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United States presidential election, 2008

United States presidential election, 2008
‹ 2004 2012 › electoral votes allotted to the winner of each state. Obama won one electoral vote (from Nebraska’s 2nd congressional district) of Nebraska’s five. Incumbent President George W. Bush Republican President-elect Barack Obama Democratic

United States presidential election, 2008 November 4, 2008

The United States presidential election of 2008 was held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. It was the 56th quadrennial United States presidential election. Outgoing Republican President George W. Bush’s policies and actions and the American public’s desire for change were key issues throughout the campaign, and during the general election campaign, both major party candidates ran on a platform of change and reform in WashJohn McCain Nominee Barack ington. Domestic policy and the economy Obama eventually emerged as the main themes in Democratic Republican Party the last few months of the election campaign, particularly after the onset of the 2008 ecoIllinois Arizona Home state nomic crisis. Sarah Palin Running mate Joe Biden Democrat Barack Obama, then-junior Un173 Electoral vote 365 ited States Senator from Illinois, defeated Republican John McCain, the senior United 22 States carried 28 + DC + States Senator from Arizona. Nine states NE-02 changed allegiance from the 2004 election. 69,498,215 59,948,240 Popular vote Each had voted for the Republican nominee in 2004 and contributed to Obama’s sizable 52.9% 45.7% Percentage Electoral College victory. The selected electors from each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia voted for President and Vice President of the United States on December 15, 2008. Those votes were tallied before a joint session of Congress on January 8, 2009. Obama received 365 electoral votes, and McCain 173. There were several unique aspects of the 2008 election. The election was the first in which an African American was elected President,[1] and the first time a Roman Catholic was elected Vice President.[2] It was also the first time two sitting senators ran against Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states/ each districts won by Obama/Biden, and Red denotes those won other. It was the first election in 56 by McCain/Palin. Numbers indicate the number of years in which neither an incumbent

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president (Bush was barred from seeking a third term by the Twenty-second Amendment) nor a vice president (Dick Cheney did not seek the presidency) ran. It was also the first time the Republican Party nominated a woman for Vice President and only the second time a woman was nominated for Vice President on a major party ticket. Also, voter turnout for the 2008 election was the highest in at least 40 years.

United States presidential election, 2008
primaries and caucuses, held by the 50 states, Guam, Puerto Rico, and Washington D.C.. The winner of each of these primary elections receives a number of delegates proportional to the percent of the popular vote that candidate received in each states. Whichever candidate has the majority of the available delegates at the end of the primary elections is designated the presumptive nominee until he or she is formally nominated and endorsed for the presidency by his or her political party. This is done by the aforementioned delegates for each party.

Background
In 2004, President George W. Bush narrowly[3][4][5][6] won reelection, defeating the Democratic nominee, Senator John Kerry. After Republican pickups in the House and Senate in the 2004 elections, Republicans maintained control of both the executive and legislative branches of the federal government. Bush’s approval ratings had been slowly declining from their high point of almost 90% after 9/11,[7] and they were barely 50% after his reelection. Although Bush was reelected with a larger Electoral College margin than in 2000 and an absolute majority (50.7%) of the popular vote, during his second term, Bush’s approval rating dropped more quickly, with the Iraq War and the federal response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 being most detrimental to the public’s perception of his job performance.[8] By September 2006, Bush’s approval rating was below 40%,[9] and the Democratic party appeared to have a clear advantage in the upcoming Congressional elections. Additionally, Democrats pulled out several surprise victories in Congress and gained the majority in both houses. Bush’s approval ratings continued to drop steadily throughout the rest of his term.

Democratic Party nomination
Candidates
• Barack Obama, U.S. Senator from Illinois • Hillary Clinton, U.S. Senator from New York • John Edwards, former U.S. Senator from North Carolina • Bill Richardson, Governor of New Mexico • Dennis Kucinich, U.S. Representative from Ohio • Joe Biden, U.S. Senator from Delaware • Mike Gravel, former U.S. Senator from Alaska • Christopher Dodd, U.S. Senator from Connecticut • Tom Vilsack, former Governor of Iowa

Candidates gallery

Nominations
In the United States, there are two major political parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. There are also several minor parties, usually called third parties, who have not won a presidential election since 1864.[10] Most media and public focus is on the two major parties. Each party hosts a number of candidates who go through a nomination process to determine the presidential nominee for that party. The nomination process consists of

Senator Barack Obama of Illinois (campaign)

Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton of New York (campaign)

Former Senator John Edwards of North Carolina (campaign)

Governor Bill Richardson of New Mexico (campaign)

Rep Den cini (cam

Former Senator Senator Joe Biden Mike

Former Governor

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of Gravel of Senator Delaware Alaska Christopher (campaign) (campaign) Dodd of Connecticut (campaign)

United States presidential election, 2008

Tom Vil-and Stevie Wonder, among others, made apsack of pearances to show support for Barack Obama in a rally led by Michelle Obama.[16] Obama Iowa trailed in the California polling by an average (campaign) of 6.0%; he ended up losing the state by 8.3%.[17] Some analysts cited a large Latino Before the primaries turnout that voted for Clinton as the deciding factor.[18] Governor Arnold Schwarzeneg"Front-runner" status is dependent on the ger’s wife, Maria Shriver, endorsed news agency reporting, and by October 2007, Obama.[19] the consensus listed about three candidates as leading the pack after several debate performances. For example, CNN listed Hillary Clinton, John Edwards, and Barack Obama as the Democratic front runners. The Washington Post listed Clinton, Edwards and Obama as the front-runners, "leading in polls and fundraising and well ahead of the other major candidates".[11] Clinton led in nearly all nationwide opinion polling until January. Two candidates, Clinton and Obama, raised over $20 million in the first three months of 2007. Edwards raised over $12 million and Richardson raised over $6 million.[12] Hillary Clinton set the Democratic Barack Obama campaigns in Akron, Ohio on record for largest single day fund raising in a February 23, 2008 [13] while Barack primary on June 30, 2007 Obama set the record for monthly fundraisSuper Tuesday occurred on February 5, ing during a primary with $55 million in 2008, during which the largest-ever number February 2008.[14] of simultaneous state primary elections was held.[20] Super Tuesday ended leaving the Early primaries/caucuses Democrats in a virtual tie, with Obama At the start of the year, support for Barack amounting 847 delegates to Clinton’s 834 Obama began rising in the polls, passing from the 23 states that held Democratic Clinton for first place in Iowa; Obama ended primaries.[21] up winning the Iowa caucus, with John EdLouisiana, Washington, Nebraska, Hawaii, wards coming in second and Clinton a close Wisconsin, U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of third. Iowa is viewed as the state that jumpColumbia, Maryland, and Virginia primaries started Obama’s campaign and set him on and the Maine caucus all took place after Sutrack to win the nomination and the per Tuesday in February. Obama won all of presidency. them, giving him ten consecutive victories Obama was the new front-runner in New after Super Tuesday. [22][23] Hampshire, and the Clinton campaign was struggling after a bad loss in Iowa and no real strategy in place for after the early primaries and caucuses. However, in a turning point for her campaign, Clinton’s voice wavered with emotion in a public interview broadcast live on TV.[15] By the end of that day, Clinton won the primary by 2% of the vote, contrary to the predictions of pollsters who had her as much as twelve points behind on the day of the primary itself.

Ohio and Texas
On March 4, Hillary Clinton carried Ohio and Rhode Island in the Democratic primaries; some considered these wins, especially Ohio, a surprise upset,[24] although she led in the polling averages in both states.[17][25] She also carried the primary in Texas, but Obama won the Texas caucuses held the same day and netted more delegates from the state than Clinton.[26] Only one state held a primary in April. This was Pennsylvania, on April 22. Hillary

Super Tuesday
On February 3 on the UCLA campus, celebrities Oprah Winfrey, Caroline Kennedy

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Clinton won the primary by 9.2%, with approximately 54.6% of the vote.

