - personification of Finnish nationalism Glittering generalities: Glittering generalities are emotionally appealing words applied to a product or idea, but which present no concrete argument or analysis. A famous example is the campaign slogan "Ford has a better idea!" PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets

Scams Tricks • Half-truth: A half-truth is a deceptive statement which may come in several forms and includes some element of truth. The statement might be partly true, the statement may be totally true but only part of the whole truth, or it may utilize some deceptive element, such as improper punctuation, or double meaning, especially if the intent is to deceive, evade blame or misrepresent the truth. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • • Intentional vagueness: Generalities are deliberately vague so that the audience may supply its own interpre-

tations. The intention is to move the audience by use of undefined phrases, without analyzing their validity or attempting to determine their reasonableness or application. The intent is to cause people to draw their own interpretations rather than simply being presented with an explicit idea. In trying to "figure out" the propaganda, the audience forgoes judgment of the ideas presented. Their validity, reasonableness and application may still be considered. • Obtain disapproval or Reductio ad Hitlerum: This technique is used to persuade a target audience to disapprove of an action or idea by suggesting that the idea is popular with groups hated, feared, or held in contempt by the target audience. Thus if a group which supports a certain policy is led to believe that undesirable, subversive, or contemptible people support the same policy, then the members of the group may decide to change their original position. This is a form of Bad Logic, where a is said to equal X, and b is said to equal X, therefore, a = b. • Oversimplification: Favorable generalities are used to provide simple answers to complex social, political, economic, or military problems. Quotes out of Context: Selective editing of quotes which can change meanings. Political documentaries designed to discredit an opponent or an opposing political viewpoint often make use of this technique. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • • Name-calling - propagandists use the name-calling technique to incite fears and arouse prejudices in their hearers in the intent that the bad names will cause hearers to construct a negative opinion about a group or set of beliefs or ideas that the propagandist would wish


• •


hearers to denounce. The method is intended to provoke conclusions about a matter apart from impartial examinations of facts. Name-calling is thus a substitute for rational, fact-based arguments against the an idea or belief on its own merits.[5] Rationalization: Individuals or groups may use favorable generalities to rationalize questionable acts or beliefs. Vague and pleasant phrases are often used to justify such actions or beliefs. Red herring: Presenting data or issues that, while compelling, are irrelevant to the argument at hand, and then claiming that it validates the argument. Repetition: This type of propaganda deals with a jingle or word that is repeated over and over again, thus getting it stuck in someones head, so they can buy the product. The "Repetition" method has been described previously. Scapegoating: Assigning blame to an individual or group, thus alleviating feelings of guilt from responsible parties and/or distracting attention from the need to fix the problem for which blame is being assigned.

• Slogans: A slogan is a brief, striking phrase that may include labeling and stereotyping. Although slogans may be enlisted to support reasoned ideas, in practice they tend to act only as emotional appeals. Opponents of the US's invasion and occupation of Iraq use the slogan "blood for oil" to suggest that the invasion and its human losses was done to access Iraq's oil riches. On the other hand, "hawks" who argue that the US should continue to fight in Iraq use the slogan "cut and run" to suggest that it would be cowardly or weak to withdraw from Iraq. Similarly, the names of the military campaigns, such as "enduring freedom" or "just cause", may also be regarded to be slogans, devised to influence people. Stereotyping or Name Calling or Labeling: This technique attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable. For instance, reporting on a foreign country or social group may focus on the stereotypical traits that the reader expects, even though they are far from being representative of the whole country or group; such reporting often focuses on the anecdotal. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • Testimonial: Testimonials are quotations, in or out of context, especially cited to support or reject a given policy, action, program, or personality. The reputation or the role (expert, respected public figure, etc.) of the individual giving the statement is exploited. The testimonial places the official sanction of a respected person or authority on a propaganda message. This is done in an effort to cause the target audience to identify itself with the authority or to accept the author-

ity's opinions and beliefs as its own. See also, damaging quotation PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • • Transfer: Also known as Association, this is a technique of projecting positive or negative qualities (praise or blame) of a person, entity, object, or value (an individual, group, organization, nation, patriotism, etc.) to another to make the second more acceptable or to discredit it. It evokes an emotional response, which stimulates the target to identify with recognized authorities. Often highly visual, this technique often utilizes symbols (for example, the Swastika used in Nazi Germany, originally a symbol for health and prosperity) superimposed over

other visual images. An example of common use of this technique in America is for the President's image to be overlaid with a swastika by his opponents. Unstated assumption: This technique is used when the propaganda concept that the propagandist intends to transmit would seem less credible if explicitly stated. The concept is instead repeatedly assumed or implied. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks

• • Virtue words: These are words in the value system of the target audience which tend to produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue. Peace, happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom, "The Truth", etc. are virtue words. In countries such as the U.S. religiosity is seen as a virtue, making associations to this quality affectively beneficial. See ""Transfer"". See also: doublespeak, cult of personality, spin, demonization, factoid Although they are generally not aware of it, many people send and receive non-verbal signals all the time. These signals may indicate what they are truly feeling. The technique of 'reading' people is used frequently. For example, the idea of mirroring body language to put people at ease is commonly used in interviews. It sets the person being interviewed at ease. Mirroring the body language of someone else indicates that they are understood. Body language signals may have a goal other than communica-

ion. Both people would keep this in mind. Observers limit the weight they place on non-verbal cues. Signallers clarify their signals to indicate the biological origin of their actions. One of the most basic and powerful body-language signals is when a person crosses his or her arms across the chest. This can indicate that a person is putting up an unconscious barrier between themselves and others. It can also indicate that the person's arms are cold which would be clarified by rubbing the arms or huddling. When the overall situation is amicable, it can mean that a person is thinking deeply about what is being discussed. But in a serious or confrontational situation, it can mean that a person is expressing opposition. This is especially so if the person is leaning away from the speaker. A harsh or blank facial expression often indicates outright hostility. Such a person is not an ally, and may be considering contentious tactics. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • • Consistent eye contact can indicate that a person is thinking positively of what the speaker is saying. It can also mean that the other person doesn't trust the speaker enough to "take his eyes off" the speaker. Lack of eye contact can indicate negativity. On the other hand, individuals with anxiety disorders are often unable to make eye contact without discomfort. Eye contact is often a secondary and misleading gesture because we are taught from an early age to make eye contact when speaking. If a person is looking at you but is making the arms-across-chest signal, the eye contact could be indicative that something is bothering the person, and that he wants to talk about it. Or if while making direct eye contact a person is fiddling with something, even while directly looking at you, it could indicate the attention is elsewhere.

Disbelief is often indicated by averted gaze, or by touching the ear or scratching the chin. So is eyestrain, or itchiness. When a person is not being convinced by what someone is saying, the attention invariably wanders, and the eyes will stare away for an extended period. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • • Boredom is indicated by the head tilting to one side, or by the eyes looking straight at the speaker but becoming slightly unfocused. A head tilt may also indicate a sore neck, and unfocused eyes may indicate ocular problems in the listener. • Interest can be indicated through posture or extended eye contact. Deceit or the act of withholding information can sometimes be indicated by touching the face during conversation. After a lie a person might dust themselves off, or otherwise brush themselves in an act of "cleaning" themselves. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • It should be noted that some people (e.g., people with certain disabilities, or those on the autistic spectrum) use and understand body language differently, or not at all. Interpreting their gestures and facial expressions (or lack thereof) in the context of normal body language usually leads to misunderstandings and misinterpretations (especially if body lan-

guage is given priority over spoken language). It should also be stated that people from different cultures can interpret body language in different ways. How prevalent is Non verbal Behaviour?PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks Some researchers put the level of nonverbal communication as high as 80 percent of all communication. More reasonably it could be at around 50-65 percent. That’s exactly what Mehrabian discovered in his communication study. He found that only 7 percent of communication comes from spoken words, 38 percent is from the tone of the voice, and 55

