When Did the United States Purchase Land from Mexico - DOC - DOC by gnq53402


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   Central Organize r:                        T    Document Based Question coordinator:
    Jillian Lynch                                    Deja Jones

   Unit I – V Multiple Choice coordinator:         Essay coordinator:
    Jillian Lynch                                    Paige Scholes

   Unit VI – X Multiple Choice coordinator:   A
    Jillian Lynch
                                        UNITED STATES HISTORY
                                              SECTION I
                                                  Time – 55 minutes
                                                    80 Questions

Directions: Each of the questions or incomp lete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or
complet ions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.

    1.   Throughout the greater part of the seventeenth                   b.   political dishonesty grew while honesty
         century, the Chesapeake colonies acquired most                        in business rose
         of the labor they needed from                                    c.   the North developed a strong sense of
              a. African slaves                                                moral superiority
              b. white servants                                           d.   the great majority of polit ical and
              c. captured Indians                                              business leaders became corrupt
              d. West Indian natives                                      e.   waste, extravagance, speculation, and
              e. prisoners of war                                              graft reduced the moral stature of the
    2.   The Bill o f Rights was intended to protect
         _________ against the potential tyranny of             6.   When extended, the Open Door policy called on
         ___________.                                                all big powers, including the Un ited States, to
             a. the prerogatives of Congress, the                         a. recognize Philippine independence at an
                  president                                                    early date
             b. the army and the navy, the national                       b. guarantee the independence of Cuba
                  government                                              c. build a Panaman ian canal
             c. the South, the northern majority                          d. observe the territorial integrity of China
             d. individual liberties, a strong central                    e. pursue further investment in China
             e. civilian authorit ies, the military             7.   In the early 1902s, the United States’
                                                                     ____________ was a glaring exception to its
    3.   The spoils system under Andrew Jackson                      general indifference to the outside world
         resulted in                                                      a. involvement in the World Court
             a. a clean sweep of federal job holders                      b. armed intervention in the Caribbean and
             b. the replacement of insecurity by                               Central A merica
                   security in employ ment                                c. eventual involvement in the League of
             c. the destruction of the personalized                            Nations
                   political mach ine                                     d. naval buildup
             d. the appointment of many corrupt and                       e. support for anticommun ist rebels
                   incompetent officials to federal jobs
             e. the same actions of those taken by John         8.   In terms of politics, television did all of the
                   Quincy Adams                                      following except
                                                                          a. threaten the traditional role of polit ical
    4.   The Wilmot Proviso, if adopted, would have                           parties
             a. prevented the taking of any territory                     b. apply the standards of show business
                fro m Mexico                                                  and commercialis m to political
             b. required Califo rnia to enter the Un ion                      messages
                as a slave state                                          c. enable political part ies to continue their
             c. overturned the Fugitive Slave Law                             role of educating mobilizing the
             d. prohibited slavery in any territory                           electorate
                acquired in the Mexican War                               d. allo w lone-wolf politicians to address
             e. All of the above                                              voters directly
                                                                          e. encourage reliance on short slogans and
    5.   As a result of the Civil War,                                        sound bites
             a. the population of the United States
9.   The climactic clash between Britain and France             c.   refuse to ignore the Constitution, even
     for control of the North A merican continent                    when tempted to do so
     sprang from their rivalry for control of                   d.   argue that the president may take any
          a. Cape Breton Island                                      action in the general interest if it is not
          b. the Ohio River Valley                                   expressly forbidden by the law
          c. the Mississippi River                              e.   appeal to the people over the head of
          d. the Great Lakes                                         Congress
          e. the St. Lawrence River
                                                        15. The Federal Farm Board, created by the
10. The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in                  Agricultural Market ing Act, lent money to
    southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal              farmers primarily to help them to
    government                                                  a. organize producers’ cooperatives
        a. levied an excise tax on wh iskey                     b. learn a new and more profitable trade
        b. tried to prohibit the sale of whiskey                c. open new land to cultivation
        c. allo wed the import of foreign whiskey               d. purchase expensive new farm
        d. halted the export of A merican whiskey                    mach inery
        e. tried to prohibit the manufacturing of               e. take land out of production
                                                        16. When it came to welfare p rograms, Richard
11. One of the positive aspects of the Bank of the          Nixon
    United States was                                           a. sought to exclude African-A mericans
        a. its officers’’ awareness of the bank’s               b. tried to repeal only food stamps and
             responsibilit ies to society                           Medicaid
        b. its preservation of the public trust                 c. did little to reduce the poverty rate
        c. its promotion of econo mic expansion by              d. did his best to do away with Lyndon
             making credit abundant                                 Johnson’s Great Society programs
        d. its issuance of depreciated paper money              e. supported significant expansion in
        e. that it loaned money to western farmers                  many areas

