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AFSS 2007 Public Meeting Present

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AFSS 2007 Public Meeting Present Powered By Docstoc
					Initial Contaminant Levels in
   Swine Feed Ingredients
          Karen B. Ekelman, PhD


               Presented To:
         Animal Feed Safety System
               Public Meeting
           Gaithersburg, Maryland
                May 22, 2007
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine
Feed Ingredients - Outline
   Introduction
   Feed Contaminants Program Data
      - Pesticides      - Microbes
      - Elements        - Dioxins
      - Mycotoxins      - PCBs
   Initial contaminant levels in ingredients for
    starter, grower and finisher swine feeds
Initial Contaminant Levels in
   Swine Feed Ingredients
        1. Introduction
Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels
  Cont. A            Cont. B            Cont. C        Contaminants


Ingredient 1        Ingredient 2       Ingredient 3   Feed Ingredients

                                                      Manufacturing
               Mill: Mix, Heat, etc.
                                                       Processes

                 Finished Feed


                      Animals
                                                       Population(s)
                                   Humans
Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels
   Challenge #1: Lack of data!
       For chemicals – Feed Contaminants Program, published
        data, expert opinion
           Data are particularly limited for elements
       For microbes – Feed Contaminants Program, published
        data, expert opinion
           Little or no data on levels of microbes in many feed ingredients
            and feeds
           Data on % of feeds and feed ingredients containing microbes are
            generally limited to Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7; much less
            data are available for other microbes of interest
Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels
   Challenge #2: Data are not always available for the
    ingredient!
       For example - Soybean meal
           Microbes – Plant products and byproducts
           Mycotoxins – Soybeans and soybean byproducts
           Pesticides – Soybeans and soybean byproducts
           Dioxins, PCBs – Soybean meal
       For example – Spray-dried blood cells vs. Choice white grease
           Microbes – Animal products and byproducts
           Mycotoxins – Animal products and byproducts
           Pesticides – Animal products and byproducts
           Dioxins, PCBs – Animal fats
Initial Contaminant Levels in
   Swine Feed Ingredients
2. FDA CVM Feed Contaminants
        Program Data
    Feed Contaminants Program (FCP)
   Sampling and
    inspection program
    for non-drug, non-
    BSE-related
    hazardous
    contaminants in feed
    and feed ingredients
   Current FCP was
    published in 2005
   http://www.fda.gov/
    cvm/Documents/737
    1-003.pdf
Feed Contaminants Program (FCP)
   Pesticides
       Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl,
        methoxychlor, diazinon
   Elements
       Cadmium, lead, mercury
   Mycotoxins
       Aflatoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone,
        ochratoxin A
   Microbes
       Salmonella enterica, E. coli O157:H7
   Dioxins and PCBs
Feed Contaminants Program –
Pesticides
   FDA conducts routine, annual surveillance for
    levels of pesticides in animal feeds
       Feed ingredients and mixed feeds
       From 1989 - 2005, approximately 500 – 600 samples per
        year; since then, approximately 200 per year
       Data for AFSS swine feed model example are from 2000 -
        2006
       Routine surveillance results are summarized each year by
        district and food commodity but not by individual
        pesticides; these annual reports will soon be available on
        CVM’s web page
Feed Contaminants Program –
Pesticides
                            Domestic Surveillance Feed Samples With
                                Pesticides, 1992 through 2002
             70%




             60%




             50%
Percentage




             40%




             30%

                                        % Positive

             20%
                                        % That Exceed
                                        Permitted Levels
             10%




             0%
                   1992   1993   1994    1994   1995   1996   1996   1997   1998   1998   1999   2000   2000   2001   2002   2002

                                                                       Year
Feed Contaminants Programs –
Pesticides
            Mean Pesticide Levels for Domestic Feed Samples,
                              1992 - 2003

      0.6
      0.5                                                  Malathion
      0.4
                                                           Chlorpyrifos-methyl
PPM