percent comes from body language. However, Mehrabian was only referring to cases of expressing feelings or attitudes, such as when a person says "I do not have a problem with you!" when people commonly focus on the tone of voice, and body language of the person, rather than the actual words said. It is a common misconception that these percentages apply to all communication.[1] Body language in groups In groups there is typically one person speaking at a time but many more can be showing their responses via body language [2]. This may be an important reason behind groups tending to be more emotional and less rational than individuals. Personal Space as it Relates to Body Language Generally, if you are closer than arm’s reach, then you are in someone’s personal space. To create more space in crowded areas such as elevators and bars, people often tense up and use their arms as protection. They will hold them close to their body – often crossed – and will also avoid eye contact. People guard their intimate space passionately, wherever it is, and do not appreciate other's invading it. Respecting people’s intimate space involves not invading it with objects like bags or jackets, or with body parts unless they are welcomed. Intimate space is closer then 18 inches, social is at around 18 inches - 5 feet and casual (for strangers) is at 5-10 feet. Female Interest and Body Language Women commonly display interest in men via sexual cues. These serve to entice men to approach them. Some of the cues to signal female interest include: the parade, echoing and mirroring, room encompassing glance, pointing, leg crossing, the pointing knee, pigeon toes, neck touching, head tilt, shoulder shrugs, rotation of the pelvis, showing wrist or armpits, skirt hike, laughing and smiling, the tap, forehead bow, eye contact, touching, childlike playfulness and proximity.

The Rule of Four

The rule of four states that in order to be sure that another person is unequivocally displaying non-verbal sexual interest, four separate positive signals must be present simultaneously and they must be directed at you. A person who is simply sexually aroused might display one or a great variety of cues, but they might be generally directed toward a room and not at anyone specifically Legitimate Power Legitimate Power refers to power of an individual because of the relative position and duties of the holder of the position within an organization. Legitimate Power is formal authority delegated to the holder of the position. It is usually accompanied by various attributes of power such as uniforms, offices etc. This is the most obvious and also the most important kind of power. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks Referent Power Referent Power means the power or ability of individuals to attract others and build loyalty. It's based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder. Here the person under power desires to identify with these personal qualities, and gains satisfaction from being an accepted follower. Nationalism or Patriotism counts towards an intangible sort of referent power as well. For example, soldiers fight in wars to defend the honor of the country. This is the second least obvious power, but the most effective. Expert Power Expert Power is an individual's power deriving from the skills or expertise of the person and the organization's needs for those skills and expertise. Unlike the others, this type of power is usually highly specific and limited to the particular area in which the expert is trained and qualified. This type of power is further broken down later on as

Information Power PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks

Information Power.

While the difference between expert power and information power is subtle, people with this type of power are wellinformed, up-to-date and also have the ability to persuade others. Another difference would be that people with Expert Power are perceived by his/her image of expertise to show

credibility (i.e. a qualified doctor in a doctor uniform), while one with Information Power does not have a strict need to 'look the part of a professional', but they must keep up to date with new research, and have confidence in debating, or are persuasive. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks Reward Power Reward Power depends upon the ability of the power wielder to confer valued material rewards, it refers to the degree to which the individual can give others a reward of some kind such as benefits, time off, desired gifts, promotions or increases in pay or responsibility. This power is obvious but also ineffective if abused. People who abuse reward power can become pushy or became reprimanded for being too forthcoming or 'moving things too quickly'. Coercive Power Coercive Power means the application of negative influences onto employees. It might refer to the ability to demote or to withhold other rewards. It's the desire for valued rewards or the fear of having them withheld that ensures the obedience of those under power. Coercive Power tends to be the most obvious but least effective form of power as it builds resentment and resistance within the targets of Coercive Power. Coercive persuasion comprises social influences capable of producing substantial behavior, attitude and ideology change through the use of coercive tactics and persuasion, via interpersonal and group-based influences. The term was coined by Edgar Schein[1] in 1961 in relation to his study of Chinese POWs' indoctrination. According to Schein, the essence of coercive persuasion, ..., is to produce persuasion exist in many areas of human endeavor such as

ideological and behavioral changes in a fully conscious, mentally intact individual. Schein notes that elements of coercive

persuasion attempts to force people to change beliefs, ideas, attitudes or behaviors using psychological pressure, undue influence, threats, anxiety, intimidation and/or stress. (Coercive persuasion has been called mind control and brainwashing.) [3]
Coercive persuasion is studied in managerial psychology, psychology of religion, epistemology, civil law (legal system), politics, diplomacy, and different aspects of sociology. In academic fields, the terms coercive persuasion, coercive psychological systems or coercive influence are often used interchangeably.

college fraternities, established religion, social rehabilitation programmes, the armed forces, and other conventional institutions. Schein also suggests that the popular image of brainwashing as entailing "extensive self-delusion and excessive [mental] distortion [...] is a false one." [2] Martyn Carruthers has the following definition: "Coercive

Coercive persuasion is used as a deterrent in diplomacy and warfare, using a threat to use force, or a credible threat to escalate a crisis or war to a more dangerous [4] level. PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks Some scholars such as Michael Langone or J.K. Ungerleider use the term coercive persuasion in the same sense as brainwashing, thought reform or mind control[5] [6] and connect it to methods of cultic groups in acquiring and retaining members. This view is disputed by scholars such as James Gene[7] and Bette Nove Evans [8], among others, while the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion[9] stated in 1990 that there was not sufficient research to permit a consensus on the matter and that "one should not automatically equate the techniques involved in the process of physical coercion and control with those of nonphysical coercion and control".

A similar statement was made by the American Psychological Association in 1987 when they rejected the report produced by the "APA taskforce on Deceptive and Indirect Techniques of Persuasion and Control" (DIMPAC)).[10], stating that "the brainwashing theory espoused lacks the scientific rigor and evenhanded critical approach necessary for APA imprimatur." See also Brainwashing controversies. In the cases of Molko vs. Holy Spirit Association and Wollersheim vs. Church of Scientology, coercive persuasion was connected by the plaintiffs to the legal concept of undue influence[11][12]. Tactics mentioned in describing coercive persuasion can include everyday methods like hard sale tactics or environmental control like described by Robert LiftonPeopleNology Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development PeopleTopia PeopleTopian PeopleSecrets Evolution Dating Mating Sexual Survival Seduction in the American Business Sector Human

Resources Management Fortune 100 Fortune 500 Secrets Scams Tricks • Milieu Control. This involves the control of information and communication both within the environment and, ultimately, within the individual, resulting in a significant degree of isolation from society at large. • Mystical Manipulation. There is manipulation of experiences that appear spontaneous but in fact were planned and orchestrated by the group or its leaders in order to demonstrate divine authority or spiritual advancement or some special gift or talent that will then allow the leader to reinterpret events, scripture, and experiences as he or she wishes. • Demand for Purity. The world is viewed as black and white and the members are constantly exhorted to conform to the ideology of the group and strive for perfection. The induction of guilt and/or shame is a powerful control device used here. • Confession. Sins, as defined by the group, are to be confessed either to a personal monitor or publicly to the group. There is no confidentiality; members' "sins," "attitudes," and "faults" are discussed and exploited by the leaders. • Sacred Science. The group's doctrine or ideology is considered to be the ultimate Truth, beyond all questioning or dispute. Truth is not to be found outside the group. The leader, as the spokesperson for God or for all humanity, is likewise above criticism. • Loading the Language. The group interprets or uses words and phrases in new ways so that often the outside world does not understand. This jargon consists of thought-terminating clichés, which serve to alter members' thought processes to conform to the group's way of thinking. • Doctrine over person. Member's personal experiences are subordinated to the sacred science and any contrary experiences must be denied or reinterpreted to fit the ideology of the group. • Dispensing of existence. The group has the prerogative to decide who has the right to exist and who does not. This is usually not literal but means that those in the outside

world are not saved, unenlightened, unconscious and they must be converted to the group's ideology. If they do not join the group or are critical of the group, then they must be rejected by the members. Thus, the outside world loses all credibility. In conjunction, should any member leave the group, he or she must be rejected also.

PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Serendipity

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is the effect by which one accidentally discovers something fortunate, especially while looking for something else entirely. The word has been voted as one of the ten English words that were hardest to translate in June 2004 by a British translation company.[citation needed] However, due to its sociological use, the word has been imported into many other languages (Portuguese serendipicidade or serendipidade; French sérendipicité or sérendipité but also heureux hasard, "fortunate chance"; Spanish serendipia; Italian serendipità; Dutch serendipiteit; German Serendipität; Swedish, Danish and Norwegian serendipitet; Romanian serendipitate). SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer The photograph intended was of a Black-crowned Night Heron; the photographer was unaware of the Pileated Woodpecker flashing through until the image was viewed later.

SexNology PeopleNology ADULT EDUCATION SEXUAL EVOLUTION Adult Only Education

Etymology The word derives from Serendip, the old Persian name for Sri Lanka,[1] and was coined by Horace Walpole on 28 January 1754 in a letter he wrote to his friend Horace Mann (not the same man as the famed American educator), an Englishman then living in Florence. The letter read, "It was once when I read a silly fairy tale, called The Three Princes of Serendip: as their highnesses travelled, they were always making discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things which they were not in quest of: for instance, one of them discovered that a camel blind of the right eye had travelled the same road lately, because the grass was eaten only on the left side, where it was worse than on the right—now do you understand serendipity? One of the most remarkable instances of this accidental sagacity (for you must observe that no discovery of a thing you are looking for, comes under this description) was of my Lord Shaftsbury, who happening to dine at Lord Chancellor Clarendon's, found out the marriage of the Duke of York and Mrs. Hyde, by the respect with which her mother treated her at table."[2] The role of serendipity in science and technology One aspect of Walpole's original definition of serendipity that is often missed in modern discussions of the word is the "sagacity" of being able to link together apparently innocuous facts to come to a valuable conclusion. Thus, while some scientists and inventors are reluctant about reporting accidental discoveries, others openly admit its role; in fact serendipity is a major component of scientific discoveries and inventions. According to M.K. Stoskopf[3] "it should be recognized that serendipitous discoveries are of significant value in the advancement of science and often present the foundation for important intellectual leaps of understanding". The amount of contribution of serendipitous discoveries varies extensively among the several scientific disciplines. Pharmacology and chemistry are probably the fields where serendipity is more common. Most authors who have studied scientific serendipity both in a historical, as well as in an epistemological point of view,

agree that a prepared and open mind is required on the part of the scientist or inventor to detect the importance of information revealed accidentally. This is the reason why most of the related accidental discoveries occur in the field of specialization of the scientist. About this, Albert Hofmann, the Swiss chemist who discovered LSD properties by intentionally ingesting it at his lab, wrote: "It is true that my discovery of LSD was a chance discovery, but it was the outcome of planned experiments and these experiments took place in the framework of systematic pharmaceutical, chemical research. It could better be described as serendipity." The French scientist Louis Pasteur also famously said: "In the fields of observation chance favors only the prepared mind."[4] This is often rendered as "Chance favors the prepared mind." History, of course, does not record accidental exposures of information which could have resulted in a new discovery, and we are justified in suspecting that they are many. There are several examples of this, however, and prejudice of preformed concepts are probably the largest obstacle. See for example [2] for a case where this happened (the rejection of an accidental discovery in the field of self-stimulation of the brain in humans). Examples of serendipity in science and technology Chemistry • Gelignite by Alfred Nobel, when he accidentally mixed collodium (gun cotton) with nitroglycerin • Polyethylene by Hans von Pechmann, who prepared it by accident in 1898 while heating diazomethane • Silly Putty by James Wright, on the way to solving another problem: finding a rubber substitute for the United States during World War II. • Chemical synthesis of urea, by Friedrich Woehler. He was attempting to produce ammonium cyanate by mixing potassium cyanate and ammonium chloride and got urea, the first organic chemical to be synthesised, often called the 'Last Nail' of the coffin of the Élan vital Theory • Pittacal, the first synthetic dyestuff, by Carl Ludwig Reichenbach. The dark blue dye appeared on wooden

posts painted with creosote to drive away dogs who urinated on them. • Mauve, the first aniline dye, by William Henry Perkin. At the age of 18, he was attempting to create artificial quinine. An unexpected residue caught his eye, which turned out to be the first aniline dye—specifically, mauveine, sometimes called aniline purple. SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer • Racemization, by Louis Pasteur. While investigating the properties of sodium ammonium racemate he was able to separate for the first time the two optical isomers of the salt. His luck was twofold: it is the only racemate salt to have this property, and the room temperature that day was slightly below the point of separation. • Teflon, by Roy J. Plunkett, who was trying to develop a new gas for refrigeration and got a slick substance instead, which was used first for lubrication of machine parts

• Cyanoacrylate-based Superglue (a.k.a. Krazy Glue) was accidentally twice discovered by Dr. Harry Coover, first when he was developing a clear plastic for gunsights and later, when he was trying to develop a heat-resistant polymer for jet canopies. • Scotchgard moisture repellant used to protect fabrics and leather, was discovered accidentally in 1953 by Patsy Sherman. One of the compounds she was investigating as a rubber material that wouldn't deteriorate when in contact with aircraft fuel spilled onto a tennis shoe and would not wash out; she then considered the spill as a protectant against spills. • Cellophane, a thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose, was developed in 1908 by Swiss chemist Jacques Brandenberger, as a material for covering stainproof tablecloth. • The chemical element helium. British chemist William Ramsay isolated helium while looking for argon but, after separating nitrogen and oxygen from the gas


• •




• •


liberated by sulfuric acid, noticed a bright-yellow spectral line that matched the D3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun. The chemical element Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois in 1811, when he was trying to remove residues with strong acid from the bottom of his saltpeter production plant which used seaweed ashes as a prime material. Polycarbonates, a kind of clear hard plastic The synthetic polymer celluloid was discovered by British chemist and metallurgist Alexander Parkes in 1856, after observing that a solid residue remained after evaporation of the solvent from photographic collodion. Celluloid can be described as the first plastic used for making solid objects (the first ones being billiard balls, substituting for expensive ivory). Rayon, the first synthetic silk, was discovered by French chemist Hilaire de Chardonnet, an assistant to Louis Pasteur. He spilled a bottle of collodion and found later that he could draw thin strands from the evaporated viscous liquid. The possibility of synthesizing indigo, a natural dye extracted from a plant with the same name was discovered by a chemist named Sapper who was heating coal tar when he accidentally broke a thermometer whose mercury content acted as a catalyst to produce phthalic anhydride, which could readily be converted into indigo. The dye monastral blue was discovered in 1928 in Scotland, when chemist A.G. Dandridge heated a mixture of chemicals at high temperature in a sealed iron container. The iron of the container reacted with the mixture, producing some pigments called phthalocyanines. By substituting copper for iron he produced an even better pigment called 'monastral blue', which became the basis for many new coloring materials for paints, lacquers and printing inks. Acesulfame, an artificial sweetener, was discovered accidentally in 1967 by Karl Claus at Hoechst AG. Another sweetener, cyclamate, was discovered by US chemist Michael Sveda, when he smoked a cigarette accidentally contaminated with a compound he had recently synthesized. Aspartame (NutraSweet) was accidentally ingested by


G.D. Searle chemist James Schlatter, who was trying to develop a test for an anti-ulcer drug.