12. The key issue for the major parties in the 1848     17. The Proclamat ion of 1763 was issued mainly to
    presidential election was                                   a. oppress the colonists
        a. personalities                                        b. punish the Indians
        b. slavery                                              c. show the power of Parliament
        c. expansion                                            d. allo w western settlement by the
        d. Indian removal                                           colonists
        e. the economy                                          e. work out a fair settlement of the Indian
13. The railroad of 1877 started when
        a. President Hayes refused to use troops to     18. The Sedition Act
             keep the trains running                            a. threatened First Amendment freedoms
        b. the four largest railroads cut salaries by           b. established criteria for deporting
             ten percent                                            dangerous foreigners
        c. working hours were cut back by the                   c. changed naturalizat ion requirements for
             railroad co mpanies                                    new cit izens
        d. the railroad workers refused to cross the            d. was never enforced
             picket lines of cargo loaders                      e. was found by the Supreme Court to be
        e. the railroads tried to hire Chinese                      unconstitutional
                                                        19. When the Irish flocked to the United States in
14. While president, Teddy Roosevelt did all of the         the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard
    following except                                        cities because they
         a. condemn the law and the courts as too                a. preferred urban life
            slow                                                 b. were offered high-paying jobs
         b. disregard the checks and balances                    c. were welcomed by the people living
            among the three branches of                               there
        d.   were too poor to move west and buy                 b.   the United States Army was forced to
             land                                                    give dishonorable discharges to more
        e.   had experience in u rban politics                       than one hundred officers
                                                                c.   the State Department lost a number of
20. In ruling on the Dred Scott case, the United                     Asian specialists who might have
    States Supreme Court                                             counseled a wiser course in Vietnam
         a. hoped to stimulate further debate on the            d.   Eisenhower nearly lost the Republican
              slavery issue                                          presidential nomination in 1956
         b. held that slave-owners could not take               e.   the U.S. achieved a stronger settlement
              slaves into free territories                           in Korea
         c. supported the concept of popular
              sovereignty                              25. One of the traits that made Quakers unpopular in
         d. reunited the Democratic party                  England was
         e. expected to lay to rest the issue of               a. their refusal to do military service
              slavery in the territories                       b. the high pay given their clergy
                                                               c. their support of slavery
21. The United States changed to standard time                 d. their vio lent treatment of their enemies
    zones when                                                 e. their refusal to hold public office
        a. Congress passed a law establishing this
            system                                     26. The case of Marbury v. Madison involved the
        b. the major rail lines decreed the division       question of who had the right to
            of the continent into four time zones so           a. commit the Un ited States to entangling
            that they could keep schedules and                      alliances
            avoid wrecks                                       b. impeach federal officers fo r “high
        c. factories demanded standard time                         scrims and misdemeanors”
            schedules                                          c. declare an act of Congress
        d. long-distance telephones required                        unconstitutional
            standard time coordination                         d. purchase foreign territory for the United
        e. all of the above                                         States
                                                               e. appoint Supreme Court justices
22. Progressive reformers were mainly men and
    wo men fro m the                                   27. The first major transportation project linking the
        a. middle class                                    East to the trans-Allegheny West was the
        b. lower class                                         a. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
        c. upper class                                         b. National (Cu mberland) Road
        d. new wave of immig rants                             c. Erie Canal
        e. small towns                                         d. St. Lawrence Seaway
                                                               e. Lancaster Turnpike
23. In 1932 Fran klin Roosevelt campaigned on the
    promise that as president he would attack the      28. The panic of 1857 resulted in
    Great Depression by                                        a. a demand to end the government policy
         a. nationalizing all banks and major                      of giving away farmland
             industries                                        b. the extension of slavery to the territories
         b. mobilizing A merica’s youth as in                  c. price supports for farmers
             wartime                                           d. calls for restriction on land and stock
         c. returning to the traditional policies of               speculation
             laissez-faire capitalis m                         e. clamor for a higher tariff
         d. continuing the policies already
             undertaken by President Hoover            29. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was at first
         e. experimenting with bold new programs           primarily used to curb the power of
             for economic and social reform                    a. manufacturing corporations
                                                               b. labor unions
24. As a result of Senator McCarthy’s crusade                  c. state legislatures
    against commun ist subversion in A merica                  d. railroad corporations
        a. the FBI was shown to have had several               e. banking syndicates
             spies working as commun ist agents
30. The public outcry after the horrib le Triangle     35. Women became especially act ive in the social
    Shirt waist fire led many states to pass               reforms stimulated by the Second Great
         a. mandatory fire escape plans for all            Awakening because
              businesses employing mo re than ten               a. evangelical religion emphasized their
              people                                                spiritual dignity and religious social
         b. safety regulations and workmen’s                        reform leg itimized their activity outside
              compensation laws for job in juries                   the home
         c. restrictions on female emp loyment in               b. they refused to accept the idea that there
              the clothing industry                                 was a special female role in society
         d. zoning regulations governing where                  c. they were looking to obtain as much
              factories could be located                            power as possible
         e. laws guaranteeing unions the right to               d. many of the leading preachers and
              raise safety concerns                                 evangelists were wo men
                                                                e. they saw the churches as the first
31. The Social Security Act of 935 provided all of                  institutions that needed to be reformed
    the following except
         a. unemploy ment insurance                    36. The Border States offered all of the following
         b. old-age pensions                               advantages except
         c. economic provisions for the blind and              a. a large population
             disabled                                          b. a good supply of horses and mules
         d. support for the blind and physically               c. valuable manufacturing capacity
             handicapped                                       d. shipbuilding facilit ies
         e. health care for the poor                           e. large navigable rivers

