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					 2008 Cuyahoga County
 Workforce Indicators




           Prepared for
City of Cleveland/Cuyahoga County
   Workforce Investment Board
                By




          December, 2008
      2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce Indicators
                                       Table of Contents


Introduction and Summary………………………………………Page 3

Workforce Development Indicators
1. Educational Attainment.................................................................. Page 4
2. Labor Force Participation .............................................................. Page 12
3. Unemployment Rate ..................................................................... Page 24
4. Occupations................................................................................... Page 29
5. Median Earned Income................................................................. Page 42
6. Workforce Characteristics of Householders ................................. Page 55
7. Persons with Work Disabilities ..................................................... Page 68
8. Means of Transportation and Travel Time to Work ..................... Page 73
9. Persons Ages 16 and Over Attending School ............................... Page 85
10. Characteristics of Unemployed Persons Looking for Work ....... Page 94
11. Health Status and Employment ................................................ Page 110

Appendix A:
Employment Status by Detailed Occupation
By Census Occupation Code
Civilian Labor Force Ages 16 and Over
Cuyahoga County, 2006

Appendix B:
Employment Status by Detailed Occupation
Ranked by Number Reporting that Occupation
Civilian Labor Force Ages 16 and Over
Cuyahoga County, 2006




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                          2
Indicators
Introduction
This study of Cuyahoga County’s workforce characteristics, funded by the City of
Cleveland/Cuyahoga County Workforce Investment Board, includes characteristics of the
workforce as revealed by the Census Bureau’s 2006 American Community Survey (ACS). The
report also uses data from the 2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (OFHS). 1 Joseph G. Ahern, policy
and planning associate, is the report’s primary author.

The full report is extensive, covering 11 dimensions of the workforce population and includes the
following chapters:

1. Educational Attainment
2. Labor Force Participation
3. Unemployment Rate
4. Occupations
5. Median Earned Income
6. Workforce Characteristics of Householders
7. Persons with Work Disabilities
8. Means of Transportation and Travel Time to Work
9. Persons Ages 16 and Over Attending School
10. Characteristics of Persons Looking for Work
11. Health Status and Employment

These chapters discuss the primary topic in regard to a variety of sub-populations, including age,
gender, race and Hispanic ethnicity, household type, and Cleveland and suburbs. Each chapter
contains graphs and data tables accompanying descriptive text; maps are used in discussing
transportation and access to jobs. Comparisons with the state are also included. An appendix
provides a table of employment by detailed occupation in Cuyahoga County.




1The 2006 ACS and 2004 OFHS data were available at the initiation and during the completion of the study; at this
writing, the 2007 ACS were just released and the 2008 OFHS is in the field, with data to be made available in a few
months. Thus these indicators can be updated in order to monitor changes.


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                    3
Indicators
1. Educational Attainment
Why Is This Indicator Important?
As the educational level of the population rises, so too does the employment and income
potential of the population. Thus, educational attainment of the population is a good indicator of
the job preparedness of the workforce. Those with no high school diploma are generally the least
employable and trainable. Those with some college or post-secondary education may constitute a
potential market for higher education and a segment of the workforce ready for further training.

Definition
This indicator measures the highest grade level or degree of school or college completed for
adults ages 25 or over. Data are from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2006 American Community
Survey, Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS). The category “Grade 12” includes persons who
have received a GED certificate as well as those who graduated from high sch ool. Those who
have received an Associate’s degree are included in the category “One to Three Years of College,”
along with those who have attended college but received no degree.

How Are We Doing?
Eighty-eight percent of Cuyahoga County adults ages 25 and over had a high school diploma or
better in 2006, about the same proportion as Ohio as a whole. Still, more than 100,000 adults in
the county, 60,000 of them between 25 and 64, had not completed high school. One-third of adults
in the county had only a high-school diploma, compared to almost two-fifths statewide. Twenty-
seven percent of adults in the county had four or more years of college, a higher proportion than
the 23 percent of adults statewide who had completed college, although this difference may not
be statistically significant.

Cleveland residents had much lower levels of education than did suburbanites. More than one-
fifth of Clevelanders 25 and over had not completed high school, compared to only 8 percent of
suburbanites. One-third of suburban residents had four or more years of college, almost three
times the rate for Clevelanders.

Younger age cohorts had higher levels of educational attainment than older ones. Almost one-
third of adults 25 to 44 in the county had completed college, compared with just over one-fourth
of those 45 to 64 and only one-sixth of those 65 and over. The statewide rates followed the same
pattern, with younger adults having higher rates of college graduation, although the county had
a higher proportion of 25 to 44 year-old college graduates (32 percent) than did the state as a
whole (26 percent). A notable exception is the case of African Americans, who had similar rates of
college graduation, (14 percent in the county and 15 percent in the state), in both the 25 to 44 and
45 to 64 age groups.

There were pronounced differences in educational attainment by race and Hispanic origin, both
at the county and the state level. Ten percent of Whites, but 18 percent of African Americans in
Cuyahoga County had not completed high school. Similarly, the college graduation rate for
Whites (31 percent) was almost two and a half times that for African Americans (13 percent).
Hispanic adults in the county also had low levels of education, one-fourth without a high-school
diploma, and only 16 percent with a college degree. Similar differences occurred at the state level,


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                4
Indicators
although the college graduation rate for Whites statewide was lower at 23 percent. Educational
attainment was highest among Asians, with 65 percent in the county and 62 percent in the state
graduating from college.

Figure 1.1

                                 Educational Attainment of Adults 25 and Over
                                       Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

          Less than Grade 12        Grade 12     1 to 3 Years of College    Four or More Years of College


                Ohio    11.7%                   39.2%                      26.3%              22.9%



    Cuyahoga County     12.1%                  33.8%                  27.4%                 26.7%



           Cleveland          22.8%                      39.1%                     25.5%           12.6%



             Suburbs 7.6%               31.6%                    28.2%                     32.6%


                       0%              20%               40%           60%             80%             100%



Figure 1.2

                   Educational Attainment of Adults 25 and Over, by Age Group
                                      Cuyahoga County, 2006

          Less than Grade 12        Grade 12     1 to 3 Years of College    Four or More Years of College


    All Ages 25 and Over     12.1%               33.8%                 27.4%                 26.7%



                25 to 44     8.6%          29.9%                   29.0%                   32.4%



                45 to 64     9.2%              33.4%                  30.3%                  27.1%



            65 and Over            23.2%                   41.1%                   19.4%           16.2%


                            0%             20%            40%              60%          80%            100%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                            5
Indicators
Figure 1.3

                    Educational Attainment of Adults 25 and Over, by Age Group
                                             Ohio, 2006

         Less than Grade 12        Grade 12     1 to 3 Years of College     Four or More Years of College


   All Ages 25 and Over      11.7%               39.2%                      26.3%                22.9%



                25 to 44    8.3%              35.6%                    29.7%                    26.4%



                45 to 64     9.3%               39.7%                      27.4%                23.6%



           65 and Over            23.3%                       45.3%                     17.2%      14.2%


                           0%             20%            40%              60%             80%            100%



Figure 1.4

                                Educational Attainment of Adults 25 and Over
                                         by Race and Hispanic Origin
                                           Cuyahoga County, 2006

         Less than Grade 12        Grade 12     1 to 3 Years of College     Four or More Years of College


               All Races     12.1%              33.8%                     27.4%                 26.7%


                   White     9.9%             33.4%                   25.9%                 30.9%


        African American         17.7%                37.1%                       32.2%            12.9%


                   Asian     9.8%     13.0%     12.6%                           64.6%


   Other or Multiple Race        17.9%             33.2%                        32.9%             16.0%


         Hispanic Origin            24.9%               29.6%                     29.5%           16.0%


                            0%            20%            40%               60%            80%            100%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                              6
Indicators
Figure 1.5


                                 Educational Attainment of Adults 25 and Over
                                          by Race and Hispanic Origin
                                                   Ohio, 2006

           Less than Grade 12        Grade 12   1 to 3 Years of College     Four or More Years of College


               All Races     11.7%              39.2%                      26.3%               22.9%


                   White     10.9%              39.7%                      26.0%               23.4%


        African American          17.5%             38.5%                       29.7%            14.3%


                   Asian     9.1%      14.9%    14.1%                           61.9%


   Other or Multiple Race         19.5%             35.0%                       30.8%            14.7%


         Hispanic Origin            25.7%               33.2%                    24.4%          16.7%


                            0%            20%           40%               60%            80%           100%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                            7
Indicators
                                                                     Educational Attainment
                                                                     by Age, Race and Hispanic Origin, Ages 25 and Over
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                                                                                                                         Cuyahoga County                                                          Ohio




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Table 1.1




                                                                     All Races                                        Number                                             Percent                                 Percent
                                                                                                     25-44       45-64       65+         All Ages          25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages
                                                                     Less than Grade 12               28,403      32,898      46,243       107,544            8.6%      9.2%     23.2%     12.1%      8.3%      9.3%     23.3%     11.7%
                                                                     Grade 12                         99,403     119,507      82,003       300,913          29.9%     33.4%      41.1%     33.8%    35.6%     39.7%      45.3%     39.2%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College             96,426     108,385      38,746       243,557          29.0%     30.3%      19.4%     27.4%    29.7%     27.4%      17.2%     26.3%
                                                                     4 or More Years College         107,701      97,095      32,331       237,127          32.4%     27.1%      16.2%     26.7%    26.4%     23.6%      14.2%     22.9%
                                                                     Total                           331,933     357,885     199,323       889,141         100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%


                                                                     White                                            Number                                             Percent                                 Percent
                                                                                                     25-44       45-64       65+         All Ages          25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages
                                                                     Less than Grade 12               14,292      16,248      30,283         60,823           6.7%      6.5%     19.8%      9.9%      7.3%      8.5%     22.0%     10.9%
                                                                     Grade 12                         57,652      83,664      64,284       205,600          27.2%     33.3%      42.1%     33.4%    35.8%     40.2%      46.2%     39.7%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College             57,988      72,191      29,455       159,634          27.3%     28.7%      19.3%     25.9%    29.7%     27.1%      17.2%     26.0%
                                                                     4 or More Years College          82,379      79,317      28,660       190,356          38.8%     31.5%      18.8%     30.9%    27.2%     24.3%      14.6%     23.4%
                                                                     Total                           212,311     251,420     152,682       616,413         100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%


                                                                     African American                                 Number                                             Percent                                 Percent
                                                                                                     25-44       45-64         65+       All Ages          25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages
                                                                     Less than Grade 12               11,821      13,777        15,119       40,717         12.1%     15.3%      36.0%     17.7%    13.5%     14.7%      35.9%     17.5%
                                                                     Grade 12                         37,946      31,481        15,847       85,274         39.0%     34.9%      37.7%     37.1%    38.4%     38.7%      38.4%     38.5%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College             33,834      31,920         8,288       74,042         34.7%     35.3%      19.7%     32.2%    32.8%     30.9%      17.6%     29.7%
                                                                     4 or More Years College          13,793      13,121         2,734       29,648         14.2%     14.5%       6.5%     12.9%    15.2%     15.7%       8.2%     14.3%
                                                                     Total                            97,394      90,299        41,988     229,681         100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%


                                                                     Asian                                             Number                                            Percent                                 Percent
                                                                                                     25-44       45-64        65+        All Ages          25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages
                                                                     Less than Grade 12                   526       1,151         388         2,065           4.6%    17.6%      13.0%      9.8%      5.0%    12.0%      26.9%      9.1%
                                                                     Grade 12                             316       1,142       1,278         2,736           2.7%    17.4%      42.8%     13.0%    10.4%     19.6%      29.2%     14.9%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College               1,318         872         458         2,648         11.5%     13.3%      15.4%     12.6%    15.2%     12.1%      13.1%     14.1%
                                                                     4 or More Years College            9,343       3,392         859        13,594         81.2%     51.7%      28.8%     64.6%    69.4%     56.4%      30.8%     61.9%
                                                                     Total                            11,503        6,557       2,983        21,043        100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%


                                                                     Other or Multiple Race                            Number                                            Percent                                 Percent
                                                                                                     25-44       45-64        65+        All Ages          25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages
                                                                     Less than Grade 12                 1,764       1,722         453         3,939         16.4%     17.9%      27.1%     17.9%    18.1%     17.1%      36.4%     19.5%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                     Grade 12                           3,489       3,220         594         7,303         32.5%     33.5%      35.6%     33.2%    35.5%     34.1%      35.7%     35.0%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College               3,286       3,402         545         7,233         30.6%     35.4%      32.6%     32.9%    30.3%     35.6%      15.2%     30.8%
                                                                     4 or More Years College            2,186       1,265          78         3,529         20.4%     13.2%       4.7%     16.0%    16.1%     13.2%      12.7%     14.7%
                                                                     Total                            10,725        9,609       1,670        22,004        100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%




                                   8
                                                                     Educational Attainment
                                                                     by Age, Race and Hispanic Origin, Ages 25 and Over
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                                                     Hispanic Origin                                    Number                                     Percent                                Percent
                                                                                                     25-44        45-64        65+       All Ages     25-44    45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44    45-64      65+    All Ages




Indicators
                                                                     Less than Grade 12                 3,430        2,010       1,032        6,472    23.3%    22.1%      46.8%     24.9%    22.7%    25.9%      49.6%     25.7%
                                                                     Grade 12                           4,640        2,425         630        7,695    31.5%    26.7%      28.6%     29.6%    35.4%    30.2%      27.4%     33.2%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College               3,889        3,661         128        7,678    26.4%    40.3%       5.8%     29.5%    23.9%    27.9%      14.9%     24.4%
                                                                     4 or More Years College            2,765          985         414        4,164    18.8%    10.8%      18.8%     16.0%    18.0%    16.0%       8.0%     16.7%
                                                                     Total                            14,724         9,081       2,204       26,009   100.0%   100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%   100.0%    100.0%    100.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Table 1.1 (cont.)




                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   9
                                                                     Educational Attainment
                                                                     by Age, Race and Hispanic Origin, Ages 25 and Over
                                                                     Cleveland and Suburbs, 2006

                                                                                                                                             Cleveland                                                        Suburbs




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Table 1.2




                                                                     All Races                                        Number                                           Percent                                 Percent
                                                                                                     25-44       45-64         65+       All Ages        25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages
                                                                     Less than Grade 12               19,359      19,572        21,206       60,137       17.5%     19.6%      39.6%     22.8%      4.1%      5.2%     17.2%      7.6%
                                                                     Grade 12                         41,926      40,487        20,948     103,361        37.9%     40.5%      39.1%     39.1%    26.0%     30.6%      41.9%     31.6%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College             32,680      26,835         7,948       67,463       29.5%     26.8%      14.8%     25.5%    28.8%     31.6%      21.1%     28.2%
                                                                     4 or More Years College          16,745      13,062         3,496       33,303       15.1%     13.1%       6.5%     12.6%    41.1%     32.6%      19.8%     32.6%
                                                                     Total                           110,710      99,956        53,598     264,264       100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%


                                                                     White                                             Number                                          Percent                                 Percent
                                                                                                     25-44       45-64        65+        All Ages        25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages
                                                                     Less than Grade 12                 8,720       7,988       9,704        26,412       18.4%     17.8%      36.7%     22.3%      3.4%      4.0%     16.3%      6.9%
                                                                     Grade 12                         16,443      19,438       11,180        47,061       34.7%     43.4%      42.3%     39.7%    25.0%     31.1%      42.1%     31.8%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College             12,952      10,153        3,325        26,430       27.3%     22.7%      12.6%     22.3%    27.3%     30.0%      20.7%     26.8%
                                                                     4 or More Years College            9,244       7,236       2,198        18,678       19.5%     16.1%       8.3%     15.8%    44.3%     34.9%      21.0%     34.5%
                                                                     Total                            47,359      44,815       26,407      118,581       100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%


                                                                     African American                                  Number                                          Percent                                 Percent
                                                                                                     25-44       45-64        65+        All Ages        25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages
                                                                     Less than Grade 12                 9,382       9,896      10,859        30,137       17.1%     20.0%      42.9%     23.3%      5.7%      9.5%     25.5%     10.6%
                                                                     Grade 12                         23,055      18,553        8,981        50,589       42.0%     37.6%      35.5%     39.1%    35.0%     31.6%      41.1%     34.6%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College             17,046      15,779        4,160        36,985       31.1%     31.9%      16.4%     28.6%    39.4%     39.5%      24.7%     37.0%
                                                                     4 or More Years College            5,349       5,161       1,298        11,808         9.8%    10.4%       5.1%      9.1%    19.8%     19.5%       8.6%     17.8%
                                                                     Total                            54,832      49,389       25,298      129,519       100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%


                                                                     Asian                                             Number                                          Percent                                 Percent
                                                                                                     25-44       45-64        65+        All Ages        25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages
                                                                     Less than Grade 12                   123         300         263           686         8.0%    27.4%      57.7%     22.2%      4.0%    15.6%       4.9%      7.7%
                                                                     Grade 12                             -           267         193           460         0.0%    24.4%      42.3%     14.9%      3.2%    16.0%      42.9%     12.7%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College                 198         347         -             545       12.9%     31.7%       0.0%     17.7%    11.2%       9.6%     18.1%     11.7%
                                                                     4 or More Years College            1,212         182         -           1,394       79.1%     16.6%       0.0%     45.2%    81.6%     58.8%      34.0%     67.9%
                                                                     Total                              1,533       1,096         456         3,085      100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%


                                                                     Other or Multiple Race                            Number                                          Percent                                 Percent
                                                                                                     25-44       45-64        65+        All Ages        25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44     45-64      65+    All Ages
                                                                     Less than Grade 12                 1,134       1,388         380         2,902       16.2%     29.8%      26.4%     22.2%    16.8%       6.7%     31.3%     11.6%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                     Grade 12                           2,428       2,229         594         5,251       34.8%     47.9%      41.3%     40.1%    28.4%     20.0%       0.0%     23.0%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College               2,484         556         463         3,503       35.6%     11.9%      32.2%     26.8%    21.4%     57.5%      35.2%     41.8%
                                                                     4 or More Years College              940         483         -           1,423       13.5%     10.4%       0.0%     10.9%    33.3%     15.8%      33.5%     23.6%
                                                                     Total                              6,986       4,656       1,437        13,079      100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%




                                   10
                                                                     Educational Attainment
                                                                     by Age, Race and Hispanic Origin, Ages 25 and Over
                                                                     Cleveland and Suburbs, 2006

                                                                     Hispanic Origin                                    Number                                     Percent                                Percent
                                                                                                     25-44        45-64        65+       All Ages     25-44    45-64      65+    All Ages    25-44    45-64      65+    All Ages




Indicators
                                                                     Less than Grade 12                 2,546        1,715         875        5,136    27.4%    34.2%      63.0%     32.8%    16.2%      7.2%     19.3%     12.9%
                                                                     Grade 12                           2,803        1,609         368        4,780    30.2%    32.1%      26.5%     30.5%    33.7%    20.1%      32.1%     28.2%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years College               2,621        1,489         -          4,110    28.2%    29.7%       0.0%     26.2%    23.3%    53.4%      15.7%     34.5%
                                                                     4 or More Years College            1,309          199         146        1,654    14.1%      4.0%     10.5%     10.5%    26.7%    19.3%      32.9%     24.3%
                                                                     Total                              9,279        5,012       1,389       15,680   100.0%   100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%   100.0%    100.0%    100.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Table 1.2 (cont.)




                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   11
2. Labor Force Participation
Why Is This Indicator Important?
This indicator measures workforce engagement with the job market. High labor force
participation indicates a workforce that is actively supporting the r egional economy by either
working or actively seeking work.

Definition
Labor force participation measures the number of civilians (non -military personnel) age 16 and
over who are either employed or unemployed but seeking employment as a percentage of all
civilians over age 16.The civilian labor force does not include discouraged persons who have
stopped looking for work.

The category “Persons not in the labor force” includes people 16 years old and over who are not
classified as members of the labor force. This category consists mainly of students, housewives,
retired workers, seasonal workers interviewed in an off season who were not looking for work,
institutionalized people, and people doin g only incidental unpaid family work for less than 15
hours a week.

Data are from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2006 American Community Survey, Public Use
Microdata Sample (PUMS).

How Are We Doing?
Two-thirds of a million people in Cuyahoga County made up the civilian labor force in 2006. This
amounts to 65 percent of all persons ages 16 and over, almost identical to the proportion for Ohio
as a whole. Eighty-four percent of adults 25 to 44 and 74 percent of those 45 to 64 were in the
labor force, as were 67 percent of those 16 to 24 and 14 percent of those 65 and over. The
proportion of males in the labor force (71 percent for all males 16 and over) exceeded the
proportion of females (59 percent), and although the participation rate for females 16 to 24 (68
percent) was slightly larger than that for males in that age group (66 percent), this difference may
not be statistically significant.

The labor force participation rate for all Clevelanders 16 and older (61 percent) was smaller than
that for suburbanites. The difference was greatest among males ages 45 to 64; 66 percent of
Cleveland males in this age group were in the labor force, compared to 84 percent of suburban
males.

For all age groups together, there were few differences among racial groups in labor force
participation rates. The rate for Hispanics was somewhat larger statewide (71 percent) than in
Cuyahoga County (66 percent).

Among younger persons 16 to 24 in the county, there were slightly fewer African Americans (61
percent), Asians (56 percent), and persons of Other races (61 percent) in the labor force as
compared to Whites (67 percent) and Hispanics (66 percent). These minority groups all increased
their participation rates to 76 to 79 percent in the 25 to 44 age group, although they still lagged
behind Whites (84 percent). In the next older cohort, ages 45 to 64, participation dropped among
African Americans and Other race individuals to 65 percent and 63 percent, respectively, while


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                12
Indicators
the rate for Asians remained at 77 percent and that for Whites and Hispanics at 74 percent.
Among those 65 and over, 18 percent of Asians and 17 percent of those of Other races were still in
the labor force, as compared to 14 percent of Whites, 12 percent of African Americans, and 15
percent of Hispanics.2

Labor force participation increased with increased levels of educationa l attainment. Of persons
ages 25 and over, almost four -fifths of those with four or more years of college were in the labor
force, compared to only one-third of those with less than a high school diploma. Participation
rates by education were similar in Cleveland, the suburbs, the county, and the state.

Figure 2.1

                                 Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate, by Age Group
                                           Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                                                     65.3%
    All Ages 16 and                                                  64.5%
          Over                                                     60.6%
                                                                      66.2%

                                                                      65.6%
                                                                      66.5%
            16 to 24                                                62.4%
                                                                       68.7%
                                                                                                         Ohio
                                                                                  83.0%
                                                                                   84.1%                 Cuyahoga County
            25 to 44
                                                                                 80.7%                   Cleveland
                                                                                    85.9%
                                                                                                         Suburbs
                                                                          73.1%
                                                                          73.7%
            45 to 64                                                  64.4%
                                                                            77.3%

                                  14.1%
       65 and Over                13.8%
                                  10.5%
                                     15.0%

                     0.0%         20.0%         40.0%         60.0%         80.0%         100.0%




2 Bec ause of small sample sizes, differences in labor force participation for persons o f Asian, other or multiple races, and
those of Hispanic origin may not be statistically significant. We present these differences here to suggest labor force
dynamic s in the population as a whole, but urge that they be used cautiously.


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                          13
Indicators
Figure 2.2

                        Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate, by Sex and Age
                                        Cuyahoga County, 2006


   All Ages 16 and                                          64.5%
                                                               70.7%
         Over                                            59.1%

                                                               66.5%
          16 to 24                                            65.3%
                                                                67.7%
                                                                                           Both Sexes
                                                                             84.1%
          25 to 44                                                              90.4%      Male
                                                                          78.3%
                                                                                           Female
                                                                   73.7%
          45 to 64                                                    78.6%
                                                                69.2%
                              13.8%
      65 and Over              18.1%
                          11.1%

                 0.0%       20.0%        40.0%        60.0%        80.0%          100.0%

Figure 2.3

                                Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate
                                      by Sex and Age, Ohio, 2006


   All Ages 16 and                                           65.3%
                                                                71.3%
         Over                                             59.8%

                                                              65.6%
          16 to 24                                            65.3%
                                                              65.9%

                                                                          83.0%            Both Sexes
          25 to 44                                                           89.2%         Male
                                                                      76.9%
                                                                                           Female
                                                                  73.1%
          45 to 64                                                   78.0%
                                                                68.5%

                            14.1%
      65 and Over               18.7%
                             10.8%

                 0.0%       20.0%        40.0%        60.0%        80.0%          100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                      14
Indicators
Figure 2.4

                      Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate by Race and Hispanic Origin
                                             All Ages 16 and Over
                                       Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                                                       65.3%
                                                                      64.5%
         All Races                                                  60.6%
                                                                        66.2%

                                                                        65.6%
                                                                       64.6%
             White                                                  60.5%
                                                                        65.6%

                                                                     62.9%
                                                                      64.2%
  African American                                                  60.8%                   Ohio
                                                                         68.7%
                                                                                            Cuyahoga County
                                                                          68.6%             Cleveland
                                                                          68.8%             Suburbs
             Asian                                                             75.8%
                                                                         66.9%

                                                                      64.6%
  Other or Multiple                                                 61.4%
        Race                                                    55.6%
                                                                         69.7%

                                                                          70.8%
                                                                       65.7%
   Hispanic Origin                                                  61.2%
                                                                           72.3%


                  0.0%           20.0%          40.0%          60.0%           80.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                        15
Indicators
Figure 2.5

                   Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate by Race and Hispanic Origin
                                               Ages 16 to 24
                                    Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


               All Races                                              65.6%
                                                                      66.5%

                   White                                              66.7%
                                                                       68.4%

        African American                                           61.4%
                                                                     65.1%                Ohio
                                                               55.8%                      Cuyahoga County
                   Asian                                            65.4%

   Other or Multiple Race                                         61.1%
                                                               54.8%

         Hispanic Origin                                             65.8%
                                                                  57.5%

                        0.0%        20.0%        40.0%        60.0%        80.0%



Figure 2.6

                    Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate by Race and Hispanic Origin
                                                Ages 25 to 44
                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


               All Races                                              83.0%
                                                                      84.1%

                   White                                              84.0%
                                                                      84.7%

        African American                                            79.1%
                                                                      84.6%               Ohio
                                                                  76.7%                   Cuyahoga County
                   Asian                                           76.0%

   Other or Multiple Race                                         76.6%
                                                                   77.0%

                                                                   78.6%
         Hispanic Origin                                            76.6%

                        0.0%      20.0%     40.0%     60.0%     80.0%     100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                          16
Indicators
Figure 2.7

                    Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate by Race and Hispanic Origin
                                                Ages 45 to 64
                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


               All Races                                         73.1%
                                                                 73.7%

                   White                                         74.2%
                                                                  76.8%

        African American                                     65.2%
                                                             66.2%                        Ohio
                                                                    76.9%                 Cuyahoga County
                   Asian                                               81.0%

   Other or Multiple Race                                   63.4%
                                                           58.7%

                                                                 73.7%
         Hispanic Origin                                        67.0%

                        0.0%      20.0%     40.0%     60.0%     80.0%     100.0%



Figure 2.8

                    Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate by Race and Hispanic Origin
                                              Ages 65 and Over
                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


               All Races                                        14.1%
                                                                 13.8%

                   White                                        14.2%
                                                                 14.4%

        African American                                  12.2%
                                                         11.6%                            Ohio
                                                                         17.7%            Cuyahoga County
                   Asian                                                  17.9%

   Other or Multiple Race                                                17.4%
                                          4.9%

                                                                  14.8%
         Hispanic Origin                                              15.9%

                        0.0%         5.0%        10.0%        15.0%        20.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                          17
Indicators
Figure 2.9

                       Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate, by Educational Attainment
                                               Ages 25 and Over
                                       Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                                                          65.3%
      All Persons 25 and                                                 64.2%
              Over                                                     60.3%
                                                                          65.8%

                                                    34.4%
                                                   33.4%
     Less than Grade 12                             35.5%
                                                  30.8%
                                                                                            Ohio

                                                                        61.0%
                                                                                            Cuyahoga County
                                                                     57.1%                  Cleveland
               Grade 12                                                59.9%
                                                                                            Suburbs
                                                                      55.6%

                                                                                 73.9%
                                                                                72.2%
  1 to 3 Years of College                                                        73.0%
                                                                                71.8%

                                                                                    78.4%
  Four or More Years of                                                             78.8%
         College                                                                      80.2%
                                                                                     78.6%

                        0.0%         20.0%          40.0%          60.0%         80.0%          100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                            18
Indicators
Table 2.1A
Civilian Labor Force Participation
By Age and Sex, Ages 16 and Over
Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                               Cuyahoga County                      Ohio

                                                         Percent    Percent
                 In Labor     Not in                    in Labor   in Labor
Both Sexes         Force    Labor Force     Total         Force      Force
16 to 24             94,445     47,547        141,992      66.5%      65.6%
25 to 44            279,100     52,685        331,785      84.1%      83.0%
45 to 64            263,684     94,114        357,798      73.7%      73.1%
65 and Over          27,540    171,783        199,323      13.8%      14.1%
Total               664,769    366,129      1,030,898      64.5%      65.3%


                                                         Percent    Percent
                 In Labor     Not in                    in Labor   in Labor
Male               Force    Labor Force     Total         Force      Force
16 to 24             44,809     23,834        68,643       65.3%      65.3%
25 to 44            144,464     15,325       159,789       90.4%      89.2%
45 to 64            134,385     36,550       170,935       78.6%      78.0%
65 and Over          14,204     64,463        78,667       18.1%      18.7%
Total               337,862    140,172       478,034       70.7%      71.3%


                                                         Percent    Percent
                 In Labor     Not in                    in Labor   in Labor
Female             Force    Labor Force     Total         Force      Force
16 to 24             49,636     23,713        73,349       67.7%      65.9%
25 to 44            134,636     37,360       171,996       78.3%      76.9%
45 to 64            129,299     57,564       186,863       69.2%      68.5%
65 and Over          13,336    107,320       120,656       11.1%      10.8%
Total               326,907    225,957       552,864       59.1%      59.8%


Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
       Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
       Compiled by the Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce            19
Indicators
      Table 2.1B
 Civilian Labor Force Participation
 By Age and Sex, Ages 16 and Over
 Cleveland and Suburbs, 2006

                                      Cleveland                         Suburbs

                                                              Percent    Percent
                  In Labor     Not in                        in Labor   in Labor
 Both Sexes         Force    Labor Force          Total        Force      Force
 16 to 24             31,440     18,908             50,348      62.4%      68.7%
 25 to 44             89,307     21,403            110,710      80.7%      85.9%
 45 to 64             64,376     35,580             99,956      64.4%      77.3%
 65 and Over           5,609     47,989             53,598      10.5%      15.0%
 Total               190,732    123,880            314,612      60.6%      66.2%


                                                              Percent    Percent
                  In Labor     Not in                        in Labor   in Labor
 Male               Force    Labor Force          Total        Force      Force
 16 to 24             15,197      9,839             25,036      60.7%      67.9%
 25 to 44             45,066      6,863             51,929      86.8%      92.2%
 45 to 64             32,235     16,566             48,801      66.1%      83.6%
 65 and Over           2,088     17,672             19,760      10.6%      20.6%
 Total                94,586     50,940            145,526      65.0%      73.2%