Pharmacology • Penicillin by Alexander Fleming. He failed to disinfect cultures of bacteria when leaving for his vacations, only to find them contaminated with Penicillium molds, which killed the bacteria. However, he had previously done extensive research into antibacterial substances. • The psychedelic effects of LSD by Albert Hofmann. A chemist, he intentionally ingested a small amount of it upon investigating its properties, and had the first acid trip in history, while cycling to his home in Switzerland; this is commemorated among LSD users annually as Bicycle Day. • 5-fluorouracil's therapeutic action on actinic keratosis, was initially investigated for its anti-cancer actions • Minoxidil's action on baldness, originally it was an oral agent for treating hypertension. It was observed that bald patients treated with it grew hair too. • Viagra (sildenafil citrate), an anti-impotence drug. It was initially studied for use in hypertension and angina pectoris. Phase I clinical trials under the direction of Ian Osterloh suggested that the drug had little effect on angina, but that it could induce marked penile erections. • Retin-A anti-wrinkle action. It was a vitamin A derivative first used for treating acne. The accidental result in some older people was a reduction of wrinkles on the face SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer • The libido-enhancing effect of l-dopa, a drug used for treating Parkinson's disease. Older patients in a sanatorium had their long-lost interest in sex suddenly revived. • The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium) was discovered accidentally in 1954 by the Austrian scientist Dr Leo Sternbach (1908-2005), who found the substance while cleaning up his lab • The first anti-psychotic drug, chlorpromazine, was discovered by French pharmacologist Henri Laborit. He wanted to add an anti-histaminic to a pharmacological combination to prevent surgical shock and noticed that patients

reated with it were unusually calm before the operation. • the anti-cancer drug cisplatin was discovered by Barnett Rosenberg. He wanted to explore the inhibiting effects of an electric field on the growth of bacteria: it was rather due to an electrolysis product of the platinum electrode he was using. • The anesthetic nitrous oxide (laughing gas). Initially well known for inducing altered behavior (hilarity), its properties were discovered when British chemist Humphry Davy tested the gas on himself and some of his friends, and soon realised that nitrous oxide considerably dulled the sensation of pain, even if the inhaler were still semi-conscious. • The anesthetic ether SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer • Mustine, a derivative of mustard gas (a chemical weapon), used for the treatment of some forms of cancer. In 1943, physicians noted that the white cell counts of US soldiers accidentally exposed when a cache of mustard gas shells were bombed in Bari, Italy, were decreased, and mustard gas was investigated as a therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. • The first oral contraceptive (a.k.a. The Pill) was discovered by Dr. Carl Djerassi accidental production of synthetic progesterone and its intentional modification to allow for oral intake • Prontosil, an antibiotic of the sulfa group was an azo dye. German chemists at Bayer had the wrong idea that selective chemical stains of bacteria would show specific antibacterial activity. Prontosil had it, but in fact it was due to another substance metabolised from it in the body, sulfanilimide. Medicine and Biology • Bioelectricity, by Luigi Galvani. He was dissecting a frog at a table where he had been conducting experiments with static electricity, Galvani's assistant touched an exposed sciatic nerve of the frog with a metal scalpel, which had picked up a charge, provoking a muscle contraction. • Neural control of blood vessels, by Claude Bernard • Anaphylaxis, by Charles Robert Richet, when he tried to reuse dogs that hadn't previously shown allergic reac-



• • •

tions to sea anemone toxin, developed them much faster and more intensely the second time The role of the pancreas in glucose metabolism, by Oskar Minkowski. Dogs that had their pancreas removed for an unrelated physiological investigation, urinated profusely and the urine attracted flies, indicating its high glucose content Coronary catheterization was discovered as a method when a cardiologist at the Cleveland Clinic accidentally injected radiocontrast into the coronary artery instead of the left ventricle. The mydriatic effects of belladonna extracts, by Friedrich Ferdinand Runge Vaccination, discovered by English physician Edward Jenner, after he observed that milkmaids did not catch smallpox after exposure to benign cowpox. Interferon, an antiviral factor, was discovered accidentally by two Japanese virologists, Yasu-ichi Nagano and Yasuhiko Kojima while trying to develop an improved vaccine for smallpox. SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer

Physics and Astronomy • Discovery of the planet Uranus by William Herschel. Herschel was looking for comets, and initially identified Uranus as a comet until he noticed the circularity of its orbit and its distance and suggested that it was a planet, the first one discovered since antiquity. • Infrared radiation, again by William Herschel, while investigating the temperature differences between different colors of visible light by dispersing sunlight into a spectrum using a glass prism. He put thermometers into the different visible colors where he expected a temperature increase, and one as a control to measure the ambient temperature in the dark region beyond the red end of the spectrum. The thermometer beyond the red unexpectedly showed a higher temperature than the others, showing that there was non-visible radiation beyond the red end of the visible spectrum. • S. N. Bose discovered Bose-Einstein statistics when a mathematical error surprisingly explained anomalous data.

• High-temperature superconductivity was discovered serendipitously by physicists Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller, ironically when they were searching for a material that would be a perfect electrical insulator (nonconducting). They won the 1987 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery. • Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, by Arno A. Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson. What they thought was excess thermal noise in their antenna at Bell Labs was due to the CMBR. • Radioactivity, by Henri Becquerel. While trying to investigate phosphorescent materials using photographic plates, he stumbled upon uranium. • X rays, by Wilhelm Roentgen. Interested in investigating cathodic ray tubes, he SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamernoted that some fluorescent papers in his lab were illuminated at a distance although his apparatus had an opaque cover • Electromagnetism, by Hans Christian Oersted. While he was setting up his materials for a lecture, he noticed a

• • •


compass needle deflecting from magnetic north when the electric current from the battery he was using was switched on and off. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts were discovered in the late 1960s by the US Vela satellites, which were built to detect nuclear tests in the Soviet Union Metallic hydrogen was found accidentally in March 1996 by a group of scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, after a 60-year search. The thermoelectric effect was discovered accidentally by Estonian physicist Thomas Seebeck, in 1821, who found that a voltage developed between the two ends of a metal bar when it was submitted to a difference of temperature. Pluto's moon Charon was discovered by US astronomer James Christy in 1978. He was going to discard what he thought was a defective photographic plate of Pluto, when his Star Scan machine broke down. While it was being repaired he had time to study the plate again and discovered others in the archives with the same "defect" (a bulge in the planet's image which was actually a large moon).

Inventions • Discovery of the principle behind inkjet printers by a Canon engineer. After putting his hot soldering iron by accident on his pen, ink was ejected from the pen's point a few moments later. • Vulcanization of rubber, by Charles Goodyear. He accidentally left a piece of rubber mixture with sulfur on a hot plate, and produced vulcanized rubber • Safety glass, by French scientist Edouard Benedictus. In 1903 he accidentally knocked a glass flask to the floor and observed that the broken pieces were held together by a liquid plastic that had evaporated and formed a thin film inside the flask. • Corn flakes and wheat flakes (Wheaties) were accidentally discovered by the Kelloggs brothers in 1898, when they left cooked wheat untended for a day and tried to roll the mass, obtaining a flaky material instead of a sheet. SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer

• The microwave oven was invented by Percy Spencer while testing a magnetron for radar sets at Raytheon, he noticed that a peanut candy bar in his pocket had melted when exposed to radar waves. • Pyroceramic (used to make Corningware, among other things) was invented by S. Donald Stookey, a chemist working for the Corning company, who noticed crystallization in an improperly cooled batch of tinted glass.