32. President Eisenhower’s “New Loo k” foreign         37. The major factor in drawing country people off
    policy in the 1950s planned for                        the farms and into the big cities was
         a. the dismantling of the military-                    a. the development of the skyscraper
              industrial co mplex                               b. the availability of industrial jobs
         b. massive new military spending                       c. the compact nature of those large
         c. greater reliance on air power and the                   communit ies
              deterrent power of nuclear weapons                d. the advent of new housing structures
         d. a buildup of unconventional and                         known as dumbbell tenements
              guerrilla -warfare forces                         e. the lure of cultural excitement
         e. the rapid deployment of the navy and
              marines to trouble spots                 38. As World War I began in Europe, the alliance
                                                           system placed Germany and Austria-Hungary in
33. Arrange these events in chronological order: (A)       the ________, while Russia and France were in
    Boston Massacre, (B) To wnshend Acts, (C) Tea          the __________.
    Act, (D) Intolerab le Acts.                                 a. Central Powers; Holy Alliance
        a. A, B, C, D                                           b. Central Powers; Trip le Alliance
        b. D, B, C, A                                           c. Allies; Central Powers
        c. C, B, D, A                                           d. Trip le Alliance; Central Powers
        d. B, A , C, D                                          e. Central Powers; Allies
        e. A, C, D, B
                                                       39. President Franklin Roosevelt’s foreign-trade
34. Lewis and Clark’s e xpedition through the              policy
    Louisiana Purchase territory yielded all of the             a. lowered tariffs to increase trade
    following except                                            b. encouraged trade only with Latin
         a. rich harvest of scientific observations                 America
         b. treaties with several Indian nations                c. continued the policy that had persisted
         c. maps                                                    since the Civil War
         d. hair-raising adventure stories                      d. was reversed only after World War II
         e. knowledge of the Indians of the region              e. sought protection for key U.S.
40. The Cuban missile crisis resulted in all of the   45. Labor unions favored immigrat ion restriction
    following except                                      because most immigrants were all of the
         a. U.S. agreement to abandon the                 following except
            American base at Guantanamo                        a. opposed to factory labor
         b. the removal of Nikita Kh rushchev fro m            b. used as strikebreakers
            power in the Soviet Union                          c. willing to wo rk for lower wages
         c. a U.S. pro mise not to invade Cuba                 d. difficult to unionize
         d. an amb itious program o f military                 e. non-English speaking
            expansion by the Soviet Union
         e. withdrawal of U.S. missiles in Turkey     46. The Progressive “Bull Moose” party died when
                                                              a. Teddy Roosevelt refused to run as the
41. One purpose of the Declaration of Independence                party’s presidential candidate in 1916
    was to                                                    b. Teddy Roosevelt lost the presidential
        a. warn other nations to stay out of the                  race in 1916
            Revolution                                        c. the United States entered World War I
        b. ask for an end to slavery                          d. the Republican candidate, Charles
        c. appeal for fairer treat ment by                        Evans Hughes, advocated the same
            Parliament                                            programs as Roosevelt
        d. explain to the rest of the world why the           e. Woodrow Wilson won over most Bull
            colonies had revolted                                 Moose voters
        e. condemn Parliament for its actions
                                                      47. America’s neutrality effectively ended when
42. The battle of Tippecanoe resulted in                     a. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
        a. defeat of the British                             b. Germany attacked Po land
        b. a Shawnee loss and a Creek victory                c. the conscription law was passed in 1940
        c. a declaration of war by the United                d. France fell to Germany
             States on Great Britain                         e. Italy “stabbed France in the back”
        d. the expulsion of the British fro m
             Florida                                  48. During Ronald Reagan’s presidency, United
        e. William Henry Harrison becoming a              States troops invaded
             national hero                                     a. Cuba
                                                               b. Nicaragua
43. “Civil Disobedience,” an essay that later                  c. Grenada
    influenced both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin                  d. El Salvador
    Luther King, Jr., was written by the                       e. all of the above
         a. Louisa May Alcott                         49. The major issue that delayed ratification of the
         b. Ralph Waldo Everson                           Articles of Confederation concerned
         c. James Fen imore Cooper                             a. taxat ion
         d. Margaret Fuller                                    b. tariff policy
         e. Henry Dav id Thoreau                               c. monetary policy
                                                               d. western lands
44. The Southern cause was weakened by                         e. monetary standards
        a. the concept of states’ rights that the
            Confederacy professed                     50. When the United States entered the War of 1812,
        b. a president, Jefferson Davis, who              it was
            catered to public opinion and did not              a. militarily unprepared
            work hard at his job                               b. allied with France
        c. the failu re of the Southern people to              c. united in support of the war
            commit to the ideal of Southern                    d. fortunate to have a strong and assertive
            independence                                          commander in chief
        d. a lack of sound military leadership                 e. New England that pushed for the
        e. the constant threat of slave rebellion                 conflict
51. Most white southerners were                                c.   secured passage of the Voting Rights
       a. planter aristocrats                                       Act
       b. small slave-owners                                   d.   journeyed south to support the
       c. merchants and artisans                                    registration of black voters
       d. “poor white trash”                                   e.   ordered the immediate desegregation of
       e. non slave-owning subsistence farmers                      schools

