Docstoc

New Mexico First Offender Law Criminal Record Removal

Document Sample
New Mexico First Offender Law Criminal Record Removal Powered By Docstoc
					                      DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS
             IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, 4TH ED.

Preface: Goin’ to the Crossroads of Immigration and Criminal Law (and beyond) ..................v
Dedication.................................................................................................................................xi
Acknowledgments ..................................................................................................................xiii
Abbreviations.......................................................................................................................xxxv
Table of Decisions ................................................................................................................541
Index .....................................................................................................................................555

Chapter One: An Overview of Basic Immigration Terms and the Immigration
Law System ..............................................................................................................................1
Who (or What) Is Your Client? An Introduction to Statuses....................................................1
       The American Citizen ..................................................................................................2
            The Lawful Permanent Resident (“Green Card” Holder) ............................................3
            The Nonimmigrant Visa Holder...................................................................................3
                 Tourists and temporary workers without visas from the Caribbean, Canada, and
                Mexico ......................................................................................................................4
                   The Visa Waiver Program (tourists without visas) ...............................................4
                Other Protective Categories ......................................................................................5
                   Refugees and asylees.............................................................................................5
                   Temporary protected status ...................................................................................7
                   Parole.....................................................................................................................7
                   Deferred action......................................................................................................8
                   Order of supervision..............................................................................................9
                No Status: Present Without Inspection or Admission, or Overstay ..........................9
            Other Useful Terms....................................................................................................10
              Notice to Appear.....................................................................................................10
                I-94 .........................................................................................................................10
                Visa.........................................................................................................................11
                Employment Authorization Document...................................................................11
            Authority over Immigration Law Enforcement: A Look at the Government
             Agencies .................................................................................................................11
             The Department of Homeland Security ..................................................................11
                   An arrest at the border.........................................................................................13
                   An arrest upon termination of sentence...............................................................13
                   Arrest while out in the community......................................................................13
                The Department of State.........................................................................................14
                The Executive Office for Immigration Review ......................................................14
                                                                      xv
xvi                               IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, FOURTH ED.

            The Board of Immigration Appeals.....................................................................15
            Attorney general review ......................................................................................16
         The Administrative Appeals Office........................................................................16
      The Agencies at Work: Removal Proceedings...........................................................17
        Notice to Appear.....................................................................................................17
         Course of Proceedings ............................................................................................18
         The Burden of Proof ...............................................................................................20
         Applications for Relief ...........................................................................................20
         Board of Immigration Appeals ...............................................................................21
            Travel while a BIA appeal is pending .................................................................23
         Review After the Board of Immigration Appeals...................................................23
      Federal Judicial Review .............................................................................................24
        The REAL ID Act...................................................................................................26
         Jurisdiction..............................................................................................................27
            No review of discretionary determinations .........................................................27
         Petitions for Review to the Court of Appeals .........................................................27
         Petitions for Habeas Corpus to the Federal District Courts ....................................29
      Tips and Tools of the Trade .......................................................................................30
          1. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) rap sheet .............................................30
            2. Accurint...........................................................................................................31
            3. PACER............................................................................................................31
            4. FOIA requests .................................................................................................32
            5. Polygraph examinations ..................................................................................32
            6. Westlaw, LEXIS, AILALink, and AILA.org ..................................................32
            7. Psychological and medical evaluations ...........................................................33
            8. Country-condition experts...............................................................................33
            9. Country-condition sources of information (websites) .....................................33
            10. Confirmation-of-appointment letters.............................................................33
            11. Intake sheets ..................................................................................................33
      Sources of Legal Authority ........................................................................................34
        Recent Legislation ..................................................................................................34
         Appendix 1A: ICE Offices of Chief Counsel ...........................................................35
         Appendix 1B: List of Detention Centers .................................................................43
         Appendix 1C: Executive Office of Immigration Review..........................................45
         Appendix 1D: Structure of CBP..............................................................................53
         Appendix 1E: Structure of ICE ...............................................................................55
         Appendix 1F: Structure of USCIS...........................................................................57
         Appendix 1G: Sample Notice to Appear .................................................................59
         Appendix 1H: FBI Rap Sheet Request ....................................................................63
         Appendix 1I: Appointment Confirmation Letter/Intake Sheet.................................65
         Appendix 1J: Memorandum of Law on Polygraph .................................................67
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                            xvii