      0.3
      0.2                                                  Pirimiphos-methyl
      0.1                                                  Methoxychlor
        0
             1   2   3   4   5     6   7   8   9   10 11
                                 YEARS YEARS
Feed Contaminants Program –
Elements (Heavy Metals)
   Very limited surveillance of elements in feed and
    feed ingredients
   Some samples are collected in response to
    investigations (e.g., 2003 pet food investigation)
   Data used for the AFSS swine feed example are
    from 2000 – present (2007)
   Some data are available for:
       Cadmium           Selenium            Nickel
       Lead              Copper              Iron
       Arsenic           Zinc                Mercury
       Chromium
Feed Contaminants Program –
Mycotoxins
   Routine, annual surveillance for levels of 5
    mycotoxins in animal feeds
       Aflatoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and
        ochratoxin A
       Approximately 200 – 250 samples of feed ingredients and
        mixed feeds per year since 1994
       For AFSS swine feed example, will use data from 1994 -
        2004
       Results are summarized annually by district, food
        commodity and mycotoxin and will soon be available on
        CVM’s web page; a publication is also planned.
 Feed Contaminants Program –
 Mycotoxins
       Results: FY05 256 samples (229 domestic, 27 import)
           4 samples exceeded guidance, 7 samples were positive with no
            official guidance
                                                               ABOVE
MYCOTOXIN ANALYZED POSITIVE
                                                              GUIDANCE
Aflatoxins                     201                13            2 (> 20ppb)
Fumonisins                      93                46             2 (> 5ppm)
Ochratoxin A                    17                 3                  3
                                                               (No guidance levels)

Zearalenone                     8                  4                    4
                                                               (No guidance levels)

Deoxynivalenol                  6                  2                    0
Total                          325                68                   11
Feed Contaminant Program -
Mycotoxins
   Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) collected as part of routine
    surveillance sampling, 1999 – 2004, and as part of a special assignment
    during FY 2007 where 40 total samples are scheduled for collection.

     FEED INGREDIENT                              TOTAL         % AFLA.
                                 YEAR(S)
        CATEGORY                                 SAMPLES           +


    DDGS from corn                  2007              11            0%


    DDGS                        1994 - 2004           37            0%

    Corn and corn
    by-products                 1994 - 2004         1471         19.44%
Feed Contaminants Program –
Microbes
   Routine, annual surveillance of feed and feed
    ingredients for Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7
       About 200 samples collected per year, 1999 – present; data used for
        swine feed model example are from 1999 – 2003
       Plant- and animal-origin feed ingredients, mixed feeds, pet foods and
        pet treats
       Results reported as positive or negative; # of microbes per gram of
        sample is not determined
       Each Salmonella isolate is characterized by serotype, genetic
        fingerprint, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern
       Results are summarized each year and will soon be available on
        CVM’s web page
Feed Contaminants Program –
Microbes
     Routine surveillance results are summarized each
      year and will soon be available on CVM’s web page
                            # SAMPLES -                 RANGE %
         FEED                             % POSITIVE
                           SALMONELLA                   POSITIVE

Pet Treats (1999 - 2004)       355          24.79%     11% to 100%

Animal-origin Feeds and
FIs (2001 - 2004)
                               100          72.00%     67% to 80%
Plant-origin Feeds and
FIs (2001 - 2004)
                                91          7.69%       5% to 11%
Mixed and Complete
Feeds (2001 - 2004)
                               235          10.64%     8% to 13%
Feed Contaminants Program –
Microbes
   Special surveillance assignments
       Heat-treated and non-heat-treated swine feed (FY 05)
       Direct-human-contact feeds (pet foods/treats) (FY 06)
                                 # POSITIVE # POSITIVE
  SAMPLE               #
                                    FOR     FOR E. COLI
DESCRIPTION         SAMPLES
                                SALMONELLA    O157:H7

