Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients Karen B. Ekelman, PhD Presented To: Animal Feed Safety System Public Meeting Gaithersburg, Maryland May 22, 2007 Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Outline Introduction Feed Contaminants Program Data - Pesticides - Microbes - Elements - Dioxins - Mycotoxins - PCBs Initial contaminant levels in ingredients for starter, grower and finisher swine feeds Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients 1. Introduction Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels Cont. A Cont. B Cont. C Contaminants Ingredient 1 Ingredient 2 Ingredient 3 Feed Ingredients Manufacturing Mill: Mix, Heat, etc. Processes Finished Feed Animals Population(s) Humans Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels Challenge #1: Lack of data! For chemicals – Feed Contaminants Program, published data, expert opinion Data are particularly limited for elements For microbes – Feed Contaminants Program, published data, expert opinion Little or no data on levels of microbes in many feed ingredients and feeds Data on % of feeds and feed ingredients containing microbes are generally limited to Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7; much less data are available for other microbes of interest Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels Challenge #2: Data are not always available for the ingredient! For example - Soybean meal Microbes – Plant products and byproducts Mycotoxins – Soybeans and soybean byproducts Pesticides – Soybeans and soybean byproducts Dioxins, PCBs – Soybean meal For example – Spray-dried blood cells vs. Choice white grease Microbes – Animal products and byproducts Mycotoxins – Animal products and byproducts Pesticides – Animal products and byproducts Dioxins, PCBs – Animal fats Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients 2. FDA CVM Feed Contaminants Program Data Feed Contaminants Program (FCP) Sampling and inspection program for non-drug, non- BSE-related hazardous contaminants in feed and feed ingredients Current FCP was published in 2005 http://www.fda.gov/ cvm/Documents/737 1-003.pdf Feed Contaminants Program (FCP) Pesticides Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, methoxychlor, diazinon Elements Cadmium, lead, mercury Mycotoxins Aflatoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A Microbes Salmonella enterica, E. coli O157:H7 Dioxins and PCBs Feed Contaminants Program – Pesticides FDA conducts routine, annual surveillance for levels of pesticides in animal feeds Feed ingredients and mixed feeds From 1989 - 2005, approximately 500 – 600 samples per year; since then, approximately 200 per year Data for AFSS swine feed model example are from 2000 - 2006 Routine surveillance results are summarized each year by district and food commodity but not by individual pesticides; these annual reports will soon be available on CVM’s web page Feed Contaminants Program – Pesticides Domestic Surveillance Feed Samples With Pesticides, 1992 through 2002 70% 60% 50% Percentage 40% 30% % Positive 20% % That Exceed Permitted Levels 10% 0% 1992 1993 1994 1994 1995 1996 1996 1997 1998 1998 1999 2000 2000 2001 2002 2002 Year Feed Contaminants Programs – Pesticides Mean Pesticide Levels for Domestic Feed Samples, 1992 - 2003 0.6 0.5 Malathion 0.4 Chlorpyrifos-methyl PPM 0.3 0.2 Pirimiphos-methyl 0.1 Methoxychlor 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 YEARS YEARS Feed Contaminants Program – Elements (Heavy Metals) Very limited surveillance of elements in feed and feed ingredients Some samples are collected in response to investigations (e.g., 2003 pet food investigation) Data used for the AFSS swine feed example are from 2000 – present (2007) Some data are available for: Cadmium Selenium Nickel Lead Copper Iron Arsenic Zinc Mercury Chromium Feed Contaminants Program – Mycotoxins Routine, annual surveillance for levels of 5 mycotoxins in animal feeds Aflatoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A Approximately 200 – 250 samples of feed ingredients and mixed feeds per year since 1994 For AFSS swine feed example, will use data from 1994 - 2004 Results are summarized annually by district, food commodity and mycotoxin and will soon be available on CVM’s web page; a publication is also planned. Feed Contaminants Program – Mycotoxins Results: FY05 256 samples (229 domestic, 27 import) 4 samples exceeded guidance, 7 samples were positive with no official guidance ABOVE MYCOTOXIN ANALYZED POSITIVE GUIDANCE Aflatoxins 201 13 2 (> 20ppb) Fumonisins 93 