Serendipitous ideas
Some ideas and concepts that came to scientists through accidents or even dreams are also considered a kind of serendipity. Some examples (coincidentally all are regarded with suspicion by science historians): • Isaac Newton's famed apple falling from a tree, led to his musings about the nature of gravitation. • The German chemist Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz dreamed about Ourobouros, a snake running around and forming a circle, leading to his solution of the closed chemical structure of cyclic compounds, such as benzene. • Archimedes' prototypical cry of Eureka when he made an analogy of specific gravity with his body displacing water in the bathtub. SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer Other examples of serendipity Stories of accidental discovery in exploration abound, of course, because the aim of exploration is to find new things and places. The principle of serendipity applies here, however, when the explorer had an aim in mind and found another unexpectedly. Some classical cases were discoveries of the Americas by explorers with other aims. The first European to set foot on North America was Leif Ericsson, who was trying to escape from a storm. America was also accidentally rediscovered (see Leif Ericsson) by Christopher Columbus, who was actually looking for a new way to India. South-America was also discovered by accident, first by Spaniard Vicente Pinzon, who was only exploring the West Indies previously

discovered by him and Columbus, and stumbled upon the Northeast of Brazil, in the region now known as Cabo de Santo Agostinho, in the state of Pernambuco. He also discovered the Amazon and Oiapoque rivers; and Pedro Álvares Cabral, a Portuguese admiral, who was sailing with his fleet to India via the South African route discovered by Vasco da Gama and was deviated to the coast of Brazil. Uses of serendipity Serendipity is used as a sociological method in Anselm L. Strauss' and Barney G. Glaser's Grounded Theory, building on ideas by sociologist Robert K. Merton, who in Social Theory and Social Structure (1949) referred to the "serendipity pattern" as the fairly common experience of observing an unanticipated, anomalous and strategic datum which becomes the occasion for developing a new theory or for extending an existing theory. Robert K. Merton also coauthored (with Elinor Barber) The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003), which traces the origins and uses of the word "serendipity" since it was coined. The book is "a study in sociological semantics and the sociology of science", as the subtitle of the book declares. It further develops the idea of serendipity as scientific "method" (as juxtaposed with purposeful discovery by experiment or retrospective prophecy).

The exact meaning of serendipity There are three interrelated debates regarding the meaning of the word serendipity:[citation needed] • The first debate: are the events referred to by Walpole in his letter to Mann, good examples of serendipity, as defined by Walpole? Expanding on this debate, are any of the adventures of the Three Princes, good examples of Walpole's definition of serendipity? • The second debate: if the examples of serendipity cited by Walpole are not good examples of serendipity, what should determine the meaning of the word serendipity, Walpole's precise definition, or a definition derived from the adventures of the Three Princes? SexNology Peo-

pleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer • The third debate: given the range of current definitions for the word serendipity, from Walpole's precise or strict definition to extremely loose definitions, what events should be cited as actual occurrences of serendipity? Quotations on serendipity • "In the field of observation, chance favours only the prepared mind." Louis Pasteur • "I find that a great part of the information I have was acquired by looking up something and finding something else on the way." (Franklin P. Adams, 1881-1960) • "Serendipity. Look for something, find something else, and realize that what you've found is more suited to your needs than what you thought you were looking for." Lawrence Block • "The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!', but 'That's funny …'" Isaac Asimov • "In reality, serendipity accounts for one percent of the blessings we receive in life, work and love. The other 99 percent is due to our efforts." Peter McWilliams SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer • "Serendipity is looking in a haystack for a needle and discovering a farmer's daughter." Pek van Andel • "Serendipity is putting a quarter in the gumball machine and having three pieces come rattling out instead of one—all red." Peter H. Reynolds • "--- you don't reach Serendib by plotting a course for it. You have to set out in good faith for elsewhere and lose your bearings ... serendipitously." John Barth, The Last "Serendipity is the art of making an unsought finding." Pek van Andel (PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Serendipity

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• Related terms William Boyd coined the term zemblanity to mean somewhat the opposite of serendipity: "making unhappy, unlucky and expected discoveries occurring by design".[5] It derives from Novaya Zemlya (or Nova Zembla), a cold, barren land with many features opposite to the lush Sri Lanka (Serendip). On this island Willem Barents and his crew were stranded while searching for a new route to the east. Bahramdipity is derived directly from Bahram Gur as characterized in the "Three Princes of Serendip". It describes the suppression of serendipitous discoveries or research results by powerful individuals.[6]

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Bibliography • Theodore G. Remer, Ed.: Serendipity and the Three

• • • • and Notes, by Theodore G. Remer, Preface by W.S. Lewis. University of Oklahoma Press, 1965. LCC 65-10112 • Robert K. Merton, Elinor Barber: The Travels and Adven2004. ISBN 0-691-11754-3. (Manuscript written 1958). • Patrick J. Hannan: Serendipity, Luck and Wisdom in Research. iUniverse, 2006. ISBN 0-595-36551-5 • Royston M. Roberts: Serendipity: Accidental Discoveries in Science. Wiley, 1989. ISBN 0-471-60203-5 • Pek Van Andel: "Anatomy of the unsought finding : serendipity: origin, history, domains, traditions, appearances, patterns and programmability." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 1994, 45(2), 631-648. References ^ OED, serendipity. ^ As given by W. S. Lewis, ed., Horace Walpole's Correspondence, Yale edition, in the book by Theodore G. Remer, ed.:

Princes, from the Peregrinaggio of 1557, Edited, with an Introduction

tures of Serendipity: A Study in Sociological Semantics and the Sociology of Science. Princeton University Press,

1998. ISBN 0-375-40223-3 ^ (a) Sommer, Toby J. "'Bahramdipity' and Scientific ReThe Scientist, 1999, 13(3), 13. search", (b) Sommer, Toby J. "Bahramdipity and Nulltiple Scientific Discoveries," Science and Engineering Ethicss, 2001, 7(1), 77-104. • "The view from Serendip", by Arthur C. Clarke, Random

l'observation le hasard ne favorise que les esprits préparés. ^ Boyd, William. Armadillo, Chapter 12, Knopf, New York,

Oklahoma Press, 1965. LCC 65-10112 ^ [1] ^ Original French, as at Louis Pasteur: Dans les champs de

Serendipity and the Three Princes, from the Peregrinaggio of 1557, Edited, with an Introduction and Notes, by Theodore G. Remer, Preface by W.S. Lewis. University of

House, 1977. • External links • Polymers & Serendipity: Case Studies -- rayon, nylon, and more examples in chemistry • Max - A software agent built to induce serendipity. • Social Serendipity - MIT Media Lab project using mobile phones for social matchmaking • The Three Princes of Serendip – one version of the story. • Serendip - a website continually evolving using the principles of serendipity • Serendip a Dutch/Belgium internet search competition. • Serendipity Blog - an open source blogging script • Serendipity and the Internet from Bill Thompson at the BBC • Accidental discoveries. PBS • Serendipity of Science - a BBC 4 Radio series by Simon Singh SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer Top Ten: Accidental discoveries. Discovery Channel Explore your World. SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Serendipity

The How and Why of Every Great Human Being Nollijy University Research Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development
A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women.[1][2] Women who are attracted to both women and men are more often referred to as bisexual. An individual's self-identification might not correspond with her behavior, and may be expressed with either, both, or neither of these words.

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Etymology The word lesbian dates back at least to 1732 and lesbianism appears in the 1870 Oxford English Dictionary meaning sexual orientation rather than a reference to Sappho and inhabitants of Lesbos. Lesbian as an adjective is in the 1890 Oxford English Dictionary and as a noun by 1925. Until the early twentieth century lesbian was interchangeable with Sapphist.[3] Broadened meaning Calling an historical figure a lesbian can be misleading. Women who have written about their affection for each other, along with spinsters who lived together for years, have often been viewed without much hint they had intimate relationships. With the coming of second wave feminism in the later 20th century a tendency to view all women in more or less heterosexual terms stirred a rebellion in which the definition of lesbian was challenged. Some groups widened the definition to mean any woman who didn't live a traditional heterosexual life.[4] In 1970 the Radicalesbians stated, "A lesbian is the rage of all women condensed to the point of explosion."[5] In 1980 feminist writer and poet Adrienne Rich proposed a continuum of lesbian relationships ranging from sexual to platonic. Rich wrote that instead of genital or sexual relationships between women, lesbian can mean any woman who skirts a conventional married life and resists male tyranny. Rich suggested lesbian relationships can happen between women who live or work together, even within the same family.[6] An updated take on this wider definition has to do with the girl crush as written about by Stephanie Rosenbloom in The New York Times. Rosenbloom defines a girl crush as "that fervent infatuation that one heterosexual woman develops for another woman who may seem impossibly sophisticated, gifted, beautiful or accomplished." Such girl crushes may trigger the same kind of feelings involved in a romance and although not sexual in nature, these feelings may sway relationship dynamics if the object of the crush learns about them.[7] This broadening of the meaning for lesbian as any woman who bonds with another woman became known as woman identified woman. However, this usage has been criticized as desexualizing lesbians. Cheshire Calhoun wrote in 1995 "When feminist woman loving replaces lesbian genital sexuality, lesbian sexual identity disappears into feminist identity."[8]