    Swine Feed         31              4                0

Heated Swine Feed      15              0                0
Non-Heated Swine       16              4                0
     Feed
Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins
and PCBs
   Special assignments almost every year since 1998, approximately 1000
    total samples
   Goal has been to obtain information about the background levels in feeds
    and feed ingredients
   Sample collection and analysis also in response to specific dioxin-related
    issues (ball clay, zinc oxide, etc.)
   Expensive sample collection and analysis by the GC-MS “gold” standard
    method compared to biological methods (e.g., CALUX)
   Results reported as PPT TEQs (parts per trillion toxicity equivalents) for
    10 dioxin and 7 furan congeners; recently, results also reported for 3
    dioxin-like PCB congeners
   Congener patterns can help trace sources of contamination
   Results will be posted on CVM’s web page; several publications are also
    planned.
Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins
and PCBs
     1998 – anti-caking agents (ball clay)
     2000 – animal fats, fish meal, meat and bone meal, deodorizer
             distillates, molasses
     2001 – milk products, wood products, minerals, complete
             feed, vitamins, oilseed meals
     2002 – minerals, forage, grains
     2003 – minerals (in response to 2 contamination incidents)
     2004 – animal and plant fats and oils used in animal feeds
             and in clays used to bleach/filter these fats/oils
     2005 – rendered mammalian and poultry fats, yellow grease
             and filtering and bleaching agents
     2006 – anti-caking agents, feed ingredients or bedding containing
             wood or wood products, and feed ingredients contacting or
             containing soil
Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins
and PCBs
   Results: Levels of dioxins in grains, grain by-
    products, and forages were consistently low and
    significantly below the EU limit for these products
    (0.75 ppt TEQ)

    PRODUCT           SAMPLES RANGE (ppt TEQ)
Grains                   n = 93        0.00 - 0.034
Grain by-products        n = 49        0.00 - 0.074
Forages                  n = 10        0.00 - 0.046
Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins
and PCBs
             Results: Levels of dioxins in fish meal and fish oil samples
              were low and below the EU limit for dioxins in these
              products (1.25 ppt TEQ D/F for fish meal, 6 ppt TEQ D/F for
              fish oil), except for menhaden fish meal and fish oil.
                                            FISH MEAL SAMPLES

              1.6
              1.4
                                                                            Menhaden/Atlantic
              1.2
                                                                            Peruvian/S. America
    PPT TEQ




               1                                                            Herring/Canada
              0.8                                                           Sardine/Mexico
              0.6                                                           Mixed Sp/Pacific
                                                                            Cod/Alaska
              0.4
                                                                            Krill/Alaska
              0.2
               0
                    17 Dioxin and Furan (D/F)      3 PCB Congeners (nd=0)
                       Congeners (nd=0)
Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels
   Data may be available for some or all of the
    following:
       Specified ingredients
       Starting materials for ingredients
           Modifying contaminant levels for processing steps associated
            with a specific ingredient will be presented by Drs. Benjamin and
            Okelo
       Complete feed (mixed feeds, feed supplements, etc.)
           Information on how to use contaminant levels in feed to check or
            validate some aspects of the risk ranking model will be discussed
            by Dr. Hooberman
Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels
                   INGREDIENT CATEGORY FOR
  DIET                  CONTAMINANTS
INGRED.
               SALMONELLA   METHOXYCHLOR      AFLATOXINS     DIOXINS


                  Plant
                                              Corn & corn
   Corn        products &        Corn                         Corn
                                              byproducts
               byproducts
                 Animal                         Animal        Milk &
Spray-dried                 Animal products
               products &                     products &       milk
   whey                      & byproducts
               byproducts                     byproducts    byproducts
                 Plants       Soybeans &      Soybean &
                                                             Soybean
Soybean meal   products &      soybean         soybean
               byproducts                                     meal
                              byproducts      byproducts
Initial Contaminant Levels in
   Swine Feed Ingredients
  3. Contaminant Levels in Ingredients for
 Starter, Grower and Finisher Swine Feeds
Point Estimates vs. Distribution
Measures
   Examples today use point estimates of data, usually
    the mean
   Model will use all available data, not just means:
       Median vs. mean; range
       Sample distributions and estimated population
        distributions
           May incorporate “static” representations of the
            distributions
           May use some method of random, iterative sampling
            from the distribution (e.g. Monte Carlo)
Starter Swine Feed – Example
                 Salmonella (%
                                            Aflatoxins (PPB)             Dioxins (PPT TEQ D/F)
                   positives)
 Ingredient
               Category     % Pos     Category      % Pos    Mean      Category      % Pos   Mean


                  Plant                                         47
                            7.69%     Corn & corn                                            0.0091
Corn           products &                           19.44%   (n=1471      Corn        50%
                            (n=91)    byproducts                                             (n=26)
               byproducts                                        )