52. In the Civil War, the South won the battle of      57. Shays’ Rebellion was provoked by
         a. Vicksburg                                          a. fear that the Articles of Confederation
         b. Bull Run                                               had created too strong a national
         c. Gettysburg                                             government for the Un ited States
         d. Atlanta                                            b. efforts by wealthy merchants to replace
         e. Lookout Mountain                                       the Articles of Confederation
                                                               c. a quarrel over the boundary between
53. By 1900, advocates of women’s suffrage                         Massachusetts and Vermont
        a. argued that women’s biology gave them               d. foreclosures on the mortgages of
            a fundamentally different character                    backcountry farmers
            fro m men                                          e. the government’s failure to pay bonuses
        b. temporarily abandoned the movement                      to Revolutionary War veterans
            for the vote
        c. formed strong alliances with African-       58. The Era of Good Feelings
            Americans seeking voting rights                    a. was characterized by the absence of any
        d. argued that the vote would enable                       serious problems
            wo men to extend their ro les as mothers           b. was noted for cooperation between the
            and homemakers to the public world                     Democratic and Republican part ies
        e. insisted on the inherent political and              c. marked a temporary end to sectionalism
            moral equality of men and wo men                   d. was a troubled period
                                                               e. saw the start of the Whig party
54. The United States declared war on Germany
        a. in response to demands by American          59. Arrange the following in chronological order:
            munit ions makers                              (A) the founding of the American Colonizat ion
        b. as a result of treaty obligations               Society, (B) A merican Anti-Slavery Society, (C)
        c. because Wall Street bankers demanded            Liberty party
            it                                                  a. A, B, C
        d. after Mexico signed an alliance with                 b. C, A, B
            Germany                                             c. B, C, A
        e. after German U-boats sank four                       d. A, C, B
            unarmed A merican merchant vessels                  e. C, B, A