United States presidential election, 2008
that the fight over the delegates could last until the convention in August. On May 31, 2008, the Rules and Bylaws Committee of the Democratic Party reached a compromise on the Florida and Michigan delegate situation. The committee decided to seat delegates from Michigan and Florida at the convention in August, but to only award each a halfvote.[33]

Indiana and North Carolina
On May 6, North Carolina and Indiana held their Democratic presidential primaries. Clinton and Obama campaigned aggressively in both states before the voting took place; both candidates acknowledged the importance of these primaries and said they were turning point states.[27] Polling had shown Obama a few points ahead in North Carolina and Clinton similarly leading in Indiana.[28][29] However, in the actual results, Obama outperformed the polls by several points in both states, winning by a significant margin in North Carolina and losing by only 1.4% in Indiana. After these primaries, it became very improbable, if not virtually impossible, for Clinton to win the nomination; Indiana had barely kept her campaign alive for the next month.[30] Although she did manage to win the majority of the remaining primaries and delegates, it was not enough to overcome Obama’s substantial delegate lead.

Clinching the nomination
Technically the nomination process for major political parties continues through June of election year. In previous cycles the candidates were effectively chosen by the end of the March primaries. However, Barack Obama did not win enough delegates to secure the nomination until June 3, after a 17-monthlong campaign against Hillary Clinton. Obama had a wide lead in the number of states won, while Clinton had won majorities in several of the larger states. Because Democratic state delegate contests were decided by a form of proportional representation and popular vote numbers were close between Clinton and Obama, the contest for the nomination continued into June 2008.[34] By May, Clinton claimed a lead in the popular vote, but the Associated Press found her numbers accurate only in one close scenario.[35] In June, after the last of the primaries had taken place, Obama secured the Democratic nomination for President, with the help of multiple super delegate endorsements. (Most of the super delegates had refused to cast their votes until the primaries were completed.)[36] He was the first African American to win the nomination of a major political party in the United States.[37] For several days, Clinton refused to concede the race, although she signaled her presidential campaign was ending in a post-primary speech on June 3 in her home state of New York.[38] She finally conceded the nomination to Obama on June 7. She pledged her full support to the presumptive nominee and vowed to do everything she could to help him get elected.[39]

Florida and Michigan
During late 2007, both parties adopted rules against states’ moving their primaries to an earlier date in the year. For the Republicans, the penalty for this violation was supposed to be the loss of half the state party’s delegates to the convention; however, the Democratic penalty was the complete exclusion from the national convention of delegates from states that broke these rules. The Democratic Party allowed only four states to hold elections before February 5, 2008. Initially, the Democratic leadership said it would strip all delegates from Florida and Michigan, which had moved their primaries into January. In addition, all major Democratic candidates agreed officially not to campaign in Florida or Michigan, and Edwards and Obama removed their names from the Michigan ballot. Clinton won a majority of delegates from both states (though 40% voted uncommitted in Michigan) and subsequently led a fight to seat all the Florida and Michigan delegates.[31] Political columnist Christopher Weber noted that while her action was self-serving, it was also pragmatic to forestall Florida or Michigan voters becoming so disaffected they did not vote for Democrats in the general election.[32] There was some speculation

Republican Party nomination
Not only was 2008 the first election since 1952 that neither the incumbent president nor the incumbent vice president was a candidate in the general election, but it was also

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the first time since the 1928 election that neither sought his party’s nomination for president. Since term limits absolutely prevented Bush from seeking the nomination and being a candidate, the unique aspect was vice-president Cheney’s decision not to seek the Republican nomination.[40][41] This left the Republican field just as open to a wide field of new candidates as the Democratic field was. • John McCain, U.S. Senator from Arizona • Mike Huckabee, former Governor of Arkansas • Mitt Romney, former Governor of Massachusetts • Ron Paul, U.S. Representative from Texas • Fred Thompson, former U.S. Senator from Tennessee • Duncan Hunter, U.S. Representative from California • Rudy Giuliani, former Mayor of New York City • Alan Keyes, former U.S. Ambassador from Maryland • Sam Brownback, U.S. Senator from Kansas • Jim Gilmore, former Governor of Virginia • Tom Tancredo, former U.S. Representative from Colorado • Tommy Thompson, former Governor of Wisconsin

United States presidential election, 2008
Representative Duncan Hunter of California (campaign) Rudy GiKeyes of Maryland uliani of New York (campaign) (campaign)

Senator Sam Brownback Kansas

Former Secretary of Health and HuRepresentative man SerTom Tanvices credo of ColTommy orado Thompson (campaign) of Wisconsin (campaign)

Before the primaries
In the third quarter of 2007, the top four GOP (Republican) fund raisers were Romney, Giuliani, Thompson, and Ron Paul.[42] Paul set the GOP record for the largest online single day fund raising on November 5, 2007.[43] MSNBC’s Chuck Todd christened Giuliani and John McCain the front runners after the second Republican presidential debate in early 2007.[44]

Candidates gallery

Early primaries/caucuses
Huckabee, after winning in Iowa, had little money and hoped for a third-place finish in New Hampshire. John McCain eventually displaced Rudy Giuliani and Romney as the front-runner Former in New Hampshire. McCain Former Senator staged a turnaround victory, having been Governor Former Representative Fred written off by the pundits and polling in Mike Governor Mitt Ron Paul of single digits Thompson a month before the less than Huckabee Romney of Texas [45] of Tennessrace. of ArkanMassachusetts (campaign) With the ee Republicans stripping Michigan sas (campaign) (campaign) and Florida of half their delegates, the race (campaign) for the nomination was based there. McCain meanwhile managed a small victory in South Carolina, setting him up for a larger and more important victory in Florida soon afterward. Former Mayor Former Super Tuesday Former Ambassador Alan Governor In February, before Super Tuesday, the CaliJim fornia primary took place after John McCain Gilmore of

Senator John McCain of Arizona (campaign)

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was endorsed by Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger and Rudy Giuliani (who had dropped out of the race following the Florida primary). This gave him a significant boost in the state.[46] A few days later, Mitt Romney suspended his presidential campaign and endorsed McCain, leaving Mike Huckabee and Ron Paul as the only major challengers of McCain in the remaining Republican primaries.[47] Louisiana, Washington, Kansas, Wisconsin, and Washington held primaries in February after Super Tuesday. Despite McCain picking up big victories, Huckabee won Louisiana and Kansas while McCain only barely carried the Washington caucuses over Huckabee and Paul who both amassed a large showing.[23] The Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico closed February for the Republicans. After Super Tuesday, John McCain had become the clear front runner, but by the end of February he still had not acquired enough delegates to secure the nomination. In March, John McCain clinched the Republican nomination after sweeping all four primaries, Texas, Ohio, Vermont, and Rhode Island, putting him over the top of the 1,191 delegates required to win the GOP nomination.[25] Mike Huckabee then conceded the race to McCain, leaving Ron Paul, who had just 16 delegates, as his only remaining active opponent.[48]

United States presidential election, 2008

General election campaign
Campaign issues
Iraq
The unpopular war in Iraq was a key issue during the campaign before the economic crisis. John McCain supported the war while Barack Obama opposed it from the outset because there was no credible evidence that Iraq was tied to Al-Qaeda or the September 11, 2001 attacks it was responsible for.[49] The Bush Administration based its case to invade Iraq on the premise of ties between Al Qaeda and Iraq, claiming it was necessary to launch an immediate military strike for fear of Iraq possibly handing weapons of mass destruction off to Al Qaeda.[50][51] Though McCain meant it as a peacetime presence like the United States maintained in Germany and Japan after World War II,[52] his statement that the United States could be in Iraq for as much as the next 50 to 100 years would prove costly as Obama used the statement against him as part of his strategy to tie him to the unpopular President Bush. John McCain’s support for the troop ’surge’ employed by General David Petraeus, which was one of several factors credited with improving the security situation in Iraq, may have boosted McCain’s stance on the issue in voters’ minds. McCain (who supported the invasion) argued that his support for the successful surge showed his superior judgment, whereas Obama (who opposed the surge) argued that his opposition to the invasion that preceded the surge showed his. However, Obama was quick to remind voters that there would have been no need for a "surge" had there been no war at all, which he then used to question McCain’s judgment as well.