                  Plant               Soybeans &
Soybean                     7.69%                               8       Soybean              0.0167
               products &              soybean      4.09%                            100%
meal, 46.5%                 (n=91)                           (n=318)     meal                (n=10)
               byproducts             byproducts


Select           Animal                 Animal
                              72%                              110     Menhaden               0.58
menhaden       products &             products &    1.85%                            100%
                            (n=100)                          (n=54)    fish meal             (n=22)
fish meal      byproducts             byproducts

                 Animal                 Animal
Choice white                  72%                              110                           0.3379
               products &             products &    1.85%              Animal fats   100%
grease                      (n=100)                          (n=54)                          (n=55)
               byproducts             byproducts
Grower Swine Feed - Example
                 Salmonella (%
                                             Aflatoxins (PPB)                Lead (PPM)
                   positives)
Ingredient
                                                      %                             %
                Category        %       Category             Mean     Category            Mean
                                                     Pos                           Pos

                  Animal                  Animal                        Animal
                                72%                            110                         0.16
Fat (animal)    products &              products &   1.85%            products &   100%
                              (n=100)                        (n=54)                       (n=2)
                byproducts              byproducts                    byproducts
                All feeds &             Minerals,                     Minerals,
                              16.55%                           0                           2.2
 Limestone          feed                mineral       0%              mineral      67%
                              (n=145)                        (n=2)                        (n=3)
                ingredients              premix                        premix


                All feeds &              Vitamin,                     Vitamins,
  Vitamin                     16.55%                           0                            0
                    feed                 vitamin      0%               vitamin     0%
  premix                      (n=145)                        (n=1)                        (n=0)
                ingredients              premix                        premix



                All feeds &              Minerals                     Minerals,
Trace mineral                 16.55%                           0                           2.2
                    feed                 mineral      0%              mineral      67%
   premix                     (n=145)                        (n=2)                        (n=3)
                ingredients              premix                        premix
Finisher Swine Feed - Example
                Salmonella (%
                                      Chlorpyrifos-methyl (PPM)          Cadmium (PPM)
                  positives)
Ingredient
             Category        %       Category    % Pos    Mean     Category     % Pos    Mean


                Plant                                                 Plant
                           7.69%                          0.037                           0.04
  DDGS       products &                Corn      2.16%             products &   100%
                           (n=91)                        (n=972)                         (n=2)
             byproducts                                            byproducts

                Plant                                                 Plant
                           7.69%                          0.037                          0.034
  Corn       products &                Corn      2.16%             products &   100%
                           (n=91)                        (n=972)                         (n=2)
             byproducts                                            byproducts

             All feeds &             Minerals,                     Minerals,
                           16.55%                           0                             1.1
Limestone        feed                mineral      0%               mineral      100%
                           (n=145)                        (n=0)                          (n=3)
             ingredients              premix                        premix


             All feeds &             Vitamins,                     Vitamins,
 Vitamin                   16.55%                           0                              0
                 feed                 vitamin     0%                vitamin      0%
 premix                    (n=145)                        (n=0)                          (n=0)
             ingredients              premix                        premix
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine
Feed Ingredients – Next Steps
   Adjust initial contaminant levels in swine feed ingredients
    derived from Feed Contaminants Program data for
    information available in the published scientific literature
       Except for mycotoxins, little of the data available in the public
        literature is specifically for feed ingredients/feeds
   Where data are not available, or where data from different
    sources do not agree, use expert opinion to fill in the gaps or
    resolve discrepancies
       Problem – Expert opinion is not data
       Can determine how sensitive the risk ranking model results are to
        assumptions used (e.g., expert opinion); this can help identify the
        most critical data needed to improve the model’s results
Next Presentations – Estimated levels
of contaminants in swine feed
   Estimate levels of contaminants in feed ingredients
    for which no data are available (e.g. spray-dried
    blood), based on how processing of the starting
    material (e.g. animal products and byproducts) is
    know or predicted to affect the level of contaminants
    in the ingredient
   Estimate levels of contaminants in swine feeds,
    based on ingredients used and on how feed
    processing is know or predicted to affect levels of
    contaminants.
    Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine
    Feed Ingredients
   Questions?

				
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