Chapter Two: The Definition of “Conviction” According to Immigration Law..............73
       The Statutory Definition of “Conviction” ..................................................................73
         “Beyond a Reasonable Doubt” Standard Required ................................................74
             Finality....................................................................................................................74
             Withholds or Deferrals of Adjudication .................................................................75
                A withhold with no penalty .................................................................................76
             Pretrial Intervention or Diversion ...........................................................................76
                Admissions to the prosecutor do not qualify.......................................................77
             Expungements and Record Sealings.......................................................................77
                First offender/youthful offender provisions ........................................................78
                Roldan not followed in the Ninth Circuit ............................................................78
                The other federal circuits.....................................................................................81
                FFOA expungements...........................................................................................82
             Pardons ...................................................................................................................83
                The effect of a pardon on a ground of inadmissibility ........................................84
                Pardon must be full and unconditional................................................................84
                Foreign pardons...................................................................................................85
             Postconviction Relief on the Merits: Matter of Pickering ......................................85
                The burden of proof in Pickering-type cases.......................................................88
                Motions to reopen................................................................................................89
                BIA decisions after Pickering..............................................................................90
                The federal courts’ approach to Pickering...........................................................90
                      Vacatur found effective in eliminating the conviction .................................91
                      Vacatur found ineffective for immigration purposes....................................91
             Postconviction Relief Modifying the Sentence Imposed..........................................95
             Acts of Juvenile Delinquency .................................................................................95
             Other Juvenile Acts.................................................................................................98
             Foreign Convictions................................................................................................98
          Proof of Convictions ..................................................................................................99
          Suspensions of Sentence ..........................................................................................100
            Appendix 2A: BIA Response to Motion to Reopen ...............................................103
            Appendix 2B: BIA Response to Motion to Remand ..............................................105
            Appendix 2C: Motion for Postconviction Relief ...................................................107
            Appendix 2D: Memorandum in Support of Motion for Postconviction Relief......109
            Appendix 2E: Sample Motion to Vacate ...............................................................113
            Appendix 2F: Memorandum in Support of Motion to Vacate...............................117
xviii                                     IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, FOURTH ED.

Chapter Three: Consequences of Criminal Activity: Removal from the United
States .....................................................................................................................................121
          Inadmissibility..........................................................................................................121
             The Applications of INA §212(a)(2)(A)...............................................................121
                   Knocking at the door .........................................................................................121
                   Applicants for admission...................................................................................122
                   When a Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR) seeks admission ...........................122
                   The defunct Fleuti doctrine ...............................................................................123
                   Adjustment of status..........................................................................................125
                   Visa applicants at American consular posts abroad ..........................................126
                   Change of status ................................................................................................126
                   Parolees .............................................................................................................126
                   Persons physically present in violation of the law—the “EWIs” ......................127
                   Temporary protected status ...............................................................................127
                   Naturalization and “good moral character”.......................................................127
            Deportability ............................................................................................................128
             INA §237(a)..........................................................................................................128
                Deportability vs. Inadmissibility...........................................................................128
            Expedited Removal of Certain Aggravated Felons ..................................................130
              Relief from Expedited Removal ...........................................................................132
            Detention ..................................................................................................................133
             Mandatory Detention ............................................................................................133
            Re-entering After Removal: Criminal Prosecution and Reinstatement of
              Removal................................................................................................................133
              Re-entry of Removed Aliens ................................................................................133
                   Challenging the underlying order......................................................................134
                Reinstatement of Removal....................................................................................135
                   Limited exception for certain nationality-based benefits ..................................136
                   Supreme Court upholds retroactive application of §241(a)(5) ..........................137
            How the Government Locates Your Client ..............................................................138
             The Sure Ways......................................................................................................138
                   Serving time in state or federal detention, both pre– and post-trial...................138
                   Filing an immigration application .....................................................................139
                Frequently, but Not Always..................................................................................140
                   While reporting to a probation or parole officer ...............................................140
                   When re-entering the United States after a trip abroad .....................................141
                Increasingly, and Who Knows What the Future Holds ........................................141
                   Local police.......................................................................................................141
                Department of Motor Vehicles, Social Security Administration ..........................142
                Appendix 3A: Sample Motion to Terminate..........................................................145
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                                xix