46 2 (> 5ppm) Ochratoxin A 17 3 3 (No guidance levels) Zearalenone 8 4 4 (No guidance levels) Deoxynivalenol 6 2 0 Total 325 68 11 Feed Contaminant Program - Mycotoxins Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) collected as part of routine surveillance sampling, 1999 – 2004, and as part of a special assignment during FY 2007 where 40 total samples are scheduled for collection. FEED INGREDIENT TOTAL % AFLA. YEAR(S) CATEGORY SAMPLES + DDGS from corn 2007 11 0% DDGS 1994 - 2004 37 0% Corn and corn by-products 1994 - 2004 1471 19.44% Feed Contaminants Program – Microbes Routine, annual surveillance of feed and feed ingredients for Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 About 200 samples collected per year, 1999 – present; data used for swine feed model example are from 1999 – 2003 Plant- and animal-origin feed ingredients, mixed feeds, pet foods and pet treats Results reported as positive or negative; # of microbes per gram of sample is not determined Each Salmonella isolate is characterized by serotype, genetic fingerprint, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern Results are summarized each year and will soon be available on CVM’s web page Feed Contaminants Program – Microbes Routine surveillance results are summarized each year and will soon be available on CVM’s web page # SAMPLES - RANGE % FEED % POSITIVE SALMONELLA POSITIVE Pet Treats (1999 - 2004) 355 24.79% 11% to 100% Animal-origin Feeds and FIs (2001 - 2004) 100 72.00% 67% to 80% Plant-origin Feeds and FIs (2001 - 2004) 91 7.69% 5% to 11% Mixed and Complete Feeds (2001 - 2004) 235 10.64% 8% to 13% Feed Contaminants Program – Microbes Special surveillance assignments Heat-treated and non-heat-treated swine feed (FY 05) Direct-human-contact feeds (pet foods/treats) (FY 06) # POSITIVE # POSITIVE SAMPLE # FOR FOR E. COLI DESCRIPTION SAMPLES SALMONELLA O157:H7 Swine Feed 31 4 0 Heated Swine Feed 15 0 0 Non-Heated Swine 16 4 0 Feed Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins and PCBs Special assignments almost every year since 1998, approximately 1000 total samples Goal has been to obtain information about the background levels in feeds and feed ingredients Sample collection and analysis also in response to specific dioxin-related issues (ball clay, zinc oxide, etc.) Expensive sample collection and analysis by the GC-MS “gold” standard method compared to biological methods (e.g., CALUX) Results reported as PPT TEQs (parts per trillion toxicity equivalents) for 10 dioxin and 7 furan congeners; recently, results also reported for 3 dioxin-like PCB congeners Congener patterns can help trace sources of contamination Results will be posted on CVM’s web page; several publications are also planned. Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins and PCBs 1998 – anti-caking agents (ball clay) 2000 – animal fats, fish meal, meat and bone meal, deodorizer distillates, molasses 2001 – milk products, wood products, minerals, complete feed, vitamins, oilseed meals 2002 – minerals, forage, grains 2003 – minerals (in response to 2 contamination incidents) 2004 – animal and plant fats and oils used in animal feeds and in clays used to bleach/filter these fats/oils 2005 – rendered mammalian and poultry fats, yellow grease and filtering and bleaching agents 2006 – anti-caking agents, feed ingredients or bedding containing wood or wood products, and feed ingredients contacting or containing soil Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins and PCBs Results: Levels of dioxins in grains, grain by- products, and forages were consistently low and significantly below the EU limit for these products (0.75 ppt TEQ) PRODUCT SAMPLES RANGE (ppt TEQ) Grains n = 93 0.00 - 0.034 Grain by-products n = 49 0.00 - 0.074 Forages n = 10 0.00 - 0.046 Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins and PCBs Results: Levels of dioxins in fish meal and fish oil samples were low and below the EU limit for dioxins in these products (1.25 ppt TEQ D/F for fish meal, 6 ppt TEQ D/F for fish oil), except for menhaden fish meal and fish oil. FISH MEAL SAMPLES 1.6 1.4 Menhaden/Atlantic 1.2 Peruvian/S. America PPT TEQ 1 Herring/Canada 0.8 Sardine/Mexico 0.6 Mixed Sp/Pacific Cod/Alaska 0.4 Krill/Alaska 0.2 0 17 Dioxin and Furan (D/F) 3 PCB Congeners (nd=0) Congeners (nd=0) Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels Data may be available for some or all of the following: Specified ingredients Starting materials for ingredients Modifying contaminant levels for processing steps associated with a specific