55. The conquest of _________ was especially           60. Slavery was legally abolished in the Un ited
    important, because from there A mericans could         States by the
    conduct round-trip bombing raids on the                     a. Union victory over the Confederates at
    Japanese home islands.                                          Gettysburg
        a. Guadalcanal                                          b. surrender terms of Robert E. Lee to
        b. Wake Island                                              Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox
        c. New Gu inea                                          c. Emancipation Proclamation
        d. Okinawa                                              d. statutes of the individual states
        e. Guam                                                 e. Thirteenth Amend ment to the
56. John Kennedy joined hands with the civil rights
    movement when he                                   61. The buffalo were nearly exterminated
        a. sent federal marshals to protect the                a. as a result of being overhunted by the
            Freedom Riders                                         Indians
        b. ordered the FBI to remove the wiretap               b. by the trains racing across the Great
            fro m Mart in Luther King, Jr.’s phone                 Plains
        c.     when their meat became valued in                 e.   Buttemuts
               eastern markets
        d.     by disease                               67. Texas was annexed to the United States as a
        e.     through wholesale butchery by whites         result of
                                                                a. Senate approval of the Treaty of
62. Woodrow Wilson’s ultimate goal at the Paris                       Annexation
    Peace Conference was to                                     b. President Tyler’s desire to help his
        a. stop the spread of commun ism                              troubled admin istration
        b. blame no one for starting the war                    c. a presidential order by Andrew Jackson
        c. force Germany to pay reparations for                 d. the Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo
            the war                                             e. a compro mise to admit free-state Iowa
        d. establish the League of Nat ions                           at the same time
        e. create new national states in Europe
                                                        68. President Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction
63. The spending of enormous sums on the original               a. differed radically fro m Lincoln’s
    atomic bomb pro ject was spurred by the belief              b. guaranteed former slaves the right to
    that                                                             vote
         a. nuclear weapon was the only way to                  c. required that all former Confederate
            win the war                                              states ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
         b. the Germans might acquire such a                    d. establish literacy tests for voting in the
            weapon first                                             South
         c. the Japanese were at work on an ato mic             e. took away the right to vote fro m
            bomb project of their o wn                               Confederate leaders and wealthy
         d. scientists like Albert Einstein might be                 planters
            lost to the war effort
         e. The American public would not tolerate      69. One problem with the Ho mestead Act was that
            the casualties that would result fro m a            a. public land was sold for revenue
            land invasion of Japan                              b. 160 acres were inadequate for
                                                                    productive farming on the rain-scarce
64. The landmark Civ il Rights Act of 1964                          Great Plains
    accomplished all of the following except                    c. Midwestern farmers had to give up
        a. creation of the Equal Emp loyment                        raising livestock because of stiff
            Opportunity Commission                                  competition with the West
        b. prohibiting discrimination based on                  d. the railroads purchased most of this
            gender                                                  land
        c. banning sexual as well as racial                     e. it took several years to earn a profit
            discrimination                                          fro m farming
        d. banning racial d iscrimination in most
            private facilities open to the public       70. The Immigration Act of 1924 was formu lated to
        e. requiring “affirmat ive action” against          impose immigration quotas based on
            discrimination                                      a. economic skills
                                                                b. literacy
65. In 1775,   most of the population in the American           c. religious beliefs
    colonies                                                    d. nationality
         a.    lived east of the Allegheny Mountains            e. family status
         b.    lived in rural areas
         c.    was under twenty-five years of age       71. The feminist revolt of the 1960s was sparked by
         d.    was of predominantly English stock               a. the continued exclusion of most women
         e.    was of non-English stock                             fro m the workp lace
                                                                b. growing do mination of the service
66. Settlers fro m the South who moved into the Old                 sector of the economy, where most
    Northwest territory were known as                               wo men were emp loyed, by the
         a. Yankees                                                 industrial and manufacturing sectors
         b. carpet baggers                                      c. Congress’s failu re to pass the Equal
         c. planters                                                Rights Amendment
         d. slave holders
        d.   a clash between the demands of the          76. The Black Codes provided for all of the
             traditional role of wo men as wives and         following except
             mothers and the realit ies of employ ment            a. a ban on jury service by blacks
        e.   dismay at the image o f wo men in                    b. punishment of blacks for idleness
             advertising                                          c. a bar on blacks fro m renting land
                                                                  d. voting by blacks
72. By the 1990s the traditional family unit was                  e. fines for b lacks who ju mped labor contracts
    disintegrating because
         a. the divorce rate had increased               77. The Depression of the 1890s and episodes like
         b. the number of single-parent households           the Pullman Strike made the election of 1896
             had risen                                       shape up as
         c. parent-substitutes had assumed the role               a. a battle between down-and-out workers and
             of child -rearing                                        farmers and establishment conservatives
         d. the family no longer served many of its               b. a conflict between the insurgent
             traditional social functions                             Populists and the two established
         e. all of the above                                          political parties
                                                                  c. a sectional conflict with the West
73. Under the Articles of Confederation                               aligned against the Northeast and South
       a. a unicameral Congress was to be the                     d. a contest over the power of the federal
            chief agency of national government                       government to manage a modern
       b. there was no executive branch of                            industrial economy like the United
            national government                                       States
       c. each state remained essentially                         e. a clash of cultures between ordinary
            sovereign                                                 middle-class Americans and European-
       d. major legislat ion required a t wo-thirds                   oriented radicals and reformers
            vote to pass Congress
       e. a strong national judiciary was                78. The trial of John Scopes in 1925 centered on the
            established                                      issue of
                                                                 a. progressive education
74. At the time it was issued, the Monroe Doctrine               b. schools’ efforts to create socially useful adults
    was                                                          c. teachers’ membership in the Ku Klu x Klan
        a. incapable of being enforced by the                    d. teaching evolution in public schools
             United States                                       e. prayer in the public schools
        b. greeted with enthusiasm and gratitude
             in South America                            79. The origins of the Co ld War lay in a fundamental
        c. universally acclaimed in Britain as a             disagreement between the United States and the
             great act of statesmanship                      Soviet Union over postwar arrangements in
        d. welco med with relief by European                     a. North Africa
             powers who feared British power in the              b. East Asia
             Western Hemisphere                                  c. the Middle East
        e. opposed by the Whig party                             d. the Third World
                                                                 e. Eastern Eu rope
75. When the war with Mexico began, President
    James K. Polk                                        80. During the Vietnam War, President Lyndon
        a. advocated taking all of Mexico                    Johnson ordered the CIA, in clear v iolation of its
        b. found that he could trust dethroned               charter, to
            Mexican dictator Santa Anna                          a. lead an invasion of Cambodia
        c. hoped to fight a limited war, ending                  b. spy on domestic antiwar protestors
            with the conquest of California                      c. infiltrate FBI headquarters
        d. supported a large-scale conflict                      d. help destabilize the government of Thailand
        e. denied any intention of expanding                     e. protect pro-war presidential candidates

                                          END OF SECTION I
                                          UNITED STATES HISTORY
                                                SECTION II
                                                         Part A
                                         (Suggested wri ting ti me – 45 minutes)
                                            Percent of Secti on II score – 45

Directions: The fo llo wing question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of
Documents A-H and your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. High scores will be earned only by
essays that both cite key pieces of evidence fro m the documents and draw on outside knowledge of the period.

1.   Using your knowledge of the era and the follo wing documents, assess the impact of the Civ il Rights Movement
     on society and legislation of the late 20th century.

                                                         Document A
Source: Transcript of Executive Order 10730: Desegregation of Central High S chool (1957)



WHEREAS on September 23, 1957, I issued Proclamation No.3204 reading in part as follows:

"WHEREAS certain persons in the state of Arkansas, individually and in unlawful assemblages, combinations, and
conspiracies, have willfully obstructed the enforcement of orders of the United States District Court for the Eastern
District of Arkansas with respect to matters relating to enrollment and attendance at public schools, particularly at
Central High School, located in Little Rock School District, Little Rock, Arkansas; and

"WHEREAS such willful obstruction of d justice hinders the execution of the laws of that State and of the United States,
and makes it impracticable to enforce such laws by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings; and

"WHEREAS such obstruction of justice constitutes a denial of the equal protection of the laws secured by the
Constitution of the United States and impedes the course of justice under those laws:

"NOW, THEREFORE, I, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, President of the United States, under and by virtue of the
authority vested in me by the Constitution and Statutes of the United States, including Chapter 15 of Title 10 of the
United States Code, particularly sections 332, 333 and 334 thereof, do command all persons engaged in such
obstruction of justice to cease and desist therefrom, and to disperse forthwith;" and

WHEREAS the command contained in that Proclamation has not been obeyed and willful obstruction of enforcement of
said court orders still exists and threatens to continue:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and Statutes of the United States,
including Chapter 15 of Title 10, particularly sections 332, 333 and 334 thereof, and section 301 of Title 3 of the United
States Code, It is hereby ordered as follows:

SECTION 1. I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of Defense to order into the active military service of the
United States as he may deem appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Order, any or all of the units of the National
Guard of the United States and of the Air National Guard of the United States within the State of Arkansas to serve in
the active military service of the United States for an indefinite period and until relieved by appropriate orders.

SEC. 2. The Secretary of Defense is authorized and directed to take all a ppropriate steps to enforce any orders of the
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas for the removal of obstruction of justice in the State of
Arkansas with respect to matters relating to enrollment and attendance at public schoo ls in the Little Rock School
District, Little Rock, Arkansas. In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Secretary of Defense is authorized to
use the units, and members thereof, ordered into the active military service of the United States pursua nt to Section 1
of this Order.

SEC. 3. In furtherance of the enforcement of the aforementioned orders of the United States District Court for the
Eastern District of Arkansas, the Secretary of Defense is authorized to use such of the armed forces of the United
States as he may deem necessary.
SEC. 4. The Secretary of Defense is authorized to delegate to the Secretary of the Army or the Secretary of the Air
Force, or both, any of the authority conferred upon him by this Order.

September 24, 1957.


                                           Document B
Source: Excerpt from Brown v. Board of Education ruling (1954)
We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate
educational facilities are inherently unequal. Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs and others similarly situated for whom
the actions have been brought are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the
laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment. This disposition makes unnecessary any discussion whether such
segregation also violates the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Because these are class actions, because of the wide applicability of this decision, and because of the great variety of
local conditions, the formulation of decrees in these cases presents problems of considerable complexity. On
reargument, the consideration of appropriate relief was necessarily subordinated to the primary question -- the
constitutionality of segregation in public education. We have now announced that such segregation is a denial of the
equal protection of the laws. In order that we may have the full assistance of the parties in formulating decrees, the
cases will be restored to the docket, and the parties are requested to present further argument on Questions 4 and 5
previously propounded by the Court for the reargument this Term The Attorney General of the United States is again
invited to participate. The Attorneys General of the states requiring or permitting segregation in public education will
also be permitted to appear as amici curiae upon request to do so by September 1 5, 1954, and submission of briefs by
October 1, 1954.

It is so ordered.


                                             Document C
Source: Transcript of Executive Order 9981: De segregation of the Armed Force s (1948)
Establishing the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity In the Armed Forces.

WHEREAS it is essential that there be maintained in the armed services of the United States the highest standards of
democracy, with equality of treatment and opportunity for all those who serve in our country's defense:

NOW THEREFORE, b y virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, by the Constitution and
the statutes of the United States, and as Commander in Chief of the armed services, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1. It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all
persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin. This policy shall be put into effect
as rapidly as possible, having due regard to the time required to effectuate any necessary changes without impairing
efficiency or morale.

2. There shall be created in the National Military Establishment an advisory committee to be known as the President's
Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, which shall be composed of seven
members to be designated by the President.

3. The Committee is authorized on behalf of the President to examine into the rules, procedures and practices of the
Armed Services in order to determine in what respect such rules, procedures and practices may be altered or improved
with a view to carrying out the policy of this order. The Committee shall confer and advise the Secretary of Defense, the
Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Air Force, and shall make such
recommendations to the President and to said Secretaries as in the ju dgment of the Committee will effectuate the
policy hereof.

4. All e xecutive departments and agencies of the Federal Government are authorized and directed to cooperate with
the Committee in its work, and to furnish the Committee such information or the services of such persons as the
Committee may require in the performance of its duties.

5. When requested by the Committee to do so, persons in the armed services or in any of the e xecutive departments
and agencies of the Federal Governemt shall testify before the Committee and shall make available for use of the
Committee such documents and other information as the Committee may require.

6. The Committee shall continue to exist until such time as the President shall terminate its existence by Executive

Harry Truman
The White House
July 26, 1948


                                             Document D
Source: Excerpt from Transcript of Voting Rights Act (1965)

SEC. 2. No voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practi ce, or procedure shall be imposed or applied
by any State or political subdivision to deny or abridge the right of any citi zen of the United States to vote on account of
race or color.

SEC. 3. (a) Whenever the Attorne y General institutes a proceeding under any statute to enforce the guarantees of the
fifteenth amendment in any State or political subdivision the court shall authorize the appointment of Federal examiners
by the United States Civil Service Commission in accordance with section 6 to serve for s uch period of time and for
such political subdivisions as the court shall determine is appropriate to enforce the guarantees of the fifteenth
amendment (1) as part of any interlocutory order if the court determines that the appointment of such examiners is
necessary to enforce such guarantees or (2) as part of any final judgment if the court finds that violations of the
fifteenth amendment justifying equitable relief have occurred in such State or subdivision: Provided, That the court
need not authorize the appointment of examiners if any incidents of denial or abridgement of the right to vote on
account of race or color (1) have been few in number and have been promptly and effectively corrected by State or
local action, (2) the continuing effect of such incidents has been eliminated, and (3) there is no reasonable probability
of their recurrence in the future.