Other nominations Party conventions
• April 23–26, 2008: 2008 Constitution Party National Convention held in Kansas City, Missouri. • May 23–26, 2008: 2008 Libertarian National Convention, held in Denver, Colorado. • July 10–13, 2008: 2008 Green Party National Convention, held in Chicago, Illinois. • July 18–20, 2008: 2008 Reform Party National Convention, held in Dallas, Texas. • August 25–28, 2008: 2008 Democratic National Convention, held in Denver, Colorado. • September 1–4, 2008: 2008 Republican National Convention, held in Saint Paul, Minnesota.

Bush’s unpopularity
Entering 2008, George W. Bush was very unpopular, with polls consistently showing his percent support from the American public in the twenties and thirties.[53][54] In March 2008, McCain was endorsed by Bush at the White House,[55] but Bush did not make a single appearance on McCain’s behalf during the campaign. Although he supported the war in Iraq, McCain made an effort to show

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that he had disagreed with Bush on many other key issues such as climate change. During the entire general election campaign, Obama pointed out in ads and at numerous campaign rallies that McCain had claimed in an interview that he voted with Bush 90% of the time, and this was supported by the congressional voting records for the years Bush was in office.[56]

United States presidential election, 2008
John McCain quickly adopted similar campaign themes against Obama at the start of the general election campaign. Polls regularly found the general electorate as a whole divided more evenly between ’change’ and ’experience’ as candidate qualities than the Democratic primary electorate, which split in favor of ’change’ by a nearly 2-1 margin.[62] Advantages for McCain and Obama on experience and the ability to bring change, respectively, remained steady through the November 4 election, although final pre-election polling found that voters considered Obama’s inexperience less of an impediment than McCain’s association with sitting President George W. Bush,[63] an association which was rhetorically framed by the Obama campaign throughout the election season as "more of the same". McCain appeared to undercut his line of attack by picking first-term Alaska governor Sarah Palin to be his running mate.[64] Palin had been governor only since 2006, and prior to that had been a council member and mayor of Wasilla. Nonetheless, she excited much of the conservative base of the GOP with her speech at the 2008 Republican National Convention, a group that was initially lukewarm toward McCain’s candidacy.[65] However, media interviews suggested that Palin lacked knowledge on certain key issues, and they cast doubt among many voters about her qualifications to be Vice President or President.[66] In addition, because of Palin’s conservative views, there was also concern that, while she would bring conservatives to McCain, she would also alienate independents and moderates, two groups that pundits observed McCain would need to win the election.[67]

Change vs. experience

Barack Obama and John McCain. Before even the first Democratic primaries, the dichotomy of change versus experience had already become a common theme in the presidential campaign, with Senator Hillary Clinton positioning herself as the candidate with experience and Obama embracing the characterization as the candidate most able to bring change to Washington. Before the official launch of her campaign, aides for Clinton were already planning to position her as the ’change’ candidate, as strategist Mark Penn made clear in an October 2006 memo titled "The Plan."[57] In his presidential run announcement, Obama framed his candidacy by emphasizing that "Washington must change."[58] In response to this, Clinton adopted her experience as a major campaign theme. By early and mid-2007, polls regularly found voters identifying Clinton as the more experienced candidate and Obama as the "fresh" or "new" candidate.[59][60] Exit polls on Super Tuesday found that while Obama won voters who thought that the ability to bring change was the most important quality in a candidate, who made up a majority of the Democratic electorate, by a margin of about 2-1, Clinton was able to make up for this deficiency by an almost total domination among voters who thought experience was the most important quality.[61] These margins generally remained the same until Obama clinched the Democratic nomination on June 3.

The economy
Polls taken in the last few months of the presidential campaign as well as exit polls conducted on election day showed the economy as the top concern for voters.[68][69] In the fall of 2008, many news sources were reporting that the economy was suffering its most serious downturn since the Great Depression.[70] During this period John McCain’s election prospects fell with several politically costly comments about the economy. On August 20, John McCain said in an interview with Politico that he was uncertain how many houses he and his wife, Cindy, owned; "I think — I’ll have my staff get to

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you."[71] Both on the stump and in Obama’s political ad, "Seven", the gaffe was used to portray McCain as unable to relate to the concerns of ordinary Americans. This out-oftouch image was further cultivated when, on September 15, at a morning rally in Jacksonville, Florida, McCain declared that "the fundamentals of our economy are strong," despite what he described as "tremendous turmoil in our financial markets and Wall Street."[72] With the perception among voters to the contrary, the comment appeared to cost McCain politically. On September 24, 2008, after the onset of the 2008 financial crisis, McCain announced that he was suspending his campaign to return to Washington to help craft a $700 billion bailout package for the troubled financial industry, and he stated that he would not debate Obama until Congress passed the bailout bill.[73] Despite this decision, McCain was portrayed as not playing a significant role in the negotiations for the first version of the bill, which fell short of passage in the House. He eventually decided to attend the first presidential debate on September 26, despite the bill going nowhere in Congress. His ineffectiveness in the negotiations and his reversal in decision to attend the debates was seized upon to portray McCain as erratic in his response to the economy. Days later, a second version of the original bailout bill was passed by both the House and Senate, with Obama, his vice presidential running mate Joe Biden, and McCain all voting for the measure. All of the aforementioned remarks and campaign issues hurt McCain’s standing with voters. All these also occurred after the economic crisis and after McCain’s poll numbers had started to fall. Although soundbites of all of these "missteps" were played repeatedly on national television, most pundits and analysts agree that it was the actual financial crisis and economic conditions that caused McCain’s large drop in support in midSeptember and severely damaged his campaign.[74][75]

United States presidential election, 2008
Mississippi. The central issues debated were supposed to be foreign policy and national security. However, due to the economic climate, some questions appeared on this topic. The debate was formatted into nine nine-minute segments, and the moderator (Jim Lehrer) introduced the topics.[77] • October 2: The vice-presidential debate was hosted at Washington University in St. Louis, and was moderated by Gwen Ifill of PBS. • October 7: The second presidential debate took place at Belmont University. It was a town meeting format debate moderated by NBC News anchor Tom Brokaw, and addressed issues raised by members of the audience, particularly the economy. • October 15: The third and final presidential debate was hosted at Hofstra University. It focused on domestic and economic policy. Like the first presidential debate, it was formatted into a number of segments, with moderator Bob Schieffer introducing the topics. Another debate was sponsored by the Columbia University political union and took place there on October 19. All candidates who could theoretically win the 270 electoral votes needed to win the election were invited, and Ralph Nader, Cynthia McKinney, and Chuck Baldwin agreed to attend. Amy Goodman, principal host of Democracy Now!, moderated. It was broadcast on cable by CSPAN and on the Internet by Break-the-Matrix.[78][79]

Campaign costs
The reported cost of campaigning for President has increased significantly in recent years. One source reported that if the costs for both Democratic and Republican campaigns are added together (for the Presidential primary election, general election, and the political conventions) the costs have more than doubled in only eight years ($448.9 million in 1996, $649.5 million in 2000, and $1.01 billion in 2004).[80] In January 2007, Federal Election Commission Chairman Michael E. Toner estimated the 2008 race will be a $1 billion election, and that to be taken seriously, a candidate needed to raise at least $100 million by the end of 2007.[81]

Presidential and vice-presidential debates
Four debates were announced by the Commission on Presidential Debates:[76] • September 26: The first presidential debate took place at the University of

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Candidate (Party) Barack Obama (D) John McCain (R) Ralph Nader (I) Bob Barr (L) Chuck Baldwin (C) Cynthia McKinney (G) Amount raised $532,946,511 $379,006,485 $4,496,180 $1,383,681 $261,673 $240,130 Amount spent

United States presidential election, 2008
Votes Average spent per vote

$513,557,218 $346,666,422 $4,187,628 $1,345,202 $234,309 $238,968

69,498,215 $7.39 59,948,240 $5.78 738,720 523,713 199,437 161,680 $5.67 $2.57 $1.17 $1.48