                                                              Percent    Percent
                  In Labor     Not in                        in Labor   in Labor
 Female             Force    Labor Force          Total        Force      Force
 16 to 24             16,243      9,069             25,312      64.2%      69.5%
 25 to 44             44,241     14,540             58,781      75.3%      79.8%
 45 to 64             32,141     19,014             51,155      62.8%      71.6%
 65 and Over           3,521     30,317             33,838      10.4%      11.3%
 Total                96,146     72,940            169,086      56.9%      60.1%


 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
        Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
        Compiled by the Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                20
Indicators
Table 2.2A
Civilian Labor Force Participation
By Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin
Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                Cuyahoga County                      Ohio

                                                          Percent    Percent
                  In Labor     Not in                    in Labor   in Labor
All Races           Force    Labor Force     Total         Force      Force
16 to 24              94,445     47,547        141,992      66.5%      65.6%
25 to 44             279,100     52,685        331,785      84.1%      83.0%
45 to 64             263,684     94,114        357,798      73.7%      73.1%
65 and Over           27,540    171,783        199,323      13.8%      14.1%
Total                664,769    366,129      1,030,898      64.5%      65.3%


                                                          Percent    Percent
                  In Labor     Not in                    in Labor   in Labor
White               Force    Labor Force     Total         Force      Force
16 to 24              56,046     25,839        81,885       68.4%      66.7%
25 to 44             179,667     32,496       212,163       84.7%      84.0%
45 to 64             192,994     58,339       251,333       76.8%      74.2%
65 and Over           22,061    130,621       152,682       14.4%      14.2%
Total                450,768    247,295       698,063       64.6%      65.6%


                                                          Percent    Percent
African           In Labor     Not in                    in Labor   in Labor
American            Force    Labor Force     Total         Force      Force
16 to 24              32,077     17,230        49,307       65.1%      61.4%
25 to 44              82,425     14,969        97,394       84.6%      79.1%
45 to 64              59,739     30,560        90,299       66.2%      65.2%
65 and Over            4,863     37,125        41,988       11.6%      12.2%
Total                179,104     99,884       278,988       64.2%      62.9%


                                                          Percent    Percent
                  In Labor     Not in                    in Labor   in Labor
Asian               Force    Labor Force     Total         Force      Force
16 to 24               2,471      1,306         3,777       65.4%      55.8%
25 to 44               8,748      2,755        11,503       76.0%      76.7%
45 to 64               5,314      1,243         6,557       81.0%      76.9%
65 and Over              535      2,448         2,983       17.9%      17.7%
Total                 17,068      7,752        24,820       68.8%      68.6%


                                                          Percent    Percent
Other or          In Labor     Not in                    in Labor   in Labor
Multiple Race       Force    Labor Force     Total         Force      Force
16 to 24               3,851      3,172         7,023       54.8%      61.1%
25 to 44               8,260      2,465        10,725       77.0%      76.6%
45 to 64               5,637      3,972         9,609       58.7%      63.4%
65 and Over               81      1,589         1,670        4.9%      17.4%
Total                 17,829     11,198        29,027       61.4%      64.6%


                                                          Percent    Percent
Hispanic          In Labor     Not in                    in Labor   in Labor
Origin              Force    Labor Force     Total         Force      Force
16 to 24               4,473      3,305         7,778       57.5%      65.8%
25 to 44              11,282      3,442        14,724       76.6%      78.6%
45 to 64               6,082      2,999         9,081       67.0%      73.7%
65 and Over              350      1,854         2,204       15.9%      14.8%
Total                 22,187     11,600        33,787       65.7%      70.8%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
       Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
       Compiled by the Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce             21
Indicators
Table 2.2B
Civilian Labor Force Participation
By Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin
Cleveland and Suburbs, 2006

                                     Cleveland                          Suburbs

                                                              Percent    Percent
                  In Labor     Not in                        in Labor   in Labor
All Races           Force    Labor Force         Total         Force      Force
16 to 24              31,440     18,908            50,348       62.4%      68.7%
25 to 44              89,307     21,403           110,710       80.7%      85.9%
45 to 64              64,376     35,580            99,956       64.4%      77.3%
65 and Over            5,609     47,989            53,598       10.5%      15.0%
Total                190,732    123,880           314,612       60.6%      66.2%


                                                              Percent    Percent
                  In Labor     Not in                        in Labor   in Labor
White               Force    Labor Force         Total         Force      Force
16 to 24               8,926      6,522            15,448       57.8%      70.9%
25 to 44              37,746      9,613            47,359       79.7%      86.1%
45 to 64              31,266     13,549            44,815       69.8%      78.3%
65 and Over            3,102     23,305            26,407       11.7%      15.0%
Total                 81,040     52,989           134,029       60.5%      65.6%


                                                              Percent    Percent
African           In Labor     Not in                        in Labor   in Labor
American            Force    Labor Force         Total         Force      Force
16 to 24              18,728     10,097            28,825       65.0%      65.2%
25 to 44              45,169      9,663            54,832       82.4%      87.5%
45 to 64              29,951     19,438            49,389       60.6%      72.8%
65 and Over            2,426     22,872            25,298        9.6%      14.6%
Total                 96,274     62,070           158,344       60.8%      68.7%


                                                              Percent    Percent
                  In Labor     Not in                        in Labor   in Labor
Asian               Force    Labor Force         Total         Force      Force
16 to 24               1,663        487             2,150       77.3%      49.7%
25 to 44               1,394        139             1,533       90.9%      73.8%
45 to 64                 909        187             1,096       82.9%      80.7%
65 and Over               -         456                456       0.0%      21.2%
Total                  3,966      1,269             5,235       75.8%      66.9%


                                                              Percent    Percent
Other or          In Labor     Not in                        in Labor   in Labor
Multiple Race       Force    Labor Force         Total         Force      Force
16 to 24               2,123      1,802             3,925       54.1%      55.8%
25 to 44               4,998      1,988             6,986       71.5%      87.2%
45 to 64               2,250      2,406             4,656       48.3%      68.4%
65 and Over               81      1,356             1,437        5.6%       0.0%
Total                  9,452      7,552            17,004       55.6%      69.7%


                                                              Percent    Percent
Hispanic          In Labor     Not in                        in Labor   in Labor
Origin              Force    Labor Force         Total         Force      Force
16 to 24               2,534      2,018             4,552       55.7%      60.1%
25 to 44               6,874      2,405             9,279       74.1%      81.0%
45 to 64               2,836      2,176             5,012       56.6%      79.8%
65 and Over              146      1,243             1,389       10.5%      25.0%
Total                 12,390      7,842            20,232       61.2%      72.3%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
       Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
       Compiled by the Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                 22
Indicators
Table 2.3
Civilian Labor Force Participation
By Educational Attainment
Ages 25 and Over, 2006


                                         Cuyahoga County                  Ohio

                                         Not in                Percent    Percent
                            In Labor     Labor                in Labor   in Labor
                              Force       Force     Total       Force      Force
Less than Grade 12              35,967    71,577    107,544      33.4%      34.4%
Grade 12                       171,827   129,086    300,913      57.1%      61.0%
1 to 3 Years College           175,678    67,731    243,409      72.2%      73.9%
4 or More Years College        186,852    50,188    237,040      78.8%      78.4%
Total                          570,324   318,582    888,906      64.2%      65.3%




                                            Cleveland                    Suburbs

                                         Not in                Percent    Percent
                            In Labor     Labor                in Labor   in Labor
                              Force       Force     Total       Force      Force
Less than Grade 12              21,365    38,772     60,137      35.5%      30.8%
Grade 12                        61,964    41,397    103,361      59.9%      55.6%
1 to 3 Years College            49,268    18,195     67,463      73.0%      71.8%
4 or More Years College         26,695     6,608     33,303      80.2%      78.6%
Total                          159,292   104,972    264,264      60.3%      65.8%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
       Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
       Compiled by the Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce               23
Indicators
3. Unemployment Rate
Why Is This Indicator Important?
This indicator is a basic measure of economic strength, the ability of a regional economy to
provide steady employment to its workforce, and the preparedness of that workforce. Low rates
of unemployment translate to both personal and regional economic vitality. High rates indicate a
need for improved work force preparedness, more jobs, educational services to improve the
employment prospects of the unemployed, and social services for the unemployed and their
families.

Definition
This indicator measures the number of persons age 16 or over in the civilian labor force who are
unemployed as a percent of the total civilian labor force. The figures are cited from the U.S.
Census Bureau’s 2006 American Community Survey, Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS). The
American Community Survey classifies persons as unemployed if they:

          “...(1) were neither “at work” nor “with a job but not at work” during the reference week,
          and (2) were looking for work during the last 4 weeks, and (3) were available to start a
          job. Also included as unemployed are civilians who did not work at all during the
          reference week, were waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off,
          and were available for work except for temporary illness.”3

How Are We Doing?
In 2006, Over 600,000 persons ages 16 and over in Cuyahoga County were employed and more
than 63,000 were unemployed. This yields an unemployment rate of 9.5 percent, higher than the
7.2 percent rate for Ohio as a whole. Over 31,000 Cleveland residents 16 and over (16.3 percent)
were unemployed, more than double the suburban rate of 6.8 percent.

More than 23,000 youth and young adults 16 to 24 in the county were unemployed; the resulting
rate of 24.7 percent is one-and-a-half times as high as the statewide rate for this age group. The
unemployment rate in the county was lower for each successive age cohort: 8.5 percent for those
25 to 44; 5.7 percent for those 45 to 64, and 3.9 percent for those 65 and over; a ll of these age-
specific rates were higher than their corresponding statewide rates. Unemployment rates for all
age groups were higher in Cleveland than in the suburbs. Almost one-third of 16 to 24 year-olds
in Cleveland (9,800 persons) were unemployed, compared to one-fifth of suburbanites in this age
group.

More than 30,000 African Americans in the county were unemployed, for a rate of 16.9 percent,
two-and-a half times the rate for Whites (6.7 percent). In Cleveland, 20.8 percent of African
Americans were unemployed, compared to 12.5 percent of suburban African Americans. Asians


3 The unemployment rates derived here from the American Community S urvey (ACS) differ from the rates reported by
the Ohio Department of Job and Family Services (ODJFS ), which bases its statistics on the Census Bureau’s Current
Population S urvey (CPS ). The CPS is used to provide official monthly and annual estimates of the labor force and
unemployment rates, while the ACS can provide a context of socioeconomic factors that can be related to unemployment.
Bec ause the CPS asks a more detailed series of questions about labor force participation than the ACS, the estimates of
unemployment from the ACS are generally higher than those derived from the CPS . For further information, see the
Census Bureau’s “Guidance on Differences in Employment and Unemployment Estimates from Different Sources,”
available online at: http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/laborfor/laborguidance082504.html.


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                   24
Indicators
had the lowest unemployment rate in the county (2.1 percent). Persons of Other races and
Hispanics also had rates higher than that for Whites, 13.7 percent and 10.4 percent, res pectively.
The unemployment rates for all racial/ethnic groups in the county were higher than the statewide
rates for those groups.4

Unemployment rates were also inversely proportional to educational attainment. For county
residents ages 25 and over, more than 6,000 with less than a high school diploma (17.3 percent)
were unemployed, compared to only 3.2 percent of those with four or more years of college.
Cleveland residents had higher unemployment rates than suburbanites at all levels of education.
In Cleveland, one-fourth of those with less than a high school diploma (5,300 persons) were
unemployed, compared to only 6.4 percent of suburbanites with similar education.

For unemployment rates by major occupational groups, see Indicator 4, “Occupations.”

Figure 3.1

                                      Unemployment Rate, by Age Group
                                      Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                             7.2%
                                                 9.5%
    All Persons 16 and Over
                                                                16.3%
                                             6.8%

                                                                16.5%
                                                                                24.7%
                  16 to 24
                                                                                             31.3%
                                                                          21.4%

                                            6.4%
                                               8.5%
                  25 to 44
                                                              15.0%
                                         5.5%                                  Ohio
                                                                               Cuyahoga County
                                       4.5%                                    Cleveland
                                         5.7%
                  45 to 64                                                     Suburbs
                                                      11.5%
                                      3.9%

                                   2.9%
                                     3.9%
              65 and Over
                                           6.6%
                                       3.2%

                          0.0%       5.0%     10.0%     15.0%     20.0%     25.0%       30.0%    35.0%




4 Bec ause of small sample sizes, differences in unemployment rates for persons of Asian, other or multiple races, and
those of Hispanic origin may not be statistically significant. We present these differences here to suggest labor force
dynamic s in the population as a whole, but urge that they be used cautiously.



The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                        25
Indicators
Figure 3.2
                                                     Unemployment Rate
                                                 By Race and Hispanic Origin
                                               Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                                          7.2%
                       All Races                                  9.5%
                                                                                            16.3%
                                                         6.8%

                                                        6.1%
                                                          6.7%
                          White                                             11.5%
                                                      5.6%

                                                                                       15.2%
                                                                                           16.9%
               African American                                                                           20.8%
                                                                              12.5%

                                              3.8%                                              Ohio
                          Asian           2.1%                                                  Cuyahoga County
                                           1.8%
                                          2.2%                                                  Cleveland
                                                                                                Suburbs
                                                                             12.1%
          Other or Multiple Race                                                 13.7%
                                                                                              17.3%
                                                                     9.7%

                                                                     9.8%
                                                                       10.4%
                Hispanic Origin                                                               16.2%
                                                 3.2%

                               0.0%             5.0%             10.0%              15.0%           20.0%           25.0%


Figure 3.3
                                                      Unemployment Rate
                                          By Educational Attainment (Ages 25 and Over)
                                               Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                                     5.4%
                                                        7.0%
          All Persons 25 and Over
                                                                            13.3%
                                                 4.6%


                                                                       12.6%
                                                                                      17.3%
              Less than Grade 12
                                                                                                            24.8%
                                                       6.4%


                                                        7.1%
                                                               9.6%
                        Grade 12                                                14.8%
                                                        6.7%

                                                 4.6%
                                                     6.4%                                       Ohio
           1 to 3 Years of College                                                              Cuyahoga County
                                                                  10.9%
                                                 4.7%                                           Cleveland
                                                                                                Suburbs
                                            2.5%
             Four or More Years of            3.2%
                    College                      5.1%
                                             2.9%


                                   0.0%        5.0%          10.0%          15.0%       20.0%          25.0%        30.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                          26
Indicators
Table 3.1
Civilian Employment and Unemployment
By Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Education
Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                           Cuyahoga County                             Ohio

                                                       Total Labor      Percent       Percent
Age                       Employed Unemployed            Force        Unemployed    Unemployed
16 to 24                     71,111    23,334                94,445         24.7%         16.5%
25 to 44                    255,269    23,831              279,100           8.5%          6.4%
45 to 64                    248,617    15,067              263,684           5.7%          4.5%
65 and Over                  26,462     1,078                27,540          3.9%          2.9%
All Ages 16+                601,459    63,310              664,769           9.5%          7.2%


                                                       Total Labor      Percent       Percent
Race                      Employed Unemployed            Force        Unemployed    Unemployed
White                       420,609    30,159              450,768           6.7%          6.1%
African American            148,761    30,343              179,104          16.9%         15.2%
Asian                        16,703       365                17,068          2.1%          3.8%
Other / Multiple             15,386     2,443                17,829         13.7%         12.1%
All Races                   601,459    63,310              664,769           9.5%          7.2%

Hispanic Origin              19,870            2,317        22,187          10.4%         9.8%


                                                       Total Labor      Percent       Percent
Education (Age 25+)       Employed Unemployed            Force        Unemployed    Unemployed
Less than Grade 12           29,741     6,226                35,967         17.3%         12.6%
Grade 12                    155,355    16,472              171,827           9.6%          7.1%
1 to 3 Years College        164,347    11,331              175,678           6.4%          4.6%
4 or More Years College     180,905     5,947              186,852           3.2%          2.5%
Total                       530,348    39,976              570,324           7.0%          5.4%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
       Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
       Compiled by the Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                            27
Indicators
Table 3.2
Civilian Employment and Unemployment
By Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Education
Cleveland and Suburbs, 2006

                                                 Cleveland                           Suburbs

                                                       Total Labor      Percent       Percent
Age                       Employed Unemployed            Force        Unemployed    Unemployed
16 to 24                     21,592     9,848                31,440         31.3%         21.4%
25 to 44                     75,887    13,420                89,307         15.0%          5.5%
45 to 64                     56,992     7,384                64,376         11.5%          3.9%
65 and Over                   5,237       372                 5,609          6.6%          3.2%
All Ages 16+                159,708    31,024              190,732          16.3%          6.8%


                                                       Total Labor      Percent       Percent
Race                      Employed Unemployed            Force        Unemployed    Unemployed
White                        71,744     9,296                81,040         11.5%          5.6%
African American             76,250    20,024                96,274         20.8%         12.5%
Asian                         3,895        71                 3,966          1.8%          2.2%
Other / Multiple              7,819     1,633                 9,452         17.3%          9.7%
All Races                   159,708    31,024              190,732          16.3%          6.8%

Hispanic Origin              10,385            2,005         12,390         16.2%         3.2%


                                                       Total Labor      Percent       Percent
Education (Age 25+)       Employed Unemployed            Force        Unemployed    Unemployed
Less than Grade 12           16,076     5,289                21,365         24.8%          6.4%
Grade 12                     52,799     9,165                61,964         14.8%          6.7%
1 to 3 Years College         43,913     5,355                49,268         10.9%          4.7%
4 or More Years College      25,328     1,367                26,695          5.1%          2.9%
Total                       138,116    21,176              159,292          13.3%          4.6%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
       Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
       Compiled by the Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                             28
Indicators
4. Occupations

Why Is This Indicator Important?
Analyzing the workforce by occupation gives an understanding of the underlying labor market.
Looking at unemployment rates by occupation can identify possible labor shortages or surpluses.
The age structure of occupational groups can indicate future needs as the workforce ages.
Examining the educational level of persons in different occupations can assist workforce
development efforts to train and place new workers into appropriate jobs.


Definition
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics maintains the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
system for federal statistical agencies to use in compiling data on occupations in the work force.
The SOC system defines more than 400 broad occupations classified into 23 major groups and
identified with a six-digit code. The Census Bureau uses a modified version of SOC occupation
codes in tabulating and reporting occupational data. 5 We report here the employment status, age
distribution, and educational attainment for persons in the labor force in Cuyahoga County and
Ohio in 22 of the 23 major SOC groups, identified by the first two digits of the SOC code. (The
Military occupational group is not considered here, as we are concerned only with civilian
occupations.) Data are from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2006 American Community Survey, Public
Use Microdata Sample (PUMS). For the number of persons employed in Cuyahoga County by
detailed census occupational codes, see Appendices A and B. 6

How Are We Doing?

Management (SOC Code 11)
In 2006, more than 52,000 people in Cuyahoga County were employed in management
occupations. Another 1,900 managers were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of 3.6
percent, slightly higher than the statewide unemployment rate of 2.7 percent for this occupational
group.

The largest managerial occupations in the county were chief executives and legislators (5,700
employed), food service managers (5,500), financial managers (5,000), marketing and sales
managers (4,200), general and operations managers (3,000), and education administrators (3,000).

Forty-eight percent of managers in the county’s labor force were 45 to 64 years old, and 46
percent were 25 to 44; the median age was 45, equal to the statewide median.

Almost three-fifths of managers in Cuyahoga County had four or more years of college,
compared to just under half statewide.

5For further information on the SOC system see : http://www.bls.gov/soc/. For a detailed comparison of SOC and Census
occ upational codes, see: http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/PUMS/C2SS/CodeList/2006/Occupation.htm

6 The American Community S urvey asked respondents their current occupation, or if they were currently not working,
their most recent occupation in the past five years. Appendix A lists county employment by occupation in the order of
Census occupation codes, and Appendix B lists the same occupations ranked by the number of workers reporting that
occ upation, whether or not they were currently employed. As with other estimates based on small samples, we urge that
the counts of the employed and unemployed and unemployment rates for individual occupations be used with caution,
espec ially those that show unemployment rates of 0 percent or 100 percent.


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                  29
Indicators
Business and Financial (SOC Code 13)
More than 30,000 people in the county were employed in business and financial occupations in
2006, and another 1,400 stating these occupations were unemployed. The resulting
unemployment rate, 4.5 percent, was almost twice as high as the statewide rate of 2.4 percent for
business and financial occupations.

Accountants and auditors made up the largest number employed in any single occupation in this
group in the county (9,500), followed by human resources, training, and labor relations specialists
(4,600); management analysts (2,400); and personal financial advisors (2,400).

Half of all those in business and financial occupations in the county ’s labor force were between
the ages of 25 and 44, and another 41 percent were between 45 and 64. These were virtually
identical to the proportions statewide. The median age was 44 in the county and 43 in the state.

More than three-fifths of those in business and financial occupations in Cuyahoga County had
four or more years of college, a higher proportion than the 55 percent in Ohio who did.

Computer and Mathematical (SOC Code 15)
Computer and mathematical occupations employed 13,600 people in Cuyahoga County in 2006.
Another 540 were unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.8 percent, slightly higher
than the statewide rate of 3.1 percent for these occupations.

Computer programmers made up the largest single occupation in this group in the county (3,100
employed). Computer scientists and systems analysts (2,800), computer support specialists
(2,100), and computer software engineers (2,100) were also among the most numerous.

More than half of people in computer and mathematical occupations in the county’s labor force
were between the ages of 25 and 44, and almost two-fifths were 45 to 64; the median age was 42.
Statewide, the age distribution was somewhat younger, with a median age of 39.

Two-thirds of those in the county in these occupations had four or more years of college,
compared to 58 percent statewide.

Architecture and Engineering (SOC Code 17)
In 2006, there were 9,000 people in Cuyahoga County employed in architecture and engineering
occupations, and another 300 were unemployed. The county’s unemployment rate for these
occupations was 3.0 percent, slightly higher than the 2.7 percent statewide. Engineering
technicians (1,700 employed) and mechanical engineers (950) were the largest individual
occupations in this group.

Over half of those in architecture and engineering occupations in the county’s labor force were
between 45 and 64, and another 31 percent were between 25 and 44; the median age in the coun ty
was 47. The statewide age distribution was slightly younger, with a median age of 43.

Sixty-four percent of this occupational group in the county had four or more year s of college,
compared to 56 percent statewide.


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                30
Indicators
Life, Physical, and Social Sciences (SOC Code 19)
More than 5,200 Cuyahoga County residents were employed in life, physical, or social sciences in
2006, and another 400 were unemployed. The county unemployment rate for this group, 6.6
percent, was more than double the statewide rate of 2.8 p ercent. Psychologists (760 employed),
medical scientists (700), and market and survey researchers (700) were the largest individual
occupations in this group.

Forty-four percent of the county’s labor force in these occupations were between 45 and 64, and
another 37 percent were between 25 and 44. Their median age was 45 in the county and 44 in the
state.

Two-thirds of the scientists in the county had four or more years of college, compared to 57
percent statewide.

Community and Social Service (SOC Code 21)
Almost 12,000 people in Cuyahoga County were employed in community and social service
occupations in 2006. About 250 were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of 2.1 percent,
slightly higher than the 1.9 percent rate for the state as a whole. This category includes social
workers (4,500 employed), counselors (2,800), and clergy (1,900).

Almost half of community and social service workers in the county’s labor force were between 25
and 44, and another 43 percent were between 45 and 64; the median age wa s 44. The statewide
age distribution was similar, with a median age of 43.

Three-fourths of this occupational group in the county had four or more years of college,
compared to just over two-thirds in the state.

Legal (SOC Code 23)
More than 10,000 persons were employed in law-related occupations in the county in 2006.
Another 250 were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of 2.5 percent, almost identical to the
statewide rate for legal workers. Legal workers include lawyers, judges, magistrates, and other
judicial workers (6,900 employed); paralegals and legal assistants (1,300); and legal support
workers (1,900).

Almost half of those in legal occupations in the county’s labor force were between 45 and 64, and
another 43 percent were between 25 and 44; their median age was 45 in the county and 44 in the
state.

Three-fourths of legal workers had four or more years of college, both at the county and state
levels.




Education, Training, and Library (SOC Code 25)



The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                  31
Indicators
Nearly 32,000 persons were employed in education, training, and library occupations in
Cuyahoga County in 2006. Another 1,300 in these fields were unemployed, for an unemployment
rate of 4.0 percent, slightly higher than the statewide rate of 3.0 percent.

Elem entary and middle school teachers made up the largest single occupation in this group
(10,300 employed), followed by postsecondary teachers (4,600), secondary school teachers (3,500),
and teacher assistants (3,500).

Forty-five percent of education workers in the county’s labor force were between 25 and 44, and
another 41 percent were between 45 and 64; their median age was 42 in the county and 43 in the
state.

Seventy-two percent of education workers in the county had four or more years of college, lower
than the statewide rate of 78 percent.

Art, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media (SOC Code 27)
Almost 11,000 persons in Cuyahoga County were employed in these occupations in 2006. About
750 persons in these fields were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of 6.5 percent, higher
than the statewide rate of 5.1 percent. Designers (3,300 employed), photographers (1,000), and
athletes, coaches and related occupations (1,000) were the largest occupations in this group.

Half of all workers in the county’s labor force in the arts and entertainment fields were between
45 and 64, and another 33 percent were between 25 and 44; the median age was 45. Statewide, the
age distribution of these occupations was younger; only 34 percent were between 45 and 64, and
the median age was 40.

Educational attainment for persons in these occupations was higher in the county than in the
state; 63 percent in the county, but only 52 percent in the state, had four or more years of college.

Healthcare Practitioner and Technical (SOC Code 29)
About 37,800 persons in Cuyahoga County were employed in healthcare practitioner and
technical occupations in 2006. Another 950 in these fields were unemployed, for an
unemployment rate of 2.4 percent, higher than the statewide rate of 1.9 percent.

Registered nurses made up the lar gest single occupation in this group (13,300 employed),
followed by physicians and surgeons (6,500), licensed practical and vocational nurses (3,300), and
health diagnosing and treating support technicians (2,300).

Forty-eight percent of healthcare professionals in the county’s labor force were between 25 and
44, and 46 percent were between 45 and 64; their median age was 44 in the county and 43 in the
state.

Fifty-seven percent of healthcare professionals in the county had four or more years of college,
higher than the statewide proportion of 47 percent.



Healthcare Support (SOC Code 31)


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                 32
Indicators
Sixteen thousand persons were employed in healthcare support occupations in Cuyahoga
County in 2006. An additional 2,500 persons in these occupations were unemployed, for an
unemployment rate of 13.9 percent, more than double the statewide rate of 6.6 percent for this
occupational group. Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides make up the largest occupation
in this group (11,500 employed). This category also includes occupational and physical therapist
assistants and aides, massage therapists, dental assistants, and medical assistants.

Half of those in healthcare support occupations in the county’s labor force were between the ages
of 25 to 44, and 35 percent were between 45 and 64; the median age was 36. The statewide age
profile is similar, with a median age of 35.

Forty-three percent of healthcare support workers in the county had only a high school diploma,
and an additional 14 percent had not completed high sch ool; 38 percent had one to three years of
college, but only 6 percent had four or more years of college. The statewide educational profile is
similar, with only 47 percent having had any post-secondary education.

Protective Service (SOC Code 33)
In 2006, 15,000 persons in Cuyahoga County were employed in protective service occupations.
About 400 others were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of 2.6 percent, slightly lower than
the statewide rate of 3.1 percent. Police officers (4,200 employed), security guards (4,100),
correctional officers (1,500), and firefighters (1,200) are the largest occupations in this category.

Half of all protective service workers in the county’s labor force were between age 25 and 44, and
35 percent are between 45 and 64; the median age was 41. The statewide age distribution was
somewhat younger, with a median age of 38.

Fourteen percent of protective service workers in the county had four or more years of college,
and 42 percent had one to three years of college. Statewide, protective service workers had a
somewhat higher educational profile, with 18 percent having four or more years of college, and
46 percent having one to three years of college.

Food Preparation and Serving (SOC Code 35)
About 30,400 persons in Cuyahoga County were employed in food s ervice occupations in 2006.
Another 7,000 persons stating these occupations were unemployed, yielding an unemployment
rate of 18.9 percent, more than one-and-a-half times the statewide rate of 12.2 percent for this
category.

Waiters and waitresses were the largest single occupation in this group (8,000 employed),
followed by cooks (7,000), food preparation workers (2,200), and first-line supervisors of food
service workers (2,100).

Almost half (45 percent) of food service workers in the county’s labor force were between age 16
and 24, and 35 percent were between 25 and 44; the median age was 26. Statewide, the age
distribution was similar, with a median age of 25.

Forty-four percent of food service workers in the county had only a high-school diploma, and an
additional 28 percent had not completed high school; 28 percent had at least some post -secondary


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                33
Indicators
education. The statewide educational profile was similar, with 42 percent having only a high
school diploma, and 24 percent not having completed high school.

Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance (SOC Code 37)
More than 25,000 persons in Cuyahoga County were employed in cleaning and maintenance in
2006. An additional 2,900 were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of 10 .3 percent, slightly
less than the statewide rate of 12.0 percent for this occupational group.

Janitors and building cleaners (15,700 employed) made up the majority of this group, followed by
maids and housekeeping cleaners (4,900) and grounds maintenance workers (3,000).

Forty-two percent of those in cleaning and maintenance occupations in the county’s labor force
were between ages 25 and 44, and 41 percent were between 45 and 64; their median age was 43 in
the county and 42 in the state.

One-half of cleaning and maintenance personnel in the county had only a high school diploma,
and a quarter had not completed high school. The statewide educational profile was slightly
higher, with 56 percent having a high school diploma, and one fifth who had not com pleted high
school.

Personal Care (SOC Code 39)
There were 19,600 personal care workers employed in Cuyahoga County in 2006, and another
2,300 in those occupations who were unemployed. The resulting unemployment rate of 10.3
percent was far higher than the statewide rate of 6.8 percent for this occupational group.

Child care workers (6,100 employed) made up the largest personal care occupation, followed by
personal and home care aides (3,400); hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists (2,900); and
recreation and fitness workers (2,000).

Forty-two percent of the personal care workers in the county’s labor force were between ages 25
and 44, 32 percent were between 45 and 64, and 22 percent were between 16 and 24; the median
age was 38. Statewide, the age profile was similar, with a median age of 37.

Two-fifths of personal care workers in the county had only a high school diploma and 12 percent
had not finished high school. However, more than one-third had one to three years of college,
and 12 percent had four or more years of college. The statewide educational profile was similar to
the county’s profile for this occupational group.

Sales and Related (SOC Code 41)
Sales and sales-related occupations composed the second-largest occupational group in
Cuyahoga County, employing more than 65,000 workers in 2006. Another 6,500 persons in these
occupations were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of 9.1 percent, higher than the
corresponding statewide rate of 7.3 percent.