(b) If in a proceeding instituted by the Attorney General under any statute to enforce the guarantees of the fifteenth
amendment in any State or political subdivision the court finds that a test or device has been used for the purpose or
with the effect of denying or abridging the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color, it
shall suspend the use of tests and devices in such State or political subdivisions as the court shall determine is
appropriate and for such period as it deems necessary.

(c) If in any proceeding instituted by the Attorney General under any statute to enforce the guarantees of the fifteenth
amendment in any State or political subdivision the court finds that violations of the fifteenth amendment justifying
equitable relief have occurred within the territory of such State or political subdivision, the court, in addition to such
relief as it may grant, shall retain jurisdiction for such period as it may deem appropriate and during such period no
voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure with respect to voting different from tha t
in force or effect at the time the proceeding was commenced shall be enforced unless and until the court finds that
such qualification, prerequisite, standard, practice, or procedure does not have the purpose and will not have the effect
of denying or abridging the right to vote on account of race or color: Provided, That such qualification, prerequisite,
standard, practice, or procedure may be enforced if the qualification, prerequisite, standard, practice, or procedure has
been submitted by the chief legal officer or other appropriate official of such State or subdivision to the Attorney
General and the Attorney General has not interposed an objection within sixty days after such submission, except that
neither the court's finding nor the Attorne y General's failure to object shall bar a subsequent action to enjoin
enforcement of such qualification, prerequisite, standard, practice, or procedure.

SEC. 4. (a) To assure that the right of citizens of the United States to vote is not denied or abridged on account of race
or color, no citizen shall be denied the right to vote in any Federal, State, or local election because of his failure to
comply with any test or device in any State with respect to which the determinations have been made under subsection
(b) or in any political subdivision with respect to which such determinations have been made as a separate unit, unless
the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in an action for a declaratory judgment brought by such
State or subdivision against the United States has determined that no such test or device has been used during the five
years preceding the filing of the action for the purpose or with the effect of denying or abridging the right to vote on
account of race or color: Provided, That no such declaratory judgment s hall issue with respect to any plaintiff for a
period of five years after the entry of a final judgment of any court of the United States, other than the denial of a
declaratory judgment under this section, whether entered prior to or after the enactment o f this Act, determining that
denials or abridgments of the right to vote on account of race or color through the use of such tests or devices have
occurred anywhere in the territory of such plaintiff. An action pursuant to this subsection shall be heard and determined
by a court of three judges in accordance with the provisions of section 2284 of title 28 of the United States Code and
any appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court. The court shall retain jurisdiction of any action pursuant to this subsection
for five years after judgment and shall reopen the action upon motion of the Attorney General alleging that a test or
device has been used for the purpose or with the effect of denying or abridging the right to vote on account of race or

                                              Document E
Source: Excerpt from Transcript of Civil Rights Act (1964)

SEC. 301. (a) Whenever the Attorney General receives a complaint in writing signed by an individual to the effect that
he is being deprived of or threatened with the loss of his right to the equal protection of the laws, on account of his
race, color, religion, or national origin, by being denied equal utilization of any public facility which is owned, operated,
or managed by or on behalf of any State or subdivision thereof, other than a public school or public college as defined
in section 401 of title IV hereof, and the Attorney General believes the complaint is meritorious and certifies that the
signer or signers of such complaint are unable, in his judgment, to initiate and maintain appropriate legal proceedings
for relief and that the institution of an action will m aterially further the orderly progress of desegregation in public
facilities, the Attorney General is authorized to institute for or in the name of the United States a civil action in any
appropriate district court of the United States against such parties and for such relief as may be appropriate, and such
court shall have and shall exercise jurisdiction of proceedings instituted pursuant to this section. The Attorney General
may implead as defendants such additional parties as are or become necessary to the grant of effective relief

(b) The Attorney General may deem a person or persons unable to initiate and maintain appropriate legal proceedings
within the meaning of subsection

(a) of this section when such person or persons are unable, either directly or through other interested persons or
organizations, to bear the expense of the litigation or to obtain effective legal representation; or whenever he is
satisfied that the institution of such litigation would jeopardize the personal safety, empl oyment, or economic standing
of such person or persons, their families, or their property.

SEC. 302. In any action or proceeding under this title the United States shall be liable for costs, including a reasonable
attorney's fee, the same as a private pers on.

SEC. 303. Nothing in this title shall affect adversely the right of any person to sue for or obtain relief in any court
against discrimination in any facility co vered by this title.

SEC. 304. A complaint as used in this title is a writing or document w ithin the meaning of section 1001, title 18, United
States Code.

SEC. 401. As used in this title--

(a) "Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Education.