Excludes spending by independent expenditure concerns. Source: Federal Election Commission[95] Although he had said he would not be running for president, published reports indicated that billionaire and New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg had been considering a presidential bid as an independent with up to $1 billion of his own fortune to finance it.[82] Bloomberg ultimately ended this speculation by unequivocally stating that he would not run.[83] Had Bloomberg decided to run, he would not have needed to campaign in the primary elections or participate in the conventions, reducing both the necessary length and cost of his campaign. With the increase in money, the public financing system funded by the presidential election campaign fund checkoff has not been used by many candidates. John McCain,[84] Tom Tancredo,[85] John Edwards,[86] Chris Dodd,[87] and Joe Biden[88] qualified for and elected to take public funds in the primary. Other major candidates eschewed the low amount of spending permitted, or gave other reasons as in the case of Barack Obama, and chose not to participate. support from a record-breaking number of individual small donors.[91] On December 16, 2007, Ron Paul collected $6 million, more money on a single day through Internet donations than any presidential candidate in US history.[92] Anonymous and semi-anonymous smear campaigns traditionally done with fliers and push calling also spread to the Internet.[93] Organizations specializing in the production and distribution of viral material, such as Brave New Films, emerged; such organizations have been said to be having a growing influence on American politics.[94]

Campaign expense summary
According to required campaign filings as reported by the Federal Election Commission (FEC), a total of 148 candidates for all parties raised a collective total of $1,644,712,232 and spent $1,601,104,696 for the primary and general campaigns combined through November 24, 2008. The amounts raised and spent by the major candidates, according to the same source, were as follows:

Internet campaigns
Howard Dean collected large contributions via the internet in his 2004 primary run. In 2008 candidates went even further to reach out to Internet users through their own sites and such sites as YouTube, MySpace and Facebook.[89][90] Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama created a broad grassroots movement and a new method of campaigning by courting and mobilizing activists, donations and voters through the Internet. It was part of a campaign that mobilized grassroots workers in every state. Obama also set fundraising records in more than one month by gaining

Election controversies
A number of pre-election controversies in the election revolved around challenges to voter registration lists, involving techniques such as caging lists alleged to constitute voter suppression. Allegations of voter list purges using unlawful criteria caused controversy in at least six swing states: Colorado, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Nevada and North Carolina.[96] On October 5, 2008 the Republican Lt. Governor of Montana, John Bohlinger, accused the Montana Republican Party of vote caging to

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purge 6,000 voters from three counties which trend Democratic.[97] Allegations arose in Michigan that the Republican Party planned to challenge the eligibility of voters based on lists of foreclosed homes.[98] The campaign of Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama filed a lawsuit challenging this. The House Judiciary Committee wrote to the Department of Justice requesting an investigation.[99] Virginia election authorities were ordered by a federal judge to preserve late-arriving absentee ballots sent by active-duty military personnel following a suit by the McCain campaign. It alleged that the state sent absentee ballots late to servicemen.[100] According to federal law, absentee ballots must be mailed to troops in foreign countries at least 45 days prior to an election. The charge against Virginia was that the ballots were not printed until after the deadline and therefore were mailed late to soldiers abroad.[101] Libertarian candidate Bob Barr filed a lawsuit in Texas to have Obama and McCain removed from the ballot in that state.[102] His campaign alleged that both the candidates had missed the August 26 deadline to file, and were present on the ballot contrary to Texas election law. Neither candidates at the time of the deadline had been confirmed as the candidate for their respective parties. The Texas Supreme Court dismissed the lawsuit without explanation.[103] Significant criticism was leveled at media outlets’ coverage of the presidential election season. At the February debate, Tim Russert of NBC News was criticized for what some perceived as disproportionately tough questioning of Democratic presidential contender Hillary Clinton.[104] Among the questions, Russert had asked Clinton, but not Obama, to provide the name of the new Russian President (Dmitry Medvedev).[104] This was later parodied on Saturday Night Live. In October 2007, liberal commentators accused Russert of harassing Clinton over the issue of supporting drivers’ licenses for illegal immigrants.[105] On April 16 ABC News hosted a debate in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Moderators Charles Gibson and George Stephanopoulos were criticized by viewers, bloggers and media critics for the poor quality of their questions.[104][105] Many viewers said they considered some of the questions irrelevant when measured against the importance of

United States presidential election, 2008
the faltering economy or the Iraq war. Included in that category were continued questions about Obama’s former pastor, Senator Hillary Clinton’s assertion that she had to duck sniper fire in Bosnia more than a decade ago, and Senator Obama’s not wearing an American flag pin.[104] The moderators focused on campaign gaffes and some believed they focused too much on Obama.[105] Stephanopoulos defended their performance, saying "Senator Obama was the front-runner" and the questions were "not inappropriate or irrelevant at all."[104][105] In an op-ed published on 2008 April 27 in The New York Times, Elizabeth Edwards bemoaned that the media covered much more of "the rancor of the campaign" and "amount of money spent" than "the candidates’ priorities, policies and principles."[106] Author Erica Jong commented that "our press has become a sea of triviality, meanness and irrelevant chatter."[107] The Project for Excellence in Journalism and Harvard University’s Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy conducted a study of 5,374 media narratives and assertions about the presidential candidates from 2008 January 1 through 2008 March 9. The study found that Obama and Clinton received 69 percent and 67 percent favorable coverage, respectively, compared to only 43 percent favorable media coverage of McCain [108] although another study by the Center for Media and Public Affairs at George Mason University found the media coverage of Obama to be 72% negative from June 8 to July 21 compared to 57% negative for McCain.[109] An October 29 study found 29 percent of stories about Obama to be negative, compared to 57 percent of stories about McCain being negative. [110] A 2008 October 22 Pew Research Center poll estimated 70 percent of registered voters believed journalists wanted Barack Obama to win the election, as opposed to 9 percent for John McCain.[111] Despite controversy during the campaign, a post-election Pew research survey found that 67% of voters thought that the press fairly covered Obama, versus 30% who viewed the coverage as unfair. Regarding McCain, 53% of voters viewed his press coverage as fair versus 44% who characterized it as unfair. Among affiliated Democrats, 83% believed the press fairly covered Obama; just 22% of Republicans thought the press was

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fair to McCain. In a post-election survey in 2004, after Republican George W. Bush won the presidency, 40% of Republicans thought the press was fair to Bush, and 67% of Democrats believed it was fair to Democratic challenger John Kerry. [112]

United States presidential election, 2008
state of Texas. Obama won the hotly contested states of Iowa and New Mexico, which Al Gore had won in 2000 and George W. Bush in 2004. CNN and Fox News called Virginia for Obama shortly before 11pm, leaving him only 50 electoral votes shy of victory with only six West Coast states (California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Alaska, and Hawaii) still voting. All American networks called the election in favor of Obama at 11:00 PM Eastern Standard Time as the polls closed on the West Coast. Obama was immediately declared the winner in California, Oregon, Washington, and Hawaii, McCain won Idaho, and the Electoral College totals were updated to 297 for Obama and 146 for McCain (270 are needed to win). McCain gave a concession speech about half an hour later. President-elect Obama appeared at midnight Eastern time, November 5, in Grant Park, Chicago, Illinois, in front of a crowd of 250,000 people to deliver his victory speech.[115]

Election results

Final poll closing times on Election Day. 7PM EST [00:00 UTC] (6) 7:30PM EST [00:30 UTC] (3) 8PM EST [01:00 UTC] (15+DC) 8:30PM EST [01:30 UTC] (1) 9PM EST [02:00 UTC] (15) 10PM EST [03:00 UTC] (4) 11PM EST [04:00 UTC] (5) 1AM EST [06:00 UTC] (1)