Retail salespersons (12,500 employed) and first-line supervisors of retail sales workers (11,400)
were the largest sales-related occupations, followed by cashiers (10,200), wholesale and




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                  34
Indicators
manufacturing sales representatives (7,200), and first -line supervisors of non-retail sales workers
(5,900).

Thirty-eight percent of sales-related workers in the county’s labor force were between ages 25 to
44, 34 percent were between 45 and 64, and 21 percent were between 16 and 24; the median age
was 40. The statewide age distribution was similar, with a median age of 39.

Almost one-third of sales workers in the county had only a high school diploma, and the same
proportion had one to three years of college. More than one-fourth had four or more years of
college, and 10 percent had less than a high school education. The statewide educational profile
for these occupations was similar to the county’s profile.

Office and Administrative Support (SOC Code 43)
Office and administrative support workers make up the largest occupational sector in the county,
accounting for one-sixth of the total labor force and employing more than 100,000 persons in
2006. Another 7,300 office and administrative workers were unemployed, for an unemployment
rate of 6.7 percent, higher than the statewide rate of 5.1 percent.

Secretaries and administrative assistants together (21,600 employed) made up the largest office
occupation, followed by customer service representatives (13,500); bookkeeping, accounting, and
auditing clerks (7,300); first-line supervisors of office and administrative workers (6,300); stock
clerks and order fillers (6,000); and receptionists and information clerks (5,400).

Forty-three percent of office workers in the county’s labor force were between ages 45 and 64, 39
percent were between 25 and 44, and 14 percent were between 16 and 24; the median age was 44.
The age distribution for these occupations statewide was similar, with a median age of 43.

Forty-three percent of office workers in the county had one to three years of college, and 18
percent had four or more years of college; 34 percent had only a high school diploma. The
statewide educational profile for office workers was similar to that for the county.

Farming, Fishing, and Forestry (SOC code 45)
Just under 500 persons in Cuyahoga County were employed in agricultural occupations in 2006,
and another 170 in these occupations were unemployed. 7

Construction and Extraction (SOC Code 47)
In Cuyahoga County in 2006, 21,000 persons were employed in construction and extraction
(mining) occupations. An additional 4,300 in these occupations were unemployed, yielding an
unemployment rate of 17.2 percent, higher than the statewide rate of 11.3 percent. The largest
occupations in this group were construction laborers (4,100 employed), carpenters (3,500),
electricians (2,900), and painters (2,700).

More than half of construction workers in the county’s labor force were between ages 25 and 44,
one-third were between 45 and 64, and 14 percent were between 16 and 24; the median age was
40. The statewide age distribution was similar, with a median age of 38.

7 We do not present unemployment rates, age distributions, or education profiles for this group, as these would be
unreliable due to a very small sample size (only five persons surveyed).


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                   35
Indicators
Almost half of construction workers in the county had only a high school diploma, and 14
percent did not finish high school. However, one-third had one to three years of college and 8
percent had four or more years of college. Th e statewide educational profile was somewhat
lower, with only 31 percent having any post-secondary education.

Installation, Maintenance, and Repair (SOC Code 49)
There were 16,600 persons in Cuyahoga County employed in installation, main tenance, and
repair occupations in 2006. Another 500 in these occupations were unemployed, for an
unemployment rate of 2.9 percent, lower than the statewide rate of 6 percent.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics (4,300 employed) were the largest occupation in
this group, followed by industrial and refractory machinery mechanics (1,600), radio and
telecommunications equipment installers and repairers (1,200), and bus and truck mechanics and
diesel engine specialists (1,000).

Half of all workers in these occupations in the county’s labor force were between ages 25 and 44,
and 42 percent were between 45 and 64; the median age was 42. Statewide, the age distribution
was similar, also with a median age of 42.

Over half of those in the county had only a high school diploma and 14 percent had not
completed high school; 30 percent had one to three years of college and 7 percent had four or
more years of college. The statewide educational profile for this group was similar to the county
profile.

Production (SOC Code 51)
More than 44,500 persons in Cuyahoga County were employed in production occupations in
2006. An additional 6,200 in these occupations were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of
12.2 percent, higher than the statewide rate of 9.7 percent for this group.

The largest production occupations in the county were inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and
weighers (4,500 employed); followed by first-line supervisors of production and operating
workers (4,300); machinists (3,800); and welding, soldering, and brazing workers (2,400).

Almost half of the production workers in the county’s labor force are between ages 45 and 64,
and two-fifths are between 25 and 44; the median age was 45. The statewide age distribution of
production workers was somewhat younger, with a median age of 42.

Almost half of the county’s production workers had only a high school diploma, and 20 percent
had not finished high school; 27 percent had one to three years of college, and 5 percent had four
or more years of college. Production workers in the state as a whole had a somewhat different
educational profile in that a higher percent had finished high school, but a lower percent had any
post-secondary education.

Transportation and Material Moving (SOC Code 53)
In 2006, 33,000 Cuyahoga County residents were employed in transportation and material
moving occupations. Another 4,800 persons in these occupations were unemployed, for an


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                               36
Indicators
unemployment rate of 12.6 percent, one-and-a-half times as high as the statewide rate of 8.4
percent for these occupations.

The largest occupations in this group were driver/sales workers and truck drivers (10,400
employed); laborers and freight, stock, and material movers (7,700); bus drivers (3,200); industrial
truck and tractor operators (2,400); and packers and packagers (2,300).

Two-fifths of all transportation and material moving workers in the county’s labor force were
between ages 45 to 64, 36 percent were between 25 and 44, and 19 percent were between 16 and
24; the median age was 43. The statewide age distribution was similar, with a median age of 42.

Over half of all workers in this group in the county had only a high school diploma, and 14
percent had not finished high school. On e fourth had one to three years of college, and al most
one in 10 had four or more years of college. Statewide, the educational profile was slightly lower,
with fewer workers having had any post-secondary education.




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                               37
Indicators
Figure 4.1

                                  Unemployment Rate by Major Occupational Group
                                         Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                Management           2.7%
                                                        3.6%

                        Business & Financial        2.4%
                                                               4.5%

                  Computer & Mathematical              3.1%
                                                          3.8%

                 Architecture & Engineering          2.7%
                                                      3.0%

              Life, Physical, & Social Science        2.8%
                                                                        6.6%

                Community & Social Service         1.9%
                                                    2.1%
                                                                                                         Ohio
                                        Legal        2.6%
                                                     2.5%                                                Cuyahoga County

              Education, Training, & Library          3.0%
                                                         4.0%

                                                               5.1%
 Art, Design, Entertainment, Sports, & Media                            6.5%

       Healthcare Practitioner and Technical       1.9%
                                                     2.4%

                         Healthcare Support                             6.6%
                                                                                                         13.9%

                           Protective Service          3.1%
                                                     2.6%

              Food Preparation and Serving                                                       12.2%
                                                                                                                            18.9%

Building & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance                                                        12.0%
                                                                                         10.3%

                               Personal Care                             6.8%
                                                                                         10.7%

                             Sales & Related                               7.3%
                                                                                  9.1%

            Office & Administrative Support                      5.1%
                                                                        6.7%

                Farming, Fishing, & Forestry                                                     12.1%


                  Construction & Extraction                                                11.3%
                                                                                                                    17.2%

                                                                    6.0%
         Installation, Maintenance, & Repair          2.9%

                                  Production                                   8.0%
                                                                                                 12.2%

          Transportation & Material Moving                                      8.4%
                                                                                                   12.6%

                                            0.0%             5.0%                 10.0%                   15.0%             20.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                                  38
Indicators
                                                                     Major Occupation Groups
                                                                     Civilian Labor Force Ages 16 and Over
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                                                                                                                                             Cuyahoga County                                          Ohio
                                                                     SOC                                                                                                         Percent of                 Percent of




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Table 4.1




                                                                     Group                                                         Sample                             In Labor   Total Labor Unemployment   Total Labor   Unemployment
                                                                     Code    Major Occupation Group                                 Size     Employed    Unemployed     Force      Force         Rate         Force           Rate

                                                                       11    Management                                                554      52,176        1,942     54,118        8.1%          3.6%           8.5%           2.7%
                                                                       13    Business & Financial                                      337      30,127        1,436     31,563        4.7%          4.5%           3.8%           2.4%
                                                                       15    Computer & Mathematical                                   151      13,658          544     14,202        2.1%          3.8%           1.9%           3.1%
                                                                       17    Architecture & Engineering                                109       9,027          278      9,305        1.4%          3.0%           1.7%           2.7%
                                                                       19    Life, Physical, & Social Science                           61       5,239          370      5,609        0.8%          6.6%           0.8%           2.8%
                                                                       21    Community & Social Service                                116      11,792          254     12,046        1.8%          2.1%           1.4%           1.9%
                                                                       23    Legal                                                     105      10,179          261     10,440        1.6%          2.5%           0.8%           2.6%
                                                                       25    Education, Training, & Library                            337      31,832        1,313     33,145        5.0%          4.0%           5.0%           3.0%
                                                                       27    Art, Design, Entertainment, Sports, & Media               121      10,889          752     11,641        1.8%          6.5%           1.3%           5.1%
                                                                       29    Healthcare Practitioner and Technical                     402      37,797          948     38,745        5.8%          2.4%           5.2%           1.9%
                                                                       31    Healthcare Support                                        152      15,943        2,564     18,507        2.8%         13.9%           2.5%           6.6%
                                                                       33    Protective Service                                        144      15,099          405     15,504        2.3%          2.6%           1.7%           3.1%
                                                                       35    Food Preparation and Serving                              332      30,391        7,081     37,472        5.6%         18.9%           6.2%          12.2%
                                                                       37    Building & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance                 239      25,313        2,920     28,233        4.2%         10.3%           3.7%          12.0%
                                                                       39    Personal Care                                             200      19,629        2,340     21,969        3.3%         10.7%           2.7%           6.8%
                                                                       41    Sales & Related                                           725      65,129        6,522     71,651       10.8%          9.1%          11.1%           7.3%
                                                                       43    Office & Administrative Support                         1,074     101,620        7,298    108,918       16.4%          6.7%          14.3%           5.1%
                                                                       45    Farming, Fishing, & Forestry                                5         489          174        663        0.1%            NA           0.3%          12.1%
                                                                       47    Construction & Extraction                                 214      21,027        4,366     25,393        3.8%         17.2%           5.3%          11.3%
                                                                       49    Installation, Maintenance, & Repair                       152      16,601          488     17,089        2.6%          2.9%           3.5%           6.0%
                                                                       51    Production                                                452      44,537        6,203     50,740        7.6%         12.2%           9.7%           8.0%
                                                                       53    Transportation & Material Moving                          323      32,965        4,772     37,737        5.7%         12.6%           7.6%           8.4%

                                                                             N/A: Have Not Worked in Past Five Years                    90          0        10,079     10,079        1.5%        100.0%           0.9%        100.0%

                                                                             Total Civilian Labor Force                              6,395    601,459        63,310   664,769       100.0%          9.5%        100.0%            7.2%

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by the Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   39
                                                                                 Age Distribution of Major Occupation Groups
                                                                                 Civilian Labor Force Ages 16 and Over
                                                                                 Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                                                                                                                                        Cuyahoga County - Number                          Cuyahoga County - Percent                                   Ohio - Percent
                                                                                 SOC                                                                                                     All Ages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Table 4.2




                                                                                 Group                                                                                        65 and      16 and                                     65 and    Median                                     65 and    Median




Indicators
                                                                     Table 4.3
                                                                                 Code Major Occupation Group                              16 to 24      25 to 44   45 to 64    Over        Over     16 to 24   25 to 44   45 to 64    Over      Age      16 to 24   25 to 44   45 to 64    Over      Age

                                                                                   11    Management                                             1,890     24,949     25,785      1,494     54,118      3.5%      46.1%      47.6%       2.8%        45      4.7%      44.8%      46.3%       4.2%        45
                                                                                   13    Business & Financial                                     941     15,800     12,936      1,886     31,563      3.0%      50.1%      41.0%       6.0%        44      4.7%      50.7%      40.8%       3.9%        43
                                                                                   15    Computer & Mathematical                                  655      8,025      5,522          0     14,202      4.6%      56.5%      38.9%       0.0%        42      8.0%      59.8%      31.2%       0.9%        39
                                                                                   17    Architecture & Engineering                               542      2,936      5,267        560      9,305      5.8%      31.6%      56.6%       6.0%        47      5.7%      47.3%      44.4%       2.7%        43
                                                                                   19    Life, Physical, & Social Science                         727      2,064      2,460        358      5,609     13.0%      36.8%      43.9%       6.4%        45     10.6%      41.9%      43.7%       3.8%        44
                                                                                   21    Community & Social Service                               476      5,821      5,151        598     12,046      4.0%      48.3%      42.8%       5.0%        44      7.0%      47.8%      41.1%       4.1%        43
                                                                                   23    Legal                                                    488      4,452      5,095        405     10,440      4.7%      42.6%      48.8%       3.9%        45      3.9%      46.5%      44.5%       5.1%        44
                                                                                   25    Education, Training, & Library                         2,993     14,950     13,694      1,508     33,145      9.0%      45.1%      41.3%       4.5%        42     10.6%      42.5%      43.6%       3.4%        43
                                                                                   27    Art, Design, Entertainment, Sports, & Media            1,398      3,829      5,922        492     11,641     12.0%      32.9%      50.9%       4.2%        45     15.7%      45.6%      34.0%       4.7%        40
                                                                                   29    Healthcare Practitioner and Technical                  1,283     18,521     17,650      1,291     38,745      3.3%      47.8%      45.6%       3.3%        44      5.4%      49.5%      42.6%       2.4%        43
                                                                                   31    Healthcare Support                                     3,151      9,242      5,706        408     18,507     17.0%      49.9%      30.8%       2.2%        36     19.8%      49.5%      28.8%       1.9%        35
                                                                                   33    Protective Service                                     1,803      7,760      5,379        562     15,504     11.6%      50.1%      34.7%       3.6%        41     14.9%      52.0%      28.3%       4.8%        38
                                                                                   35    Food Preparation and Serving                          16,847     12,993      6,968        664     37,472     45.0%      34.7%      18.6%       1.8%        26     49.8%      31.8%      16.3%       2.1%        25
                                                                                   37    Building & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance              3,443     11,980     11,486      1,324     28,233     12.2%      42.4%      40.7%       4.7%        43     17.1%      39.1%      38.4%       5.4%        42
                                                                                   39    Personal Care                                          4,941      9,145      7,010        873     21,969     22.5%      41.6%      31.9%       4.0%        38     24.5%      39.3%      31.2%       5.0%        37
                                                                                   41    Sales & Related                                       15,275     27,238     24,220      4,918     71,651     21.3%      38.0%      33.8%       6.9%        40     22.7%      38.9%      33.2%       5.2%        39
                                                                                   43    Office & Administrative Support                       14,683     42,130     47,099      5,006    108,918     13.5%      38.7%      43.2%       4.6%        44     15.1%      39.3%      41.3%       4.4%        43
                                                                                   45    Farming, Fishing, & Forestry                              82        405        176          0        663        NA         NA         NA         NA        34     28.2%      38.8%      25.5%       7.5%        34
                                                                                   47    Construction & Extraction                              3,619     13,274      8,224        276     25,393     14.3%      52.3%      32.4%       1.1%        40     14.0%      51.4%      33.0%       1.5%        38
                                                                                   49    Installation, Maintenance, & Repair                    1,127      8,481      7,087        394     17,089      6.6%      49.6%      41.5%       2.3%        42      9.5%      47.2%      40.9%       2.4%        42
                                                                                   51    Production                                             4,302     19,747     24,095      2,596     50,740      8.5%      38.9%      47.5%       5.1%        45     10.8%      46.7%      40.1%       2.4%        42
                                                                                   53    Transportation & Material Moving                       7,265     13,562     15,063      1,847     37,737     19.3%      35.9%      39.9%       4.9%        43     15.8%      41.6%      37.9%       4.7%        42

                                                                                         N/A: Have Not Worked in Past Five Years                6,514      1,796      1,689        80      10,079     64.6%      17.8%      16.8%       0.8%        18     66.0%      19.8%      13.3%       1.0%        18

                                                                                         Total Civilian Labor Force                            94,445    279,100    263,684     27,540    664,769     14.2%      42.0%      39.7%       4.1%        42     15.9%      43.3%      37.2%       3.6%        41

                                                                                 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                                        Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                                        Compiled by the Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   40
                                                                     Educational Attainment of Major Occupation Groups
                                                                     Civilian Labor Force Ages 16 and Over
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                                                                                                                            Cuyahoga County - Number                             Cuyahoga County - Percent                            Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                                                                        One to                                                  One to                                         One to
                                                                     SOC                                                                                Three      Four or                                      Three     Four or More                         Three      Four or




Indicators
                                                                     Group                                                   Less Than                 Years of   More Years              Less Than            Years of     Years of     Less Than            Years of   More Years
                                                                     Code Major Occupation Group                              Grade 12      Grade 12   College    of College All Levels    Grade 12 Grade 12   College      College       Grade 12 Grade 12   College    of College

                                                                       11    Management                                               369      7,972     14,746       31,031    54,118        0.7%     14.7%     27.2%          57.3%        2.6%     21.3%     27.6%        48.6%
                                                                       13    Business & Financial                                     293      3,490      8,297       19,483    31,563        0.9%     11.1%     26.3%          61.7%        0.8%     14.6%     29.2%        55.4%
                                                                       15    Computer & Mathematical                                    0        415      4,385        9,402    14,202        0.0%      2.9%     30.9%          66.2%        0.4%      9.6%     31.8%        58.3%
                                                                       17    Architecture & Engineering                                 0      1,003      2,323        5,979     9,305        0.0%     10.8%     25.0%          64.3%        0.5%     11.9%     31.1%        56.4%
                                                                       19    Life, Physical, & Social Science                           0        386      1,042        4,181     5,609        0.0%      6.9%     18.6%          74.5%        1.0%      8.4%     22.3%        68.3%
                                                                       21    Community & Social Service                               353      1,469      2,232        7,992    12,046        2.9%     12.2%     18.5%          66.3%        1.2%     11.6%     21.5%        65.8%
                                                                       23    Legal                                                      0        112      2,277        8,051    10,440        0.0%      1.1%     21.8%          77.1%        0.0%      7.7%     17.7%        74.6%
                                                                       25    Education, Training, & Library                           536      3,011      5,802       23,796    33,145        1.6%      9.1%     17.5%          71.8%        1.2%      8.5%     12.9%        77.3%
                                                                       27    Art, Design, Entertainment, Sports, & Media              321        779      3,198        7,343    11,641        2.8%      6.7%     27.5%          63.1%        2.7%     14.4%     30.9%        51.9%
                                                                       29    Healthcare Practitioner and Technical                    501      2,938     13,090       22,216    38,745        1.3%      7.6%     33.8%          57.3%        0.8%      7.8%     44.1%        47.3%
                                                                       31    Healthcare Support                                     2,528      7,966      6,948        1,065    18,507       13.7%     43.0%     37.5%           5.8%        9.7%     43.3%     42.1%         4.9%
                                                                       33    Protective Service                                       577      6,301      6,512        2,114    15,504        3.7%     40.6%     42.0%          13.6%        3.7%     32.5%     46.3%        17.5%
                                                                       35    Food Preparation and Serving                          10,473     16,586      8,334        2,079    37,472       27.9%     44.3%     22.2%           5.5%       24.1%     41.7%     29.7%         4.4%
                                                                       37    Building & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance              6,906     14,038      6,481          808    28,233       24.5%     49.7%     23.0%           2.9%       19.2%     55.6%     20.9%         4.3%
                                                                       39    Personal Care                                          2,544      9,051      7,681        2,693    21,969       11.6%     41.2%     35.0%          12.3%        8.5%     44.1%     37.1%        10.3%
                                                                       41    Sales & Related                                        7,706     22,401     21,955       19,589    71,651       10.8%     31.3%     30.6%          27.3%        9.4%     34.7%     33.4%        22.5%
                                                                       43    Office & Administrative Support                        5,315     37,261     47,298       19,044   108,918        4.9%     34.2%     43.4%          17.5%        3.9%     39.6%     42.3%        14.1%
                                                                       45    Farming, Fishing, & Forestry                             174        176        231           82       663          NA        NA        NA             NA       30.9%     46.7%     16.7%         5.7%
                                                                       47    Construction & Extraction                              3,421     11,827      8,030        2,115    25,393       13.5%     46.6%     31.6%           8.3%       14.3%     55.1%     25.6%         5.0%
                                                                       49    Installation, Maintenance, & Repair                    1,879      8,896      5,209        1,105    17,089       11.0%     52.1%     30.5%           6.5%        8.6%     50.4%     34.7%         6.3%
                                                                       51    Production                                            10,180     24,450     13,423        2,687    50,740       20.1%     48.2%     26.5%           5.3%       13.0%     58.5%     24.1%         4.4%
                                                                       53    Transportation & Material Moving                       5,302     19,241      9,745        3,449    37,737       14.0%     51.0%     25.8%           9.1%       14.2%     57.6%     23.3%         4.9%

                                                                             N/A: Have Not Worked in Past Five Years                5,098      2,927      1,645          409    10,079       50.6%     29.0%     16.3%           4.1%       58.9%     26.2%     10.4%         4.5%

                                                                             Total Civilian Labor Force                            64,476    202,696    200,884      196,713   664,769        9.7%     30.5%     30.2%          29.6%        8.8%     36.2%     30.6%        24.4%

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by the Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   41
5. Median Earned Income
Why Is This Indicator Important?
This indicator measures the economic outcome of workers’ labor and their ability to support
themselves and their families. Identifying disparities in earned income can assist workforce
development specialists to understand their clients’ situations in order to guide them toward
greater self-sufficiency.

Definition
Earned income includes income earned from wages or a person’s own business or farm for the
past 12 months. The median is the point at which half of all the values are higher and half are
lower. It is a measure of “central tendency” describing a group of values with a single number
representing the “typical” value. We present the median for all civilians ages 16 and over with
any earned income and define “household earned income” as the sum of the earned income for
all workers in the household. In order to accurately describe the income characteristics of the
working population, we exclude from t he median calculation persons and households who had
no earned income. However, in the data tables we also present the number and percent of
persons and households with earned income and the number without earned income.

How Are We Doing?

All Persons with Earned Income
In 2006, the median earned income of all civilians age 16 and older with such income in
Cuyahoga County was $28,173, significantly higher than the median of $25,356 for all Ohioans.
Cleveland workers had a median earned income of $20,728, one-third less than the suburban
median of $30,186.

Age
Median earned income for Cuyahoga County workers was highest in the 45 -to-64 age group,
$35,217, followed by $30,186 for 25 to 44 year-olds. Workers age 65 and over had a median earned
income of $15,998, reflecting the lower number of hours worked by members of this age group
who are still working; 16 to 24 year-olds had a median of $4,830, reflecting both lower hours and
lesser job skills. For all age groups, median earned income among county workers was not
significantly different from that of corresponding age groups in the state as a whole.

For both the 25 to 44 and 45 to 64 age groups, median earned income of Cleveland residents was
significantly lower than for suburbanites. For 25 to 44 year-olds, the Cleveland median of $23,444
was 30 percent lower than the suburban median of $33,707; for the 45 to 64 age group, the
Cleveland median of $27,167 was 29 percent lower than the suburban median of $39,241. The
median earned income for Cleveland workers in the youngest (16 to 24) and oldest (65 and over)
age groups was also lower than the suburban medians, but the differences were not statistically
significant.


Race and Hispanic Origin
At both the county and state level, Whites and Asians had significantly higher median earned
incomes than did African Americans or those of other or multiple races. In Cuyahoga County, the
median was $30,186 for Whites was and $31,393 for Asians. (The difference between Whites and


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                              42
Indicators
Asians was not statistically significant.) In contrast, African Americans in the county had a
median of $22,136, and those of other or multiple races had a median of $20,124. The median for
Whites in the county was significantly higher than for Whites statewide ($26,664). Similarly, for
both the county and the state, workers of Hispanic origin had significantly lower median earned
incomes than did non-Hispanics. The median for Hispanics was $21,935 in the county and
$22,036 in the state; the difference between the county and the state for Hispanics was not
significant.

In Cleveland, m edian earned income was $25,155 for Whites, significantly higher than the $18,111
for African Americans and $20,124 for workers of other or multiple races and Hispanics. Asians
in Cleveland had a median of $20,526, not significantly different from Whites. Both White and
African American workers in Cleveland had significantly lower medians than their
corresponding racial groups in the suburbs, where the median was $31,192 for Whites and
$27,167 for African Americans. Within the suburbs, there was less racial disparity in incomes;
although suburban Whites and Asians had higher medians than did other races and Hispanics,
these differences were not statistically significant.

Educational Attainment
In both the county and the state, there was a direct correlation between educational attainment
and median earned income; the median for each educational level was significantly higher than
for the level below it. In Cuyahoga County, the median was $48,297 for workers with four or
more years of college, $29,180 for those with one to three years of college, $21,814 for those with
only a high school diploma, and $6,741 for those with less than a high school diploma. The
county median for those with one to three years of college was significantly higher than the
statewide median for those with similar education ($25,155).

Similarly, in both Cleveland and the suburbs, workers with higher educational attainment had
significantly higher median earned incomes than those with lower education. However, for all
educational levels except those with less than a high school diploma, median earned incomes for
Cleveland workers were significantly lower than the medians for suburban workers with similar
educations. For those with only high school diplomas, the median was $18,111 in Cleveland and
$21,814 in the suburbs; for those with one to three years of college, it was $25,155 in Cleveland
and $29,180 in the suburbs; and for those with four or more years of college, it was $40,248 in
Cleveland and $48,297 in the suburbs.

Major Occupational Groups8
In Cuyahoga County, those in legal occupations had the highest median earned income at
$69,427. Architecture and engineering occupations had the second highest median in the county
($60,372); computer and mathematical occupations, the third highest ($58,359). Food preparation
and serving workers, many of whom work only part-time, had the lowest median earned income
in the county ($7,245), followed by personal care workers ($10,062) and those employed in
building and grounds cleaning and maintenance ($14,087). Median earned income by major


8 We exc lude from this discussion workers in “farming, forestry, and fishing” and “military” occupations, because of very
low numbers of Cuyahoga County workers in these occupations. Since we are considering only civilian workers, the
latter group does not reflect persons currently active in the armed forces but those who have listed military occupations
as their most recent employment.



The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                     43
Indicators
occupational group did not differ significantly between the county and the state as a whole,
except for office and administrative support workers, who had a significantly higher median in
the county ($26,161) than in the state ($23,142).

Workers residing in Cleveland had significantly lower median earned income than suburbanites
in six occupational groups:
      Management ($40,248 in Cleveland versus $57,353 in the suburbs);
      Legal ($42,261 in Cleveland versus $75,464 in the suburbs);
      Education, Training, and Library ($19,118 in Cleveland versus $32,701 in the suburbs);
      Installation, Maintenance, and Repair ($25,155 in Cleveland versus $44,272 in the
         suburbs);
      Production ($21,130 in Cleveland versus $30,186 in the suburbs); and
      Transportation and Material Moving ($17,810 in Cleveland versus $29,180 in the
         suburbs).

Household Earned Income by Household Type and Number of Workers
The median total earned income in households with any such income in 2006 was $42,279 in
Cuyahoga County, significantly lower than the statewide median of $47,291. Married -couple
families had significantly higher medians than other household types at both the county and the
state level. Although the median for Cuyahoga County married-couple families was $70,936,
significantly higher than for married couples statewide ($65,403), such families made up only 45
percent of households in the county with earned income, compared to 54 percent in the state as a
whole. Female-headed families had the lowest medians among household types, $28,777 in the
county and $26,161 in the state.

The median household earned income in Cleveland in 2006 ($30,286) was significantly lower than
the suburban median ($53,630). This was true for both married-couple families ($44,674 in
Cleveland and $77,477 in the suburbs) and female-headed families ($21,271 in Cleveland and
$32,198 in the suburbs).

In Cuyahoga County, households with two or more workers had a median earned income of
$75,465, more than double the median of $33,204 for those with only one worker. These county
medians were not significantly different from the corresponding medians for the state. There was
a significant difference between Cleveland and suburban households both for those with one
worker ($27,167 in Cleveland and $39,040 in the suburbs) and for those with two or more workers
($57,353 in Cleveland and $80,495 in the suburbs).