Sappho as depicted through a 2nd century CE Roman copy of an ancient Greek bust. The earliest known written references to same-sex love between women are attributed to Sappho (the eponym of sapphism), who lived on the island of Lesbos in ancient Greece from about 625 to 570 BCE and wrote poems which apparently expressed her sexual attraction to other females. Modern scholarship has suggested a parallel between ancient Greek pederasty and the friendships Sappho formed with her students.[9][10] Lesbian relationships were also common among the Lacedaemonians of ancient Sparta. Plutarch wrote "love was so esteemed among them that girls also became the erotic objects of noble women."[11] Accounts of lesbian relationships are found in poetry and stories from ancient China. Research by anthropologist Liza Dalby, based mostly on erotic poems exchanged between women, has suggested lesbian relationships were commonplace and socially accepted in Japan during the Heian Period. In medieval Arabia there were reports of relations between harem residents, although these were sometimes suppressed. For example Caliph Musa al-Hadi ordered the beheading of two girls who were surprised during lovemaking.[12] During the twelfth-century

Etienne de Fougères derided lesbians in his Livre des manières (about CE 1170), likening them to hens behaving as roosters and reflecting a general tendency among religious and secular authorities in Europe to reject any notion women could be properly sexual without men.[13]

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's 1893 painting In Bed Sexual activity between women is as diverse as sex between heterosexuals or gay men. Some women in same-sex relationships do not identify as lesbian, but as bisexual, queer, or another label. As with any interpersonal activity, sexual expression depends on the context of the relationship. Recent cultural changes in Western and a few other societies have enabled lesbians to express their sexuality more freely, which has resulted in new studies on the nature of female sexuality. Research undertaken by the U.S. Government's National Center for Health Research in 2002 was released in a 2005 report called Sexual Behavior and Selected Health Measures: Men and Women 15-44 Years of Age, United States, 2002. The results indicated that among women aged 15-44, 4.4 percent reported having had a sexual experience with another woman during the previous 12 months. When women aged 15–44 were asked, "Have you ever had any sexual experience of any kind with another female?", 11 percent answered "yes". There is a growing body of research and writing on lesbian sexuality, which has brought some debate about the control women have over their sexual lives, the fluidity of woman-to-woman sexuality, the redefinition of female sexual pleasure and the debunking of negative sexual stereotypes. One example of the latter is lesbian bed death, a term invented by sex researcher Pepper Schwartz to describe the supposedly inevitable diminution of sexual passion in long term lesbian relationships; this notion is rejected by many lesbians, who point out that passion tends to diminish in almost any relationship and many lesbian couples report happy and satisfying sex lives.

Same-sex married couple at San Francisco Pride 2004. In Western societies, explicit prohibitions on women's homosexual behavior have been markedly weaker than those on men's homosexual behavior. During the 1990s, dozens of chapters of Lesbian Avengers were formed to press for lesbian visibility and rights. Same-sex marriage has now been legalized in Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Canada, and South Africa but it is still not permitted by many countries. In 2004 Massachusetts became the first state in the United States to legalize same-sex marriages.[14] In the United Kingdom, lesbianism has never been illegal. In contrast, sexual activity between males was not made legal in England and Wales until 1967. Lesbianism was left out of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885; a common anecdote stating that Queen Victoria did not believe sex between women was possible is likely apocryphal.[15] A 1921 proposal, put forward by Frederick Macquisten MP to criminalize lesbianism was rejected by the House of Lords; during the debate, Lord Birkenhead, the then Lord Chancellor argued that 999 women out of a thousand had "never even heard a whisper of these practices."[16] In 1928, the lesbian novel The Well of Loneliness was banned for obscenity in a highly publicized trial, not for any explicit sexual content but because it made an argument for acceptance.[17] Meanwhile other, less political novels with lesbian themes continued to circulate freely.[18]

ewish religious teachings condemn male homosexual behavior but say little about lesbian behavior. However, the approach in the modern State of Israel, with its largely secular Jewish majority, does not outlaw or persecute gay sexual orientation; marriage between gay couples is not sanctioned but common law status and official adoption of a gay person's child by his or her partner have been approved in precedent court rulings (after numerous high court appeals). (Marriage in Israel is heavily regulated by official religious bodies; in the case of Judaism, the body in question is traditionalist.) There is also an annual Gay parade, usually held in Tel-Aviv; in 2006, the "World Pride" parade was scheduled to be held in Jerusalem. Western-style homosexuality is rarely tolerated elsewhere in the Muslim world, with the exception of Turkey where there are no laws or discriminative policies against lesbianism. It is punishable by imprisonment, lashings, or death in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Though the law against lesbianism in Iran has reportedly been revoked or eased, prohibition of male homosexuality remains. Discrimination and violence Lesbophobia is a term used to describes prejudice, discrimination, harassment or abuse, either specifically targeting a person because of her lesbian identity or targeting lesbians as a group.[19] Some lesbians prefer to use the more general term homophobia, or biphobia in the case of women who identify as bisexual. Reproduction and parenting rights Top Ten: Accidental discoveries. Dis-

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Many lesbian couples seek to have children through adoption, but this is not legal in every country. In some countries access to assisted birth technologies by lesbians has been the subject of debate. In Australia the High Court rejected a ban on access to in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments for lesbian and single women.[20][21] Immediately after this High Court decision, Prime Minister John Howard amended legislation in order to prevent access to IVF for these groups, effectively overruling the High Court decision and enforcing the Roman Catholic

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position, which raised indignation from the gay and lesbian community as well as groups representing the rights of single women. Parthenogenesis See also: Lesbian utopia Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some plant and insect species but not in mammals. However, scientists have created mice pups from two female mice. There is a possibility that with further research the same or similar procedure could allow two human females to be the genetic parents of the same child.[22] Additionally, parthenogenesis and cloning opens the prospect for any single individual, male or female to eventually be able to reproduce themselves. Lesbian feminism See also: Lesbian feminism and Feminism Many lesbians have been involved in women's rights. Late in the 19th century, the term Boston marriage was used to describe romantic unions between women living together, often while contributing to the suffrage movement. Lesbian feminism gained renewed popularity in North America and Western Europe during the "second wave" of the 1970s and early 1980s. By the end of the 1970s lesbian feminism was accepted as a field of study within academic institutions, although mostly as a branch of feminist disciplines. More recently, lesbian feminism has emerged as an expression of dissatisfaction with the 1970s era second wave feminist and gay liberation movements.[23] Lesbian feminist texts have examined the influence of institutions such as patriarchy, capitalism and colonialism on gender and sexuality with mixed success, sometimes describing lesbianism as a rational result of alienation and dissatisfaction with these institutions. In her 1980 essay Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence, Adrienne Rich characterized heterosexuality as a violent political institution making way for the "male right of physical, economical, and emotional access" to women. Other key thinkers and activists have included Rita Mae Brown, Audre Lorde, Marilyn Frye, Mary Daly and Sheila Jeffreys. Lesbian Separatism is one specific type of Lesbian feminism.