(b) "Desegregation" means the assignment of students to public schools and within such schools without regard to their
race, color, religion, or national origin, but "desegregation" shall not mean the assignment of students to public schools
in order to overcome racial imbalance.
(c) "Public school" means any elementary or secondary educational institution, and "public college" means any
institution of higher education or any technical or vocational school above the secondary school level, provided that
such public school or public college is operated by a State, subdivision of a State, or governmental agency within a
State, or operated wholly or predominantly from or through the use of governmental funds or property, or funds or
property derived from a governmental source.

(d) "School board" means any agency or agencies which administer a system of one or more public schools and any
other agency which is responsible for the assignment of students to or within such system.


SEC. 402. The Commissioner shall conduct a survey and make a report to the President and the Congress, within two
years of the enactment of this title, concerning the lack of availability of equal educational opportunities for individuals
by reason of race, color, religion, or national origin in public educational institutions at all levels in the United States, its
territories and possessions, and the District of Columbia.


                       Document F- 101st Airborne Unit escorting the Little Rock Nine to class (1957)

              Document G- Fire hoses being used against protesters in Birmingham, A L (1963)

http://i165.photobucket.com/albums/u51/vkr_bibin/ Life/Birmingham-3.jpg
                                                   Document H
Source: Statement by White Clergymen in the Birmingham News against Civil Rights Marches (1963)

       We the undersigned clergymen are among those who, in January, issued “An Appeal for Law and
Order and Common Sense,” in dealing with racial problems in Alabama. We expressed understanding that
honest convictions in racial matters could properly be pursued in the courts, but urged that decisions of
those courts should in the meantime be peacefully obeyed.
    Since that time there had been some evidence of increased forbearance and a willingness to face facts.
Responsible citizens have undertaken to work on various problems which cause racial friction and unrest. In
Birmingham, recent public events have given indication that we all have opportunity for a new constructive
and realistic approach to racial problems.
    However, we are now confronted by a series of demonstrations by some o f our Negro citizens, directed
and led in part by outsiders. We recognize the natural impatience of people who feel that their hopes are
slow in being realized. But we are convinced that these demonstrations are unwise and untimely.
    We agree rather with certain local Negro leadership which has called for honest and open negotiation of
racial issues in our area. And we believe this kind of facing of issues can best be accomplished by citizens
of our own metropolitan area, white and Negro, meeting with their knowledge and experience of the local
situation. All of us need to face that responsibility and find proper channels for its accomplishment.
    Just as we formerly pointed out that “hatred and violence have no sanction in our religious and political
traditions,” we also point out that such actions as incite to hatred and violence, however technically peaceful
those actions may be, have not contributed to the resolution of our local problems. We do not believe that
these days of new hope are days when extreme measures are justified in Birmingham.
    We commend the community as a whole, and the local news media and law enforcement in particular, on
the calm manner in which these demonstrations have been handled. We urge the public to continue to show
restraint should the demonstrations continue, and the law enforcement official to remain calm and continue
to protect our city from violence.
    We further strongly urge our own Negro community to withdraw support from these demonstrations, and
to unite locally in working peacefully for a better Birmingham. When rights are consistently denied, a cause
should be pressed in the courts and in negotiations among local leaders, and not in the streets. We appeal
to both our white and Negro citizenry to observe the principles of law and order and common sense.

Bishop C.C.J. Carpenter, D.D., LL.D., Episcopalian Bishop of Alabama
Bishop Joseph A. Durick, D.D., Au xiliary Bishop, Roman Catholic
Diocese of Mobile, Birmingham
Rabbi Milton L. Grafman, Temple Emanu-El, Birmingham, Alabama
Bishop Paul Hardin, Methodist Bishop of the Alabama-West Florida Conference
Bishop Nolan B. Harmon, Bishop of the North Alabama Conference of the
Methodist Church
Rev. George M. Murray, D.D., LL.D, Bishop Coadjutor,Episcopal Diocese of Alabama
Rev. Edward V. Ramage, Moderator, Synod of the Alabama Presbyterian
Church in the United States
Rev. Earl Stallings, Pastor, First Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama...


                            END OF DOCUMENTS FOR QUESTION 1
                                        UNITED STATES HISTORY
                                              SECTION II
                                                  Part B and Part C
                             (Suggested total pl anning and writi ng ti me – 70 minutes)
                                          Percent of Secti on II score – 55

                                                        Part B

Directions: Choose ONE question from this part. You are advised to spend 5 minut es planning and 30 minutes
writing your answer. Cite relevant historical ev idence in support of your generalizat ions and present your arguments
clearly and logically.

2.   For the period before 1750, analyze the ways in wh ich Britain’s policy of salutary neglect influenced the
     development of A merican society as illustrated in the following.
             Legislative assemblies
             Commerce
             Religion

3.   Discuss the impact of the “transportation revolution,” 1820 – 1860, on the Un ited States.
                                                       Part C

Directions: Choose ONE question from this part. You are advised to spend 5 minutes planning and 30 minutes
writing your answer. Cite relevant historical ev idence in support of your generalizat ions and present your arguments
clearly and logically.

4.   In what ways did economic conditions and developments in the arts and entertainment help create the reputation
     of the 1920's as the Roaring Twenties?

5.   Assess the success of the United States policy of containment in Asia between 1945 and 1975.

                                            END OF EXAMINATION

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