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                            44
Indicators
Figure 5.1
                                             Median Earned Income
                               Civilians 16 and Over With Earned Income, 2006


                Ohio                                                            $25,356



  Cuyahoga County                                                                   $28,173



        Cleveland                                                     $20,728



          Suburbs                                                                   $30,186


                       $0             $10,000             $20,000           $30,000                 $40,000



Figure 5.2
                                            Median Earned Income, by Age
                                  Civilians 16 and Over With Earned Income, 2006


                             $5,836
                                                               Ohio
                             $4,830
    16 to 24                                                   Cuyahoga County
                            $4,528
                            $5,031                             Cleveland
                                                               Suburbs

                                                                                  $30,186
                                                                                  $30,186
    25 to 44
                                                                            $23,444
                                                                                                     $33,707


                                                                                                    $34,211
                                                                                                      $35,217
    45 to 64                                                                              $27,167
                                                                                                                $39,241


                                                $12,577
                                                              $15,998
 65 and Over
                                                              $10,565
                                                             $16,099


               $0               $10,000                   $20,000               $30,000                 $40,000




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                        45
Indicators
Figure 5.3
                                                  Median Earned Income
                                               by Race and Hispanic Origin
                                    Civilians 16 and Over With Earned Income, 2006

                                                                                       $26,664
                                                                                            $30,186
                 White
                                                                                     $25,155
                                                                                                 $31,192

                                                                                                            Ohio
                                                                     $20,124
                                                                           $22,136                          Cuyahoga County
      African American
                                                                $18,111                                     Cleveland
                                                                                            $27,167
                                                                                                            Suburbs
                                                                                                  $28,173
                                                                                                              $31,393
                 Asian                                                                           $20,526
                                                                                                                        $35,217

                                                                        $19,017
                                                                              $20,124
 Other or Multiple Race
                                                                             $20,124
                                                                                                    $23,142

                                                                                  $22,036
                                                                                 $21,935
       Hispanic Origin
                                                                             $20,124
                                                                                                  $25,155

                          $0             $10,000              $20,000                  $30,000                 $40,000




Figure 5.4
                                                  Median Earned Income
                                                by Educational Attainment
                                    Civilians 16 and Over With Earned Income, 2006


                                          $8,050                                     Ohio
                                          $6,741
       Less than Grade 12                                                            Cuyahoga County
                                           $9,659
                                                                                     Cleveland
                                           $6,741
                                                                                     Suburbs

                                                                   $22,237
                                                                    $21,814
                 Grade 12
                                                                     $18,111
                                                                          $21,814


                                                                   $25,155
                                                                         $29,180
    1 to 3 Years of College
                                                                        $25,155
                                                                                      $29,180


                                                                                                   $45,279
                                                                                                            $48,297
 4 or More Years of College
                                                                                                 $40,248
                                                                                                              $48,297


                               $0    $10,000        $20,000    $30,000        $40,000            $50,000       $60,000




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                                46
Indicators
Figure 5.5

                                                            Median Earned Income
                                                         By Major Occupational Group
                                                          Civilians 16 and Over, 2006

                                                                                                                $ 50,310
                                Management                                                                            $ 53,328

                                                                                                     $ 40,952
                        Business & Financial                                                             $ 40,248

                                                                                                                           $ 54,334
                  Computer & Mathematical                                                                                    $ 58,359

                                                                                                                    $ 55,341
                 Architecture & Engineering
                                                                                                                                        $ 60,372

              Life, Physical, & Social Science                                                           $ 42,260
                                                                                                                $ 40,147

                                                                                        $ 30,186
                Community & Social Service                                                           $ 34,211

                                                                                                                       $ 52,322
                                        Legal                                                                                                      $ 69,427

                                                                                           $ 31,695
              Education, Training, & Library
                                                                                                  $ 30,186

                                                                                       $ 25,155
 Art, Design, Entertainment, Sports, & Media                                                           $ 32,017

                                                                                                     $ 40,248
                                                                                                                                          Ohio
       Healthcare Practitioner and Technical                                                         $ 40,248
                                                                                                                                          Cuyahoga County
                                                                           7,1
                                                                        $ 1 05
                         Healthcare Support                                7,1
                                                                        $ 1 05

                                                                                               $ 32,198
                           Protective Service                                                   $ 30,186

                                                              $ 7,043
              Food Preparation and Serving                    $ 7,245

                                                                  $12,577
Building & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance                              $14,087

                                                                          $10,062
                               Personal Care                             $10,062

                                                                            $ 20,124
                             Sales & Related                                       $ 21,734

                                                                               $ 23,142
            Office & Administrative Support                                       $ 26,161

                                                                            $1 2,678
                Farming, Fishing, & Forestry
                                                                            $ 3,622

                                                                                       $ 29,180
                  Construction & Extraction                                               $ 26,161

                                                                                              $ 35,217
         Installation, Maintenance, & Repair                                                        $ 36,223

                                                                                    $ 28,173
                                  Production
                                                                                       $ 27,167

                                                                               $ 23,142
          Transportation & Material Moving                                            $ 25,155

                                                                  $ 3,019
                                     Military         $ 704


                                                 $0                $20,000                $40,000                 $60,000               $80,000         $100,000




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                                                                 47
Indicators
Figure 5.6
                                        Median Household Earned Income
                                      Households With Earned Income, 2006


                        Ohio                                                       $47,291



           Cuyahoga County                                                        $45,279



                   Cleveland                                      $30,286



                     Suburbs                                                               $53,630


                                 $0            $20,000             $40,000               $60,000



Figure 5.7
                                         Median Household Earned Income
                                            by Household Type, 2006


                                                                                              $65,403
                                                                                                        $70,936
   Married Couple Family                                                      $44,574
                                                                                                              $77,477

                                                                          $43,266
  Male-Headed Family, No                                                  $43,468
                                                                             $41,858
          Wife
                                                                                $45,279

                                                         $26,161
   Female-Headed Family,                                   $28,777                Ohio
       No Husband                                    $21,271                      Cuyahoga County
                                                              $32,198
                                                                                  Cleveland
                                                              $32,198
                                                                $32,198           Suburbs
       Male, Living Alone                               $25,155
                                                                    $36,223

                                                                              $46,386
   Male Householder, Not                                                                      $58,862
        Living Alone                                                                                    $50,310
                                                                                                            $63,390

                                                        $27,167
                                                            $30,186
     Female, Living Alone                                   $28,173
                                                                $31,393

                                                                        $40,248
 Female Householder, Not                                                                         $55,341
       Living Alone                                                                                          $50,310
                                                                                                   $58,359

                            $0             $20,000            $40,000              $60,000              $80,000




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                      48
Indicators
                                                                     Median Earned Income by Age, Race, and Education
                                                                     Civilians Ages 16 and Over with Earned Income
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Table 5.1A




                                                                                                                                         Cuyahoga County                                                                                             Ohio
                                                                                                                                                       Persons              Persons     Percent                                                             Persons     Persons     Percent
                                                                                                                      Median Earned Income                With              Without       with                     Median Earned Income                       With      Without       with
                                                                                                                  Lower       Point       Upper         Earned              Earned      Earned                  Lower      Point      Upper                 Earned      Earned      Earned
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*       Income              Income      Income                 90% C.I.* Estimate    90% C.I.*              Income      Income      Income

                                                                     All Persons with Earned Income          $      26,949   $    28,173    $    29,397          692,045     338,853       67.1%           $      24,423   $ 25,356     $   26,289          6,268,459   2,749,773     69.5%

                                                                     By Age:
                                                                     16-24                                   $       4,039   $     4,830    $     5,621           99,078      42,914       69.8%           $       5,344   $ 5,836      $    6,328          1,075,642     353,579     75.3%
                                                                     25-44                                   $      30,186   $    30,186    $    30,186          287,507      44,278       86.7%           $      30,186   $ 30,186     $   30,186          2,645,168     425,036     86.2%
                                                                     45-64                                   $      34,456   $    35,217    $    35,978          271,979      85,819       76.0%           $      33,550   $ 34,211     $   34,872          2,284,902     709,381     76.3%
                                                                     65 and Over                             $      13,420   $    15,998    $    18,576           33,481     165,842       16.8%           $      11,693   $ 12,577     $   13,461            262,747   1,261,777     17.2%

                                                                     By Race and Hispanic Origin
                                                                     White                                   $      30,186   $    30,186    $    30,186          476,303     221,760       68.2%           $      25,852   $   26,664   $   27,476          5,391,637   2,311,442     70.0%
                                                                     African American                        $      20,323   $    22,136    $    23,949          178,942     100,046       64.1%           $      18,832   $   20,124   $   21,416            645,541     348,980     64.9%
                                                                     Asian                                   $      26,098   $    31,393    $    36,688           18,933       5,887       76.3%           $      24,711   $   28,173   $   31,635            104,130      34,142     75.3%
                                                                     Other or Multiple Race                  $      16,097   $    20,124    $    24,151           17,867      11,160       61.6%           $      16,831   $   19,017   $   21,203            127,151      55,209     69.7%

                                                                     Hispanic Origin                         $      17,403   $    21,935    $    26,467           22,654      11,133       67.0%           $      19,283   $ 22,036     $   24,789            134,874      48,293     73.6%
                                                                     Non-Hispanic                            $      27,402   $    28,777    $    30,152          669,391     327,720       67.1%           $      25,009   $ 25,859     $   26,709          6,133,585   2,701,480     69.4%

                                                                     By Educational Attainment
                                                                     LT Grade 12                             $       4,981   $     6,741    $     8,501           65,745      95,503       40.8%           $       7,438   $ 8,050      $    8,662            568,079     790,341     41.8%
                                                                     Grade 12                                $      20,493   $    21,814    $    23,135          211,177     131,508       61.6%           $      21,125   $ 22,237     $   23,349          2,252,050   1,136,860     66.5%
                                                                     1-3 Yrs College                         $      27,576   $    29,180    $    30,784          210,725      67,514       75.7%           $      25,155   $ 25,155     $   25,155          1,945,453     500,412     79.5%
                                                                     4+ Yrs College                          $      44,898   $    48,297    $    51,696          204,398      44,328       82.2%           $      45,279   $ 45,279     $   45,279          1,502,877     322,160     82.3%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   49
                                                                     Median Earned Income by Age, Race, and Education
                                                                     Civilians Ages 16 and Over with Earned Income
                                                                     Cleveland and Suburbs, 2006




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Table 5.1B




                                                                                                                                                  Cleveland                                                                                             Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                                 Persons     Persons     Percent                                                                  Persons     Persons     Percent
                                                                                                                       Median Earned Income                        With      Without       with                     Median Earned Income                            With      Without       with
                                                                                                                   Lower       Point      Upper                  Earned      Earned      Earned                  Lower      Point      Upper                      Earned      Earned      Earned
                                                                                                                  90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*               Income      Income      Income                 90% C.I.* Estimate    90% C.I.*                   Income      Income      Income

                                                                     All Persons with Earned Income           $      19,207   $    20,728   $    22,249           191,925    122,687        61.0%           $      29,553   $ 30,186       $   30,819               500,120     216,166     69.8%

                                                                     By Age:
                                                                     16-24                                    $       3,115   $     4,528   $     5,941            30,605      19,743       60.8%           $       4,318   $ 5,031        $    5,744                68,473      23,171     74.7%
                                                                     25-44                                    $      20,644   $    23,444   $    26,244            89,588      21,122       80.9%           $      31,220   $ 33,707       $   36,194               197,919      23,156     89.5%
                                                                     45-64                                    $      23,964   $    27,167   $    30,370            65,331      34,625       65.4%           $      37,213   $ 39,241       $   41,269               206,648      51,194     80.1%
                                                                     65 and Over                              $       2,265   $    10,565   $    18,865             6,401      47,197       11.9%           $      12,999   $ 16,099       $   19,199                27,080     118,645     18.6%

                                                                     By Race
                                                                     White                                    $      24,012   $    25,155   $    26,298            85,063      48,966       63.5%           $      29,645   $   31,192     $   32,739               391,240      17,294     95.8%
                                                                     African American                         $      16,915   $    18,111   $    19,307            93,804      64,540       59.2%           $      24,531   $   27,167     $   29,803                85,138      35,506     70.6%
                                                                     Asian                                    $       9,677   $    20,526   $    31,375             3,895       1,340       74.4%           $      23,323   $   35,217     $   47,111                15,038       4,547     76.8%
                                                                     Other or Multiple Race                   $      16,537   $    20,124   $    23,711             9,163       7,841       53.9%           $      13,681   $   23,142     $   32,603                 8,704       3,319     72.4%

                                                                     Hispanic Origin                          $      16,726   $    20,124   $    23,522            12,673      7,559        62.6%           $      18,639   $ 25,155       $   31,671                 9,981       3,574     73.6%
                                                                     Non-Hispanic                             $      19,360   $    20,929   $    22,498           179,252    115,128        60.9%           $      29,144   $ 30,186       $   31,228               490,139     212,592     69.7%

                                                                     By Educational Attainment
                                                                     LT Grade 12                              $       7,089   $     9,659   $    12,229            31,584      51,429       38.0%           $       4,981   $ 6,741        $    8,501                65,745      44,074     59.9%
                                                                     Grade 12                                 $      16,745   $    18,111   $    19,477            73,614      44,998       62.1%           $      20,493   $ 21,814       $   23,135               211,177      86,510     70.9%
                                                                     1-3 Yrs College                          $      23,993   $    25,155   $    26,317            56,811      19,796       74.2%           $      27,576   $ 29,180       $   30,784               210,725      47,718     81.5%
                                                                     4+ Yrs College                           $      36,105   $    40,248   $    44,391            29,916       6,464       82.2%           $      44,898   $ 48,297       $   51,696               204,398      37,864     84.4%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   50
                                                                     Median Earned Income by Major Occupational Group
                                                                     Civilians Ages 16 and Over with Earned Income
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Table 5.2A




                                                                                                                                                      Cuyahoga County                                                                                                   Ohio
                                                                                                                                                                    Persons                   Persons      Percent                                                             Persons    Persons    Percent
                                                                                                                                 Median Earned Income                  With                   Without        with                     Median Earned Income                       With     Without      with
                                                                                                                             Lower       Point      Upper            Earned                   Earned       Earned                 Lower       Point      Upper                 Earned     Earned     Earned
                                                                     Major Occupational Group:                              90% C.I.*  Estimate    90% C.I.*         Income                   Income       Income                90% C.I.*  Estimate    90% C.I.*              Income     Income     Income

                                                                     Management                                           $    50,210    $    53,328    $    56,446                55,121         5,221       91.3%             $    48,877   $   50,310   $   51,743           510,810     35,829     93.4%
                                                                     Business & Financial                                 $    37,575    $    40,248    $    42,921                32,651         1,983       94.3%             $    39,358   $   40,952   $   42,546           235,079     16,558     93.4%
                                                                     Computer & Mathematical                              $    55,492    $    58,359    $    61,226                14,244        10,686       57.1%             $    50,632   $   54,334   $   58,036           114,109      6,168     94.9%
                                                                     Architecture & Engineering                           $    49,246    $    60,372    $    71,498                 9,734           828       92.2%             $    53,658   $   55,341   $   57,024           103,572      6,717     93.9%
                                                                     Life, Physical, & Social Science                     $    28,396    $    40,147    $    51,898                 6,011           656       90.2%             $    38,708   $   42,260   $   45,812            48,627      3,763     92.8%
                                                                     Community & Social Service                           $    28,971    $    34,211    $    39,451                12,429         1,515       89.1%             $    30,081   $   30,186   $   30,291            89,489      7,786     92.0%
                                                                     Legal                                                $    52,221    $    69,427    $    86,633                10,877           617       94.6%             $    46,746   $   52,322   $   57,898            51,627      3,024     94.5%
                                                                     Education, Training, & Library                       $    22,242    $    30,186    $    38,130                36,064         5,239       87.3%             $    29,749   $   31,695   $   33,641           328,749     31,849     91.2%
                                                                     Art, Design, Entertainment, Sports, & Media          $    21,595    $    32,017    $    42,439                13,371           874       93.9%             $    22,756   $   25,155   $   27,554            91,398      6,344     93.5%
                                                                     Healthcare Practitioner and Technical                $    38,398    $    40,248    $    42,098                39,997         2,160       94.9%             $    40,248   $   40,248   $   40,248           315,366     19,814     94.1%
                                                                     Healthcare Support                                   $    14,191    $    17,105    $    20,019                20,489         2,678       88.4%             $    16,485   $   17,105   $   17,725           160,440     22,409     87.7%
                                                                     Protective Service                                   $    25,625    $    30,186    $    34,747                17,036         1,504       91.9%             $    29,625   $   32,198   $   34,771           114,264     10,786     91.4%
                                                                     Food Preparation and Serving                         $     5,736    $     7,245    $     8,754                40,658         7,769       84.0%             $     6,783   $    7,043   $    7,303           410,942     57,870     87.7%
                                                                     Building & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance            $    11,066    $    14,087    $    17,108                28,962         4,729       86.0%             $    11,297   $   12,577   $   13,857           241,711     40,346     85.7%
                                                                     Personal Care                                        $     7,026    $    10,062    $    13,098                24,247         2,473       90.7%             $     9,306   $   10,062   $   10,818           183,278     21,836     89.4%
                                                                     Sales & Related                                      $    18,209    $    21,734    $    25,259                75,864         8,424       90.0%             $    19,502   $   20,124   $   20,746           705,751     85,554     89.2%
                                                                     Office & Administrative Support                      $    24,918    $    26,161    $    27,404               115,363        14,152       89.1%             $    22,957   $   23,142   $   23,327           903,979    107,781     89.3%
                                                                     Farming, Fishing, & Forestry                         $       -      $     3,622    $    13,869                   570           318       64.2%             $     7,940   $   12,678   $   17,416            23,540      3,566     86.8%
                                                                     Construction & Extraction                            $    21,954    $    26,161    $    30,368                28,238         3,314       89.5%             $    27,593   $   29,180   $   30,767           339,593     29,237     92.1%
                                                                     Installation, Maintenance, & Repair                  $    31,105    $    36,223    $    41,341                17,697         1,509       92.1%             $    35,032   $   35,217   $   35,402           213,184     21,164     91.0%
                                                                     Production                                           $    24,030    $    27,167    $    30,304                53,518         6,402       89.3%             $    27,364   $   28,173   $   28,982           602,251     77,518     88.6%
                                                                     Transportation & Material Moving                     $    21,132    $    25,155    $    29,178                38,569         6,702       85.2%             $    22,306   $   23,142   $   23,978           479,587     55,925     89.6%
                                                                     Military                                             $       704    $       704    $       704                   335           -        100.0%             $       -     $    3,019   $   13,999             1,113        929     54.5%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   51
                                                                     Median Earned Income by Major Occupational Group
                                                                     Civilians Ages 16 and Over with Earned Income
                                                                     Cleveland and Suburbs, 2006




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Table 5.2B




                                                                                                                                                                  Cleveland                                                                                         Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                                                Persons       Persons      Percent                                                            Persons    Persons    Percent
                                                                                                                                 Median Earned Income                             With        Without        with                     Median Earned Income                      With     Without      with
                                                                                                                             Lower       Point      Upper                       Earned        Earned       Earned                 Lower       Point      Upper                Earned     Earned     Earned
                                                                     Major Occupational Group:                              90% C.I.*  Estimate    90% C.I.*                    Income        Income       Income                90% C.I.*  Estimate    90% C.I.*             Income     Income     Income

                                                                     Management                                           $    29,012    $    40,248    $    51,484                  9,750        1,200       89.0%             $    52,415   $   57,353   $   62,291           45,371      4,021     91.9%
                                                                     Business & Financial                                 $    28,490    $    34,211    $    39,932                  5,421          403       93.1%             $    38,179   $   43,266   $   48,353           27,230      1,580     94.5%
                                                                     Computer & Mathematical                              $    35,256    $    47,794    $    60,332                  1,404          260       84.4%             $    54,090   $   58,359   $   62,628           12,840        826     94.0%
                                                                     Architecture & Engineering                           $       -      $    49,303    $   106,091                    774          393       66.3%             $    51,912   $   63,189   $   74,466            8,960        435     95.4%
                                                                     Life, Physical, & Social Science                     $       -      $    20,124    $    47,939                  1,161          140       89.2%             $    31,992   $   48,297   $   64,602            4,850        516     90.4%
                                                                     Community & Social Service                           $    20,031    $    29,180    $    38,329                  4,856          306       94.1%             $    32,508   $   38,235   $   43,962            7,573      1,209     86.2%
                                                                     Legal                                                $    33,803    $    42,261    $    50,719                  1,697          262       86.6%             $    51,564   $   75,464   $   99,364            9,180        355     96.3%
                                                                     Education, Training, & Library                       $    14,939    $    19,118    $    23,297                  7,374        1,232       85.7%             $    27,302   $   32,701   $   38,100           28,690      4,007     87.7%
                                                                     Art, Design, Entertainment, Sports, & Media          $    12,213    $    26,161    $    40,109                  2,962          -        100.0%             $    22,343   $   32,198   $   42,053           10,409        874     92.3%
                                                                     Healthcare Practitioner and Technical                $    28,826    $    36,223    $    43,620                  7,093          696       91.1%             $    34,903   $   40,248   $   45,593           32,904      1,464     95.7%
                                                                     Healthcare Support                                   $     8,502    $    14,087    $    19,672                  8,963        1,509       85.6%             $    16,842   $   18,816   $   20,790           11,526      1,169     90.8%
                                                                     Protective Service                                   $    23,206    $    33,204    $    43,202                  8,058          398       95.3%             $    27,523   $   30,186   $   32,849            8,978      1,106     89.0%
                                                                     Food Preparation and Serving                         $     4,737    $     7,647    $    10,557                 14,366        3,608       79.9%             $     5,563   $    7,043   $    8,523           26,292      4,161     86.3%
                                                                     Building & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance            $     9,683    $    12,074    $    14,465                 13,149        2,811       82.4%             $    11,923   $   15,093   $   18,263           15,813      1,918     89.2%
                                                                     Personal Care                                        $     6,429    $    10,062    $    13,695                  5,392          535       91.0%             $     5,785   $   10,062   $   14,339           18,855      1,938     90.7%
                                                                     Sales & Related                                      $     9,283    $    15,697    $    22,111                 16,511        3,404       82.9%             $    19,425   $   24,149   $   28,873           59,353      5,020     92.2%
                                                                     Office & Administrative Support                      $    21,800    $    24,149    $    26,498                 31,025        4,166       88.2%             $    24,952   $   27,167   $   29,382           84,338      9,986     89.4%
                                                                     Farming, Fishing, & Forestry                         $     3,353    $     3,522    $     3,691                    407          318       56.1%             $       -     $    7,345   $   24,563              163        -      100.0%
                                                                     Construction & Extraction                            $    15,566    $    21,130    $    26,694                  9,245        2,263       80.3%             $    25,564   $   32,198   $   38,832           18,993      1,051     94.8%
                                                                     Installation, Maintenance, & Repair                  $    17,598    $    25,155    $    32,712                  5,943          580       91.1%             $    40,494   $   44,272   $   48,050           11,754        929     92.7%
                                                                     Production                                           $    18,417    $    21,130    $    23,843                 19,983        3,654       84.5%             $    28,402   $   30,186   $   31,970           33,535      2,748     92.4%
                                                                     Transportation & Material Moving                     $    13,659    $    17,810    $    21,961                 16,391        3,678       81.7%             $    26,549   $   29,180   $   31,811           22,178      3,024     88.0%
                                                                     Military                                                      NA            NA              NA                    -            -            NA             $       704   $      704   $      704              335        -      100.0%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   52
                                                                     Median Household Earned Income
                                                                     Households with Earned Income
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Table 5.3A




                                                                                                                                                    Cuyahoga County                                                                                                  Ohio
                                                                                                                                                               Households Households                     Percent                                                            Households   Households    Percent
                                                                                                                        Median Household Earned Income             With    Without                         with               Median Household Earned Income                    With      Without        with
                                                                                                                         Lower       Point       Upper           Earned     Earned                       Earned                Lower       Point       Upper                  Earned       Earned      Earned
                                                                                                                        90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*         Income     Income                       Income               90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*                Income       Income      Income

                                                                     All Households With Earned Income              $      44,321    $   45,279   $    46,237               409,671         128,936          76.1%           $    46,823   $   47,291   $ 47,759             3,542,237       957,266     78.7%


                                                                     Household Type:
                                                                     Married Couple Family                          $      68,121    $   70,936   $    73,751               184,406          28,791          86.5%           $    65,351   $   65,403   $   65,455           1,907,502       297,323     86.5%
                                                                     Male Family, No Wife                           $      40,743    $   43,468   $    46,193                22,388           1,920          92.1%           $    41,359   $   43,266   $   45,173             161,598        17,848     90.1%
                                                                     Female Family, No Husband                      $      26,731    $   28,777   $    30,823                70,729          14,759          82.7%           $    25,049   $   26,161   $   27,273             493,235        75,903     86.7%
                                                                     Male, Living Alone                             $      28,601    $   32,198   $    35,795                56,882          25,361          69.2%           $    30,750   $   32,198   $   33,646             403,355       172,995     70.0%
                                                                     Male Householder, Not Living Alone             $      52,109    $   58,862   $    65,615                11,583             826          93.3%           $    43,920   $   46,386   $   48,852             121,814         9,092     93.1%
                                                                     Female, Living Alone                           $      29,431    $   30,186   $    30,941                55,963          55,277          50.3%           $    26,384   $   27,167   $   27,950             361,040       374,029     49.1%
                                                                     Female Householder, Not Living Alone           $      43,153    $   55,341   $    67,529                 7,720           2,002          79.4%           $    38,073   $   40,248   $   42,423              93,693        10,076     90.3%


                                                                     Number of Workers in Household
                                                                     None**                                         $       8,732    $   10,464   $    12,196                30,694         128,936          19.2%           $     9,841   $   10,766   $ 11,691               226,157       956,817     19.1%
                                                                     One                                            $      31,100    $   33,204   $    35,308               217,044             -           100.0%           $    32,124   $   32,198   $ 32,272             1,721,156           449    100.0%
                                                                     Two or More                                    $      73,459    $   75,465   $    77,471               161,933             -           100.0%           $    70,382   $   70,434   $ 70,486             1,594,924           -      100.0%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     ** Households with earned income but no workers had earned income in the past year but no members who were employed in the past week.

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   53
                                                                     Median Household Earned Income
                                                                     Households with Earned Income
                                                                     Cleveland and Suburbs, 2006




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Table 5.3B




                                                                                                                                                         Cleveland                                                                                             Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                                  Households Households                  Percent                                                     Households   Households    Percent
                                                                                                                        Median Household Earned Income                With    Without                      with               Median Household Earned Income             With      Without        with
                                                                                                                         Lower       Point       Upper              Earned     Earned                    Earned                Lower       Point       Upper           Earned       Earned      Earned
                                                                                                                        90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*            Income     Income                    Income               90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*         Income       Income      Income

                                                                     All Households With Earned Income              $       28,474   $   30,286   $    32,098               121,451          47,743          71.8%           $    50,728   $   53,630   $ 56,532       288,220         81,193     78.0%


                                                                     Household Type:
                                                                     Married Couple Family                          $       40,963   $   44,574   $    48,185                 35,247          6,164          85.1%           $    75,004   $   77,477   $   79,950     149,159         22,627     86.8%
                                                                     Male Family, No Wife                           $       35,408   $   41,858   $    48,308                  9,221            966          90.5%           $    38,792   $   45,279   $   51,766      13,167            954     93.2%
                                                                     Female Family, No Husband                      $       19,030   $   21,271   $    23,512                 33,138          8,139          80.3%           $    30,175   $   32,198   $   34,221      37,591          6,620     85.0%
                                                                     Male, Living Alone                             $       22,080   $   25,155   $    28,230                 22,149         10,173          68.5%           $    32,695   $   36,223   $   39,751      34,733         15,188     69.6%
                                                                     Male Householder, Not Living Alone             $       25,590   $   50,310   $    75,030                  2,933            763          79.4%           $    48,383   $   63,390   $   78,397       8,650             63     99.3%
                                                                     Female, Living Alone                           $       25,352   $   28,173   $    30,994                 16,148         19,847          44.9%           $    28,144   $   31,393   $   34,642      39,815         35,430     52.9%
                                                                     Female Householder, Not Living Alone           $       21,193   $   50,310   $    79,427                  2,615          1,691          60.7%           $    47,292   $   58,359   $   69,426       5,105            311     94.3%


                                                                     Number of Workers in Household
                                                                     None**                                         $        5,104   $    7,345   $     9,586                 13,141         47,743          21.6%           $    12,172   $   14,087   $ 16,002        17,553         81,193     17.8%
                                                                     One                                            $       24,455   $   27,167   $    29,879                 73,759            -           100.0%           $    36,598   $   39,040   $ 41,482       143,285            -      100.0%
                                                                     Two or More                                    $       52,677   $   57,353   $    62,029                 34,551            -           100.0%           $    77,627   $   80,495   $ 83,363       127,382            -      100.0%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     ** Households with earned income but no workers had earned income in the past year but no members who were employed in the past week.

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   54
6. Workforce Characteristics of Householders Under
Age 65
Why Is This Indicator Important?
Househ olds in general, and family households in particular, form the basic unit of social and
economic support in society. Labor force participation often varies depending on the presence of
other workers in the household. The presence of children and their need for caretakers is an
important factor in the opportunities for adults, particularly women, to participate in the
workforce.

Definition
This indicator analyzes the labor force and employment characteristics of persons in households,
in particular those of the householder (or head of household), i.e., the person, or one of the
persons, in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Households are character ized as
family or non-family. Family households are those in which the members are related by birth,
marriage, or adoption. Family households are also characterized as being headed by a married
couple, a single male, or a single female householder. Non-family households include
householders living alone or with non-relatives only. Labor force participation and
unemployment are defined as in Indictors 2 and 3. Data are from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2006
American Community Survey, Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS).

We analyze here only those households in which the householder is under age 65, as labor force
participation drops off markedly after that age. We also analyze family households with all
children related to the householder (including grandchildren, nieces, nephews, etc.), as the
presence of any children can affect workforce behavior.

How Are We Doing?

Characteristics of Householders by Household Type

Married-Couple Famil ies: In Cuyahoga County in 2006, both the husband and wife were in the
labor force in two-thirds of married-couple families, and in more than 60 percent both were
employed. Nine out of 10 of all husbands and three-fourths of all wives in these families were in
the labor force; 85 percent of all husbands and 71 percent of all wives were employed. These
proportions were close to the corresponding rates for Ohio as a whole. About 6,200 husbands (4.2
percent) and 5,000 wives (4.0 percent) in married-couple families were unemployed, slightly
higher than the statewide rates of 3.5 percent for husbands and 3.6 percent for wives.9

Male-Householder Families: Eighty-two percent of single males heading families in the county were
in the labor force and 78 percent were employed, slightly lower than the statewide rates of 85
percent in the labor force and 80 percent employed. About 900, or 5.2 percent , of these men in the
county were unemployed, slightly lower than the Ohio rate of 6.0 percent.

Female-Householder Famil ies: A smaller percentage of single females in the county who headed
families, 78 percent, were in the labor force, and only 66 percent were employed; these were

9 Due to sampling error, small differences of one percent or less in unemployment rates may not be statistically
signific ant.


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                 55
Indicators
smaller than the statewide rates of 81 percent in the labor force and 72 percent employed. About
8,700 women (15.3 percent) who headed families in the county were unemployed, one-and-a-half
times the Ohio rate of 10.2 percent.

Males Living Alone: Eighty-three percent of males living alone in Cuyahoga County were in the
labor force and 77 percent were employed, slightly higher than the Ohio proportions of 80
percent in the labor force and 77 percent employed. About 3,800 males living alone in the county,
7.1 percent, were unemployed, slightly higher than the statewide rate of 6.6 percent.

Male Householder, Not Living Alone: Although relatively low in number (11,100), males heading
non-family households in the county had a high labor force participation rate, 87 percent, and 86
percent were employed. Their unemployment rate was 1.4 percent, lower than the corresponding
statewide rate of 6.3 percent, although because of small sample sizes at the county level, this
difference may not be statistically significant.

Females Liv ing Alone: Just over three-fourths of females who lived alone in the county were in the
labor force, and 72 percent were employed. About 2,300 (5.0 percent ) were unemployed, slightly
higher than the 4.4 percent rate for Ohio.

Female Householder, Not Liv ing Alone: Females heading non-family households in the county,
although small in number (8,900), had a high labor force participation rate, 81 percent, and 79
percent were employed. Their unemployment rate (1.6 percent) was lower than the statewide rate
of 6.3 percent, although because of small sample sizes at the county level, this difference may not
be statistically significant.

Number of Workers in the Household
Counting all workers in the household, married-couple families had the lowest proportion with
no workers, 5 percent in the county and 6 percent in the state. Two-thirds of all married-couple
families in both the county and the state had two or mor e workers.

The proportion of households in the county with no workers was greatest among females living
alone (27 percent, or 17,000 households), female-headed family households (24 percent, or 17,500
households), and males living alone (23 percent, or 15,100 households).

About half of single-householder families in the county, both male and female, had only one
worker, compared to just over one-fourth of married-couple families. Thirty-eight percent of
male-headed families, but only 27 percent of female-headed families, had two or more workers.
These percentages for the county were close to their corresponding statewide rates.

Workforce Characteristics of Families with Children
In married-couple families in the county with related children under 18, 93 percent of husbands
and 72 percent of wives were in the labor force, almost identical to the statewide rates. In
married-couple families with children under age six, 95 percent of husbands and 69 percent of
wives were in the labor force, similar to the Ohio rate for husbands, but slightly higher than the
Ohio rate of 66 percent for wives. Unemployment rates were quite low, 3.6 percent for husbands
and 4.5 percent for wives in families with children under 18, close to the statewide rates. In




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                               56
Indicators
families with children under six, the unemployment rate was 4 percent for both husbands and
wives, compared to the Ohio rates of 3.6 percent for husbands and 4.8 percent for wives.