Sociology (from Latin: socius, "companion"; and the suffix ology, "the study of", from Greek ëüãïò, lógos, "knowledge" [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social interaction. Numerous fields within the discipline concentrate on how and why people are organized in society, either as individuals or as members of associations, groups, and institutions. Sociology is considered a branch of social science. Sociological research provides educators, planners, lawmakers, administrators, developers, business leaders, and people inter-

sted in resolving social problems and formulating public policy with rationales for the actions that they take. History

Main article: History of sociology

Auguste Comte Sociology, including economic, political, and cultural systems, has origins in the common stock of human knowledge and philosophy. Social analysis has been carried out by scholars and philosophers at least as early as the time of Plato. There is evidence of early Greek (e.g. Xenophanes[3], Xenophon[4] , Polybios[5]) and Muslim sociological contributions, especially by Ibn Khaldun,[6] whose Muqaddimah is viewed as the earliest work dedicated to sociology as a social science.[7][8] Several other forerunners of sociology, from Giambattista Vico up to Karl Marx, are nowadays considered classical sociologists. Sociology later emerged as a scientific discipline in the early 19th century as an academic response to the challenges of modernity and modernization, such as industrialization and urbanization. Sociologists hope not only to understand what holds social groups together, but also to develop responses to social disintegration and exploitation.SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer The term "sociologie" was first used in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1748-1836) in an unpublished manuscript.[9]. The term was independently reinvented, and introduced as a neologism, by the French thinker Auguste Comte [10] in 1838. Comte had earlier used the term 'social physics', but that term had been appropriated by others, notably Adolphe Quetelet. Comte hoped to unify all studies of humankind - including history, psychology and economics. His own sociological scheme was typical of the 19th century; he believed all human life had passed through the same distinct historical stages (theology, metaphysics, positive science) and that, if one could grasp this progress, one could prescribe the remedies for social ills. Sociology was to be the 'queen of positive sciences'.[11] Thus, Comte has come to be viewed as the "Father of Sociology".[11] "Classical" theorists of sociology from the late 19th and early

20th centuries include Ferdinand Tönnies, Émile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Vilfredo Pareto, Ludwig Gumplowicz, Georg Simmel and Max Weber. Like Comte, these figures did not consider themselves only "sociologists". Their works addressed religion, education, economics, law, psychology, ethics, philosophy and theology, and their theories have been applied in a variety of academic disciplines. Their influence on sociology was foundational. Institutionalizing sociology The discipline was taught by its own name for the first time at the University of Kansas, Lawrence in 1890 by Frank Blackmar, under the course title Elements of Sociology. It remains the oldest continuing sociology course in the United states. The Department of History and Sociology at the University of Kansas was established in 1891 [12] [13], and the first full-fledged independent university. The department of sociology was established in 1892 at the University of Chicago by Albion W. Small, who in 1895 founded the American Journal of Sociology.[14] The first European department of sociology was founded in 1895 at the University of Bordeaux by Émile Durkheim, founder of L'Année Sociologique (1896). The first sociology department to be established in the United Kingdom was at the London School of Economics and Political Science (home of the British Journal of Sociology) [15] in 1904. In 1919 a sociology department was established in Germany at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich by Max Weber, and in 1920 in Poland by Florian Znaniecki. International cooperation in sociology began in 1893 when René Worms founded the Institut International de Sociologie, which was later eclipsed by the much larger International Sociological Association (ISA), founded in 1949.[16] In 1905, the American Sociological Association, the world's largest association of professional sociologists, was founded, and in 1909 the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie (German Society for Sociology) was founded by Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber, among others.PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Serendipity


The How and Why of Every Great Human Being Nollijy University Research Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development


Positivism and anti-positivism

Articles: Positivism, Sociological positivism, and Antipositivism.

Max Weber. Early theorists' approach to sociology, led by Comte, was to treat it in much the same manner as natural science, applying the same methods and methodology used in the natural sciences to study social phenomena. The emphasis on empiricism and the scientific method sought to provide an incontestable foundation for any sociological claims or findings, and to distinguish sociology from less empirical fields such as philosophy. This methodological approach, called positivism assumes that the only authentic knowledge is SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamerscientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. One push away from positivism was philosophical and political, such as in the dialectical materialism based on Marx' theories. A second push away from scientific positivism was cultural, becoming sociological. As early as the 19th century, positivist and naturalist approaches to studying social life were questioned by scientists like Wilhelm Dilthey and Heinrich Rickert, who argued that the natural world differs from the social world because of unique aspects of human society such as meanings, symbols, rules, norms, and values. These elements of society inform human cultures. This view was further developed by Max Weber, who introduced antipositivism (humanistic sociology). According to this view, which is

closely related to antinaturalism, sociological research must concentrate on humans' cultural values (see also: French Pragmatism). Twentieth century developments In the early 20th century, sociology expanded in the United States, including developments in both macrosociology interested in evolution of societies and microsociology. Based on the pragmatic social psychology of George Herbert Mead, Herbert Blumer and others (later Chicago school) inspired sociologists developed symbolic interactionism. In Europe, in the Interwar period, sociology generally was both attacked by increasingly totalitarian governments and rejected by conservative universities. At the same time, originally in Austria and later in the U.S., Alfred Schütz developed social phenomenology (which would later inform social constructionism). Also, members of the Frankfurt school (most of whom moved to the U.S. to escape Nazi persecution) developed critical theory, integrating critical, idealistic and historical materialistic elements of the dialectical philosophies

of Hegel and Marx with the insights of Freud, Max Weber (in theory, if not always in name) and others. In the 1930s in the U.S., Talcott Parsons developed structural-functional theory which integrated the study of social order and "objective" aspects of macro and micro structural factors. SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Serendipity

The How and Why of Every Great Human Being Nollijy University Research Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Human Development Since World War II, sociology has been revived in Europe, although during the Stalin and Mao eras it was suppressed in the communist countries. In the mid-20th century, there was a general (but not universal) trend for US-American sociology to be more scientific in nature, due partly to the prominent influence at that time of structural functionalism. Sociologists developed new types of quantitative and qualitative research methods. In the second half of the 20th century, sociological research has been increasingly employed as a tool by governments and businesses. Parallel with the rise of various social movements in the 1960s, theories emphasizing social struggle, including conflict theory (which sought to counter structural functionalism) and neomarxist theories, began to receive more attention. In the late 20th century, some sociologists embraced postmodern and poststructuralist philosophies. Increasingly, many sociologists have used qualitative and ethnographic methods and become critical of the positivism in some social scientific approaches.[citation needed] Much like cultural studies, some contemporary sociological studies have been influenced by the cultural changes of the 1960s, 20th century Continental

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philosophy, literary studies, and interpretivism. Others have maintained more objective empirical perspectives, such as by articulating neofunctionalism, social psychology, and rational choice theory. Others began to debate the nature of globalization and the changing nature of social institutions. These developments have led some to reconceptualize basic sociological categories and theories. For instance, inspired by the thought of Michel Foucault, power may be studied as dispersed throughout society in a wide variety of disciplinary cultural practices. In political sociology, the power of the nation state may be seen as SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer transforming due to the globalization of trade (and cultural exchanges) and the expanding influence of international organizations (Nash 2000:1-4). However, the positivist tradition is still alive and influential in sociology. In the U.S., the most commonly cited journals, including the American Journal of Sociology and American Sociological Review, primarily publish research in the positivist tradition. There is also a minor revival for a more independent, empirical sociology in the spirit of C Wright Mills, and his studies of the Power Elite in the USA, according to Stanley Aronowitz.