Election Day
November 4, 2008 was Election Day in 50 states and the District of Columbia; it was the last of 21 consecutive election days in Oregon, which abolished the voting booth in 1998. The majority of states allowed early voting, with all states allowing some form of absentee voting.[113] Voters cast votes for listed presidential candidates but were actually selecting their state’s slate of Electoral College electors. A McCain victory quickly became improbable as Obama amassed early wins in Illinois, the Northeast and the critical swing states of Ohio and Pennsylvania by 9:20 PM.[114] Obama won the entire Northeast by comfortable margins and the Great Lakes states of Michigan and Wisconsin and neighboring Minnesota by double digits. After Ohio was called for Obama, the chances of a McCain victory became slim, but he managed to hold on to traditionally Republican states like North Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, and South Dakota and swept all the traditionally Republican Deep South states, including Georgia, which had been seriously contested by the Democrats for the first time since 1996. McCain also won George W. Bush’s home

Cartogram of the Electoral Votes for 2008 United States presidential election, each square representing one electoral vote. The map shows the impact of winning swing states. Nebraska, being one of two states that are not winner-take-all, for the first time had its votes split, with its second district projected for Obama and the rest of the state for McCain. Following Obama’s speech, spontaneous street parties broke out in cities across the United States including New York City, Miami, Chicago, Columbus, Detroit, Boston, Seattle, Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Denver, Atlanta, Madison, and Philadelphia[116] and around the world in London; Bonn; Berlin; Obama, Japan; Toronto; Rio de Janeiro; Sydney; and Nairobi.[117]

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Presidential Party candidate Home state

United States presidential election, 2008
Electoral Running Running vote mate mate’s home state Joe Biden Sarah Palin

Popular vote Count Pct

Running mate’s electoral vote

Barack Obama John McCain Ralph Nader Bob Barr

Democratic Republican

Illinois Arizona

69,456,897 59,934,814

52.92% 365 45.66% 173 0.56% 0.40% 0 0

Delaware 365 Alaska 173

Independent Connecticut 738,475 Libertarian Georgia 523,686

California 0 Matt Gonzalez Wayne Allyn Root Darrell Castle Nevada 0

Chuck Baldwin Cynthia McKinney Other Total

Constitution Florida Green California

199,314 161,603 239,269

0.15% 0.12% 0.18%

0 0 – 538 270

Tennessee 0 0 – 538 270

North Rosa Clemente Carolina Other

131,257,328 100%

Needed to win Later on election night, after Obama was named the President-elect, he picked up several more wins in swing states in which the polls had shown a close race. These included Florida, Indiana, Virginia, and the western states of Colorado and Nevada. All of these states had been carried by Bush in 2004. However, North Carolina and the bellwether state of Missouri remained undecided for several days. Eventually Obama was declared the winner in North Carolina and McCain in Missouri, with Obama pulling out a rare win in Nebraska’s 2nd congressional district. This put the total projected electoral vote count at 365 for Obama and 173 for McCain. Obama won 12 of the 15 most populous states, losing among these only in Texas, Georgia, and McCain’s home state of Arizona. His victories in the populous swing states of Florida, Ohio, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Virginia contributed to his decisive win. The presidential electors cast their ballots for president and vice president, and these votes were tallied by Congress on January 8, 2009.

Turnout
The voter turnout for this election was broadly predicted to be very high by American standards,[119] and a record number of votes were cast. The final tally of total votes counted was 131.2 million, compared to 122.3 million in 2004 (which also boasted the highest record since 1968, after which the voting age was lowered to 18). Expressed as a percentage of eligible voters, 131.2 million votes could reflect a turnout as high as 63.0% of eligible voters, which would be the highest since 1960.[120][121] This 63.0% turnout rate is based on an estimated eligible voter population of 208,323,000. Another estimate puts the eligible voter population at 212,720,027, resulting in a turnout rate of 61.7%, which would be the highest turnout rate since 1968.[122] American University’s Center for the Study of the American Electorate released a report on November 6, 2008, two days after the election, which concluded that the anticipated increase in turnout had failed to materialize.[120] That report was the basis for a number of news articles indicating that voter turnout failed to meet expectations.[123][124] However, the actual turnout of 131.2 million voters in the presidential election surpassed the American University report’s preliminary estimate of 126.5 to 128.5 million voters by a

Grand total
Popular vote totals are from the official Federal Election Commission report. The electoral vote totals were certified by Congress on January 8, 2009.[118]

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States/districts won by Obama/Biden States/districts won by McCain/Palin factor of between 2% and 4%. Expressed as a percentage of the increase in voter turnout, the American University report underestimated the increase by 33-56%. African American turnout increased from 11.1% of the electorate in 2004 to 13.0% in 2008.[125] According to exit polls, over 95% of African Americans voted for Barack Obama. This played a critical role in southern states such as North Carolina. 95% of North Carolina’s registered African American voters turned out, as opposed to 69% of North Carolinians in general, with Obama carrying an unprecedented 100% of African American females and African Americans age 18 to 29, according to exit polling.[126] This was the case in Virginia as well where much higher turnout among African Americans propelled Obama to victory in the former Republican stronghold. Even in southern states where Obama was unsuccessful, such as Georgia, South Carolina, and Mississippi, due to large African American turnout he was much more competitive than John Kerry in 2004.

United States presidential election, 2008

Interpretive maps

Popular vote by county. Red represents counties that went for McCain, Blue represents counties that went for Obama. Connecticut, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont had all counties go to Obama. Oklahoma had all counties go to McCain.

Presidential popular votes by county as a scale from red/ Republican to blue/ Democratic.

Popular vote
Results by state
Further information: United States presidential election: The popular vote on Election Day This table records the official final state election board tallies for those presidential candidates who were listed on ballots in enough states to have a theoretical chance for a majority in the Electoral College. The first two columns contain the state name and its number of electors. Bold indicates statewide vote count winner in each state as well as winners in each electoral district of Maine and Nebraska, the only two states that apportion electoral votes by district. State popular vote results are from the official Federal Election Commission report. Four states, Georgia, Illinois, New York, and Ohio, have since amended the popular vote results. The updated Georgia results, Illinois results, New York results, and Ohio results are included here.

Voting shifts per county from the 2004 to the Cartogram of popular vote 2008 election. with each county rescaled Darker blue inin proportion to its popu- dicates the lation. Deeper blue repcounty voted resents a Democratic ma- more Democratjority, brighter red repres- ic. Darker red ents a Republican majorindicates the ity.[127] county voted more Republican.

Close states/districts
Red font color denotes states won by Republican John McCain; blue denotes those won by Democrat Barack Obama. States/districts where the margin of victory was under 5% (88 electoral votes):

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State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine ME 1st Dist. ME 2nd Dist. Maryland Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska NE 1st Dist. NE 2nd Dist. NE 3rd Dist. Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York
Electors

United States presidential election, 2008
Nader 3,783 12,882 13,350 19,162 2,401 958 28,124 3,825 7,175 30,948 909 8,014 10,527 17,218 28,731 1,314 3,658 19,642 29,257 4,590 6,706 5,989 251 7,915 1,402 1,013 4,747 8,256 1,024 4,445 4,148 4,694 2,581 177 9,187 2,900 1,362 1,538 9,842 13,189 23,716 9,174 2,529 11,386 1,355 2,740 929 1,007 804 4,263 2,217 8,441 2,428 19,595 3,760 4,971 14,685 6,787 2,551 8,201 143 2,972 1,019 604 1,349 3,194 226 3,956 1,597 634 4,747 6,550 8,892 5,174 1,034 80 23 1,028 393 321 314 1,411 40 3,636 1,552 12,801 8,936 6,267 3,624 2,277 10,638 2,837 10,732 431 252 179 9,205 14,483 170 10,319 481 11,838 87 1,423 35 1,160 90 7,332 36 1,109 Barr 4,991 1,589 12,555 4,776 10,897 Baldwin McKinney Others 4,310 1,660 1,371 4,023 3,145 6,233 311 626 3,406 3,470 38,774 2,822 90 385 590 2,887 250 979 3,705 1,730 24 1,139 57,764 5,894 29 58 1,138 6,902 63