Chapter Four: Consequences of Criminal Activity: Detention Inside the United
States .....................................................................................................................................149
          Mandatory Detention................................................................................................149
             Cooperating Witnesses .........................................................................................151
                Demore v. Kim ......................................................................................................152
                Legal Challenges to Mandatory Detention Following Demore ............................153
                Bond Hearings Before the Immigration Judge .....................................................154
                   Numerical Limitations and Jurisdiction ............................................................155
                   Matter of Aguilar-Aquino..................................................................................157
                   Matter of Joseph................................................................................................157
                Jurisdiction over Custody Issues...........................................................................159
                   Arriving aliens...................................................................................................159
                   Federal court review..........................................................................................160
                   Deportable respondents and “EWIs”.................................................................162
                The “Release from Custody” Requirement...........................................................162
                   When released ...................................................................................................162
                   Does a sentence of imprisonment have to be imposed? ....................................163
                Detention for Offense Not Charged on NTA........................................................164
                Releases on or Before October 8, 1998 ................................................................167
            Other Detention Issues .............................................................................................167
              Non–Mandatory Detention Cases: The Standard .................................................168
                   The automatic stay ............................................................................................168
                Detention After a Removal Order.........................................................................172
                   Detention during judicial review of final removal order...................................174
                   Alternatives to detention ...................................................................................175
                Appendix 4A: Custody Rule Invoked ....................................................................177
                Appendix 4B: Section 309 of IIRAIRA ..................................................................179
                Appendix 4C: Section 303(b) of IIRAIRA .............................................................183
                Appendix 4D: BIA Bond Redetermination for Electronic Monitoring..................185

Chapter Five: Classifications of Crimes Under Immigration Law .................................187
       Section I: Methodology............................................................................................188
         Re-learning the Analysis: The Categorical Approach and Beyond ......................188
                   The categorical approach...................................................................................188
                   The modified categorical approach ...................................................................189
                         Minimal (or least culpable) conduct approach ...........................................190
                         Non-elemental facts....................................................................................190
                   Gonzales v. Duenas-Alvarez..............................................................................191
                   Matter of Silva-Trevino .....................................................................................192
                         The Facts ....................................................................................................192
xx                               IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, FOURTH ED.

           The New Methodology......................................................................................193
                 Step one ......................................................................................................193
                 The realistic probability test .......................................................................194
                 Step two......................................................................................................194
                 Step three....................................................................................................195
           Moral turpitude as a “non-elemental fact” ........................................................195
           The Burden of Proof..........................................................................................196
           Evidence that is “necessary and appropriate” ...................................................197
           After Silva-Trevino: the federal courts’ response..............................................198
           Nijhawan v. Holder ...........................................................................................198
                 The facts .....................................................................................................198
     Section II: Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude.........................................................200
       An Introduction to the Concept ............................................................................200
           Includes felonies and misdemeanors .................................................................201
           The elements of the criminal statute control .....................................................201
           The question of intent........................................................................................201
           Negligence vs. recklessness ..............................................................................202
           Divisible statutes and the record of conviction .................................................203
           Aiding and abetting; conspiracy........................................................................203
        A Discussion of Specific Offenses and Whether They Involve Moral
        Turpitude ..............................................................................................................204
           Theft and larceny...............................................................................................204
           Burglary.............................................................................................................206
           Fraud crimes......................................................................................................207
                 False statements..........................................................................................208
                 Obstruction of justice; misprision...............................................................209
           Crimes of violence ............................................................................................210
           Failure to Register as a Sexual Offender...........................................................213
           Crimes involving children .................................................................................214
           Driving under the influence...............................................................................215
           Controlled substance offenses ...........................................................................216
           Firearms offenses ..............................................................................................216
           Immigration law violations ...............................................................................216
     Section III: Aggravated Felonies..............................................................................217
       INA Definition......................................................................................................217
        Applies to Federal, State, and Certain Foreign Convictions.................................218
           Case Law...........................................................................................................218
        Sexual Abuse of a Minor ......................................................................................219
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                    xxi

        Drug Trafficking Crimes ......................................................................................219
           Federal controlled substance convictions..........................................................220
           State controlled substance convictions..............................................................221
                 Misdemeanors ............................................................................................221
                 Divisible statutes ........................................................................................222
                 Purchase......................................................................................................223
                 Simple possession offenses ........................................................................224
                 —Background ............................................................................................224
                 —The “hypothetical felony” approach ......................................................224
                 —The “guidelines” approach ....................................................................225
                 —Matter of Yanez-Garcia ..........................................................................225
                 —Lopez v. Gonzales ...................................................................................227
                 —Multiple simple possession convictions ..................................................228
                —Handling cases involving multiple misdemeanor convictions:
           the recidivist argument...................................................................................... 229
           Prior conviction must be final ...........................................................................230
                 —Post-Lopez BIA decisions ...................................................................... 233
                 —Post-Lopez federal court decisions ........................................................ 234
           Attempts and conspiracies.................................................................................235
        The Definition of “Crime of Violence” ................................................................235
           Mens rea: the levels of intent ............................................................................236
           Leocal v. Ashcroft..............................................................................................237
           Recklessness and the use of force .....................................................................239
           Force vs. contact................................................................................................240
           Particular offenses .............................................................................................241
                 Not crimes of violence................................................................................241
                 Crimes of violence......................................................................................242
           Unauthorized use of a motor vehicle.................................................................243
        Firearms Offenses.................................................................................................245
           Whether a state firearms offense can be “described by” §101(a)(43)(E) ..........247
        Theft Crimes .........................................................................................................247
           Gonzales v. Duenas-Alvarez..............................................................................247
           Possession of stolen property ............................................................................249
        Alien Smuggling...................................................................................................249
        Offenses That Depend on the Sentence Imposed .................................................250
        Offenses That Depend on the Amount of Funds Involved ...................................250
           Offenses That Depend on “Commercial Advantage”........................................252
        “Aggravated Felony”—Must It Be a Felony? ......................................................253
xxii                               IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, FOURTH ED.