Single females in the county with related children under 18 had a labor force participati on rate of
80 percent, almost identical to the Ohio rate; with children under six, 83 percent were in the labor
force, slightly higher than the 79 percent statewide. About 7,800 single women with children
under 18 (3,800 with children under six) in the county were unemployed. The unemployment
rates for these women—17.8 percent for women with children under 18 and 21.9 percent for
women with children under six—were much higher than the Ohio rates of 11.6 percent and 16.3
percent, respectively.

About 10,300 single males in the county headed families with related children under 18 (4,000
with children under six). The labor force participation rates for these men, 86 percent for men
with children under 18 and 88 percent for men with children under six, were slightly lower than
the statewide rates. About 400 single men with children under 18 (250 with children under six)
were unemployed. The unemployment rates of 4.5 percent for men with children under 18 and
7.0 percent for men with children under six, were slightly lower than the Ohio rates of 5.6 percent
and 8.0 percent, respectively.



Figure 6.1

                                  Labor Force Participation Rate of Householders Under 65
                                   By Household Type, Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



         Husband in Married                                                           88.2%
            Couple Family                                                             88.9%

      Wife in Married Couple                                               72.5%
              Family                                                        74.1%

                                                                                   85.0%
     Male-Householder Family
                                                                                 81.8%

         Female-Householder                                                     80.5%
               Family                                                          77.9%
                                                                                                     Ohio
                                                                                                     Cuyahoga County
                                                                                 80.3%
           Male Living Alone
                                                                                  82.6%

       Male Non-Family Not                                                             88.7%
           Living Alone                                                               87.1%

                                                                             75.3%
         Female Living Alone
                                                                              76.2%

      Female Non-Family Not                                                      80.6%
           Living Alone                                                          80.9%


                           0.0%      20.0%        40.0%         60.0%        80.0%          100.0%


Figure 6.2


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                     57
Indicators
                                    Unemployment Rate of Householders Under 65
                                 By Household Type, Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



  Husband in Married Couple                     3.5%
           Family                                  4.2%

     Wife in Married Couple                       3.6%
                                                                                Ohio
             Family                               4.0%
                                                                                Cuyahoga County

                                                             6.0%
    Male-Householder Family
                                                          5.2%

                                                                                       10.2%
  Female-Householder Family
                                                                                                                 15.3%

                                                                  6.6%
          Male Living Alone
                                                                    7.1%

 Male Non-Family Not Living                                      6.3%
          Alone                       1.4%

                                                       4.4%
         Female Living Alone
                                                          5.0%

     Female Non-Family Not                                       6.3%
          Living Alone                  1.8%


                          0.0%                  4.0%                    8.0%                 12.0%               16.0%

Figure 6.3
                                       Number of Workers in Family by Family Type
                                      Householders Under 65, Cuyahoga County, 2006

                                                          None     One         Two     Three or More



      Married Couple Family      5.4%          27.4%                                 54.7%                       12.4%




   Male-Householder Family       9.5%                       51.7%                                    33.4%          5.4%




  Female-Householder Family             23.8%                            48.8%                           23.5%       3.8%



                               0.0%            20.0%             40.0%               60.0%             80.0%        100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                           58
Indicators
Figure 6.4

                                  Number of Workers in Family by Family Type
                                     Householders Under 65, Ohio, 2006

                                                    None     One    Two      Three or More



      Married Couple Family   5.9%        27.7%                            54.4%                             11.9%




   Male-Householder Family     12.3%                   48.0%                               33.5%                6.2%




  Female-Householder Family       20.4%                        50.9%                            23.8%           4.9%



                          0.0%            20.0%            40.0%          60.0%               80.0%             100.0%



Figure 6.5

                              Labor Force Participation Rate of Householders Under 65
                                     In Families with Related Children Under 18
                                          Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


    Husband in Married                                                                                  93.8%
         Couple                                                                                         93.2%


                                                                                                Ohio
                                                                                   71.9%
 Wife in Married Couple                                                                         Cuyahoga County
                                                                                   72.3%



                                                                                                     88.1%
      Male Householder
                                                                                                86.1%



                                                                                             80.8%
    Female Householder
                                                                                           79.5%


                      0.0%           20.0%           40.0%           60.0%           80.0%               100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                       59
Indicators
Figure 6.6
                             Labor Force Participation Rate of Householders Under 65
                                    In Families with Related Children Under 6
                                        Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


    Husband in Married                                                                                  94.5%
         Couple                                                                                           95.0%


                                                                                                Ohio
                                                                                66.4%
 Wife in Married Couple                                                                         Cuyahoga County
                                                                                 68.8%



                                                                                                       91.6%
     Male Householder
                                                                                                   88.2%



                                                                                           79.0%
   Female Householder
                                                                                               82.9%


                      0.0%          20.0%              40.0%           60.0%            80.0%           100.0%

Figure 6.7
                                 Unemployment Rate of Householders Under 65
                                   In Families with Related Children Under 18
                                        Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


    Husband in Married               3.3%
         Couple                       3.6%


                                                                                        Ohio
                                        4.1%
 Wife in Married Couple                                                                 Cuyahoga County
                                          4.5%



                                                5.6%
     Male Householder
                                            4.5%



                                                                        11.6%
   Female Householder
                                                                                                   17.8%


                      0.0%               5.0%                  10.0%              15.0%                    20.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                 60
Indicators
Figure 6.8
                             Unemployment Rate of Householders Under 65
                               In Families with Related Children Under 6
                                   Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


    Husband in Married        3.6%
         Couple                 4.0%


                                                                             Ohio
                                  4.8%
 Wife in Married Couple                                                      Cuyahoga County
                                4.0%



                                            8.0%
     Male Householder
                                         7.0%



                                                                     16.3%
   Female Householder
                                                                                      21.9%


                      0.0%      5.0%            10.0%        15.0%           20.0%            25.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                    61
Indicators
Table 6.1
Labor Force Status of Householders Under Age 65
By Household Type
Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                           Cuyahoga County             Ohio
                                           Number    Percent      Number    Percent
Family Households
  Married Couple Families
          Both Husband and Wife in LF        112,668      67.4%   1,179,935    65.9%
          Husband in LF, Wife not in LF       35,857      21.5%     399,769    22.3%
          Husband not in LF, Wife in LF       11,107       6.6%     118,340     6.6%
          Neither Husband nor Wife in LF       7,441       4.5%      93,521     5.2%
          Total                              167,073     100.0%   1,791,565   100.0%

          All Husbands In Labor Force        148,525      88.9%   1,579,704   88.2%
          All Wives In Labor Force           123,775      74.1%   1,298,275   72.5%

 Male-Householder Family
         In Labor Force                       16,928      81.8%    135,763     85.0%
         Not in Labor Force                    3,758      18.2%     24,014     15.0%
         Total                                20,686     263.0%    159,777    260.6%

 Female-Householder Family
         In Labor Force                       57,305      77.9%    399,629     80.5%
         Not in Labor Force                   16,222      22.1%     96,722     19.5%
         Total                                73,527     100.0%    496,351    100.0%

Non-Family Households
 Male Householder, Living Alone
         In Labor Force                       53,865      82.6%    372,497     80.3%
         Not in Labor Force                   11,314      17.4%     91,634     19.7%
         Total                                65,179     100.0%    464,131    100.0%

 Male Householder, Not Living Alone
         Householder in Labor Force            9,657      87.1%    108,115     88.7%
         Householder not in Labor Force        1,434      12.9%     13,823     11.3%
         Total                                11,091     100.0%    121,938    100.0%

 Female Householder, Living Alone
         In Labor Force                       46,924      76.2%    300,431     75.3%
         Not in Labor Force                   14,649      23.8%     98,795     24.7%
         Total                                61,573     100.0%    399,226    100.0%

 Female Householder, Not Living Alone
         Householder in Labor Force            7,224      80.9%     77,753     80.6%
         Householder not in Labor Force        1,707      19.1%     18,692     19.4%
         Total                                 8,931     100.0%     96,445    100.0%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
       Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
       Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                62
Indicators
Table 6.2
Employment Status of Householders by Household Type
Householders Under Age 65
Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                                          Cuyahoga County           Ohio
                                                          Number Percent        Number Percent
Family Households
  Married Couple Families
          Both Husband and Wife Employed                  103,861       62.2%   1,100,470    61.4%
          Husband Employed, Wife Unemployed/Not in LF      38,449       23.0%     423,754    23.7%
          Husband Unemployed/Not in LF, Wife Employed      14,931        8.9%     150,437     8.4%
          Neither Husband nor Wife Employed                 9,832        5.9%     116,904     6.5%
          Total                                           167,073      100.0%   1,791,565   100.0%

          All Husbands Employed                           142,310      85.2%    1,524,224   85.1%
          All Wives Employed                              118,792      71.1%    1,250,907   69.8%

 Male-Householder Family
         Employed                                             16,051    77.6%    127,599     79.9%
         Unemployed/Not in Labor Force                         4,635    22.4%     32,178     20.1%
         Total                                                20,686   256.3%    159,777    254.9%

 Female-Householder Family
         Employed                                             48,536    66.0%    358,917     72.3%
         Unemployed/Not in Labor Force                        24,991    34.0%    137,434     27.7%
         Total                                                73,527   100.0%    496,351    100.0%

Non-Family Households
 Male Householder, Living Alone
         Employed                                             50,032    76.8%    347,977     75.0%
         Unemployed/Not in Labor Force                        15,147    23.2%    116,154     25.0%
         Total                                                65,179   100.0%    464,131    100.0%

 Male Householder, Not Living Alone
         Householder Employed                                  9,522    85.9%    101,325     83.1%
         Householder Unemployed/Not in Labor Force             1,569    14.1%     20,613     16.9%
         Total                                                11,091   100.0%    121,938    100.0%

 Female Householder, Living Alone
         Employed                                             44,586    72.4%    287,208     71.9%
         Unemployed/Not in Labor Force                        16,987    27.6%    112,018     28.1%
         Total                                                61,573   100.0%    399,226    100.0%

 Female Householder, Not Living Alone
         Householder Employed                                  7,092    79.4%     72,873     75.6%
         Householder Unemployed/Not in Labor Force             1,839    20.6%     23,572     24.4%
         Total                                                 8,931   100.0%     96,445    100.0%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
       Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
       Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                             63
Indicators
                                                                     Unemployment Status of Householders Under Age 65
                                                                     By Household Type
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table 6.3




                                                                                                                                   Cuyahoga County                                     Ohio

                                                                                                                   In Labor                             Unemploy-   In Labor                           Unemploy-
                                                                                                                     Force     Employed      Unemployed ment Rate     Force     Employed    Unemployed ment Rate

                                                                     Family Households
                                                                           Married Couple Families
                                                                           Husband                                  148,525        142,310        6,215     4.2%    1,579,704   1,524,224       55,480     3.5%
                                                                           Wife                                     123,775        118,792        4,983     4.0%    1,298,275   1,250,907       47,368     3.6%

                                                                           Male-Householder Family                    16,928        16,051           877    5.2%     135,763     127,599         8,164     6.0%

                                                                           Female-Householder Family                  57,305        48,536        8,769    15.3%     399,629     358,917        40,712    10.2%

                                                                     Non-Family Households
                                                                          Male Householder, Living Alone              53,865        50,032        3,833     7.1%     372,497     347,977        24,520     6.6%

                                                                           Male Householder, Not Living Alone          9,657         9,522           135    1.4%     108,115     101,325         6,790     6.3%

                                                                           Female Householder, Living Alone           46,924        44,586        2,338     5.0%     300,431     287,208        13,223     4.4%

                                                                           Female Householder, Not Living Alone        7,224         7,092           132    1.8%      77,753      72,873         4,880     6.3%

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   64
                                                                     Number of Workers in Household by Type of Household
                                                                     Householders Under Age 65
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006
                                                                                                                               Cuyahoga County                              Cuyahoga County                                  Ohio
                                                                                                                             Number of Households                         Percent of Households                     Percent of Households
                                                                                                                                            Three or                                              Three or                                  Three or
                                                                          Number of Workers in Household          None       One     Two      More       Total     None      One       Two         More      None      One       Two         More




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Table 6.4




                                                                     Family Households
                                                                           Married Couple Families                  9,094    45,839    91,349   20,791   167,073     5.4%     27.4%     54.7%       12.4%      5.9%     27.7%     54.4%       11.9%
                                                                           Male-Householder Family                  1,969    10,691     6,917    1,109    20,686     9.5%     51.7%     33.4%        5.4%     12.3%     48.0%     33.5%        6.2%
                                                                           Female-Householder Family               17,526    35,904    17,267    2,830    73,527    23.8%     48.8%     23.5%        3.8%     20.4%     50.9%     23.8%        4.9%

                                                                     Non-Family Households
                                                                          Male Householder, Living Alone           15,147    50,032         0       0     65,179    23.2%     76.8%      0.0%         0.0%    25.0%     75.0%      0.0%         0.0%
                                                                          Male Householder, Not Living Alone        1,015     2,502     6,773     801     11,091     9.2%     22.6%     61.1%         7.2%     7.7%     26.0%     57.8%         8.4%
                                                                          Female Householder, Living Alone         16,987    44,586         0       0     61,573    27.6%     72.4%      0.0%         0.0%    28.1%     71.9%      0.0%         0.0%
                                                                          Female Householder, Not Living Alone      1,564     1,367     5,641     359      8,931    17.5%     15.3%     63.2%         4.0%    10.7%     28.3%     55.2%         5.8%

                                                                     All Households                                63,302   190,921   127,947   25,890   408,060    15.5%     46.8%     31.4%         6.3%    13.4%     43.1%     36.0%         7.5%

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   65
                                                                     Labor Force Status of Family Householders Under Age 65
                                                                     With Related Children
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                                                                                                                   Cuyahoga County                                              Ohio




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Table 6.5




                                                                                                                  With Children Under 18      With Children Under 6    With Children Under 18          With Children Under 6
                                                                                                                  Number       Percent         Number        Percent   Number       Percent            Number      Percent
                                                                     Married Couple Families
                                                                           Both Husband and Wife in LF               60,388       68.1%          25,969        65.0%     633,620       67.8%            257,641      62.7%
                                                                           Husband in LF, Wife not in LF             22,202       25.0%          11,988        30.0%     242,762       26.0%            130,591      31.8%
                                                                           Husband not in LF, Wife in LF              3,728        4.2%           1,532         3.8%      38,704        4.1%             14,865       3.6%
                                                                           Neither Husband nor Wife in LF             2,325        2.6%             483         1.2%      19,639        2.1%              7,572       1.8%
                                                                           Total                                     88,643      100.0%          39,972       100.0%     934,725      100.0%            410,669     100.0%

                                                                           All Husbands in Labor Force               82,590        93.2%         37,957        95.0%     876,382       93.8%            388,232      94.5%
                                                                           All Wives in Labor Force                  64,116        72.3%         27,501        68.8%     672,324       71.9%            272,506      66.4%

                                                                     Male-Householder Family
                                                                           In Labor Force                             9,299       86.1%              3,535     88.2%      87,980       88.1%             38,537      91.6%
                                                                           Not in Labor Force                         1,502       13.9%                473     11.8%      11,834       11.9%              3,541       8.4%
                                                                           Total                                     10,801      100.0%              4,008    100.0%      99,814      100.0%             42,078     100.0%

                                                                     Female-Householder Family
                                                                          In Labor Force                             43,985       79.5%          17,330        82.9%     313,736       80.8%            129,677      79.0%
                                                                          Not in Labor Force                         11,323       20.5%           3,581        17.1%      74,701       19.2%             34,480      21.0%
                                                                          Total                                      55,308      100.0%          20,911       100.0%     388,437      100.0%            164,157     100.0%

                                                                     Female Householder (Married or Single) in
                                                                     Labor Force                                    108,101        75.1%         44,831        73.6%     986,060       74.5%            402,183      70.0%
                                                                     Female Householder (Married or Single) Not
                                                                     in Labor Force                                  35,850       24.9%          16,052        26.4%     337,102       25.5%            172,643      30.0%
                                                                                                                    143,951      100.0%          60,883       100.0%   1,323,162      100.0%            574,826     100.0%

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   66
                                                                     Employment Status of Householders Under Age 65
                                                                     With Related Children
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                                                     With Related Children Under 18                       Cuyahoga County                                   Ohio




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Table 6.6




                                                                                                              In Labor                        Unemploy-   In Labor                         Unemploy-
                                                                                                                Force     Employed Unemployed ment Rate     Force    Employed   Unemployed ment Rate

                                                                     Married Couple Families
                                                                             Husband                             82,590    79,606       2,984     3.6%     876,382   847,305        29,077     3.3%
                                                                             Wife                                64,116    61,254       2,862     4.5%     672,324   644,743        27,581     4.1%

                                                                     Male-Householder Family                      9,299     8,876        423      4.5%      87,980    83,060         4,920     5.6%

                                                                     Female-Householder Family                   43,985    36,165       7,820    17.8%     313,736   277,401        36,335    11.6%

                                                                     Female Householder (Married or Single)     108,101    97,419      10,682     9.9%     986,060   922,144        63,916     6.5%


                                                                     With Related Children Under 6                        Cuyahoga County                                   Ohio

                                                                                                              In Labor                        Unemploy-   In Labor                         Unemploy-
                                                                                                                Force     Employed Unemployed ment Rate     Force    Employed   Unemployed ment Rate

                                                                     Married Couple Families
                                                                             Husband                             37,957    36,430       1,527     4.0%     388,232   374,338        13,894     3.6%
                                                                             Wife                                27,501    26,408       1,093     4.0%     272,506   259,363        13,143     4.8%

                                                                     Male-Householder Family                      3,535     3,289        246      7.0%      38,537    35,465         3,072     8.0%

                                                                     Female-Householder Family                   17,330    13,528       3,802    21.9%     129,677   108,535        21,142    16.3%

                                                                     Female Householder (Married or Single)      44,831    39,936       4,895    10.9%     402,183   367,898        34,285     8.5%


                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   67
7. Persons with Work Disabilities
Why Is This Indicator Important?
Many persons who have physical or mental disabilities, which make it difficult for them to work,
nonetheless desire to participate in the workforce for personal and economic reasons. Special
training or reasonable workplace accommodations (as mandated by the Americans with
Disabilities Act) may be necessary to help these individuals become successfully employed.

Definition
The Census Bureau’s American Community Survey defines work disability as a physical, mental,
or emotional condition lasting six months or more that made it difficult for a person to work at a
job or business. We report work disability status for the civilian population ages 16 to 64. The
data are from the Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) of the 2006 American Community
Survey.

For the population with work disabilities, we also tabulate the presence of five types of
disabilities reported in the survey (a person may have more than one type of disability):
      vision or hearing difficulties;
      physical difficulties, such as climbing stairs, reaching, lifting, or carrying;
      mental disabilities, such as difficulties remembering, learning, or concentrating;
      mobility limitations, i.e., difficulties going outside the home alone; and
      personal care limitations, such as bathing, dressing, or getting around inside the home.

How Are We Doing?
In 2006, there were 75,000 persons in Cuyahoga County between ages 16 and 64 who had
disabilities affecting their ability to work. These persons comprised 9 percent of the civilian
population, slightly but not significantly higher than the statewide rate of 8 percent. Almost two-
thirds of these persons with disabilities (49,000) were between 45 and 64, and made up 14 percent
of that age group. Twenty thousand were between 25 and 44, and 6,000 were between 16 and 24,
making up 6 percent and 4 percent, respectively, of those age groups; these proportions are not
significantly different from the statewide rates.

Twenty thousand persons with work disabilities in the county (27 percent) were in the labor
force, and of these, 5,400 (27 percent of those in the labor force) were unemployed. The labor
force participation rate was highest in the 25 to 44 age group (40 percent, significantly higher than
the statewide rate of 30 percent); 26 percent of these (2,100 persons) were unemployed. Twenty -
one percent of those 45 to 64 with disabilities were in the labor force, and 22 percent of these
(2,200 persons) were unemployed. Thirty percent of persons 16 to 24 with disabilities were in the
labor force, and 57 percent of these (1,100 persons) were unemployed, but this was not
significantly higher than the statewide unemployment rate of 37 percent for this age group.

Two-thirds of persons with work disabilities, both locally and statewide, had physical difficulties.
Almost half had mental disabilities, and two in five had mobility limitations. Thirty percent had
personal care limitations, and 15 percent had vision or hearing difficulties.




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                68
Indicators
Figure 7.1

                                  Percent of Civilians Ages 16 to 64
                                With Disabilities Affecting Work, by Age
                                  Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                                               8.0%
     All Ages 16 to 64
                                                                         9.0%


                                           3.1%
              16 to 24
                                                   4.3%                  Ohio
                                                                         Cuyahoga County
                                                     5.7%
              25 to 44
                                                        6.0%


                                                                                         12.8%
              45 to 64
                                                                                                 13.8%


                         0.0%           4.0%              8.0%              12.0%                16.0%



Figure 7.2

                         Labor Force Partipation Rate of Civilians Ages 16 to 64
                                With Disabilities Affecting Work, by Age
                                   Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                                          22.3%
     All Ages 16 to 64
                                                                     26.7%


                                                                                         36.5%
             16 to 24
                                                                                          30.6%


                                                                         29.8%
             25 to 44
                                                                                                   40.2%


                                                     17.3%                 Ohio
             45 to 64                                                      Cuyahoga County
                                                             20.7%


                     0.0%          10.0%          20.0%          30.0%           40.0%            50.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                         69
Indicators
Figure 7.3

                                 Unemployment Rate of Civilians Ages 16 to 64
                                    With Disabilities Affecting Work, by Age
                                      Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                                 21.9%
     All Ages 16 to 64
                                                          26.8%


                                                                        36.6%
              16 to 24
                                                                                                57.3%


                                                  23.2%
              25 to 44
                                                                25.8%


                                              17.4%                              Ohio
              45 to 64                                                           Cuyahoga County
                                                        22.0%


                      0.0%               20.0%              40.0%                60.0%             80.0%



Figure 7.4
                                    Percent of Civilians Ages 16 to 64
                           With Disabilities Affecting Work, by Type of Difficulty
                                    Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


           Vision or Hearing                  15.6%
                Difficulty                      14.9%

                                                                                           65.2%
           Physical Difficulty
                                                                                             64.4%

                                                                           46.0%
            Mental Disability
                                                                          42.8%

                                                                         41.4%
          Mobility Limitation
                                                                         40.8%
                                                                                 Ohio
                                                           28.4%
     Personal Care Limitation                                                    Cuyahoga County
                                                               30.7%

                             0.0%             20.0%             40.0%              60.0%           80.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                         70
Indicators
                                                                     Persons with Work Disabilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Table 7




                                                                     Civilians Ages 16 to 64




Indicators
                                                                                                                Cuyahoga County - Number          Cuyahoga County - Percent             Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                             Lower       Point       Upper        Lower     Point    Upper       Lower      Point      Upper
                                                                                                            90% C.I.*  Estimate     90% C.I.*    90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     No Disability Affecting Work               747,420    756,346     765,272      90.3%     91.0%    91.6%       91.8%     92.0%    92.2%
                                                                     Has Difficulty Working                      69,835     75,229      80,623       8.4%      9.0%     9.7%        7.8%      8.0%     8.2%
                                                                     All Civilians 16 to 64                                831,575                           100.0%                         100.0%


                                                                     Persons with Disabilities Affecting Work
                                                                       By Age
                                                                     16 to 24                                     4,431      6,069       7,707       3.1%      4.3%     5.4%        2.7%      3.0%     3.3%
                                                                     25 to 44                                    16,908     19,893      22,878       5.1%      6.0%     6.9%        5.4%      5.7%     5.9%
                                                                     45 to 64                                    44,526     49,267      54,008      12.5%     13.8%    15.0%       12.4%     12.8%    13.2%


                                                                     Labor Force Status of Persons
                                                                       With Disabilities Affecting Work

                                                                     All Ages 16 to 64:
                                                                     In Labor Force                              16,709     20,050      23,391      23.0%     26.7%    30.3%       21.4%     22.3%    23.3%
                                                                     Not In Labor Force                          50,878     55,179      59,480      69.7%     73.3%    77.0%       76.7%     77.7%    78.6%

                                                                     Ages 16 to 24:
                                                                     In Labor Force                               1,134      1,860       2,586      18.9%     30.6%    42.4%       31.6%     36.5%    41.5%
                                                                     Not In Labor Force                           2,695      4,209       5,723      57.6%     69.4%    81.1%       58.5%     63.5%    68.4%

                                                                     Ages 25 to 44:
                                                                     In Labor Force                               5,923      8,006      10,089      33.0%     40.2%    47.5%       27.6%     29.8%    31.9%
                                                                     Not In Labor Force                           9,853     11,887      13,921      52.5%     59.8%    67.0%       68.1%     70.2%    72.4%

                                                                     Ages 45 to 64:
                                                                     In Labor Force                               7,919     10,184      12,449      16.9%     20.7%    24.4%       16.2%     17.3%    18.4%
                                                                     Not In Labor Force                          35,227     39,083      42,939      75.6%     79.3%    83.1%       81.6%     82.7%    83.8%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   71
                                                                     Persons with Work Disabilities
                                                                     Civilians Ages 16 to 64
                                                                                                                     Cuyahoga County - Number                        Cuyahoga County - Percent                        Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower       Point       Upper                      Lower     Point    Upper                  Lower      Point      Upper




Indicators
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*  Estimate     90% C.I.*                  90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*              90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Employment Status of Persons in the Labor Force
                                                                       With Disabilities Affecting Work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table 7 (cont.)




                                                                     All Ages 16 to 64:
                                                                     Employed                                        11,917          14,673         17,429             66.7%        73.2%       79.7%             75.8%       78.1%        80.4%
                                                                     Unemployed                                       3,789           5,377          6,965             20.3%        26.8%       33.3%             19.6%       21.9%        24.2%

                                                                     Ages 16 to 24:
                                                                     Employed                                           384             794          1,204             25.9%        42.7%       59.5%             55.7%       63.4%        71.2%
                                                                     Unemployed                                         513           1,066          1,619             40.5%        57.3%       74.1%             28.8%       36.6%        44.3%

                                                                     Ages 25 to 44:
                                                                     Employed                                         4,222           5,937          7,652             63.3%        74.2%       85.0%             73.2%       76.8%        80.4%
                                                                     Unemployed                                       1,026           2,069          3,112             15.0%        25.8%       36.7%             19.6%       23.2%        26.8%

                                                                     Ages 45 to 64:
                                                                     Employed                                         5,924           7,942          9,960             70.0%        78.0%       86.0%             79.8%       82.6%        85.5%
                                                                     Unemployed                                       1,345           2,242          3,139             14.0%        22.0%       30.0%             14.5%       17.4%        20.2%


                                                                     Persons with Disabilities Affecting Work
                                                                       By Type of Difficulty

                                                                     Vision or Hearing Difficulty                     9,213          11,214         13,215             12.5%        14.9%       17.3%             14.7%       15.6%        16.6%
                                                                     Physical Difficulty                             43,616          48,449         53,282             60.7%        64.4%       68.1%             64.0%       65.2%        66.4%
                                                                     Mental Disability                               28,953          32,208         35,463             38.9%        42.8%       46.7%             44.5%       46.0%        47.5%
                                                                     Mobility Limitation                             27,290          30,693         34,096             37.2%        40.8%       44.4%             40.1%       41.3%        42.6%
                                                                     Personal Care Limitation                        20,133          23,075         26,017             27.2%        30.7%       34.1%             27.3%       28.4%        29.5%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




                                   72
8. Means of Transportation and Travel Time to Work
Why Is This Indicator Important?
For those who are looking for work, problems in getting to where available jobs are located may
pose a significant barrier to their employability. In addition, long commuting times may place
burdens on people trying to balance work and family responsibilities. Examining how people get
to work and the time it takes them to get there can help workforce development programs to
strategize how to assist prospective workers in overcoming these difficulties.

Definition
This indicator reports the primary means of transportation to work, categorized as follows:
     Private auto, truck, or van (whether as a driver or a passenger);
     Public transportation (including bus, streetcar, subway, rail, or taxi);
     Walked only;
     Other means, including motorcycle and bicycle; or
     Worked at home.

For those who worked outside the home, travel time to work is categorized as:
     Less than 15 minutes;
     15 to 29 minutes;
     30 to 44 minutes;
     45 minutes or more.

We also analyze these factors by hours worked per week—full-time (35 or more hours) and part-
time (less than 35 hours). The data are from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2006 American Community
Survey Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS).

How Are We Doing?

Means of Transportation
More than half a million, or 88 percent of workers in Cuyahoga County used a private auto,
truck, or van to get to work in 2006. Another 35,000, or 6 percent, used public transportation.
Compared to the state, a significantly higher proportion of workers in the county used public
transportation and a significantly lower percent drove to work. About 15,000 people (3 percent of
workers) in the county walked to work, and 4,800 (less than 1 percent) used other forms of
transportation. About 16,900 people (3 percent of workers) in the county worked at home.

Twelve percent of workers living in Cleveland used public transportation, three times the rate for
workers living in the suburbs. Map 8.1 shows that the heaviest use of public transportation
occurred among workers living in the inner neighborhoods of Cleveland, especially on the East
Side. Five percent of Clevelanders walked to work, significantly higher than the 2 percent of
suburbanites who did so. However, more than 3 percent of suburbanites worked at hom e,
significantly higher than in Cleveland, where fewer than 2 percent worked at home.

About 10 percent of part-time workers in the county used public transportation, almost double
the rate for full-time workers. A significantly higher proportion (5 percent) of part-time workers
worked at home, compared to fewer than 3 percent of full-time workers.


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                              73
Indicators
Travel Time
About one-fourth of workers in Cuyahoga County took less than 15 minutes to get to work; this
was significantly lower than the proportion statewide, where 30 percent took less than 15
minutes. Another 42 percent in the county and 40 percent in the state took between 15 and 29
minutes. Altogether, two-thirds of workers in the county took less than half an hour to get to
work. Twenty-two percent took between 30 and 44 minutes, significantly higher than the
statewide proportion of 18 percent. Eight percent took 45 minutes or longer to get to work,
similar to proportion statewide who took that long.

There was no significant difference overall between Cleveland and the suburbs in travel time to
work. However, Map 8.2 shows distinct regions of the county with different average travel
times. Average travel time was greater than 25 minutes in some outer-ring suburbs, such as Gates
Mills, Olmsted Falls, Strongsville, and North Royalton, but also in many East Side neighborhoods
in Cleveland. Travel time was lowest in some inner- and middle-ring suburbs as well as some
West Side Cleveland neighborhoods.

Travel time for those taking public transportation was significantly longer than for those who
used private vehicles. Three-fourths of the county’s workers who used public transportation took
30 minutes or longer to get to work, and more than 40 percent took 45 minutes or longer. In
contrast, fewer than 30 percent who drove or rode to work in a private vehicle took 30 minutes or
longer, and only 6 percent took 45 minutes or longer. Statewide, the pattern was similar, but the
difference between public and private transportation was less pronounced than in the count y.
Among those in the county who walked to work, more than three-fifths took less than 15
minutes, and more than 90 percent took less than 30 minutes.