Obama 813,479 123,594 1,034,707 422,310 8,274,473 1,288,576 997,772 255,459 245,800 4,282,074 1,844,123 325,871 236,440 3,419,348 1,374,039 828,940 514,765 751,985 782,989 421,923 232,145 189,778 1,629,467 1,904,097 2,872,579 1,573,354 554,662 1,441,911 231,667 333,319 121,468 138,752 73,099 533,736 384,826 2,215,422 472,422 4,804,701

McCain 193,841 638,017 5,011,781 1,073,589 629,428 152,374 17,367 4,045,624 120,566 403,012 2,031,179 1,345,648 682,379 699,655

9 3 10 6 55 9 7 3 3 27 15 4 4 21 11 7 6 8 9 2* 1 1 10 17 10 6 11 3 2* 1 1 1 5 4 15 5 31

1,266,546 6,788 1,230,111 11,301

108,381 67,582

2,048,759 1,158

1,048,462 15,378 1,148,275 6,997 295,273 144,604 150,669 959,862 1,108,854 2,048,639 1,275,409 724,597 242,763 452,979 148,179 135,439 169,361 412,827 316,534 1,613,207 346,832 2,752,728 10,636 5,263 5,373 14,713 28,841 33,085 30,152 4,011 3,686 5,406 1,970 1,621 1,815 6,150 3,503 21,298 5,327 41,248

Massachusetts 12

1,445,814 17,813

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North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.S. Total 15 3 20 7 7 21 4 8 3 11 34 5 3 13 11 5 10 3 538 2,142,651 141,278 2,933,388 502,496 1,037,291 3,276,363 296,571 862,449 170,924 1,087,437 3,528,633 327,670 219,262 1,959,532 1,750,848 303,857 1,677,211 82,868 2,128,474 168,601 2,674,491 960,165 738,475 2,655,885 165,391

United States presidential election, 2008
1,448 4,189 42,337 18,614 42,977 4,829 25,722 1,354 19,917 7,635 19,912 1,382 7,283 1,835 8,547 56,116 6,966 1,067 11,067 12,728 8,858 1,594 1,199 12,565 7,693 1,092 675 6,827 1,895 8,191 5,395 12,012 500 7,474 9,432 2,465 5,072 1,192 2,499 831 982 66 2,344 3,819 2,355 4,216 2,337 2,781 294 1,904 6,355 1,346 89 8,062 1,521 226,979 797 4,461 122 8,518 4,543 7,149 13,613 158 13,942

1,034,896 5,053 203,054 4,267

1,479,178 11,560 4,479,328 5,440 596,030 98,974 1,725,005 1,229,216 397,466 1,262,393 164,958 8,416 3,339 11,483 29,489 7,219 17,605 2,525

69,498,215 59,948,240 738,720 523,713 199,437 161,680 Party Democratic Republican Independent Libertarian Constitution Green Ballot access[128] 50+DC 50+DC 45+DC 45 37 32 (see below) Votes 69,456,897 59,934,814 736,804 524,524 196,461 161,195 226,908

Presidential ticket Obama / Biden McCain / Palin Nader / Gonzalez Barr / Root Baldwin / Castle McKinney / Clemente Others - total

1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. 7. 7. States/districts where the margin of victory 8. was between 5% and 10% (73 electoral 9. votes): 10.

Ballot access
No other candidate had ballot access in enough states to win 270 electoral votes, although Brian Moore (Socialist) had a theoretical chance, through write-in status, of

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United States presidential election, 2008
North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming. • Gloria La Riva (Party for Socialism and Liberation) received 6,808 votes[131] nationally; listed in 12 states: Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin. • Charles Jay (Boston Tea Party) received 2,420 votes; listed in Colorado and Florida, and in Tennessee (as independent), with write-in status in Arizona, Montana, and Utah. • Tom Stevens (Objectivist) received 755 votes; listed in Colorado and Florida. • Gene Amondson (Prohibition) received 653 votes; listed in Colorado, Florida, and Louisiana. • Jonathan Allen (HeartQuake) received 483 votes; listed only in Colorado, with writein status in Arizona, Georgia, Montana, Texas, and other states. The following candidates (parties) were listed on ballot in only one state: • Richard Duncan (Independent) - Ohio; 3,902 votes. • John Joseph Polachek (New Party) Illinois; 1,149 votes. • Frank McEnulty (New American Independent) - Colorado (listed as unaffiliated); 828 votes. • Jeffrey Wamboldt (We the People) Wisconsin; 764 votes. • Jeffrey Boss (Vote Here Party) - New Jersey; 639 votes. • George Phillies - New Hampshire (also listed with the label Libertarian); 522 votes. • Ted Weill (Reform) - Mississippi; 481 votes. • Bradford Lyttle (U.S. Pacifist) - Colorado; 110 votes. In Nevada, 6,251 votes were cast for "None Of These Candidates" [132]. In the three states that officially keep track of "blank" votes for President, 103,193 votes were recorded as "blank".[133] More than 100,000 write-in votes were cast and recorded for a scattering of other candidates, including 62 votes for "Santa Claus" (in ten states) and 11 votes for "Mickey Mouse"(in five states). [134] According to the Federal Election Commission, an unusually high number of "miscellaneous" write-ins were cast for president in 2008, including 112,554 tallied in the 17 states that record votes for non-listed

States/districts in the 2008 United States Presidential election where the margin of victory was less than 5%. Blue states/districts went for Obama, red for McCain. Yellow states were won by either candidate by 5% or more. Nevada, Colorado, New Mexico, Virginia and Iowa were won by Bush in 2004 but were won by Obama by a margin of more than 5% in 2008. winning 308 electors. All six candidates appeared on the ballot for a majority of the voters, while the 17 other listed candidates were available to no more than 30% of the voters.[129] The following nine candidates (and/or parties) had ballot listing and/or write-in status in more than one state:[130] • Alan Keyes (America’s Independent Party) received 47,768 votes; listed in three states: Colorado and Florida, plus California (listed as American Independent), and also had write-in status in Kentucky, Ohio, Texas, and Utah. • Ron Paul received 41,905 votes; listed in Louisiana (Louisiana Taxpayers) and in Montana (Constitution), with write-in status in California. • Roger Calero (Socialist Workers Party) received 7,561 votes; listed in ten states. He was listed by name in Delaware, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, and Vermont. James Harris was listed as his stand-in in Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, and Washington, and also had write-in status in California. • Brian Moore (Socialist) received 7,315 votes; listed in eight states: Colorado, Florida, Iowa, New Jersey, Ohio, and Wisconsin, as well as Tennessee (independent) and Vermont (Liberty Union). He also filed for write-in status in 17 other states: Alaska, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New York,

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candidates.[135] There were more presidential candidates on the ballot than at any other time in U. S. history, except for the 1992 election, which also had 23 candidates listed in at least one state.

United States presidential election, 2008
largest age disparity between the two major party presidential candidates in history, surpassing Bill Clinton and Bob Dole, (23 years apart in age) who ran against each other in the 1996 presidential election. On January 20, 2009, Obama was inaugurated to the presidency at the age of 47 years 138 days. He is the fourth youngest man to be elected president, after John Kennedy, Bill Clinton, and Ulysses Grant, and the fifth youngest president when inaugurated, after Kennedy, Clinton, Grant, and Theodore Roosevelt.