             Misdemeanor crimes of violence ......................................................................253
             Misdemeanor sexual abuse of a minor ..............................................................254
          Attempts and Conspiracies ...................................................................................255
       Section IV: Classifications Beyond Moral Turpitude and Aggravated Felony .......255
       Controlled Substance Offenses ................................................................................255
         The Definition of “Controlled Substance Offense” ..............................................256
             Solicitation offenses ..........................................................................................257
             Drug paraphernalia............................................................................................257
                   Possession must be accompanied by “intent to use” ..................................258
          “Reason to Believe”..............................................................................................258
          Drug Abusers and Addicts....................................................................................259
       Firearms Offenses ....................................................................................................259
         “Firearm” and “Destructive Device” Defined ......................................................260
             Firearms as a non-elemental offense? ...............................................................261
             Firearms not a ground of inadmissibility ..........................................................262
          No “Reason to Believe” or “Admission of the Essential Elements” Standards
          Apply ....................................................................................................................262
       Money Laundering ...................................................................................................262
        “Reason to Believe”..............................................................................................263
       Crimes of Domestic Violence ..................................................................................263
         Offenses Included as Ground of Deportability .....................................................263
          “Crime of Domestic Violence” Defined ...............................................................264
          The Domestic Violence Victim ............................................................................265
             Defining the “victim”; applying the categorical approach ................................265
          Child abuse ...........................................................................................................266
          Violations of Protection Orders ............................................................................267
          Applies to Convictions After September 30, 1996 ...............................................268
          Domestic Violence Offense as a Crime Involving Moral Turpitude ....................268
       Alien Smuggling ......................................................................................................268
         Limited Exceptions for Smuggling an Immediate Family Member .....................269
          Alien Smuggling Defined .....................................................................................270
          The Crime of Alien Smuggling ............................................................................270
       Crimes Involving Failure to Register; Visa and Passport Fraud .............................272
         Failure to Register.................................................................................................272
          Visa and Passport Fraud .......................................................................................274
             Visa fraud as a crime involving moral turpitude and an aggravated felony ......275
             Immigration document fraud.............................................................................275
             Passport fraud....................................................................................................275
       Export Law Violations .............................................................................................276
         Export Law Violations: A Matter of National Security........................................276
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                       xxiii

         Failure to Register as a Sex Offender.......................................................................278
           The Adam Walsh Act ...........................................................................................278
            Appendix 5A: AR-11 Alien Change of Address Card ...........................................281
            Appendix 5B: Upublished BIA Decision in Drug Paraphernalia Case ...............283
            Appendix 5C: Sample Motion to Terminate Charge.............................................289
            Appendix 5D: Immigration Client Checklist.........................................................295

Chapter Six: Consequences of Specific Criminal Activity ...............................................299
       Consequences of Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude ..............................................300
         Inadmissibility, Including Adjustment of Status and Visa Eligibility ..................300
               Admission of the essential elements .................................................................300
               Petty-offense exception .....................................................................................301
            Deportability/Removability ..................................................................................301
               Multiple criminal convictions ...........................................................................302
            Mandatory Detention ............................................................................................303
            Voluntary Departure .............................................................................................304
               Precommencement or early stage of removal proceedings ...............................304
               Voluntary departure at conclusion of removal proceedings ..............................304
            Asylum, Withholding of Removal, and Convention Against Torture ..................305
               Asylum ..............................................................................................................305
               Withholding of removal ....................................................................................305
               Convention Against Torture..............................................................................306
            Naturalization .......................................................................................................306
         Consequences of an Aggravated Felony Conviction................................................307
          Inadmissibility, Including Adjustment of Status and Visa Eligibility ..................307
            Deportability/Removability ..................................................................................308
            Mandatory Detention ............................................................................................308
            Voluntary Departure .............................................................................................308
              Summary of caveat eligibility for individual with aggravated felony
            conviction seeking voluntary departure:...............................................................309
            Asylum and Withholding of Removal ..................................................................309
               Judicial review of the “particularly serious crime” determination ....................310
            Convention Against Torture .................................................................................310
            Naturalization .......................................................................................................311
         Consequences of a Controlled Substance Offense ...................................................311
          Inadmissibility, Including Adjustment of Status and Visa Eligibility ..................311
               “Reason to believe”...........................................................................................312
            Deportability/Removability ..................................................................................312
               Compare deportability to inadmissibility ..........................................................313
            Mandatory Detention ............................................................................................313
xxiv                               IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, FOURTH ED.