Part-time workers in the county had somewhat shorter commute times than did full-time
workers. Thirty-five percent of part-time workers took less than 15 minutes to get to work, a
significantly higher proportion than the 22 percent of full-time workers who took that long; 72
percent of part-time workers and 65 percent of full-time workers had commuting times of less
than 30 minutes.




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                74
Indicators
Figure 8.1

                                    Means of Transportation to Work
                                   Persons at Work, Ages 16 and Over
                                    Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                                                            91.4%
       Private                                                            87.7%
  Auto/ Truck/ Van                                                    79.9%
                                                                            90.5%

                      2.1%
        Public           6.0%
    Transportation              12.3%
                       3.7%
                                                                                      Ohio
                      2.5%                                                            Cuyahoga County
          Walked      2.6%
                        4.8%
                      1.7%                                                            Cleveland
                                                                                      Suburbs
                      0.9%
                      0.8%
            Other     1.3%
                      0.7%

                       3.1%
                       2.9%
  Worked at Home      1.6%
                       3.4%

                   0.0%        20.0%        40.0%       60.0%     80.0%     100.0%



Figure 8.2

                                               Travel Time to Work
                                        Persons at Work, Ages 16 and Over
                                         Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006




            Ohio     3.1%    30.7%                  40.0%           17.6% 8.7%



                                                                                      Worked at Home
  Cuyahoga County 2.9% 24.9%                    41.8%               22.3%   8.1%
                                                                                      1-14 Minutes
                                                                                      15-29 Minutes
                                                                                      30-44 Minutes
        Cleveland 1.6% 24.7%                    43.4%              21.1%    9.2%
                                                                                      45 Minutes or more



          Suburbs 3.4% 25.1%                     41.2%              22.7%   7.7%



                0.0%          20.0%         40.0%        60.0%    80.0%      100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                     75
Indicators
Figure 8.3

                                 Travel Time to Work by Means of Transportation
                                        Persons at Work, Ages 16 and Over
                                              Cuyahoga County, 2006



          Private
                            25.8%                45.1%              22.7%     6.3%
     Auto/ Truck/ Van



  Public Transportation 7.4% 18.0%            33.7%                41.0%                   1-14 Minutes
                                                                                           15-29 Minutes
                                                                                           30-44 Minutes
             Walked                      62.6%                    30.5%       5.1% 1.8%    45 Minutes or more




               Other           28.7%              43.0%              23.6%        4.7%



                     0.0%        20.0%      40.0%        60.0%     80.0%      100.0%



Figure 8.4

                                 Means of Transportation by Hours Worked
                                   Persons at Work, Ages 16 and Over
                                         Cuyahoga County, 2006


       Private                                                       79.2%
  Auto/ Truck/ Van                                                        90.1%


        Public              9.6%
    Transportation       5.0%


                          5.2%                                                            Less than 35 Hours
           Walked
                        1.8%                                                              35 Hours or More

                        1.2%
            Other
                        0.7%


                         4.8%
  Worked at Home
                        2.4%


                  0.0%         20.0%      40.0%       60.0%      80.0%     100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                           76
Indicators
Figure 8.5

                                    Travel Time to Work by Hours Worked
                                      Persons at Work, Ages 16 and Over
                                            Cuyahoga County, 2006




  Less than 35 Hours 4.8%     34.9%                  36.6%         16.5% 7.2%

                                                                                   Worked at Home
                                                                                   1-14 Minutes
                                                                                   15-29 Minutes
                                                                                   30-44 Minutes
                                                                                   45 Minutes or more

   35 Hours or More 2.4%    22.1%            43.3%               23.9% 8.3%




                  0.0%       20.0%       40.0%       60.0%      80.0%     100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                  77
Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Map 8.1




                                                                     Percentage Using Public Transportation to Work




Indicators
                                                                     Cuyahoga County, 2000
                                                                     Percent of Workers 16 and Over
                                                                     by Census Tract
                                                                           30% or higher                                                                                                                                      Euclid
                                                                                                                                    Municipalities and Cleveland SPAs
                                                                           15% to 29.9%
                                                                                                                                    Cleveland
                                                                           10% to 14.9%                                                                                                    Bratenahl                              Richmond
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Highland Hts. Mayfield
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Hts.

                                                                           5% to 9.9%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Gates Mills
                                                                                                                                                                                                          East
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cleveland             South                 Mayfield Hts.
                                                                           Lower than 5% (No Shading)                                                                                                                         Euclid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Lyndhurst

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cleveland
                                                                                                                                                     Cleveland                                               Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hts.
                                                                              Bay Village
                                                                                                                             Lakewood                                                                                                             Pepper Pike       Hunting Valley
                                                                                                       Rocky River                                                                                             Shaker Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Beachwood Wood-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              High-       mere
                                                                               Westlake                                                                                 New-                                                  land
                                                                                                                                                                        burgh                                                  Hills
                                                                                                                                                                         Hts.                                                                                          Chagrin Falls T.
                                                                                                       Fairview                           Linndale                                                                                                           Moreland Hills
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           North             Orange
                                                                                                         Park
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Randall Warrens-                                   Chagrin Falls
                                                                                                                                             Brooklyn                        Cuyahoga                                             ville Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Garfield Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                                Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                   Brooklyn Hts.                                Maple Hts.
                                                                                   North Olmsted                                                                                                                                 Bedford Hts.                         Bentleyville

                                                                                                                       Brook Park                       Parma
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bedford
                                                                                                                                        Parma Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                    Seven                                                                                     Solon
                                                                                                                                                                                             Valley View
                                                                                                                                                                     Hills
                                                                          Olmsted T.                                                                                          Independence
                                                                                                      Berea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oakwood
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Walton Hills
                                                                                            Olmsted                  Middleburg Hts.                                                                                                            Glenwillow
                                                                                              Falls




                                                                                                                                            North Royalton
                                                                                                                                                                 Broadview Hts.
                                                                                                              Strongsville                                                                                            Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                                                                                                   Brecksville

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Prepared by:




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     TJL 7/08 M:\Misc\public trans Cuy.mxd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Map 8.2




                                                                     Average Travel Time to Work




Indicators
                                                                     Cuyahoga County, 2000
                                                                     Average Time in Minutes
                                                                     for Workers 16 and Over
                                                                     by Census Tract                                                        Municipalities and Cleveland SPAs                                              Euclid
                                                                              30 to 34
                                                                                                                                            Cleveland
                                                                              25 to 29
                                                                                                                                                                                        Bratenahl                              Richmond
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Highland Hts. Mayfield
                                                                              20 to 24                                                                                                                                            Hts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gates Mills
                                                                              Up to 19 (No Shading)                                                                                                    East
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cleveland             South                 Mayfield Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Euclid
                                                                              No Workers                                                                                                                                            Lyndhurst

                                                                                                                                                                                                       Cleveland
                                                                                                                                                  Cleveland                                               Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Hts.
                                                                           Bay Village
                                                                                                                          Lakewood                                                                                                             Pepper Pike       Hunting Valley
                                                                                                    Rocky River                                                                                             Shaker Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Beachwood Wood-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           High-       mere
                                                                            Westlake                                                                                 New-                                                  land
                                                                                                                                                                     burgh                                                  Hills
                                                                                                                                                                      Hts.                                                                                          Chagrin Falls T.
                                                                                                    Fairview                           Linndale                                                                                                           Moreland Hills
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        North             Orange
                                                                                                      Park
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Randall Warrens-                                   Chagrin Falls
                                                                                                                                          Brooklyn                        Cuyahoga                                             ville Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                                     Garfield Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                             Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                Brooklyn Hts.                                Maple Hts.
                                                                                North Olmsted                                                                                                                                 Bedford Hts.                         Bentleyville

                                                                                                                    Brook Park                       Parma
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bedford
                                                                                                                                     Parma Hts.
                                                                                                                                                                 Seven                                                                                     Solon
                                                                                                                                                                                          Valley View
                                                                                                                                                                  Hills
                                                                       Olmsted T.                                                                                          Independence
                                                                                                   Berea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Oakwood
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Walton Hills
                                                                                         Olmsted                  Middleburg Hts.                                                                                                            Glenwillow
                                                                                           Falls




                                                                                                                                         North Royalton
                                                                                                                                                              Broadview Hts.
                                                                                                           Strongsville                                                                                            Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                                                                                                Brecksville

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Prepared by:




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   79
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TJL 7/08 M:\Misc\travel time to work Cuy.mxd
                                                                     Means of Transportation to Work
                                                                     Persons at Work, Ages 16 and Over, 2006


                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio                    Cuyahoga County - Number                             Cuyahoga County - Percent                              Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower      Point       Upper                          Lower     Point     Upper                        Lower      Point      Upper




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Table 8.1




                                                                                                                 90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*                      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                     90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Private Auto/Truck/Van                        499,458        510,741        522,024                   86.8%      87.7%         88.6%                   91.1%      91.4%   91.7%
                                                                     Public Transportation                          31,377         35,108         38,839                    5.4%       6.0%          6.7%                    1.9%       2.1%    2.2%
                                                                     Walked                                         12,523         14,975         17,427                    2.2%       2.6%          3.0%                    2.4%       2.5%    2.7%
                                                                     Other                                           3,764          4,835          5,906                    0.6%       0.8%          1.0%                    0.9%       0.9%    1.0%
                                                                     Worked at Home                                 14,460         16,882         19,304                    2.5%       2.9%          3.3%                    2.9%       3.1%    3.2%
                                                                     Total                                                        582,541                                            100.0%                                           100.0%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs                           Cleveland - Number                                  Cleveland - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower        Point       Upper                        Lower     Point      Upper
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate    90% C.I.*                     90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Private Auto/Truck/Van                        116,512        123,673        130,834                   77.6%      79.9%         82.2%
                                                                     Public Transportation                          16,023         19,083         22,143                   10.5%      12.3%         14.2%
                                                                     Walked                                          5,633          7,499          9,365                    3.7%       4.8%          6.0%
                                                                     Other                                           1,294          2,030          2,766                    0.9%       1.3%          1.8%
                                                                     Worked at Home                                  1,490          2,534          3,578                    1.0%       1.6%          2.3%
                                                                     Total                                                        154,819                                            100.0%


                                                                                                                         Suburbs - Number                                    Suburbs - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower       Point       Upper                         Lower     Point     Upper
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*                      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Private Auto/Truck/Van                        377,504        387,068        396,632                   89.6%      90.5%         91.4%
                                                                     Public Transportation                          13,360         16,025         18,690                    3.1%       3.7%          4.4%
                                                                     Walked                                          5,773          7,476          9,179                    1.4%       1.7%          2.1%
                                                                     Other                                           1,919          2,805          3,691                    0.4%       0.7%          0.9%
                                                                     Worked at Home                                 12,095         14,348         16,601                    2.8%       3.4%          3.9%
                                                                     Total                                                        427,722                                            100.0%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




                                   80
                                                                     Travel Time to Work
                                                                     Persons at Work, Ages 16 and Over, 2006


                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio                    Cuyahoga County - Number                             Cuyahoga County - Percent                              Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower      Point       Upper                          Lower     Point     Upper                        Lower      Point      Upper




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Table 8.2




                                                                                                                 90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*                      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                     90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     1-14 Minutes                                  137,246        145,309        153,372                   23.7%      24.9%         26.2%                   30.3%      30.7%   31.1%
                                                                     15-29 Minutes                                 235,065        243,469        251,873                   40.6%      41.8%         43.0%                   39.5%      40.0%   40.4%
                                                                     30-44 Minutes                                 122,207        129,800        137,393                   21.1%      22.3%         23.5%                   17.3%      17.6%   17.9%
                                                                     45 Minutes or more                             42,988         47,081         51,174                    7.4%       8.1%          8.8%                    8.5%       8.7%    8.9%
                                                                     NA: Worked at Home                             14,460         16,882         19,304                    2.5%       2.9%          3.3%                    2.9%       3.1%    3.2%
                                                                     Total                                                        582,541                                            100.0%                                           100.1%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs                           Cleveland - Number                                  Cleveland - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower        Point       Upper                        Lower     Point      Upper
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate    90% C.I.*                     90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     1-14 Minutes                                    33,850        38,163         42,476                   22.2%      24.7%         27.1%
                                                                     15-29 Minutes                                   62,303        67,239         72,175                   41.0%      43.4%         45.8%
                                                                     30-44 Minutes                                   28,254        32,631         37,008                   18.6%      21.1%         23.6%
                                                                     45 Minutes or more                              11,876        14,252         16,628                    7.8%       9.2%         10.6%
                                                                     NA: Worked at Home                               1,490         2,534          3,578                    1.0%       1.6%          2.3%
                                                                     Total                                                        154,819                                            100.0%


                                                                                                                         Suburbs - Number                                    Suburbs - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower       Point       Upper                         Lower     Point     Upper
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*                      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     1-14 Minutes                                  100,418        107,146        113,874                   23.5%      25.1%         26.6%
                                                                     15-29 Minutes                                 168,494        176,230        183,966                   39.7%      41.2%         42.7%
                                                                     30-44 Minutes                                  90,522         97,169        103,816                   21.3%      22.7%         24.1%
                                                                     45 Minutes or more                             29,443         32,829         36,215                    6.9%       7.7%          8.5%
                                                                     NA: Worked at Home                             12,095         14,348         16,601                    2.8%       3.4%          3.9%
                                                                     Total                                                        427,722                                            100.1%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




                                   81
                                                                     Travel Time to Work, by Means of Transportation
                                                                     Persons at Work Ages 16 and Over
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                                                                                     Cuyahoga County - Number                      Cuyahoga County - Percent                           Ohio - Percent




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Table 8.3




                                                                                                     Lower     Point    Upper                     Lower     Point     Upper                     Lower      Point      Upper
                                                                                                    90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     A. Private Auto/Truck/Van

                                                                     1-14 Minutes                    124,423     131,961      139,499                24.6%      25.8%         27.1%                30.4%       30.8%       31.2%
                                                                     15-29 Minutes                   222,518     230,519      238,520                43.8%      45.1%         46.5%                41.7%       42.2%       42.7%
                                                                     30-44 Minutes                   108,666     116,077      123,488                21.4%      22.7%         24.1%                18.1%       18.4%       18.7%
                                                                     45 Minutes or more               28,456      32,184       35,912                 5.6%       6.3%          7.0%                 8.4%        8.6%        8.9%
                                                                     Total                                       510,741                                       100.0%                                         100.0%

                                                                     B. Public Transportation

                                                                     1-14 Minutes                       1,315      2,585        3,855                 4.0%       7.4%         10.7%                10.1%       12.2%       14.2%
                                                                     15-29 Minutes                      4,792      6,302        7,812                14.1%      18.0%         21.8%                24.1%       26.7%       29.2%
                                                                     30-44 Minutes                      9,412     11,819       14,226                28.3%      33.7%         39.0%                24.0%       27.0%       30.1%
                                                                     45 Minutes or more                12,456     14,402       16,348                35.9%      41.0%         46.1%                31.3%       34.1%       36.9%
                                                                     Total                                        35,108                                       100.0%                                         100.0%

                                                                     C. Walked

                                                                     1-14 Minutes                       7,262      9,373       11,484                53.1%      62.6%         72.0%                73.6%       76.5%       79.4%
                                                                     15-29 Minutes                      3,058      4,571        6,084                21.5%      30.5%         39.5%                14.6%       17.2%       19.7%
                                                                     30-44 Minutes                        151        764        1,377                 1.0%       5.1%          9.2%                 2.9%        4.5%        6.1%
                                                                     45 Minutes or more                     4        267          530                 0.0%       1.8%          3.5%                 1.0%        1.8%        2.6%
                                                                     Total                                        14,975                                       100.0%                                         100.0%

                                                                     D. Other

                                                                     1-14 Minutes                         721       1,390        2,059               16.4%      28.7%         41.1%                34.5%       39.5%       44.6%
                                                                     15-29 Minutes                      1,331       2,077        2,823               30.7%      43.0%         55.2%                35.2%       40.3%       45.4%
                                                                     30-44 Minutes                        503       1,140        1,777               11.8%      23.6%         35.4%                 7.9%       11.0%       14.1%
                                                                     45 Minutes or more                     7         228          449                0.1%       4.7%          9.3%                 6.6%        9.1%       11.7%
                                                                     Total                                          4,835                                      100.0%                                         100.0%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006




                                   82
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions
                                                                     Means of Transportation to Work by Hours Worked Per Week
                                                                     Persons at Work Ages 16 and Over
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                                                     A. Less than 35 Hours
                                                                        (Part-Time)                           Cuyahoga County - Number                             Cuyahoga County - Percent                             Ohio - Percent




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table 8.4




                                                                                                            Lower      Point       Upper                           Lower     Point    Upper                       Lower      Point      Upper
                                                                                                           90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*                       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Private Auto/Truck/Van                    95,292       101,661        108,030                   76.9%       79.2%       81.4%                   83.6%      84.3%      85.1%
                                                                     Public Transportation                     10,235        12,379         14,523                    7.9%        9.6%       11.3%                    3.2%       3.6%       3.9%
                                                                     Walked                                     4,761         6,684          8,607                    3.8%        5.2%        6.7%                    5.2%       5.6%       6.1%
                                                                     Other                                        815         1,506          2,197                    0.6%        1.2%        1.7%                    1.1%       1.4%       1.6%
                                                                     Worked at Home                             4,666         6,162          7,658                    3.6%        4.8%        6.0%                    4.7%       5.1%       5.5%
                                                                     Total                                                  128,392                                             100.0%                                         100.0%


                                                                     B. 35 or More Hours
                                                                       (Full-Time)                            Cuyahoga County - Number                             Cuyahoga County - Percent                             Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                            Lower      Point       Upper                           Lower     Point    Upper                       Lower      Point      Upper
                                                                                                           90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*                       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Private Auto/Truck/Van                   398,550       409,080        419,610                   89.1%       90.1%       91.0%                   93.1%      93.4%      93.7%
                                                                     Public Transportation                     19,766        22,729         25,692                    4.4%        5.0%        5.7%                    1.5%       1.6%       1.8%
                                                                     Walked                                     6,369         8,291         10,213                    1.4%        1.8%        2.2%                    1.5%       1.6%       1.8%
                                                                     Other                                      2,452         3,329          4,206                    0.5%        0.7%        0.9%                    0.7%       0.8%       0.9%
                                                                     Worked at Home                             8,884        10,720         12,556                    2.0%        2.4%        2.8%                    2.3%       2.5%       2.6%
                                                                     Total                                                  454,149                                             100.0%                                         100.0%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   83
                                                                     Travel Time to Work by Hours Worked Per Week
                                                                     Persons at Work Ages 16 and Over
                                                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006

                                                                     A. Less than 35 Hours
                                                                        (Part-Time)                           Cuyahoga County - Number                             Cuyahoga County - Percent                             Ohio - Percent




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table 8.5




                                                                                                            Lower      Point       Upper                           Lower     Point    Upper                       Lower      Point      Upper
                                                                                                           90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*                       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     1-14 Minutes                              40,214        44,832         49,450                   31.9%       34.9%       37.9%                   40.4%      41.2%      42.0%
                                                                     15-29 Minutes                             42,544        46,931         51,318                   33.8%       36.6%       39.3%                   35.4%      36.4%      37.4%
                                                                     30-44 Minutes                             17,864        21,164         24,464                   14.1%       16.5%       18.9%                   11.1%      11.8%      12.4%
                                                                     45 Minutes or more                         7,317         9,303         11,289                    5.7%        7.2%        8.8%                    5.2%       5.6%       6.0%
                                                                     NA: Worked at Home                         4,666         6,162          7,658                    3.6%        4.8%        6.0%                    4.7%       5.1%       5.5%
                                                                     Total                                                  128,392                                             100.0%                                         100.0%


                                                                     B. 35 or More Hours
                                                                       (Full-Time)                            Cuyahoga County - Number                             Cuyahoga County - Percent                             Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                            Lower      Point       Upper                           Lower     Point    Upper                       Lower      Point      Upper
                                                                                                           90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*                       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     1-14 Minutes                              94,196       100,477        106,758                   20.9%       22.1%       23.3%                   27.3%      27.7%      28.1%
                                                                     15-29 Minutes                            188,978       196,538        204,098                   41.9%       43.3%       44.7%                   40.5%      41.0%      41.5%
                                                                     30-44 Minutes                            102,423       108,636        114,849                   22.6%       23.9%       25.2%                   18.9%      19.2%      19.6%
                                                                     45 Minutes or more                        34,262        37,778         41,294                    7.6%        8.3%        9.1%                    9.3%       9.6%       9.9%
                                                                     NA: Worked at Home                         8,884        10,720         12,556                    2.0%        2.4%        2.8%                    2.3%       2.5%       2.6%
                                                                     Total                                                  454,149                                             100.0%                                         100.0%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   84
9. Persons Ages 16 and Over Attending School
Why Is This Indicator Important?
Education is an important factor for individuals in improving their employability. An educated
workforce is also attractive to employers to locate or expand in the region. Adults who pursue
further education have special needs for employment opportunities, such as flexible hours or
internships, that will enable them to support themselves while attending school and advancing
their careers.

Definition
This indicator presents data on school enrollment and grade level among civilians ages 16 and
over. The data are from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2006 American Community Survey, Public Use
Microdata Sample (PUMS). This indicator includes only schooling that leads to a high school
diploma or college degree. Enrollment in vocational, technical, or business schooling is excluded,
unless it can be accepted for credit toward a diploma or degree. Labor force participation and
unemployment are defined as in Indicators 2 and 3. “Full-time” employment is defined as 35 or
more hours per week, and “part-time” as less than 35 hours.

How Are We Doing?

Number Enrolled
More than 135,000 persons ages 16 and over in Cuyahoga County were enrolled in school in 2006;
this represents 13 percent of all civilians 16 and over; the proportion was not significantly
different in Ohio, the county, Cleveland, and the suburbs.

Two-thirds, or 89,000, of those enrolled in school were youths and young adults between 16 and
24; 63 percent of this age group in the county were in school, not significantly different from Ohio
as a whole. However, a significantly lower percentage of youths and young adults in Cleveland
(52 percent) were in school than in the suburbs, where 69 percent were enrolled.

Ten percent of adults ages 25 to 44 in the county (33,500 persons) and 3 percent of those 45 to 64
(11,600 persons) were in school, slightly but significantly higher than the statewide proportions
for these age groups. Less than 1 percent of those ages 65 and over were in school.

Grade Level Attending
Almost half (49 percent) of persons 16 or over in the county who were in school were attending at
the undergraduate college level; 12 percent were pursuing graduate or professional degrees; the
remaining 38 percent were attending grades 9 to 12.10 Statewide, the proportion who were
attending undergraduate college was slightly but significantly higher at 53 percent.

A significantly higher proportion of students in the suburbs were enrolled in undergraduate
college (52 percent) than in Cleveland (43 percent). Conversely, a significantly higher proportion
in Cleveland (45 percent) were in grades 9 to 12, compared t o 35 percent in the suburbs. The



10 An estimated 443 persons ages 16 and over in the county and 4,373 in the state were attending grades 5 to 8; these make
up less than one-half of 1 percent of all adults attending school. Because these numbers are based on very small sample
sizes of only five survey subjects in the county and 49 in the state, we exclude them from the analysis.


The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                     85
Indicators
proportion attending graduate or professional school was 11 percent in Cleveland and 13 percent
in the suburbs, a non-significant difference.

Labor Force Participation and Employment
Among both those in and out of school in the county, the proportion of persons 16 and over who
were in the labor force in 2006 was exactly the same, 65 percent, not significantly different from
the state as a whole. However, the employment patterns between these two groups were very
different. Among those in school, 24 percent were employed full-time, only half the rate of those
not in school, and 27 percent were working part-time, compared to 11 percent of those not in
school. These county-level percentages were similar to the statewide rates, except that a
significantly higher proportion of students in Ohio as a whole were employed part -time (31
percent).

Almost 18,000 students in the county—13 percent of all students—indicated that they were
unable to find work, significantly higher than t he 8 percent of students in Ohio. Considering only
those students who were in the labor force, the resulting unemployment rates for students were
20.6 percent for the county and 13.1 percent for the state, compared to 7.9 percent and 6.3 percent,
respectively, for those who were not in school. As the majority of students were between the ages
of 16 to 24, these rates correlate with the unemployment rates presented in Indicator 3
(Unemployment Rate) for this age group, 24.7 percent in the county and 16.5 per cent in the state.

In Cleveland, 61 percent of both students and non-students were in the labor force; in the
suburbs, the labor force participation rate was also the same for students and non -students (66
percent). The unemployment rate among students w as 25.4 percent in Cleveland, significantly
higher than the 14.9 percent rate for non-students in the city. Similarly, 18.7 percent of students in
the suburbs were unemployed, significantly higher than the rate of 5.0 percent for suburban non-
students. How ever, the differences in student labor force participation and unemployment rates
between Cleveland and the suburbs were not statistically significant.




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                 86
Indicators
Figure 9.1

                             Percentage of Civilians Ages 16 and Over in School
                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                   13.6%
    All Ages 16 and                13.1%
          Over                     12.7%
                                   13.3%

                                                                   62.6%
                                                                     62.7%
     Ages 16 to 24                                            51.8%
                                                                         68.7%
                                                                                      Ohio
                                8.5%
                                 10.1%                                                Cuyahoga County
     Ages 25 to 44                 8.8%
                                  10.7%                                               Cleveland
                                                                                      Suburbs
                         2.2%
                          3.3%
     Ages 45 to 64        3.7%
                          3.1%

                        0.5%
                        0.7%
  Ages 65 and Over      0.7%
                        0.6%

                      0.0%          20.0%         40.0%       60.0%           80.0%

Figure 9.2

                               Percentage of Persons in School by Grade Level
                                        Civilians Ages 16 and Over
                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                                           36.7%
  Grade 9 to Grade                                           38.1%
        12                                                             44.9%
                                                             35.3%


                                                                          52.7%       Ohio
       College                                                          49.3%         Cuyahoga County
    Undergraduate                                                     43.0%           Cleveland
                                                                              51.9%
                                                                                      Suburbs

                                   10.2%
       Graduate or
                                     12.2%
       Professional
                                          11.4%
         School
                                      12.6%


                  0.0%                    20.0%           40.0%               60.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                  87
Indicators
Figure 9.3

                                 Labor Force and E mployment Status
                               Of Civilians Ages 16 and Over in School
                                  Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


                                              22.3%
                                                  24.0%
  Employed Full-Time                              22.1%
                                                   24.8%

                                                       31.4%
     Employed Part-                                27.2%
         Time                                      23.3%                              Ohio
                                                       28.9%
                                                                                      Cuyahoga County
                               8.1%                                                   Cleveland
                                      13.3%
        Unemployed                                                                    Suburbs
                                          15.5%
                                       12.3%

                                                               38.1%
                                                              35.5%
  Not in Labor Force                                               39.0%
                                                            34.1%


                   0.0%               20.0%                40.0%              60.0%

Figure 9.4

                       Labor Force and Employment Status by School Attendance
                                     Civilians Ages 16 and Over
                                       Cuyahoga County, 2006



     Employed Full-                               24.0%
         Time                                                              48.6%



     Employed Part-                                 27.2%
         Time                     10.8%
                                                                                          In School
                                                                                          Not in School
                                      13.3%
        Unemployed
                               5.1%



                                                             35.5%
  Not in Labor Force
                                                            35.5%



                   0.0%               20.0%                40.0%              60.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                    88
Indicators
                                                                     Persons Enrolled in School
                                                                     Civilians Ages 16 and Over, 2006


                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio                    Cuyahoga County - Number                          Cuyahoga County - Percent                         Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower      Point       Upper                       Lower     Point     Upper                   Lower      Point      Upper




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table 9.1




                                                                                                                 90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*                   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Not in School                                 886,548        895,440        904,332               86.3%       86.9%         87.4%              86.1%      86.4%       86.6%
                                                                     In School                                     129,748        135,458        141,168               12.6%       13.1%         13.7%              13.4%      13.6%       13.9%
                                                                     Total                                                      1,030,898                                         100.0%                                      100.0%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs                           Cleveland - Number                               Cleveland - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower        Point       Upper                     Lower     Point      Upper
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate    90% C.I.*                  90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Not in School                                 266,836        274,638        282,440               86.3%       87.3%         88.3%
                                                                     In School                                      36,480         39,974         43,468               11.7%       12.7%         13.7%
                                                                     Total                                                        314,612                                         100.0%


                                                                                                                         Suburbs - Number                                 Suburbs - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower       Point       Upper                      Lower     Point     Upper
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*                   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Not in School                                 612,337        620,802        629,267               86.0%       86.7%         87.3%
                                                                     In School                                      90,495         95,484        100,473               12.7%       13.3%         14.0%
                                                                     Total                                                        716,286                                         100.0%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   89
                                                                     School Enrollment by Age Group
                                                                     Civilians Ages 16 and Over, 2006


                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio                    Cuyahoga County - Number                             Cuyahoga County - Percent                              Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower      Point       Upper                          Lower     Point     Upper                        Lower      Point      Upper




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Table 9.2




                                                                                                                 90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*                      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                     90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     16 to 24 - Not in School                        48,462        52,974         57,486                   34.8%       37.3%        39.8%                   36.5%          37.4%   38.2%
                                                                     16 to 24 - In School                            85,217        89,018         92,819                   60.2%       62.7%        65.2%                   61.8%          62.6%   63.5%

                                                                     25 to 44 - In School                            29,818        33,500         37,182                    9.0%       10.1%        11.2%                    8.1%          8.5%    8.8%
                                                                     45 to 64 - In School                             9,915        11,638         13,361                    2.8%        3.3%         3.7%                    2.1%          2.2%    2.4%
                                                                     65 and Over - In School                            754         1,302          1,850                    0.4%        0.7%         0.9%                    0.4%          0.5%    0.6%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs                           Cleveland - Number                                  Cleveland - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower        Point       Upper                        Lower     Point      Upper
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate    90% C.I.*                     90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     16 to 24 - Not in School                        20,711        24,244         27,777                   43.9%       48.2%        52.4%
                                                                     16 to 24 - In School                            23,239        26,104         28,969                   47.6%       51.8%        56.1%

                                                                     25 to 44 - In School                             7,758          9,791        11,824                    7.1%        8.8%        10.6%
                                                                     45 to 64 - In School                             2,670          3,691         4,712                    2.7%        3.7%         4.7%
                                                                     65 and Over - In School                             77            388           699                    0.1%        0.7%         1.3%


                                                                                                                         Suburbs - Number                                    Suburbs - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower       Point       Upper                         Lower     Point     Upper
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*                      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     16 to 24 - Not in School                        25,135        28,730         32,325                   28.4%       31.3%        34.3%
                                                                     16 to 24 - In School                            58,974        62,914         66,854                   65.7%       68.7%        71.6%

                                                                     25 to 44 - In School                            20,901        23,709         26,517                    9.4%       10.7%        12.0%
                                                                     45 to 64 - In School                             6,350         7,947          9,544                    2.5%        3.1%         3.7%
                                                                     65 and Over - In School                            476           914          1,352                    0.3%        0.6%         0.9%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