ingredient will be presented by Drs. Benjamin and Okelo Complete feed (mixed feeds, feed supplements, etc.) Information on how to use contaminant levels in feed to check or validate some aspects of the risk ranking model will be discussed by Dr. Hooberman Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels INGREDIENT CATEGORY FOR DIET CONTAMINANTS INGRED. SALMONELLA METHOXYCHLOR AFLATOXINS DIOXINS Plant Corn & corn Corn products & Corn Corn byproducts byproducts Animal Animal Milk & Spray-dried Animal products products & products & milk whey & byproducts byproducts byproducts byproducts Plants Soybeans & Soybean & Soybean Soybean meal products & soybean soybean byproducts meal byproducts byproducts Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients 3. Contaminant Levels in Ingredients for Starter, Grower and Finisher Swine Feeds Point Estimates vs. Distribution Measures Examples today use point estimates of data, usually the mean Model will use all available data, not just means: Median vs. mean; range Sample distributions and estimated population distributions May incorporate “static” representations of the distributions May use some method of random, iterative sampling from the distribution (e.g. Monte Carlo) Starter Swine Feed – Example Salmonella (% Aflatoxins (PPB) Dioxins (PPT TEQ D/F) positives) Ingredient Category % Pos Category % Pos Mean Category % Pos Mean Plant 47 7.69% Corn & corn 0.0091 Corn products & 19.44% (n=1471 Corn 50% (n=91) byproducts (n=26) byproducts ) Plant Soybeans & Soybean 7.69% 8 Soybean 0.0167 products & soybean 4.09% 100% meal, 46.5% (n=91) (n=318) meal (n=10) byproducts byproducts Select Animal Animal 72% 110 Menhaden 0.58 menhaden products & products & 1.85% 100% (n=100) (n=54) fish meal (n=22) fish meal byproducts byproducts Animal Animal Choice white 72% 110 0.3379 products & products & 1.85% Animal fats 100% grease (n=100) (n=54) (n=55) byproducts byproducts Grower Swine Feed - Example Salmonella (% Aflatoxins (PPB) Lead (PPM) positives) Ingredient % % Category % Category Mean Category Mean Pos Pos Animal Animal Animal 72% 110 0.16 Fat (animal) products & products & 1.85% products & 100% (n=100) (n=54) (n=2) byproducts byproducts byproducts All feeds & Minerals, Minerals, 16.55% 0 2.2 Limestone feed mineral 0% mineral 67% (n=145) (n=2) (n=3) ingredients premix premix All feeds & Vitamin, Vitamins, Vitamin 16.55% 0 0 feed vitamin 0% vitamin 0% premix (n=145) (n=1) (n=0) ingredients premix premix All feeds & Minerals Minerals, Trace mineral 16.55% 0 2.2 feed mineral 0% mineral 67% premix (n=145) (n=2) (n=3) ingredients premix premix Finisher Swine Feed - Example Salmonella (% Chlorpyrifos-methyl (PPM) Cadmium (PPM) positives) Ingredient Category % Category % Pos Mean Category % Pos Mean Plant Plant 7.69% 0.037 0.04 DDGS products & Corn 2.16% products & 100% (n=91) (n=972) (n=2) byproducts byproducts Plant Plant 7.69% 0.037 0.034 Corn products & Corn 2.16% products & 100% (n=91) (n=972) (n=2) byproducts byproducts All feeds & Minerals, Minerals, 16.55% 0 1.1 Limestone feed mineral 0% mineral 100% (n=145) (n=0) (n=3) ingredients premix premix All feeds & Vitamins, Vitamins, Vitamin 16.55% 0 0 feed vitamin 0% vitamin 0% premix (n=145) (n=0) (n=0) ingredients premix premix Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients – Next Steps Adjust initial contaminant levels in swine feed ingredients derived from Feed Contaminants Program data for information available in the published scientific literature Except for mycotoxins, little of the data available in the public literature is specifically for feed ingredients/feeds Where data are not available, or where data from different sources do not agree, use expert opinion to fill in the gaps or resolve discrepancies Problem – Expert opinion is not data Can determine how sensitive the risk ranking model results are to assumptions used (e.g., expert opinion); this can help identify the most critical data needed to improve the model’s results Next Presentations – Estimated levels of contaminants in swine feed Estimate levels of contaminants in feed ingredients for which no data are available (e.g. spray-dried blood), based on how processing of the starting material (e.g. animal products and byproducts) is know or predicted to affect the level of contaminants in the ingredient Estimate levels of contaminants in swine feeds, based on ingredients used and on how feed processing is know or predicted to affect levels of contaminants. Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients Questions?