          Voluntary Departure .............................................................................................314
             Precommencement or early stage of removal proceedings ...............................314
             Conclusion of proceedings ................................................................................314
          Asylum and Withholding of Removal ..................................................................314
          Naturalization .......................................................................................................315
       Consequences of a Firearms Offense .......................................................................316
        Inadmissibility, Including Adjustment of Status and Visa Eligibility ..................316
          Deportability/Removability ..................................................................................316
             Cross-reference with the aggravated felony definition......................................316
          Mandatory Detention ............................................................................................318
          Voluntary Departure .............................................................................................318
             Precommencement or early stage of removal proceedings ...............................318
             Conclusion of proceedings ................................................................................318
          Asylum and Withholding of Removal ..................................................................319
          Naturalization .......................................................................................................319
       Consequences for Money Laundering Offenses.......................................................319
        Inadmissibility, Including Adjustment of Status and Visa Eligibility ..................319
             State money-laundering offenses ......................................................................321
             Moral turpitude..................................................................................................321
          Deportability/Removability ..................................................................................321
          Mandatory Detention ............................................................................................322
          Voluntary Departure .............................................................................................322
             Precommencement or early stage of removal proceedings ...............................322
             Conclusion of proceedings ................................................................................323
          Asylum and Withholding of Removal ..................................................................323
          Naturalization .......................................................................................................324
       Consequences of a Domestic Violence Conviction..................................................324
        The Definition.......................................................................................................324
          Inadmissibility, Including Adjustment of Status and Visa Eligibility ..................325
             Cross-reference to crimes involving moral turpitude ........................................325
          Deportability/Removability ..................................................................................325
          Mandatory Detention ............................................................................................327
          Voluntary Departure .............................................................................................327
             Precommencement or early stage of removal proceedings ...............................327
             Conclusion of proceedings ................................................................................327
          Asylum and Withholding of Removal ..................................................................328
          Naturalization .......................................................................................................329
       Consequences of Alien Smuggling ..........................................................................329
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                          xxv

              Inadmissibility, Including Adjustment of Status and Visa Eligibility ..................329
              Deportability/Removability ..................................................................................329
                 Cross-reference with the aggravated felony definition......................................329
              Mandatory Detention ............................................................................................330
              Voluntary Departure .............................................................................................330
                 Precommencement or early stage of removal proceedings ...............................330
                 Conclusion of proceedings ................................................................................330
              Asylum and Withholding of Removal ..................................................................331
              Naturalization .......................................................................................................331
           Consequences for Failure to Register, Falsification of Documents, and Visa and
            Passport Fraud ......................................................................................................332
            Inadmissibility, Including Adjustment of Status and Visa Eligibility ..................332
                 Registration violation ........................................................................................332
                 Visa fraud ..........................................................................................................332
                 Possession versus use ........................................................................................333
                 Civil or criminal document fraud violations under INA §274C........................333
              Deportability/Removability ..................................................................................334
                 Registration and Visa Fraud ..............................................................................334
                 Civil or criminal document fraud violations under INA §274C........................334
              Mandatory Detention ............................................................................................334
              Voluntary Departure .............................................................................................335
                 Precommencement or preliminary stage of removal proceedings.....................335
                 Conclusion of proceedings ................................................................................335
              Asylum and Withholding of Removal ..................................................................336
              Naturalization .......................................................................................................336
           Consequences of Export Law Violations .................................................................337
            Inadmissibility, Including Adjustment of Status and Visa Eligibility ..................337
              Deportability/Removability ..................................................................................338
              Mandatory Detention ............................................................................................338
              Voluntary Departure .............................................................................................339
                 Precommencement or early stage of removal proceedings ...............................339
                 Conclusion of proceedings ................................................................................339
              Asylum and Withholding of Removal ..................................................................340
              Naturalization .......................................................................................................340
              Appendix 6A: Crimes and Possible Consequences...............................................341

Chapter Seven: Immigration Defense: Waivers and Other Relief..................................343
       Adjustment of Status ................................................................................................344
         Available to both Permanent and Non–Permanent Residents ..............................346
xxvi                               IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, FOURTH ED.