                                   90
                                                                     School Grade Level
                                                                     Civilians Ages 16 and Over Enrolled in School, 2006


                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio                    Cuyahoga County - Number                          Cuyahoga County - Percent                          Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower      Point       Upper                       Lower     Point     Upper                    Lower      Point      Upper




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table 9.3




                                                                                                                 90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*                   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Grade 5 to Grade 8                                  49           443            837                 0.0%       0.3%          0.6%                0.3%       0.4%       0.4%
                                                                     Grade 9 to Grade 12                             48,376        51,657         54,938                35.8%      38.1%         40.5%               35.9%      36.7%      37.5%
                                                                     College Undergraduate                           61,839        66,785         71,731                46.7%      49.3%         51.9%               52.0%      52.7%      53.5%
                                                                     Graduate or Professional School                 13,849        16,573         19,297                10.3%      12.2%         14.1%                9.7%      10.2%      10.8%
                                                                     Total                                                        135,458                                         100.0%                                       100.0%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs                           Cleveland - Number                               Cleveland - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower        Point       Upper                     Lower     Point      Upper
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate    90% C.I.*                  90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Grade 5 to Grade 8                                   0           260            547                 0.0%       0.7%          1.4%
                                                                     Grade 9 to Grade 12                             15,324        17,966         20,608                39.5%      44.9%         50.4%
                                                                     College Undergraduate                           14,599        17,185         19,771                38.1%      43.0%         47.8%
                                                                     Graduate or Professional School                  3,023         4,563          6,103                 7.6%      11.4%         15.3%
                                                                     Total                                                         39,974                                         100.0%


                                                                                                                         Suburbs - Number                                 Suburbs - Percent
                                                                                                                  Lower       Point       Upper                      Lower     Point     Upper
                                                                                                                 90% C.I.*   Estimate   90% C.I.*                   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*

                                                                     Grade 5 to Grade 8                                   0           183            402                 0.0%       0.2%          0.4%
                                                                     Grade 9 to Grade 12                             31,005        33,691         36,377                32.5%      35.3%         38.0%
                                                                     College Undergraduate                           45,241        49,600         53,959                48.8%      51.9%         55.1%
                                                                     Graduate or Professional School                  9,801        12,010         14,219                10.4%      12.6%         14.7%
                                                                     Total                                                         95,484                                         100.0%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




                                   91
                                                                     Labor Force and Employment Status by School Enrollment
                                                                     Civilians Ages 16 and Over, 2006


                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio            Cuyahoga County - Number           Cuyahoga County - Percent            Ohio - Percent
                                                                                                          Lower      Point       Upper        Lower     Point     Upper      Lower      Point      Upper




Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Table 9.4




                                                                                                         90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*    90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*
                                                                     Not in School
                                                                       Employed Full-Time                  425,187       435,409   445,631      47.5%    48.6%      49.7%      50.6%    50.9%      51.3%
                                                                       Employed Part-Time                   90,496        96,663   102,830      10.1%    10.8%      11.5%      10.5%    10.8%      11.1%
                                                                       Unemployed                           40,886        45,344    49,802       4.6%     5.1%       5.6%       4.0%     4.1%       4.3%
                                                                       Not in Labor Force                  309,357       318,024   326,691      34.6%    35.5%      36.4%      33.8%    34.1%      34.4%
                                                                       Total                                             895,440                        100.0%                         100.0%

                                                                       Labor Force Participation Rate                                           63.6%    64.5%      65.4%      65.6%     65.9%     66.2%
                                                                       Unemployment Rate                                                         7.1%     7.9%       8.6%       6.0%      6.3%      6.5%

                                                                     In School
                                                                        Employed Full-Time                  29,134        32,504    35,874      21.8%    24.0%      26.2%      21.7%     22.3%     23.0%
                                                                        Employed Part-Time                  33,501        36,883    40,265      25.1%    27.2%      29.4%      30.5%     31.4%     32.3%
                                                                        Unemployed                          15,324        17,966    20,608      11.3%    13.3%      15.2%       7.7%      8.1%      8.6%
                                                                        Not in Labor Force                  44,313        48,105    51,897      33.1%    35.5%      37.9%      37.2%     38.1%     39.0%
                                                                        Total                                            135,458                        100.0%

                                                                       Labor Force Participation Rate                                           62.1%    64.5%      66.9%      61.0%     61.9%     62.8%
                                                                       Unemployment Rate                                                        17.7%    20.6%      23.5%      12.4%     13.1%     13.9%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   92
Table 9.4 (cont.)
Labor Force and Employment Status by School Enrollment
Civilians Ages 16 and Over, 2006


B. Cleveland                                        Cleveland - Number                                Cleveland - Percent
                                             Lower         Point       Upper                      Lower     Point      Upper
                                            90% C.I.*    Estimate    90% C.I.*                   90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*
Not in School
  Employed Full-Time                           111,317         118,942        126,567                41.0%    43.3%     45.6%
  Employed Part-Time                            19,740          22,582         25,424                 7.2%     8.2%      9.2%
  Unemployed                                    22,012          24,824         27,636                 8.0%     9.0%     10.1%
  Not in Labor Force                           101,953         108,290        114,627                37.3%    39.4%     41.6%
  Total                                                        274,638                                       100.0%

   Labor Force Participation Rate                                                                    58.4%   60.6%      62.7%
   Unemployment Rate                                                                                 13.2%   14.9%      16.7%

In School
   Employed Full-Time                            6,915           8,854         10,793                17.8%    22.1%     26.5%
   Employed Part-Time                            7,240           9,330         11,420                18.8%    23.3%     27.9%
   Unemployed                                    4,546           6,200          7,854                11.6%    15.5%     19.4%
   Not in Labor Force                           13,285          15,590         17,895                33.8%    39.0%     44.2%
   Total                                                        39,974                                       100.0%

   Labor Force Participation Rate                                                                    55.8%   61.0%      66.2%
   Unemployment Rate                                                                                 19.5%   25.4%      31.4%


C. Suburbs                                              Suburbs - Number                               Suburbs - Percent
                                             Lower           Point        Upper                   Lower     Point      Upper
                                            90% C.I.*       Estimate     90% C.I.*               90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*
Not in School
  Employed Full-Time                           308,840         316,467        324,094                49.8%    51.0%     52.2%
  Employed Part-Time                            68,950          74,081         79,212                11.2%    11.9%     12.7%
  Unemployed                                    17,468          20,520         23,572                 2.8%     3.3%      3.8%
  Not in Labor Force                           202,180         209,734        217,288                32.7%    33.8%     34.9%
  Total                                                        620,802                                       100.0%

   Labor Force Participation Rate                                                                    65.1%   66.2%      67.3%
   Unemployment Rate                                                                                  4.3%    5.0%       5.7%

In School
   Employed Full-Time                           20,858          23,650         26,442                22.3%    24.8%     27.2%
   Employed Part-Time                           24,831          27,553         30,275                26.5%    28.9%     31.3%
   Unemployed                                    9,745          11,766         13,787                10.2%    12.3%     14.4%
   Not in Labor Force                           29,253          32,515         35,777                31.1%    34.1%     37.0%
   Total                                                        95,484                                       100.0%

   Labor Force Participation Rate                                                                    63.0%   65.9%      68.9%
   Unemployment Rate                                                                                 15.8%   18.7%      21.6%

* C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for
  different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the difference may result from random
  random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the
  confidence intervals for the rates in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of
  error and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
       Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
       Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




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10. Characteristics of Unemployed Persons Looking
for Work
Why Is This Indicator Important?
Understanding the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the unemployed who are
seeking work can help workforce development programs to target their efforts to those who may
be most receptive to their assistance. Looking at how job -seekers differ from those who are not
looking for work can yield insights into the population these programs are intended to serve.

Definition
The Census Bureau’s 2006 American Community Survey (ACS) asked those persons who did not
work during the previous week whether they had “actively sought a job or pursued opening
their own business or professional practice within the past four weeks.” Using data from the
ACS Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS), we estimate that 59,484 unemployed 11 Cuyahoga
County residents ages 16 to 64 were looking for work in 2006. This indicator describes the
characteristics of unemployed job -seekers in the county, state, Cleveland, and the suburbs, and
compares them to adults who are already employed. In the section “Regression Model:
Distinguishing Job-Seekers from Non-Job-Seekers,” it also looks at factors that may identify the
ways in which job-seekers in Cuyahoga County and Ohio differ from those who are not looking
for work.”

How Are We Doing?

Age
Unemployed persons who are looking for work tended to be younger on average than those who
were employed. In Cuyahoga County, almost two-fifths (22,700 persons) of job-seekers were
between 16 and 24, and a similar proportion were between 25 and 44. Fewer than one-fourth
(14,000 persons) were between 45 and 64. In contrast, 43 percent of employed adults under 65
were between 45 and 64, and only 12 percent were 16 to 24. The age distribution in the county
was not significantly different from that for Ohio as a whole.

Cleveland residents who are looking for work were slight ly, but not significantly, older than
suburbanites. Forty-two percent of Cleveland job-seekers (12,000 persons) were between 25 and
44 and 33 percent (9,500 persons) were 16 to 24. Among suburbanites, the percentages were
reversed; 35 percent of those looking for work were 25 to 44 and 43 percent were 16 to 24. In both
Cleveland and the suburbs, unemployed job seekers tended to be younger than persons who
were employed (see Figure 10.1 and Table 10.1).

Gender
In both Cuyahoga County and Ohio, males made up a slightly, but not significantly, higher
proportion of those lookin g for work, 52 percent. In Cleveland, females made up a non -
significantly higher proportion of job -seekers, 51 percent, but 56 percent of suburbanites looking
for work were males, significantly higher than the 44 percent who were female. In the employed


11A subset of 3,548 of this number (6.0 percent) who were looking for work were actually classified as “Not in the labor
force,” rather than “Unemployed.” For the purposes of this indicator, all of these job-seekers are referred to as
“unemployed” in the “How Are We Doing?” section. In the “Regression Model” section, the universe includes all those
who were unemployed or not in the labor force, whether or not they were looking for work.


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population, there was a roughly 50/50 split between males and females in the county, Cleveland,
and the suburbs, but slightly more males (52 percent) statewide.

Race and Hispanic Origin
Half of those looking for work in Cuyahoga County were African American (29,100 persons), as
were a quarter of those who were employed. Whites comprised just under half of job -seekers
(27,600 persons) in the county, but 70 percent of the employed. Five percent of job-seekers in the
county were Asian, other, or multiple race (see Figure 10.2). In Ohio, 22 percent of those looking
for work were African American and 73 percent were White, compared to 10 percent and 87 of
the employed, respectively.

In Cleveland, African Americans made up almost two-thirds of those looking for work (18,500
persons), but less than half of those employed. Whites made up just over one-fourth of
Clevelanders looking for work (8,100 persons), but 45 percent of those employed. In th e suburbs,
one-third of job-seekers but only one-sixth of the employed were African Americans.

Persons of Hispanic origin made up 4 percent (2,100 persons) of those looking for work in the
county, not significantly different from the state and similar to their share of the employed.
However, 7 percent of Clevelanders looking for work were Hispanic (1,900 persons), compared to
1 percent of suburbanites. Hispanics also made up 7 percent of Clevelanders who were
employed.

Educational Attainment and School Attendance
The educational profile of unemployed job -seekers in Cuyahoga County is similar to that for job -
seekers in Ohio as a whole, but lower in general than the educational level of the employed.
Twenty-six percent of those looking for work (15,500 persons) in the county had not completed
high school and 40 percent (23,900 persons) had only a high-school diploma, compared to 8
percent and 30 percent of the employed population, respectively. One-fourth of job-seekers in the
county (14,100 persons) had one to three years of college, and 10 percent (6,000 persons) had four
or more years of college, compared to about one-third each among those who had jobs (see
Figure 10.3). Almost 30 percent of job -seekers in the county (17,200 persons) were currently
attending school, compared to 12 percent of the employed.

Both Cleveland and suburban job-seekers had educational profiles that were generally lower than
those who were employed, and Clevelanders, whether employed or seeking employment, had
significantly lower educational levels than suburbanites.

One-third of Cleveland’s job-seekers (9,400 persons) and 20 percent of suburbanites looking for
work had less than a high school education, compared to 14 percent of Clevelanders and 6
percent of suburbanites who were employed. In both Cleveland and the suburbs, about two-fifths
of those looking for work had only a high school diploma; this was about the same proportion as
Clevelanders who did have jobs, but higher than the 26 percent of employed suburbanites with
only a high school diploma.

One-fifth of job-seekers in Cleveland and one-fourth in the suburbs had one to three years of
college, less than the 31 percent of the employed in each area. Only 5 percent of job-seekers in
Cleveland had four or more years of college, compared with 18 percent of employed


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Clevelanders. In the suburbs, 15 percent of job -seekers had four or more years of college,
compared to 37 percent of employed suburbanites who had a four -year degree.

Thirty-seven percent of suburbanites looking for work (11,400 persons) were currently enrolled in
school, significantly higher than the 21 percent in Cleveland. This finding correlates with the
younger age profile of unemployed suburbanites looking for work. In both Cleveland and the
suburbs, 11 percent of employed persons were enrolled in school.

Household Characteristics
At all levels of geography, persons living in households headed by a single female made up a
greater proportion of those looking for work than of those who were employed. Forty -three
percent of job-seekers in Cuyahoga County (25,500 persons) were from female-headed
households, compared to 17 percent of those who were employed. Conversely, only 36 percent of
job-seekers in the county (21,500 persons) came from married-couple families, compared to more
than half of the employed (see Figure 10.4). The proportion of unemployed job -seekers who lived
in households headed by a single female was significantly greater in Cuyahoga County than in
Ohio as a whole (31 percent), and the proportion in married-couple families was significantly
lower.

In Cleveland, more than half of those looking for work (15,800 persons) lived in female-headed
families, more than double the proportion of those who were employed who came from this type
of family. Only one-fifth of Cleveland job-seekers (6,200 persons) lived in married-couple
families, compared to 36 percent of the employed. Clevelanders looking for work were
significantly more likely to come from female-headed families than suburban job -seekers, where
31 percent came from female-headed families.

Almost two-thirds of those looking for work in the county (38,500 persons), had never been
married, almost double the percentage of the employed, and a significantly higher proportion
than the 55 percent in the state as a whole. Twenty-one percent of job-seekers in the county were
married, compared to just under half of the employed, and 14 percent were separated, divorced,
or widowed, compared to 16 percent of the employed. There was no significant difference
between Cleveland and the suburbs in the marital status of job -seekers, although the same
pattern held that a greater proportion of job-seekers than the employed had never been married.

A slightly greater proportion of unemployed job -seekers in the county (29,500 persons or 49
percent) than of the employed (41 percent) lived in households where children under 18 were
present; the county percents were not significantly different from the statewide proportions.
About one in five (11,300 persons) job -seekers in the county lived in households with children
under age six, slightly more than the 17 percent of the employed. Th e proportion of job -seekers
and employed persons in Cleveland households with any children under 18 was not significantly
different from the suburbs, but 24 percent of Cleveland job -seekers (6,700 persons) lived in
households with children under six, compared to 15 percent in the suburbs.

Household Income
Forty-four percent (26,600 persons) of the county’s unemployed job -seekers had household
incomes of less than $25,000, and almost three in 10 (17,200 persons) had incomes of less than
$15,000. In contrast, 12 percent of the employed had household incomes under $25,000 and 5


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percent had incomes under $15,000. Almost a quarter of both employed and unemployed persons
had incomes between $25,000 and $50,000; 15 percent of job -seekers in the county had incomes
between $50,000 and $75,000, compared to 22 percent of the employed. Only 16 percent of those
looking for work had incomes $75,000 and over , compared to 43 percent of those who were
employed (see Figure 10.5). The income distribution of county residents looking for work was not
significantly different from Ohio as a whole.

Cleveland residents who were looking for work had significantly lower household incomes than
either employed Clevelanders or suburbanites, whether employed or unemployed. Almost two-
thirds of Cleveland job-seekers (18,400 persons) had incomes under $25,000, and 40 percent
(11,300 persons) had incomes under $15,000. In contr ast, only 21 percent of employed
Clevelanders had household incomes under $25,000 and 9 percent under $15,000. Just over one-
fourth of suburbanites looking for work had incomes under $25,000, and 19 percent had incomes
under $15,000.

Number of Workers in Household
Two-fifths of those in the county who were looking for work (24,400 persons) lived in households
with no employed adults. The same proportion lived in households with one worker, and 18
percent were in households with two or more workers. The county’s profile was not significantly
different from that of the state. In Cleveland, more than half of job -seekers (15,300 persons) had
no worker in the household, a significantly higher proportion than the 29 percent of suburban job
seekers who were in jobless households.

Persons who Did Not Work in the Past Year
Two-fifths of Cuyahoga County residents looking for work (24,900 persons) had not worked in
the past year, a significantly higher proportion than the 35 percent of Ohio job -seekers who had
not. Forty-five percent of Cleveland job-seekers (12,900 persons) had not worked in the past year,
not significantly different from the 39 percent of suburbanites who had not.

Persons with a Work Disability
Nine percent of job-seekers in the county (5,400 persons) had a disability that would make it
difficult to work, not significantly different from the statewide proportion. There was also no
significant difference between Cleveland and suburban job -seekers in the percentage that had
such disabilities. Persons with disabilities made up a smaller proportion of employed persons, 2
percent in the county and the state, and 4 percent in Cleveland.

Regression Model: Distinguishing Job-Seekers from Non-Job-Seekers
In addition to examining the individual socio-demographic characteristics of unemployed job -
seekers, we also used a logistic regression model to examine these variables together, to see
which factors are statistically significant in distinguishing those who are looking for work from
those who are not looking. 12 The regression models found the following variables to be significant


12 The universe for the regression models were persons ages 16 to 64 who were unemployed or not in the labor force. The
independent variables were age, gender, educational attainment, race, Hispanic origin, household type, presence of
c hildren under 18, household income, presence of any employed persons in the household, and whether or not the person
had worked in the past year. These variables were controlled for one another in the regression equation. Table 10.8 gives
the regression coefficients and their significance levels for eac h independent variable in separate models for Cuyahoga
County and Ohio as a whole.


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predictors for whether a person who was unemployed or not in the labor force looked for work
in the past month:

Age
In both Cuyahoga County and Ohio, persons aged 16 to 24 and 25 t o 44 were more likely to be
looking for work than those 45 to 64.

Gender
In both the county and the state, females were less likely to be looking for work than males.

Educational Attainment
When other variables were controlled, this was a significant factor in the statewide model in that
persons with only a high school diploma were more likely to be looking for work than those with
a bachelor’s degree or higher. Educational attainment was not a significant factor in the
Cuyahoga County model.

Race
In both the county and the state, African Americans were more likely than Whites, and Asians
were less likely than Whites, to be looking for work. Hispanic origin was not a significant factor
in either the county or the state.

Household Type
In both the county and the state, persons in female-headed family households were more likely to
be looking for work than those in married-couple households. In the statewide model (but not in
the Cuyahoga County model), persons in households other than married-couple or female-
headed families were also more likely to be looking for work.

Presence of Children
Persons in households with children under 18 were less likely to be looking for work than those
in households without children. This was significant in both the county and state.

Household Income
Persons with lower household incomes were more likely, in both the county and the state, to be
looking for work than those with higher incomes. The relationship was inverse and linear; the
lower the income, the more likely a person was to be looking for work.

Employed Persons in the Household
In both the county and the state, persons in households where one or more other people were
employed were more likely to be looking for work themselves than those in households with no
workers.

Did Not Work in Past Year
Persons in both the county and the state who did not work in the past year were less likely to be
looking for work than those who had worked in the past year.

Discussion: These regression models attempt to describe some of the major factors affecting
people’s job-seeking behavior that can be found in U.S. Census data. However, individuals’

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situations are complex, and we cannot describe completely the reasons why people do or do n ot
choose to seek employment. What we see in the aggregate may actually represent different
subpopulations that require varied workforce development strategies.

For example, as noted above, both females and persons of either sex in households with children
were less likely to be looking for work than males or those in households without children. This
seems to be in conflict with the finding that those in families headed by a single female were
more likely to be looking for work. However, these findings may represent a combination of two
subpopulations: single females with children who are looking for work and stay -at-home
married mothers who are not. Similarly, people who did n ot work in the past year and who were
not looking for work at present may include both “discouraged workers” who have temporarily
given up seeking work and those who are more permanently out of the labor force.

The regression models suggest that many job-seekers are driven by a lack of financial or family
supports. Persons in low-income households and those in female-headed families are more likely
to be looking for work than are those from moderate-income or married-couple families.
Younger adults and African Americans, who tend to have fewer assets to draw upon when
unemployed, are also more likely to be active job -seekers.

One other interesting finding suggested by the regressions is that persons who live in households
with another person who is working are more likely to seek work themselves. This may indicate
that a family with a history and “culture” of work may encoura ge job-seeking among its
unemployed members.

Figure 10.1
                                    Age Distribution of Persons Ages 16 to 64
                                    Who Are Employed or Looking for Work
                                             Cuyahoga County, 2006




       Looking for Work           38.1%                   38.2%                 23.6%


                                                                                                 18 to 24
                                                                                                 25 to 44
                                                                                                 45 to 64


             Employed     12.0%            44.6%                        43.4%




                      0.0%        20.0%       40.0%         60.0%         80.0%         100.0%




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Figure 10.2

                                       Race and Ethnicity of Persons Ages 16 to 64
                                        Who Are Employed or Looking for Work
                                                Cuyahoga County, 2006



                                                                                                  69.5%
                     White
                                                                            46.4%


                                                       25.1%
          African American
                                                                               48.9%


                                   2.8%
                     Asian
                                0.5%


                                    2.7%
     Other or Multiple Race                                             Employed
                                    4.3%
                                                                        Looking for Work

                                    3.4%
           Hispanic Origin
                                   3.6%


                            0.0%              20.0%             40.0%                60.0%                80.0%

Figure 10.3

                                    Educational Attainment of Persons Ages 16 to 64
                                        Who Are Employed or Looking for Work
                                                Cuyahoga County, 2006



                                           7.7%
      Less than Grade 12
                                                               26.0%



                                                                    29.5%
               Grade 12
                                                                                    40.2%




    One to Three Years of                                              31.0%
          College                                           23.8%
                                                                                       Employed
                                                                                       Looking for Work

    Four or More Years of                                              31.8%
           College                          10.0%



                         0.0%                       20.0%                   40.0%                         60.0%




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Figure 10.4

                                  Household Type of Persons Ages 16 to 64
                                  Who Are Employed or Looking for Work
                                         Cuyahoga County, 2006




                                                                                                 54.5%
     Married-Couple Family
                                                                           36.1%




                                                    16.5%
       Female-Householder
             Family
                                                                                    42.8%


                                                                                   Employed
                                                                                   Looking for Work
                                                                  29.0%
                  All Other
                                                      21.1%




                          0.0%                    20.0%                    40.0%                      60.0%

Figure 10.5

                                 Household Income of Persons Ages 16 to 64
                                  Who Are Employed or Looking for Work
                                         Cuyahoga County, 2006

                              Less than $15,000       $15,000 to $24,999       $25,000 to $49,999
                              $50,000 to $74,999      $75,000 to $99,999       $100,000 and over




    Looking for Work          28.9%               15.8%            24.1%              14.8%      8.6%    7.7%




          Employed 4.8% 7.0%          23.5%               22.3%             17.4%                25.0%




                   0.0%          20.0%              40.0%             60.0%              80.0%            100.0%




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Indicators
                                                                     Age and Gender of Persons Ages 16 to 64
                                                                      Who Are Employed or Looking for Work, 2006

                                                                                                                Cuyahoga County                                                                        Ohio
                                                                                         Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking                  Percent
                                                                                          Number        Lower     Point     Upper                   of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper                 of Those
                                                                     Age                  Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*               Employed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Table 10.1




Indicators
                                                                     16 to 24                 22,684       34.9%       38.1%        41.5%                12.0%                150,130        36.9%      38.3%        39.7%                  14.3%
                                                                     25 to 44                 22,744       34.5%       38.2%        42.1%                44.6%                152,651        37.5%      39.0%        40.4%                  45.7%
                                                                     45 to 64                 14,056       20.8%       23.6%        26.7%                43.4%                 88,989        21.4%      22.7%        24.1%                  40.1%
                                                                     Total                    59,484                  100.0%                            100.0%                391,770                  100.0%                              100.0%

                                                                                                                    Cleveland                                                                        Suburbs
                                                                                         Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking                  Percent
                                                                                          Number        Lower     Point      Upper                  of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper                 of Those
                                                                     Age                  Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*               Employed

                                                                     16 to 24                  9,490       28.3%       33.4%        38.9%                13.5%                 13,194        37.0%      42.5%        48.2%                  11.4%
                                                                     25 to 44                 12,037       37.0%       42.3%        47.8%                49.3%                 10,707        28.8%      34.5%        40.7%                  42.9%
                                                                     45 to 64                  6,914       20.2%       24.3%        28.9%                37.2%                  7,142        19.5%      23.0%        26.9%                  45.7%
                                                                     Total                    28,441                  100.0%                            100.0%                 31,043                  100.0%                              100.0%




                                                                                                                Cuyahoga County                                                                        Ohio
                                                                                         Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking                  Percent
                                                                                          Number        Lower     Point     Upper                   of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper                 of Those
                                                                     Gender               Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*               Employed

                                                                     Male                     31,239       48.4%       52.5%        56.6%                50.6%                205,053        50.8%      52.3%        53.9%                  52.3%
                                                                     Female                   28,245       43.4%       47.5%        51.6%                49.4%                186,717        46.1%      47.7%        49.2%                  47.7%
                                                                     Total                    59,484                  100.0%                            100.0%                391,770                  100.0%                              100.0%

                                                                                                                    Cleveland                                                                        Suburbs
                                                                                         Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking                  Percent
                                                                                          Number        Lower     Point      Upper                  of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper                 of Those
                                                                     Gender               Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*               Employed

                                                                     Male                     13,931       43.4%       49.0%        54.6%                49.8%                 17,308        50.3%      55.8%        61.1%                  50.9%
                                                                     Female                   14,510       45.4%       51.0%        56.6%                50.3%                 13,735        39.0%      44.3%        49.7%                  49.4%
                                                                     Total                    28,441                  100.0%                            100.0%                 31,043                  100.0%                              100.3%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."




                                   102
                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions
                                                                     Race and Ethnicity of Persons Ages 16 to 64
                                                                      Who Are Employed or Looking for Work, 2006

                                                                                                                            Cuyahoga County                                                                       Ohio
                                                                                                    Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking              Percent
                                                                                                     Number        Lower      Point    Upper                   of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper             of Those
                                                                     Race                            Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*           Employed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Table 10.2




Indicators
                                                                     White                              27,589       42.3%       46.4%         50.5%                69.5%                287,586        71.9%      73.4%        74.9%         86.6%
                                                                     African American                   29,070       44.8%       48.9%         53.0%                25.1%                 87,172        20.8%      22.3%        23.8%          9.8%
                                                                     Asian                                 294        0.1%        0.5%          1.8%                 2.8%                  3,706         0.7%       1.0%         1.3%          1.7%
                                                                     Other or Multiple Race              2,531        2.9%        4.3%          6.2%                 2.7%                 13,306         2.8%       3.4%         4.1%          1.9%
                                                                     Total                              59,484                  100.0%                             100.0%                391,770                  100.0%                     100.0%

                                                                                                                               Cleveland                                                                        Suburbs
                                                                                                    Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking              Percent
                                                                                                     Number        Lower     Point      Upper                  of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper             of Those
                                                                     Race                            Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*           Employed

                                                                     White                               8,105       22.8%       28.5%         35.0%                44.6%                  19,484       57.1%      62.8%        68.1%         78.6%
                                                                     African American                   18,457       58.7%       64.9%         70.7%                47.9%                  10,613       28.6%      34.2%        40.3%         16.7%
                                                                     Asian                                 -          0.0%        0.0%          0.0%                 2.5%                     294        0.3%       1.0%         3.4%          2.9%
                                                                     Other or Multiple Race              1,879        4.0%        6.6%         10.7%                 5.1%                     652        1.1%       2.1%         3.9%          1.8%
                                                                     Total                              28,441                  100.0%                             100.0%                  31,043                 100.0%                     100.0%




                                                                                                                            Cuyahoga County                                                                       Ohio
                                                                                                    Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking              Percent
                                                                                                     Number        Lower      Point    Upper                   of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper             of Those
                                                                     Hispanic Origin                 Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*           Employed

                                                                     Hispanic                            2,142        2.3%        3.6%          5.5%                 3.4%                 11,720         2.5%       3.0%         3.6%          2.2%
                                                                     Not Hispanic                       57,342       94.5%       96.4%         97.7%                96.6%                380,050        96.4%      97.0%        97.5%         97.8%
                                                                     Total                              59,484                  100.0%                             100.0%                391,770                  100.0%                     100.0%

                                                                                                                               Cleveland                                                                        Suburbs
                                                                                                    Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking              Percent
                                                                                                     Number        Lower     Point      Upper                  of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper             of Those
                                                                     Hispanic Origin                 Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*           Employed

                                                                     Hispanic                            1,907        4.0%        6.7%         11.0%                 6.8%                     235        0.2%       0.8%         2.5%          2.2%
                                                                     Not Hispanic                       26,534       89.0%       93.3%         96.0%                93.2%                  30,808       97.5%      99.2%        99.8%         97.8%
                                                                     Total                              28,441                  100.0%                             100.0%                  31,043                 100.0%                     100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."