Soliciting In street prostitution, the prostitute solicits customers while waiting at street corners or walking alongside a street, sometimes dressed in suggestive clothing. The act is performed in the customer's car or in a nearby alley or at the prostitute's apartment or rented room (motels that service prostitutes commonly rent rooms by the half or full hour, or in some countries safe houses, regulated by the local Government. Street prostitutes are sometimes subjected to violence by their customers. It is notable that in affluent countries (USA, Western Europe) the correlation between street

rostitution and illegal drug use is high. In contrast, prostitutes in the developing world are primarily motivated by the need for subsistence earnings for themselves or dependents. There are many instances of street prostitutes being targeted by serial killers because they routinely enter an unknown man's car, try to not bring attention to themselves or their clients, and often go missing for days and weeks before anyone notices. The most famous examples of this type of serial killings include Jack the Ripper, Gary Ridgway, The Hillside Stranglers, Arthur Shawcross, or Robert Pickton. Differences from other forms of prostitution Most "street hookers" work outside due to the fact that they control how they meet and where they service their clients, and because they are able to negotiate their own prices. They have the freedom to choose their dates, as opposed to receiving clients they have no prior knowledge of in a hotel room. The notion of all street workers having pimps is very outdated. Many sex workers work outside because they do not have to give a cut of their money to anyone, and they have the freedom to choose their own corners and hours. Brothel workers and call girls commonly also work as street sex workers if they want to make extra money that is 100% theirs, or have a drug addiction that makes working in brothels difficult. In smaller cities, transsexual and transgendered women of-

ten work as street prostitutes because they can choose not to offer complete service, thereby hiding their true sex more effectively.[citation needed] Street prostitution is easy and sometimes more profitable than other types of sex work in a society which is generally hostile to transsexuals and young sex workers. Prison education Some street prostitutes may be too uneducated to get or keep traditional employment, while others might be university graduates or students. The current trend in sentencing prostitutes in the United States is to try to educate them while they are in prison.
Street prostitution worldwide Street prostitution is common all over the world. The majority of street prostitutes are nativeborn. One New York study indicated 87% are homeless or unstably housed. Drug use is prevalent.[2] Some countries have decriminalized street prostitution; usually in restricted areas known as tolerance zones. Examples include the Netherlands, Germany,and Brazil.The UK is contemplating tolerance zones around Liverpool with a view to extending it nationwide in the future. In countries where street prostitution is regulated, the workers can access periodic medical check ups, and safe sex education and supplies. Brazil and Germany have legislated pension benefits for sex workers, including street prostitutes. However, a large percentage of prostitutes do not enlist in these state-sponsored services; presumably to maintain independence and higher income by avoiding tax and pension contributions. Street prostitution is a viable alternative for many young poor people who otherwise wouldn't be able to make a decent living, because of the lack of opportunities. High-earning potential at the beginning of a sex-work career often does not translate into financial security in middle--or old--age. Mexico City's municipal government and Mayor Andrés Manuel López Obrador, recognizing the dire situation faced by street prostitutes after a lifetime spent serving the sexual needs of their customers, announced in June 2005 the establishment of the Xochiquetzal Home for elderly prostitutes

Social network analysis is an example of a new paradigm in this tradition which can go beyond the traditional micro vs. macro or agency vs. structure debates. The influence of social network analysis is pervasive in many sociological subfields

uch as economic sociology (see the work of J. Clyde Mitchell, Harrison White, or Mark Granovetter for example), organizational behavior, historical sociology, political sociology, or the sociology of education. Throughout the development of sociology, controversies have raged about how to emphasize or integrate concerns with subjectivity, objectivity, intersubjectivity and practicality in theory and research. The extent to which sociology may be characterized as a 'science' has remained an area of considerable debate, which has addressed basic ontological and epistemological philosophical questions. One outcome of such disputes has been the ongoing formation of multidimensional theories of society, such as the continuing development of various types of critical theory. Another outcome has been the formation of public sociology, which emphasizes the usefulness of sociological analysis to various social groups.SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer Scope and topics of sociology

Selected general topics: Discrimination, Deviance and social control, Migration, Power Elite , Social action, Social change, Social class, Social justice/injustice, Social order, Social status, Social stratification, Socialization, Society, Sociological imagination, Structure and agency, Subfields of sociology

Social interactions and their pros and cons are studied in sociology. Sociologists study society and social action by examining the groups and social institutions people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. They also study the social interactions of people and groups, trace the origin and growth of social processes, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members and vice versa. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, and others interested in resolving social problems, working for social justice and formulating public policy. Sociologists research macro-structures and processes that organize or affect society, such as, but is not limited to race or ethnicity, gender, globalization, and social class stratification. They study institutions such as the family and social processes that represent deviation from, or the breakdown of, social

structures, including crime and divorce. And, they research micro-processes such as interpersonal interactions and the socialization of individuals. Sociologists are also concerned with the effect of social traits such as sex, age, or race on a person’s daily life. Most sociologists work in one or more specialties, such as, but is not limited to social stratification, social organization, and social mobility; ethnic and race relations; education; family; social psychology; urban, rural, political, and comparative sociology; sex roles and relationships; demography; gerontology; criminology; and sociological practice. In short, sociologists study the many dimensions of society. Although sociology was informed by Comte's conviction that sociology would sit at the apex of all the sciences, sociology today is identified as one of many social sciences (such as anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, etc.). At times, sociology does integrate the insights of various disciplines, as do other social sciences. Initially, the discipline was concerned particularly with the organization of complex industrial societies. In the past, anthropology had methods that would have helped to study cultural issues in a "more acute" way than sociologists.[17] Recent sociologists, taking cues from anthropologists, have noted the "Western emphasis" of the field. In response, sociology departments around the world are encouraging the study of many cultures and multi-national studies. Sociological research

The basic goal of sociological research is to understand the social world in its many forms. Quantitative methods and qualitative methods are two main types of sociological research methods. Sociologists often use quantitative methods -such as social statistics or network analysis - to investigate the structure of a social process or describe patterns in social relationships. Sociologists also often use qualitative methods such as focused interviews, group discussions and ethnographic methods - to investigate social processes. Sociologists also use applied research methods such as evaluation research and assessment. Methods of sociological inquiry

Main article: social research

Sociologists use many types of social research methods, including: • Archival research - Facts or factual evidences from a variety of records are compiled. • Content Analysis - The contents of books and mass media are analyzed to study how people communicate and the messages people talk or write about. • Historical Method - This involves a continuous and systematic search for the information and knowledge about past events related to the life of a person, a group, society, or the world. • Experimental Research - The researcher isolates a single social process or social phenomena and uses the data to either confirm or SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bodenhamer construct social theory. The experiment is the best method for testing theory due to its extremely high internal validity. Participants, or subjects, are randomly assigned to various conditions or 'treatments', and then analyses are made between groups. Randomization allows the researcher to be sure that the treatment is having the effect on group differences and not some other extraneous factor. • Survey Research - The researcher obtains data from interviews, questionnaires, or similar feedback from a set of persons chosen (including random selection) to represent a particular population of interest. Survey items may be open-ended or closed-ended. • Life History - This is the study of the personal life trajectories. Through a series of interviews, the researcher can probe into the decisive moments in their life or the various influences on their life. • Longitudinal study - This is an extensive examination of a specific group over a long period of time. • Observation - Using data from the senses, one records information about social phenomenon or behavior. Qualitative research relies heavily on observation, although it is in a highly disciplined form. • Participant Observation - As the name implies, the researcher goes to the field (usually a community), lives with the people for some time, and participates in their activities in order to know and feel their culture. SexNology PeopleNology Nollijy University Gregory Bo-

denhamer The choice of a method in part often depends on the researcher's epistemological approach to research. For example, those researchers who are concerned with statistical generalizability to a population will most likely administer structured interviews with a survey questionnaire to a carefully selected probability sample. By contrast, those sociologists, especially ethnographers, who are more interested in having a full contextual understanding of group members lives will choose participant observation, observation, and open-ended interviews. Many studies combine several of these methodologies. The relative merits of these research methodologies is a topic of much professional debate among practicing sociologists.

Combining methods


In practice, some sociologists combine different research methods and approaches, since different methods produce different types of findings that correspond to different aspects of societies. For example, the quantitative methods may help describe social patterns, while qualitative approaches could help to understand how individuals understand those patterns.
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An example of using multiple types of research methods is in the study of the Internet. The Internet is of interest for sociologists in various ways: as a tool for research, for example, in using online questionnaires instead of paper ones, as a discussion platform, and as a research topic. Sociology of the Internet in the last sense includes analysis of online communities (e.g. as found in newsgroups), virtual com-

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