          Discretionary Benefit............................................................................................346
          Jurisdiction............................................................................................................347
          Aggravated Felony Offenses ................................................................................348
          Firearms Offenses.................................................................................................349
          Domestic Violence Offenses ................................................................................349
          Visa and Registration Offenses.............................................................................350
          Export Violations..................................................................................................350
       Waivers Under INA §212(h)....................................................................................351
        The 15-Year Waiver .............................................................................................352
          The Extreme Hardship Waiver .............................................................................352
          The Battered Spouse and Child Waiver................................................................352
          Special Rules for Lawful Permanent Residents....................................................353
             Aggravated felony convictions..........................................................................353
             Retroactivity of the amendment ........................................................................354
             Defining “admission”........................................................................................354
             LPRs with non-aggravated felony convictions..................................................354
             Tolling of seven-year period .............................................................................355
          Available to Arriving Aliens or in Conjunction with Adjustment of Status........357
             Separate application for adjustment not required in the Eleventh Circuit.........358
          Limited Availability of INA §212(h) for Persons Convicted of Violent
          or Dangerous Crimes ............................................................................................359
             Matter of Jean....................................................................................................360
       INA §209(c) Waiver for Refugees and Asylees.......................................................362
         Compare to the INA §212(h) Waiver ...................................................................363
          Use of INA §209(c) by Certain Lawful Permanent Residents to Avoid Removal363
       Asylum and Withholding of Removal......................................................................365
        Asylum..................................................................................................................365
          Withholding of/Restriction on Removal Under the INA ......................................366
             Defining the “particularly serious crime”..........................................................367
          Withholding and Deferral Under Convention Against Torture ............................368
       Cancellation of Removal..........................................................................................369
         Continuous Residence Versus Lawful Permanent Resident Status .....................370
             Offense need not be charged in removal proceedings to stop the time .............371
          The Requirement of a Lawful Admission .............................................................372
          Individuals Who Are Ineligible for Cancellation..................................................373
             Combining Waivers...........................................................................................374
          Special Rule for Battered Spouses........................................................................374
          Special Rule Cancellation of Removal: NACARA §203 .....................................375
       The Old Friend: A Waiver Under INA §212(c) .......................................................377
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                      xxvii

          The 1996 Legislation ............................................................................................377
          The Supreme Court Decision................................................................................378
          The 2004 Regulation.............................................................................................379
             Cut-off dates for eligibility................................................................................379
             Individuals in exclusion proceedings ................................................................381
             IIRAIRA definition of aggravated felony retroactive: the summer of 1996 .....382
          Persons Convicted by Trial...................................................................................383
             Federal courts versus the regulation ..................................................................384
                   An individualized approach to reliance ......................................................384
                   A categorical approach to reliance .............................................................386
                   Door still closed..........................................................................................388
             Summary: developing the record for appeal .....................................................389
          Persons in Deportation Proceedings on or Before April 24, 1996........................389
             The regulation (the Soriano rule) ......................................................................389
             Case law ............................................................................................................391
          Persons physically deported prior to St. Cyr.........................................................392
             Re-entry after pretermission of §212(c) application and deportation................393
          Section 212(c) Eligibility Criteria.........................................................................394
             Persons who served five years in prison for aggravated felony ........................394
          Waives Grounds of Inadmissibility and Comparable Grounds of Deportability ..395
             Matter of Blake..................................................................................................396
             Circuit courts of appeals....................................................................................397
             Strategies for dealing with Blake.......................................................................398
             Gabryelsky Filings: Adjustment of status combined with INA §212(c) ...........400
          Combining INA §212(c) and Cancellation of Removal .......................................401
          Affirmative Applications for §212(c) ...................................................................401
             Naturalization after a waiver under INA §212(c) relief ....................................402
       Voluntary Departure.................................................................................................402
        Precommencement or preliminary stage of proceedings ......................................404
          Conclusion of proceedings voluntary departure ...................................................405
       Is Your Client an American Citizen? An Introduction to Derivative Citizenship...406
           Watch for effective dates...................................................................................407
             At birth ..............................................................................................................407
             Children born outside of the United States........................................................408
             Individual who turned 18 before February 27, 2001 .........................................409
       Naturalization as a Defense to Deportation..............................................................411
        Termination of Removal Proceedings for Naturalization .....................................411
          Soldiers and Veterans ...........................................................................................412
xxviii                               IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, FOURTH ED.