Analysis
Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Obama is the first president to be born outside the continental United States. He is also the third president from Illinois, the first two being Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant.[136] (Ronald Reagan was born in Illinois, but when elected had been in California for decades, where he was a former governor). Obama, having a white mother and Kenyan father of the Luo ethnic group,[137] became the first African American and the first bi-racial president. For the first time in history, both major party nominees were sitting United States Senators: Republican candidate John McCain (Arizona) and Democratic candidate Barack Obama (Illinois).[138] The 2008 election marked the first time since the election of John F. Kennedy in 1960 that a sitting Senator was elected President of the United States, and the third time in American history (Warren G. Harding in 1920 was the first). It was also the second time in American history, after the election of John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson in 1960, that both the successful presidential and vice-presidential candidates (Barack Obama and Joe Biden) were sitting Senators. Obama was the first Northern Democrat elected to the presidency since John F. Kennedy in 1960. Also, the ObamaBiden ticket was the first winning ticket in American history on which neither candidate was a WASP. With their victory, Biden, a United States Senator from January 3, 1973 to January 15, 2009, became the longest-serving senator in history to become Vice President. Biden also became the first man since Lyndon Johnson in 1960 to be elected Vice President while also being reelected to the Senate, easily defeating Republican Christine O’Donnell to win his seventh term. The 2008 election was the first since 1952 in which neither the incumbent president nor the incumbent vice president was a candidate in the general election and the first since the 1928 election that neither sought his party’s nomination for president.[40][41] Barack Obama and John McCain are nearly 25 years apart in age. This is the

Swing by state. States are listed by (increasing) percentage of Democratic votes, showing how the share of the vote changed between 2004 and 2008. Five states trended more Republican, Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, Oklahoma, and West Virginia (though the latter three by very small amounts). Prior to the election, commentators discussed whether Senator Obama would be able to redraw the electoral map by winning states that had been voting for Republican candidates in recent decades.[139] In many ways, he was successful. He won every region of the country by double digits except the South, which John McCain won by less than double digits (9 points). Obama won Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland,

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North Carolina, Florida, and Virginia in the South (region as defined by the US Census Bureau). The Republicans "took the South only because McCain, who ran roughly even with Obama among whites in every other region, won Southern whites by 38 percentage points."[140] Obama also defied some political bellwethers, becoming the first person to win the presidency while losing Missouri since 1956. He was the first Democrat to win the presidency without winning West Virginia since 1916. He was also the first Democrat to win without Arkansas since the advent of the Democratic Party, and the first person of either party to win without Arkansas or Louisiana since 1968, as well as Tennessee and Kentucky since 1960. Obama became the first ever Democrat to lose the state of Ohio in a primary but to go on and win in the general election. Obama’s victories in Indiana and Virginia were also noteworthy. Both states voted for the Democratic nominee for the first time since 1964. Obama was also the first Democrat to win the state of North Carolina since Jimmy Carter in 1976. Although Obama did not win other normally Republican states such as Georgia and Montana (which were won by Bill Clinton in 1992), he nonetheless was competitive in both. He lost Montana by just under 3% and Georgia by slightly more than 5%. Obama was the first presidential candidate to split the electoral votes from Nebraska. Together with Maine, which has not yet split its electoral votes, Nebraska is one of two states that split their electoral votes, two going to the statewide popular vote winner and the rest going to the winner of each respective congressional district (Nebraska has three, and Maine has two). Obama won the electoral vote from Nebraska’s 2nd congressional district which contains the city of Omaha. Nebraska’s other four electoral votes went to John McCain. Obama’s raw popular vote margin of victory (approximately 9.5 million votes) was the largest ever for a non-incumbent presidential candidate, and the sixth largest margin of victory ever. Obama’s popular vote percentage (52.9%) is also the highest for a Democratic presidential candidate since Lyndon Johnson in 1964 and the highest overall since George H. W. Bush was elected president in 1988. He also received more votes than any presidential candidate in American history, breaking the previous record of just over 62

United States presidential election, 2008
million, held by President George W. Bush after his successful reelection bid in 2004. Meanwhile, John McCain set the record for the most votes received by a losing presidential candidate with slightly less than 60 million votes, beating the record of just over 59 million set by John Kerry. Also notably, Barack Obama won all of the 2004 swing states (states that either Kerry or Bush won by less than 5%) by a margin of 9 percent or more with the exception of Ohio, which the Democrat carried by 4.5 percent. It was observed that this election exhibited the continuation of some of the polarization trends evident in the 2000 and 2004 elections.[141] McCain won whites by 12 points, while Obama won blacks by 91 points, Hispanics by 36 points, and Asians by 27 points. Voters aged 18–29 voted for Obama by 66–32 percent while elderly voters backed McCain 53–45 percent.[142] However, from 2004, Obama improved on John Kerry’s support among all race and age groups.

International reaction
The American presidential election was followed closely internationally. When it was clear that Obama was victorious, many world leaders sent congratulations and well-wishes to the President-elect.

Opinion polling
• Nationwide opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008 • Statewide opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008 • International opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008 • Scientific forecasts: FiveThirtyEight.com, PollyVote

See also
• Canada and the 2008 United States presidential election • History of the United States (1991–present) • Newspaper endorsements in the United States presidential election, 2008 • Presidential transition of Barack Obama • Barack Obama 2009 presidential inauguration

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United States presidential election, 2008
[11] Balz, Dan (2007-04-27). "Candidates Unite in Criticizing Bush". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ content/article/2007/04/26/ AR2007042602593.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-15. [12] "Campaign Finance: First Quarter 2007 FEC Filings", The Washington Post 2007. [13] "Ron Paul, Validated and Vindicated?". http://www.cbsnews.com/blogs/2007/11/ 07/publiceye/entry3464346.shtml. [14] "Obama sets fundraising record with $55 million". Los Angeles Times. March 7, 2008. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/ mar/07/nation/na-money7. [15] Hannah Strange and Philippe Naughton (2008-01-09). "Hillary Clinton: my teary moment won me New Hampshire". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/ news/world/us_and_americas/ us_elections/article3160177.ece. Retrieved on 2008-03-14. See also: "Hillary tears up in New Hampshire Primary 2008" (Video). YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dqGlpDnYMQ. [16] "LA rally - Full Video". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=JZiNtTq10i0. [17] ^ Nate Silver (2008-08-11). "The Persistent Myth of the Bradley Effect". http://www.fivethirtyeight.com/2008/08/ persistent-myth-of-bradley-effect.html. [18] Frank D. Russo (2008-02-06). "Clinton Win in California Larger Than Polls Predicted Because of Huge Latino Turnout". http://www.californiaprogressreport.com/ 2008/02/clinton_win_in.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-14. [19] "Maria Shriver endorses Obama". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/02/ 03/shriver.obama/. [20] Greene, Richard Allen (2007-05-30). "States jostle for primary power". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ americas/6501241.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-15. [21] "Presidential primary and caucus dates" (PDF). Stateline.org. Pew Research Center. 2007-08-30. 1. http://archive.stateline.org/flash-data/ Primary/ 2008_presidential_primaries.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-15.

Other elections
• United States gubernatorial elections, 2008 • United States House elections, 2008 • United States Senate elections, 2008

References
[1] White Americans play major role in electing the first black president, Los Angeles Times, November 5, 2008 [2] "America.gov". America.gov. http://www.america.gov/st/ elections08-english/2008/November/ 20081107132624xjyrrep0.7660639.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-30. [3] Frum, David (March 7, 2008). "Why Rush is Wrong". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/188279/ page/3. Retrieved on 2009-03-08. [4] "Lessons from 2004 Point the Way in 2008 Election". University at Buffalo. August 15, 2005. http://www.buffalo.edu/ news/7438. Retrieved on 2009-01-24. [5] Drinkard, Jim (November 8, 2004). "Rove speaks out on Bush’s win". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/ politicselections/nation/president/ 2004-11-07-rove-interview_x.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-19. [6] Babington, Charles (June 11, 2008). "Bullishly or not, Clinton supporters accept Obama". FOX News. http://www.foxnews.com/wires/ 2008Jun11/ 0,4670,WooingClintonBackers,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-19. [7] Benedetto, Richard; Page, Susan (2003-01-13). "Bush’s job approval lowest since 9/11". USA TODAY. http://www.usatoday.com/news/ politicselections/2003-01-13-bushpoll_x.htm. [8] "Katrina Response Hurts Bush Most". Political Wire. 2006-02-17. http://politicalwire.com/archives/2006/ 02/17/ katrina_response_hurts_bush_most.html. [9] "Historical Bush Approval Ratings". Hist.umn.edu. http://www.hist.umn.edu/ ~ruggles/Approval.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-24. [10] In 1864, Abraham Lincoln was nominated for President by the National Union Party.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States presidential election, 2008