         Relief from Alien Smuggling Charges.....................................................................414
           Relief from Deportability and Inadmissibility, Absent a Conviction ..................414
               Waiver for smuggling immediate family members...........................................414
               Cancellation of removal ....................................................................................415
            Relief from a Conviction for Alien Smuggling (An Aggravated Felony) ...........415
               Adjustment of status..........................................................................................416
               INA §212(h) waiver ..........................................................................................416
               Cancellation of removal ....................................................................................416
               INA §212(c) waiver ..........................................................................................416
               Asylum and withholding of removal.................................................................416
               Naturalization ....................................................................................................417
         Nonimmigrant Visa Waiver Under INA §212(d)(3) ................................................417
          Introduction: “My son’s been deported for an aggravated felony; can he
          ever come back?”..................................................................................................417
            Jurisdiction............................................................................................................418
               Applications at the consulate.............................................................................418
               Applications at a port of entry...........................................................................419
              Separate permission to re-enter after deportation or removal (Form I-212)
            not required...........................................................................................................420
               Does not waive security or terrorism grounds of inadmissibility......................421
            Factors for Consideration .....................................................................................421
         Defending the Criminal Charge of Re-entry After Removal ...................................422
          Appendix 7A: BIA Decision: §212(h) Waiver.......................................................425
          Appendix 7B: Summary Explanation of Unpublished BIA Decisions...................427
          Appendix 7C: BIA Decision: §212(h) Waiver ......................................................435

Chapter Eight: Fashioning a Plea to Avoid Adverse Immigration Consequences ...........439
       Avoiding Adverse Immigration Consequences........................................................440
         Avoiding a Conviction Through Pretrial Diversion..............................................440
               Beware of admissions to the crime....................................................................440
            Federal First Offender Act Treatment; 18 USC §3607.........................................441
            State First Offender Programs in the Ninth Circuit ..............................................442
            Keep the Case in Juvenile Court...........................................................................442
            The Petty-Offense Exception................................................................................443
               Section 237’s version of the petty-offense exception........................................444
         Avoiding a Conviction of a Crime Involving Moral Turpitude ...............................444
          Why It Is Important (A Quick Rundown on Consequences) ...............................444
               Eligibility for permanent resident status............................................................444
               Mandatory detention .........................................................................................444
               Naturalization ....................................................................................................445
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                       xxix

          What Is “Moral Turpitude?”.................................................................................445
             Fraud crimes......................................................................................................445
             Theft offenses....................................................................................................445
             Burglary.............................................................................................................446
                   Working with a divisible statute: control the conviction record.................446
                   Alternative pleas.........................................................................................447
             Crimes of violence ............................................................................................447
             DUIs (operating under the influence)................................................................447
          Avoid Multiple Counts .........................................................................................447
          Summary Examples of Successful Plea Bargaining to Avoid the Crime Involving
          Moral Turpitude....................................................................................................448
       Avoiding the Aggravated Felony Conviction...........................................................450
        Why It Is Important (A Quick Rundown on Consequences) ...............................450
             Limited eligibility for relief from removal and mandatory detention ...............450
             Barred from asylum...........................................................................................450
             No naturalization for convictions entered after November 29, 1990 ................450
          Avoiding an Aggravated Felony— Keep the Sentence Under One Year .............450
          Avoiding Loss to a Victim in Excess of $10,000 .................................................451
          Avoiding Crime of Violence by Pleading to a Non–Specific Intent Crime..........451
          Avoiding Alien Smuggling/Aggravated Felony Conviction ................................452
          Summary Examples of Effective Plea Bargaining to Avoid the Aggravated
          Felony ...................................................................................................................452
       Avoiding Deportability for Domestic Violence Offenses ........................................456
        Avoid Specific-Intent Crimes ...............................................................................456
       Creating Eligibility for Relief ..................................................................................457
         INA §212(h) .........................................................................................................457
             Less than 30 grams of marijuana.......................................................................458
             Avoid the aggravated felony conviction............................................................458
          Cancellation of Removal ......................................................................................458
             Avoid offenses that toll the seven years of legal residence...............................458
             Avoid the aggravated felony conviction............................................................458
          Withholding of Removal and Asylum ..................................................................459
          Naturalization eligibility.......................................................................................459
          Creating a Good Record Through the Plea Agreement and Plea Colloquy.........459
             Defense and immigration counsel must work as a team ...................................461
          Plea Agreements to Avoid (i.e., Bad Plea Deals) .................................................461
             False statements and currency transactions.......................................................461
             Possession, paraphernalia and purchase ............................................................461
             Aggravated assault and probation only .............................................................462
xxx                                     IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, FOURTH ED.

                  Multiple counts..................................................................................................462
                  365 days in jail ..................................................................................................462
                        Five-year prison sentence ...........................................................................463


Chapter Nine: Visas for Cooperating Witnesses...............................................................465
       “S” Status .................................................................................................................465
         Introduction ..........................................................................................................465
               The Statute............................................................................................................466
               The Regulations ....................................................................................................467
               Conditions of Status..............................................................................................469
               Adjustment to Permanent Resident Status Under S..............................................470
                  The statute .........................................................................................................470
                  The regulations..................................................................................................471
                  Special requirements for family members.........................................................471
               Miscellaneous Tips and Advice About S Status ...................................................472
            “T” Status .................................................................................................................474
              The Statute............................................................................................................474
               The Regulations ....................................................................................................475
                  “Severe form of trafficking” defined.................................................................475
                  “Extreme hardship” defined ..............................................................................475
               Application Procedure ..........................................................................................476
                  Effect of pending immigration proceedings ......................................................476
                  Applicants with final orders of removal............................................................476
                  Annual cap on number of admissions allowed..................................................477
                  Revocation of status ..........................................................................................477
               Family Members...................................................................................................477
                  Duration of nonimmigrant status and application for permanent residency.....477
            “U” Status.................................................................................................................478
              The Statute............................................................................................................479
                  “Criminal activity” defined ...............................................................................480
               The Regulation .....................................................................................................480
                  Filing .................................................................................................................481
                  Qualifying family members...............................................................................482
                  Persons in removal proceedings ........................................................................483
                  Family Members Not Already in U Status ........................................................486
                  Jurisdiction ........................................................................................................487
               Appendix 9A: I-854 Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record..............489
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                          xxxi

Chapter Ten: Preparing and Presenting Applications That Waive a Criminal
Conviction.............................................................................................................................495
       Venues: Consulate, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, U.S. Customs and
         Border Protection, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and Immigration
         Court .....................................................................................................................496
         Rules Regarding Biometrics Prior to Relief at Immigration Court ......................498
            The Universal List: Evidence in Support of a Waiver .............................................499
              Evidence Relating to the Applicant ......................................................................500
               Evidence Relating to Family Members ................................................................502
            Adjustment of Status ................................................................................................503
             Forms, Fees, and Attachments..............................................................................503
               When Filing with the Court ..................................................................................505
               Adjustment Is Discretionary .................................................................................505
            Section 212(h) Waiver—15-Year, Hardship, and Battered Spouse or Child ..........506
              Form and Fee ........................................................................................................506
               When Filing with the Immigration Court .............................................................507
               Emphasis on Hardship to Family Members..........................................................507
               Discretion Must Be Warranted, Notwithstanding Hardship .................................508
            Refugee Waiver Under INA §209(c) .......................................................................508
            Waiver Under the Pre-AEDPA §212(c) (repealed in 1996).....................................509
              Form and Fee ........................................................................................................509
               When Filing with the Immigration Court .............................................................509
               Emphasis on Unrelinquished Domicile; All Equities Are Relevant .....................510
                  Cannot have served five years in prison for an aggravated felony or felonies..510
                  A balancing of the equities................................................................................510
            Cancellation of Removal—INA §240A(a)...............................................................511
              Form and Fee ........................................................................................................511
               Filing with the Immigration Court........................................................................511
               Emphasis on Residency Requirements; All Equities Apply.................................511
                  A balancing of the equities................................................................................511
            Special Rule Cancellation of Removal.....................................................................512
              Form and Fee ........................................................................................................512
               Supporting Documents .........................................................................................512
            Waiver Under INA §212(d)(3)(A) ...........................................................................512
             Form and Fee ........................................................................................................512
               Information Required............................................................................................513
               Contacting Legal Net for Assistance When Consul Declines to Accept Waiver..513
            Memoranda of Law and Witness Lists.....................................................................514
             Before USCIS or American Consulate .................................................................514
               Pretrial Statements to the Immigration Court .......................................................515
               Witnesses ..............................................................................................................516
xxxii                               IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, FOURTH ED.

             Witness list ........................................................................................................516
             Choosing witnesses ...........................................................................................516
             Working with witnesses ....................................................................................517
             Details: The time and place of hearing, the need for an interpreter ..................517
          Conclusion ............................................................................................................518
        Applications Filed After an Order of Removal ........................................................518
         Stay of Deportation: Form I-246 ..........................................................................518
             Criteria...............................................................................................................519
          Application for Permission to Reapply for Admission into the United States After
          Deportation or Removal .......................................................................................519
          Criteria ..................................................................................................................522
          Appendix 10A: Sample Memorandum in Support of Affirmative Filing for INA
          §212(c) Waiver .....................................................................................................523
          Appendix 10B: Sample Pretrial Statement ........................................................... 531

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:33
posted:11/15/2010
language:English
pages:18
Description: New Mexico First Offender Law Criminal Record Removal document sample