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article/ http://people-press.org/report/463/mediaALeqM5iwn259ngEGweDcfcSBBdjd8V1M5QD947O5T81. wants-obama. Retrieved on 2008-11-07. [112] igh Marks for the Campaign, a High H [102] oppe, Christy (2008-09-19). H Bar for Obama. Retrieved November 15 "Libertarian Bob Barr sues to have 2008 McCain, Obama cast off Texas’ ballot". [113] bsentee and Early Voting Laws, from A Dallas Morning News. the Early Voting Information Center at http://www.dallasnews.com/ Reed College sharedcontent/dws/news/politics/state/ [114]NBC calls Ohio for Obama - First Read " stories/DNmsnbc.com". Firstread.msnbc.msn.com. barr_19pol.ART.State.Edition1.268aa61.html. 2008-11-04. Retrieved on 2008-10-08. http://firstread.msnbc.msn.com/archive/ [103] oung, Adam (2008-09-24). "Texas court: Y 2008/11/04/1639565.aspx. Retrieved on McCain, Obama to remain on ballot". 2009-01-24. Daily Toreador. [115] By Paul Meincke (2008-11-05). http://media.www.dailytoreador.com/ "Chicago News - 11/05/08 - Chicago media/storage/paper870/news/2008/09/ News - abc7chicago.com". 24/News/ Abclocal.go.com. http://abclocal.go.com/ Texas.Court.Mccain.Obama.To.Remain.On.Ballot-3447969.shtml. wls/story?section=news/ Retrieved on 2008-10-08. politics&id=6490862. Retrieved on [104] Steinberg, Jacques (2008-04-18). "Who ^ 2009-01-24. Lost the Debate? Moderators, Many [116]Scenes of joy across the US - Local " Say". The New York Times. News - News - General". The Canberra http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/18/us/ Times. 2008-11-05. politics/18moderator.html. Retrieved on http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news/ 2008-04-18. local/news/general/scenes-of-joy-across[105] Kurtz, Howard (2008-04-18). "The ^ the-us/1352918.aspx. Retrieved on Backlash Against ABC". The Washington 2009-01-24. Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ [117]World celebrates Barack Obama " wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/18/ victory". Times Online. AR2008041800912.html. Retrieved on http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/ 2008-04-18. world/us_and_americas/us_elections/ [106] lizabeth Edwards (2008-04-28). "Op-ed: E article5087886.ece. Retrieved on Bowling 1, Health Care 0". NYTimes. 2009-01-24. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/27/ [118]United States House of Representatives " opinion/ floor summary for 8 Jan 2009". 27edwards.html?_r=2&hp=&oref=slogin&pagewanted=print. Clerk.house.gov. http://clerk.house.gov/ [107]Inspiration Versus Degradation". " floorsummary/floor.html?day=20090108. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ericaRetrieved on 2009-01-30. jong/inspiration-versus[119]Expected High Voter Turnout Has " degrad_b_98844.html. Government Officials, Watchdog Groups [108]Character and the Primaries of 2008". " on Alert". Fox News. 2008-11-03. The Project for Excellence in Journalism. http://elections.foxnews.com/2008/11/03/ 2008-05-29. http://www.journalism.org/ expected-high-voter-turnout-governmentnode/11266. officials-watchdog-groups-alert/. [109]MEDIA BASH BARACK (NOT A TYPO)". " Retrieved on 2008-11-07. ""The main Center for Media and Public Affairs. thing that we all know is that there’s 2008-07-28. http://cmpa.com/Studies/ going to be a huge turnout. There are Election08/ going to be long lines, and any problems election%20news%207_29_08.htm. that occur will exacerbate because of [110]The Color of News". Project for " those lines," said Robert M. Brandon, Excellence in Journalism. 2008-10-29. president of the Fair Elections Legal http://journalism.org/node/13436. Network." [111]Most Voters Say Media Wants Obama to " [120] (PDF) Much-hyped Turnout Record ^ Win". The Pew Research Center for the Fails to Materialize. Press release. People & the Press. 2008-10-22. 2008-11-06. http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States presidential election, 2008

2008/images/11/06/ [134] ttp://www.thegreenpapers.com/G08/ h pdf.gansre08turnout.au.pdf. Retrieved President-Details.phtml?n=OTHER on 2008-11-20. [135] ttp://www.ballot-access.org/2009/ h [121]PDF) African-Americans, Anger, Fear ( 020109.html and Youth Propel Turnout to Highest [136]U. S. Electoral College". Archives.gov. " Level Since 1964. Press release. http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/ http://timeswampland.files.wordpress.com/ electoral-college/votes/1869_1873.html. 2008/12/2008turnout-report_final11.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-01-24. Retrieved on 2008-12-18. [137] ilner, Derek (June 4, 2008). "Kenyans K [122]2008 Preliminary Voter Turnout". " Welcome Obama’s Democratic Party Elections.gmu.edu. Nomination". VOA News. http://elections.gmu.edu/ http://www.voanews.com/english/ preliminary_vote_2008.html. Retrieved archive/2008-06/ on 2009-01-24. 2008-06-04-voa44.cfm?CFID=30257441&CFTOKEN= [123]Report: ’08 turnout same as or only " Retrieved on 2008-06-17. slightly higher than ’04". CNN. [138] ingfield, Brian (2008-02-08). "The W 2008-11-06. Senator President". Forbes.com. http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2008/ http://www.forbes.com/2008/02/08/ 11/06/report-08-turnout-same-or-onlyobama-clinton-mccain-biz-beltwayslightly-higher-than-04/. cx_bw_0208senate.html. Retrieved on [124]That huge voter turnout? Didn’t " 2008-07-18. happen". Politico. 2008-11-08. [139]Obama Over the Top: How New Voters " http://www.politico.com/news/stories/ Could Redraw The Electoral Map". 1108/15422.html. Progress Illinois. [125]Black and Latino Turnout". " http://www.progressillinois.com/2008/05/ http://www.nonprofitvote.org/ 11/features/obama-over-the-top. voterturnout2008#minorities. Retrieved on 2009-01-30. [126]How Black Democrats won North " [140] rank Rich, "The Moose Stops Here", F Carolina and the Election: Massive New York Times, 16 Nov 2008. Retrieved Turnout, Week of November 13-19, 16 Nov 2008 2008". 2008-11-24. [141] ost, Jay (2008-11-20). "HorseRaceBlog C http://wilmingtonjournal.blackpressusa.com/ Electoral Polarization Continues Under News/article/ Obama". RealClearPolitics. article.asp?NewsID=92721&sID=4. http://www.realclearpolitics.com/ [127] ttp://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/ h horseraceblog/2008/11/ election/2008/ polarization_continues_under_o.html. [128]2008 PETITIONING FOR PRESIDENT". " Retrieved on 2009-01-24. Ballot-access.org. 2008-10-23. [142]Exit poll". CNN.com. " http://www.ballot-access.org/ballothttp://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2008/ chart.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-24. results/polls/#USP00p1. Retrieved on [129] ttp://www.ballot-access.org/2008/ h 2009-01-30. 110108.html [130]Ballot Access News - November 1, " 2008". Ballot-access.org. 2008-03-18. • Beyond Red and Blue: 7 Ways to View the http://www.ballot-access.org/2008/ Presidential Election Map — from 110108.html#6. Retrieved on Scientific American 2009-01-24. • 2008 Presidential Candidates at Project [131]12/12/92". Ballot-access.org. " Vote Smart 2008-12-22. http://www.ballot• How close was the 2008 election? — access.org/pres1.html. Retrieved on Michael Sheppard, Michigan State 2009-01-24. University [132] ttp://www.nvsos.gov/elections/results/ h • US Election 2008 Web Monitor 2008StateWideGeneral/ • 2008 Electoral Map ElectionSummary.asp • Wikia:campaigns:United States [133] ttp://www.thegreenpapers.com/G08/ h presidential election, 2008 and President-Details.phtml?n=BLANK

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Wikia:campaigns:Category:2008 US Presidential candidates • http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/ election2008/results.htm

United States presidential election, 2008
• Joseph Crespino, "The U.S. South and the 2008 Election", Southern Spaces, 11 December 2008. http://www.southernspaces.org/contents/ 2008/crespino/1a.htm

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