                                   103
                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions
                                                                     Educational Attainment and School Attendance of Persons Ages 16 to 64
                                                                      Who Are Employed or Looking for Work, 2006

                                                                                                                                  Cuyahoga County                                                                        Ohio
                                                                                                          Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                     Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking           Percent
                                                                                                           Number        Lower      Point    Upper                    of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper          of Those
                                                                     Educational Attainment                Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*        Employed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Table 10.3




Indicators
                                                                     Less than Grade 12                       15,458        22.3%      26.0%         30.1%                  7.7%                 98,217       23.7%       25.1%        26.5%       7.5%
                                                                     Grade 12                                 23,926        36.3%      40.2%         44.3%                 29.5%                165,582       40.7%       42.3%        43.8%      35.5%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years of College                  14,140        20.7%      23.8%         27.1%                 31.0%                 91,359       21.8%       23.3%        25.0%      31.2%
                                                                     4 or More Years of College                5,960         8.2%      10.0%         12.1%                 31.8%                 36,612        8.6%        9.4%        10.2%      25.9%
                                                                     Total                                    59,484                  100.0%                              100.0%                391,770                  100.0%                  100.0%

                                                                                                                                     Cleveland                                                                         Suburbs
                                                                                                          Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                     Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking           Percent
                                                                                                           Number        Lower     Point     Upper                    of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper          of Those
                                                                     Educational Attainment                Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*        Employed

                                                                     Less than Grade 12                        9,407        27.4%      33.1%         39.3%                 13.7%                  6,051       15.2%       19.5%        24.6%       5.5%
                                                                     Grade 12                                 11,971        35.9%      42.1%         48.6%                 37.7%                 11,955       33.7%       38.5%        43.6%      26.5%
                                                                     1 to 3 Years of College                   5,629        15.5%      19.8%         24.9%                 31.2%                  8,511       22.6%       27.4%        32.8%      30.9%
                                                                     4 or More Years of College                1,434         3.1%       5.0%          8.2%                 17.5%                  4,526       12.0%       14.6%        17.6%      37.1%
                                                                     Total                                    28,441                  100.0%                              100.0%                 31,043                  100.0%                  100.0%




                                                                                                                                  Cuyahoga County                                                                        Ohio
                                                                                                          Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                     Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking           Percent
                                                                                                           Number        Lower      Point    Upper                    of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper          of Those
                                                                     School Attendance                     Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*        Employed

                                                                     Not in School                            42,270        67.0%      71.1%         74.8%                 88.4%                292,469       73.2%       74.7%        76.1%      88.1%
                                                                     In School                                17,214        25.2%      28.9%         33.0%                 11.6%                 99,301       24.0%       25.4%        26.8%      11.9%
                                                                     Total                                    59,484                  100.0%                              100.0%                391,770                  100.0%                  100.0%

                                                                                                                                     Cleveland                                                                         Suburbs
                                                                                                          Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                     Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking           Percent
                                                                                                           Number        Lower     Point     Upper                    of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper          of Those
                                                                     School Attendance                     Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*        Employed

                                                                     Not in School                            22,590        73.5%      79.4%         84.3%                 88.8%                 19,680       58.0%       63.4%        68.5%      88.2%
                                                                     In School                                 5,851        15.7%      20.6%         26.5%                 11.2%                 11,363       31.5%       36.6%        42.0%      11.8%
                                                                     Total                                    28,441                  100.0%                              100.0%                 31,043                  100.0%                  100.0%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)




                                   104
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions
                                                                     Household Type of Persons Ages 16 to 64
                                                                      Who Are Employed or Looking for Work, 2006

                                                                                                                                                Cuyahoga County                                                                       Ohio
                                                                                                                        Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                     Percent             Estimated       Percent of Those Looking      Percent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Table 10.4




                                                                                                                         Number        Lower      Point    Upper                    of Those              Number        Lower      Point    Upper     of Those




Indicators
                                                                     Household Type                                      Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  Employed              Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*   Employed

                                                                     Married Couple Family                                  21,460       31.9%       36.1%         40.5%                54.5%               171,283        41.9%      43.7%   45.5%      63.0%
                                                                     Male Householder Family                                 4,130        5.1%        6.9%          9.4%                 6.1%                27,720         6.2%       7.1%    8.1%       4.8%
                                                                     Female Householder Family                              25,483       38.3%       42.8%         47.6%                16.5%               122,396        29.5%      31.2%   33.0%      12.8%
                                                                     Male, Living Alone                                      3,435        4.0%        5.8%          8.3%                 8.8%                22,013         4.9%       5.6%    6.5%       6.7%
                                                                     Male Householder, Not Living Alone                      1,731        1.6%        2.9%          5.3%                 3.7%                20,191         4.3%       5.2%    6.1%       4.2%
                                                                     Female, Living Alone                                    2,356        2.9%        4.0%          5.5%                 7.8%                13,269         2.9%       3.4%    4.0%       5.5%
                                                                     Female Householder, Not Living Alone                      889        0.7%        1.5%          3.3%                 2.7%                14,898         3.1%       3.8%    4.6%       3.1%
                                                                     Total                                                  59,484                  100.0%                             100.0%               391,770                  100.0%             100.0%

                                                                                                                                                   Cleveland                                                                         Suburbs
                                                                                                                        Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                     Percent             Estimated       Percent of Those Looking      Percent
                                                                                                                         Number        Lower     Point     Upper                    of Those              Number        Lower      Point     Upper    of Those
                                                                     Household Type                                      Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  Employed              Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*   Employed

                                                                     Married Couple Family                                   6,162       17.6%       21.7%         26.4%                35.8%                 15,298       42.1%      49.3%   56.5%      61.3%
                                                                     Male Householder Family                                 1,884        3.9%        6.6%         11.2%                 9.6%                  2,246        4.5%       7.2%   11.5%       4.8%
                                                                     Female Householder Family                              15,785       48.7%       55.5%         62.1%                25.8%                  9,698       25.5%      31.2%   37.7%      13.1%
                                                                     Male, Living Alone                                      2,019        4.6%        7.1%         10.9%                12.8%                  1,416        2.5%       4.6%    8.1%       7.3%
                                                                     Male Householder, Not Living Alone                        810        1.1%        2.9%          7.4%                 4.1%                    921        1.4%       3.0%    6.1%       3.6%
                                                                     Female, Living Alone                                    1,240        2.7%        4.4%          6.9%                 8.7%                  1,116        2.2%       3.6%    5.9%       7.5%
                                                                     Female Householder, Not Living Alone                      541        0.7%        1.9%          5.3%                 3.2%                    348        0.4%       1.1%    3.0%       2.5%
                                                                     Total                                                  28,441                  100.0%                             100.0%                 31,043                 100.0%             100.0%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   105
                                                                     Marital Status and Presence of Children in Households
                                                                      Of Persons Ages 16 to 64 Who Are Employed or Looking for Work, 2006

                                                                                                                                       Cuyahoga County                                                                        Ohio
                                                                                                                Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                  Percent               Estimated       Percent of Those Looking            Percent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Table 10.5




                                                                                                                 Number        Lower      Point    Upper                 of Those                Number        Lower      Point    Upper           of Those




Indicators
                                                                     Marital Status                              Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*               Employed                Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*         Employed

                                                                     Married                                        12,444       18.4%       20.9%       23.7%                49.0%                108,007        26.1%      27.6%         29.1%       56.0%
                                                                     Separated / Divorced / Widowed                  8,571       12.0%       14.4%       17.2%                16.6%                 68,524        16.2%      17.5%         18.9%       15.8%
                                                                     Never Married                                  38,469       61.1%       64.7%       68.1%                34.4%                215,239        53.1%      54.9%         56.7%       28.2%
                                                                     Total                                          59,484                  100.0%                           100.0%                391,770                  100.0%                    100.0%

                                                                                                                                           Cleveland                                                                        Suburbs
                                                                                                                Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                  Percent               Estimated       Percent of Those Looking            Percent
                                                                                                                 Number        Lower      Point    Upper                 of Those                Number        Lower      Point    Upper           of Those
                                                                     Marital Status                              Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*               Employed                Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*         Employed

                                                                     Married                                         4,849       13.8%       17.1%       20.9%                33.5%                   7,595       20.9%      24.5%         28.4%       54.7%
                                                                     Separated / Divorced / Widowed                  5,391       14.9%       19.0%       23.9%                23.0%                   3,180        7.7%      10.2%         13.5%       14.3%
                                                                     Never Married                                  18,201       58.5%       64.0%       69.2%                43.5%                  20,268       60.9%      65.3%         69.4%       31.1%
                                                                     Total                                          28,441                  100.0%                           100.0%                  31,043                 100.0%                    100.0%




                                                                                                                                       Cuyahoga County                                                                        Ohio
                                                                                                                Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                  Percent               Estimated       Percent of Those Looking            Percent
                                                                                                                 Number        Lower      Point    Upper                 of Those                Number        Lower      Point    Upper           of Those
                                                                     Presence of Children in Household           Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*               Employed                Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*         Employed

                                                                     No Children                                    30,020       46.1%       50.5%       54.8%                58.6%                194,167        47.7%      49.6%         51.4%       56.0%
                                                                     Children Under 6 Only                           4,560        5.5%        7.7%       10.6%                 8.3%                 39,822         9.3%      10.2%         11.2%        9.5%
                                                                     Children 6 to 17 Only                          18,154       26.0%       30.5%       35.4%                24.8%                114,858        27.7%      29.3%         31.0%       26.5%
                                                                     Children Under 6 and 6 to 17                    6,750        8.8%       11.4%       14.5%                 8.3%                 42,923         9.8%      11.0%         12.3%        8.0%
                                                                     Total                                          59,484                  100.0%                           100.0%                391,770                  100.0%                    100.0%

                                                                                                                                           Cleveland                                                                        Suburbs
                                                                                                                Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                  Percent               Estimated       Percent of Those Looking            Percent
                                                                                                                 Number        Lower      Point    Upper                 of Those                Number        Lower      Point    Upper           of Those
                                                                     Presence of Children in Household           Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*               Employed                Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*         Employed

                                                                     No Children                                    13,937       42.0%       49.0%       56.0%                58.8%                  16,083       45.4%      51.8%         58.2%       58.5%
                                                                     Children Under 6 Only                           2,342        4.8%        8.2%       13.8%                 8.5%                   2,218        4.8%       7.1%         10.5%        8.3%
                                                                     Children 6 to 17 Only                           7,796       21.5%       27.4%       34.2%                24.0%                  10,358       26.8%      33.4%         40.7%       25.0%
                                                                     Children Under 6 and 6 to 17                    4,366       11.0%       15.4%       21.0%                 8.7%                   2,384        4.9%       7.7%         11.8%        8.2%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                     Total                                          28,441                  100.0%                           100.0%                  31,043                 100.0%                    100.0%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates




                                   106
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions
Table 10.6
Household Income and Number of Workers in Households
 Of Persons Ages 16 to 64 Who Are Employed or Looking for Work, 2006

                                                                 Cuyahoga County                                                                        Ohio
                                         Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking            Percent
                                          Number        Lower      Point    Upper                   of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper           of Those
Household Income                          Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*         Employed

Less than $15,000                            17,203       24.5%       28.9%         33.8%                 4.8%                  92,702       22.0%      23.7%         25.4%        4.7%
$15,000 to less than $25,000                  9,401       12.7%       15.8%         19.5%                 7.0%                  55,962       13.2%      14.3%         15.5%        6.3%
$25,000 to less than $50,000                 14,348       20.3%       24.1%         28.4%                23.5%                 108,115       25.9%      27.6%         29.3%       23.7%
$50,000 to less than $75,000                  8,824       11.8%       14.8%         18.5%                22.3%                  63,109       14.8%      16.1%         17.5%       24.9%
$75,000 to less than $100,000                 5,114        6.4%        8.6%         11.5%                17.4%                  37,587        8.7%       9.6%         10.6%       17.9%
$100,000 to less than $200,000                4,500        5.7%        7.6%          9.9%                20.6%                  30,645        7.0%       7.8%          8.7%       19.2%
$200,000 or more                                 94        0.0%        0.2%          0.6%                 4.6%                   3,650        0.7%       0.9%          1.3%        3.3%
Total                                        59,484                  100.0%                             100.0%                 391,770                 100.0%                    100.0%

                                                                    Cleveland                                                                         Suburbs
                                         Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking            Percent
                                          Number        Lower     Point      Upper                  of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper           of Those
Household Income                          Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*         Employed

Less than $15,000                            11,281       33.8%       39.7%         45.8%                 9.3%                   5,922       13.3%      19.1%         26.5%        3.1%
$15,000 to less than $25,000                  7,189       19.5%       25.3%         32.1%                11.7%                   2,212        4.5%       7.1%         11.1%        5.3%
$25,000 to less than $50,000                  5,543       15.5%       19.5%         24.3%                34.6%                   8,805       22.4%      28.4%         35.2%       19.4%
$50,000 to less than $75,000                  2,968        7.0%       10.4%         15.3%                20.9%                   5,856       14.4%      18.9%         24.4%       22.8%
$75,000 to less than $100,000                   722        1.4%        2.5%          4.6%                11.1%                   4,392       10.3%      14.2%         19.2%       19.7%
$100,000 to less than $200,000                  714        1.2%        2.5%          5.4%                11.0%                   3,786        8.9%      12.2%         16.5%       24.1%
$200,000 or more                                 24        0.0%        0.1%          0.5%                 1.4%                      70        0.0%       0.2%          1.2%        5.7%
Total                                        28,441                  100.0%                             100.0%                  31,043                 100.0%                    100.0%




                                                                 Cuyahoga County                                                                        Ohio
                                         Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking            Percent
                                          Number        Lower      Point    Upper                   of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper           of Those
Number of Workers in Household            Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*         Employed

None                                         24,363       35.8%       41.0%         46.3%                 0.0%                 145,381       35.2%      37.1%         39.1%        0.0%
One                                          24,573       36.9%       41.3%         45.8%                36.4%                 167,692       41.0%      42.8%         44.7%       31.1%
Two                                           8,380       11.3%       14.1%         17.5%                47.5%                  63,083       14.9%      16.1%         17.4%       50.9%
Three or More                                 2,168        2.4%        3.6%          5.5%                16.1%                  15,614        3.4%       4.0%          4.6%       18.0%
Total                                        59,484                  100.0%                             100.0%                 391,770                 100.0%                    100.0%

                                                                    Cleveland                                                                         Suburbs
                                         Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                    Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking            Percent
                                          Number        Lower     Point      Upper                  of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper           of Those
Number of Workers in Household            Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                 Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*         Employed

None                                         15,340       46.8%       53.9%         60.9%                 0.0%                   9,023       22.4%      29.1%         36.8%        0.0%
One                                          10,726       32.0%       37.7%         43.8%                47.8%                  13,847       38.4%      44.6%         51.0%       32.3%
Two                                           2,092        4.5%        7.4%         11.7%                39.5%                   6,288       16.0%      20.3%         25.3%       50.4%
Three or More                                   283        0.3%        1.0%          3.0%                12.7%                   1,885        3.9%       6.1%          9.4%       17.4%
Total                                        28,441                  100.0%                             100.0%                  31,043                 100.0%                    100.0%

* C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
  difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
  in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
       Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
       Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




                  The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                                                    107
                  Indicators
                                                                     Persons Ages 16 to 64 Employed or Looking for Work
                                                                      Who Worked in the Past Year or Have a Work Disability, 2006

                                                                                                                                       Cuyahoga County                                                                         Ohio
                                                                                                               Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                     Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking          Percent
                                                                                                                Number        Lower      Point    Upper                    of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper         of Those
                                                                     Worked in Last Year?                       Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*       Employed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Table 10.7



                                                                     No, Did Not Work in Last Year                 24,850        37.5%      41.8%         46.2%                  0.0%                136,881       33.4%       34.9%       36.5%        0.0%




Indicators
                                                                     Yes, Worked in Last Year                      34,634        53.8%      58.2%         62.5%                100.0%                254,889       63.5%       65.1%       66.6%      100.0%
                                                                     Total                                         59,484                  100.0%                              100.0%                391,770                  100.0%                  100.0%

                                                                                                                                          Cleveland                                                                          Suburbs
                                                                                                               Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                     Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking          Percent
                                                                                                                Number        Lower     Point     Upper                    of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper         of Those
                                                                     Worked in Last Year?                       Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*       Employed

                                                                     No, Did Not Work in Last Year                 12,922        39.4%      45.4%         51.6%                  0.0%                 11,928       31.6%       38.4%       45.8%        0.0%
                                                                     Yes, Worked in Last Year                      15,519        48.4%      54.6%         60.6%                100.0%                 19,115       54.3%       61.6%       68.4%      100.0%
                                                                     Total                                         28,441                  100.0%                              100.0%                 31,043                  100.0%                  100.0%




                                                                                                                                       Cuyahoga County                                                                         Ohio
                                                                                                               Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                     Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking          Percent
                                                                                                                Number        Lower      Point    Upper                    of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper         of Those
                                                                     Work Disability Status                     Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*       Employed

                                                                     No Disability That Prevents Work              54,035        87.8%      90.8%         93.2%                 97.6%                363,245       91.8%       92.7%       93.6%       98.1%
                                                                     Has Difficulty Working                         5,449         6.8%       9.2%         12.2%                  2.4%                 28,525        6.5%        7.3%        8.2%        1.9%
                                                                     Total                                         59,484                  100.0%                              100.0%                391,770                  100.0%                  100.0%

                                                                                                                                          Cleveland                                                                          Suburbs
                                                                                                               Estimated       Percent of Those Looking                     Percent              Estimated        Percent of Those Looking          Percent
                                                                                                                Number        Lower     Point     Upper                    of Those               Number         Lower      Point    Upper         of Those
                                                                     Work Disability Status                     Looking      90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*                  Employed               Looking       90% C.I.* Estimate 90% C.I.*       Employed

                                                                     No Disability That Prevents Work              25,606        85.2%      90.0%         93.4%                 95.8%                 28,429       87.7%       91.6%       94.3%       98.3%
                                                                     Has Difficulty Working                         2,835         6.6%      10.0%         14.9%                  4.2%                  2,614        5.7%        8.4%       12.3%        1.7%
                                                                     Total                                         28,441                  100.0%                              100.0%                 31,043                  100.0%                  100.0%

                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
                                                                            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




                                   108
     Table 10.8
     Summary of Logistic Regression Models
     Adults Ages 16 to 64 Who are Unemployed or Not in the Labor Force
     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006


     Dependent Variable: Person Looked for Work in Past Four Weeks

                                               Cuyahoga County                         Ohio
                                               Beta       t-test                Beta        t-test
     Independent Variables:                  Coefficient p(B=0)               Coefficient p(B=0)

     Intercept                                     -1.34       0.0002               -1.41 < 0.0001

     Age:
      16 to 24                                      1.26    < 0.0001                 1.09 < 0.0001
      25 to 44                                       0.9    < 0.0001                 0.79 < 0.0001

     Gender (Female)                               -0.65    < 0.0001                -0.65 < 0.0001

     Educational Attainment:
      Less than Grade 12                           -0.27       0.2815                0.03       0.7516
      Grade 12                                      0.11       0.5905                0.24       0.0067
      1 to 3 Yrs. College                           0.07       0.7625                0.12       0.1563

     Race:
      African American                              0.54       0.0008                0.50 < 0.0001
      Asian                                        -1.70       0.0496               -0.62   0.0064
      Other or Multiple
           (except White only)                      0.35       0.3399                0.08       0.5927

     Hispanic Origin                               -0.36        0.366                0.22       0.1707

     Household Type:
      Female-Householder Family                     0.53       0.0065                0.82 < 0.0001
      Other (except Married-Couple)                -0.11       0.6263                0.25   0.0016

     Children under 18 Present
       in Household                                -0.33       0.0524               -0.12       0.0506

     Household Income:
      Less than $25,000                             1.28    < 0.0001                 0.86   <   0.0001
      $25,000 to less than $50,000                  0.75      0.0101                 0.59   <   0.0001
      $50,000 to less than $75,000                  0.66      0.0161                 0.49   <   0.0001
      $75,000 to less than $100,000                 0.84      0.0085                 0.47   <   0.0001

     One or More Employed Persons
       Present in Household                         0.33       0.0862                0.23       0.0009

     Person did not work in past year              -1.53    < 0.0001                -1.68 < 0.0001


            Significance of Model -- p(F):                  < 0.0001                        < 0.0001
                              R squared:                      0.2249                           0.2002
                          Unweighted N:                        2,099                           19,278
                             Weighted N:                     230,629                        1,951,941

     Bold type indicates coefficients (Beta's) significant at the .10 level

     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006
            Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                       109
Indicators
11. Health Status and Employment
Why Is This Indicator Important?
The health of working-age adults is an important factor in their employability. Not only are
people in poor health less able to work, but unemployment may further exacerbate poor health,
as unemployed people often lack health insurance or are otherwise unable to afford health care.

Definition
The data source for this indicator is the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (OFHS), conducted
by the Ohio Department of Health and the Ohio Department of Job and Family Services. The
survey sampled one adult in each of 40,000 households statewide and one child in households
with children; the responses were weighted so as to represent the entire Ohio population. The
OFHS covered a range of topics including health insurance coverage, access to and utilization of
health care services, and satisfaction w ith health care.

This indicator examines the relationship between employment status (employed or not
employed) and health status for working-age adults ages 18 to 64, based on a sample of 3,000
adults in that age group in Cuyahoga County. The category “not employed” also includes
persons who are not in the labor force. Health status was measured by the following six items
from the survey:
     Self-reported health status: good to excellent versus fair to poor;
     Presence of chronic health conditions lasting 12 or more months that require professional
        health care, prescription medications, or therapy;
     Need for personal assistance because of chronic health conditions;
     Ever having been told by a health professional that he/she had high blood pressure;
     Ever having been told by a health professional that he/she had any other heart or
        circulatory disease;
     Ever having been told by a health professional that he/she had diabetes.


How Are We Doing?

Cuyahoga County and Ohio
For all six measures, the proportion of working-age adults in Cuyahoga County with poorer
health who were employed was significantly lower than that for those with better health:

       45 percent of those who reported their health as fair to poor (62,000 of 136,000) were
        employed, compared to 75 percent of those who reported good to excellent health;
       55 percent of those with chronic health conditions (115,000 of 208,000) were employed,
        compared to 76 percent of those without chronic conditions;
       34 percent of those needing personal assistance for health reasons (30,000 of 88,000) were
        employed, compared to 75 percent of those not needing assistance;
       59 percent of those who had been told they had high blood pressure (102,000 of 173,000)
        were employed, compared to 73 percent of those who had not;
       52 percent of those who had been told they had heart or circulatory diseases (31,000 of
        60,000) were employed, compared to 71 percent of those who had not;
       59 percent of those who had been told they had diabetes (32,000 of 55,000) were
        employed, compared to 71 percent of those who had not.

The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                            110
Indicators
For the state of Ohio as a whole, the same relationships were found; on all six measures, persons
in poorer health were significantly less likely to be employed than those in better health.
However, the differences between the county and the state in employment rates by health status
factors were not found to be statistically significant.

Cleveland and Suburbs
For all health status measures except diabetes, persons in poorer health in both Cleveland and the
suburbs were significantly less likely to be employed than those in better health. In Cleveland:

       40 percent of those who reported their health as fair to poor (26,000 of 65,000) were
        employed, compared to 67 percent of those who reported good to excellent health;
       42 percent of those with chronic health conditions (32,000 of 75,000) were employed,
        compared to 67 percent of those without chronic conditions;
       26 percent of those needing personal assistance for health reasons (10,000 of 37,000) were
        employed, compared to 66 percent of those not needing assistance;
       46 percent of those who had been told they had high blood pressure (31,000 of 66,000)
        were employed, compared to 65 percent of those who had not;
       38 percent of those who had been told they had heart or circulatory diseases (9,00 0 of
        26,000) were employed, compared to 62 percent of those who had not;
       47 percent of those who had been told they had diabetes (9,000 of 19,000) were employed,
        compared to 61 percent of those who had not (although this difference was not
        statistically significant).

Employment rates for both those in poorer health and those in better health were higher in the
suburbs than in Cleveland. For those in poorer health, the difference in employment rates
between Cleveland and the suburbs was statistically significant for three of the health measures:

       Chronic health conditions (42 percent in Cleveland and 63 percent in the suburbs);
       High blood pressure (46 percent in Cleveland and 67 percent in the suburbs);
       Heart or circulatory disease (38 percent in Cleveland and 61 percent in the suburbs).




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                              111
Indicators
Figure 11.1

                                  Percentage Employed, by Health Status
                                          Adults Ages 18 to 64
                                    Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                                                        74.4%
                Ohio
                                                 40.7%



                                                                          74.6%
     Cuyahoga County
                                                       45.4%
                                                                                       Excellent/ Good Health
                                                                                       Fair/ Poor Health
                                                                       66.6%
           Cleveland
                                                      39.5%



                                                                           77.9%
             Suburbs
                                                               50.6%


                   0.0%        20.0%        40.0%        60.0%          80.0%          100.0%

Figure 11.2

                       Percentage Employed, by Presence of Chronic Health Condition
                                         Adults Ages 18 to 64
                                    Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                                                        75.0%
               Ohio
                                                          54.2%



                                                                          75.5%
     Cuyahoga County
                                                               55.2%
                                                                                   Without Chronic Condition
                                                                                   With Chronic Condition
                                                                       67.1%
           Cleveland
                                                       42.3%



                                                                               79.2%
             Suburbs
                                                                  62.5%



                   0.0%        20.0%        40.0%        60.0%          80.0%          100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                              112
Indicators
Figure 11.3

                       Percentage Employed, by Need for Assistance for Health Condition
                                            Adults Ages 18 to 64
                                      Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                                                           73.3%
                Ohio
                                              32.3%




                                                                             74.7%
     Cuyahoga County
                                                  34.3%
                                                                                      Does Not Need Assistance
                                                                                      Needs Assistance
                                                                      65.7%
           Cleveland
                                               26.3%



                                                                                78.7%
             Suburbs
                                                        40.4%



                   0.0%          20.0%        40.0%        60.0%           80.0%        100.0%

Figure 11.4

                           Percentage Employed, by Presence of High Blood Pressure
                                            Adults Ages 18 to 64
                                       Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                                                        72.4%
               Ohio
                                                                59.8%



                                                                              72.9%
     Cuyahoga County
                                                                   59.0%
                                                                                     Without High Blood Pressure
                                                                                     With High Blood Pressure
                                                                      65.1%
           Cleveland
                                                           46.1%



                                                                              76.2%
             Suburbs
                                                                           66.9%



                   0.0%          20.0%        40.0%        60.0%           80.0%        100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                 113
Indicators
Figure 11.5

                       Percentage Employed, by Presence of Heart or Circulatory Disease
                                           Adults Ages 18 to 64
                                     Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                                                         71.6%
               Ohio
                                                        48.1%



                                                                            71.2%
     Cuyahoga County
                                                                51.5%
                                                                                     Without Circulatory Disease
                                                                                     With Circulatory Disease
                                                                    62.2%
           Cleveland
                                                         37.7%



                                                                                 75.2%
             Suburbs
                                                                                 60.9%



                   0.0%         20.0%        40.0%         60.0%          80.0%          100.0%

Figure 11.6

                                Percentage Employed, by Presence of Diabetes
                                            Adults Ages 18 to 64
                                      Cuyahoga County and Ohio, 2006



                                                                         70.7%
               Ohio
                                                            53.5%



                                                                            70.5%
     Cuyahoga County
                                                                    59.0%
                                                                                           Without Diabetes
                                                                                           With Diabetes
                                                                    60.9%
           Cleveland
                                                                 46.9%



                                                                                 75.0%
             Suburbs
                                                                                 65.3%



                   0.0%         20.0%        40.0%         60.0%          80.0%          100.0%




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce                                                 114
Indicators
                                                                     Employment Status by Health Status
                                                                     Adults Ages 18 to 64, 2004

                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio
                                                                                                                                          Cuyahoga County                                                            Ohio
                                                                                                                                                        Percent                                                               Percent




Indicators
                                                                                                                        Estimated             Lower     Point           Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point        Upper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Table 11.1




                                                                                                                         Number              90% C.I.* Estimate        90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate      90% C.I.*

                                                                     Fair to Poor Health - Employed                         61,717                40.0%       45.4%        50.9%                419,324               39.2%       40.7%       42.3%
                                                                     Fair to Poor Health - Not Employed                     74,274                49.1%       54.6%        60.0%                610,590               57.7%       59.3%       60.8%

                                                                     Good to Excellent Health - Employed                   507,397                72.5%       74.6%        76.6%              4,441,220               73.8%       74.4%       74.9%
                                                                     Good to Excellent Health - Not Employed               172,892                23.4%       25.4%        27.5%              1,532,112               25.1%       25.7%       26.2%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs
                                                                                                                                               Cleveland                                                           Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                         Percent                                                              Percent
                                                                                                                        Estimated              Lower     Point          Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point        Upper
                                                                                                                         Number               90% C.I.* Estimate       90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate      90% C.I.*

                                                                     Fair to Poor Health - Employed                         25,682                32.2%       39.5%        47.3%                  35,784              42.8%       50.6%       58.3%
                                                                     Fair to Poor Health - Not Employed                     39,312                52.7%       60.5%        67.8%                  34,962              41.7%       49.4%       57.2%

                                                                     Good to Excellent Health - Employed                   129,481                62.5%       66.6%        70.4%                374,574               75.4%       77.9%       80.1%
                                                                     Good to Excellent Health - Not Employed                65,061                29.6%       33.2%        37.5%                106,468               19.9%       22.1%       24.6%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: Ohio Family Health Survey, 2004
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   115
                                                                     Employment Status by Presence of Chronic Health Conditions
                                                                     Adults Ages 18 to 64, 2004

                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio
                                                                                                                                          Cuyahoga County                                                            Ohio
                                                                                                                                                        Percent                                                               Percent




Indicators
                                                                                                                        Estimated             Lower     Point           Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point        Upper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Table 11.2




                                                                                                                         Number              90% C.I.* Estimate        90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate      90% C.I.*

                                                                     Has Chronic Condition - Employed                      115,065                51.0%       55.2%        59.4%                987,017               53.1%       54.2%       55.4%
                                                                     Has Chronic Condition - Not Employed                   93,241                40.6%       44.8%        49.0%                833,609               44.6%       45.8%       47.0%

                                                                     No Chronic Condition - Employed                       450,637                73.3%       75.5%        77.5%              3,836,025               74.3%       75.0%       75.6%
                                                                     No Chronic Condition - Not Employed                   146,466                22.5%       24.5%        26.7%              1,282,125               24.4%       25.1%       25.7%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs
                                                                                                                                               Cleveland                                                           Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                         Percent                                                              Percent
                                                                                                                        Estimated              Lower     Point          Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point        Upper
                                                                                                                         Number               90% C.I.* Estimate       90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate      90% C.I.*

                                                                     Has Chronic Condition - Employed                       31,632                35.7%       42.3%        49.3%                  83,327              57.1%       62.5%       67.5%
                                                                     Has Chronic Condition - Not Employed                   43,132                50.7%       57.7%        64.4%                  50,084              32.5%       37.5%       42.9%

                                                                     No Chronic Condition - Employed                       122,316                63.0%       67.1%        71.1%                324,942               76.7%       79.2%       81.6%
                                                                     No Chronic Condition - Not Employed                    59,867                28.9%       32.9%        37.0%                 85,261               18.4%       20.8%       23.3%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: Ohio Family Health Survey, 2004
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   116
                                                                     Employment Status by Assistance Needed for Health Conditions
                                                                     Adults Ages 18 to 64, 2004

                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio
                                                                                                                                          Cuyahoga County                                                            Ohio
                                                                                                                                                        Percent                                                               Percent




Indicators
                                                                                                                        Estimated             Lower     Point           Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point        Upper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Table 11.3




                                                                                                                         Number              90% C.I.* Estimate        90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate      90% C.I.*

                                                                     Needs Assistance - Employed                            30,247                28.4%       34.3%        41.1%                210,289               30.4%       32.3%       34.2%
                                                                     Needs Assistance - Not Employed                        57,582                58.9%       65.6%        71.6%                441,590               65.8%       67.7%       69.6%

                                                                     Does Not Need Assistance - Employed                   537,080                72.7%       74.7%        76.6%              4,626,632               72.8%       73.3%       73.9%
                                                                     Does Not Need Assistance - Not Employed               182,126                23.4%       25.3%        27.3%              1,681,778               26.1%       26.7%       27.2%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs
                                                                                                                                               Cleveland                                                           Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                         Percent                                                              Percent
                                                                                                                        Estimated              Lower     Point          Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point        Upper
                                                                                                                         Number               90% C.I.* Estimate       90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate      90% C.I.*

                                                                     Needs Assistance - Employed                             9,754                18.7%       26.3%        35.6%                  20,493              31.9%       40.4%       49.6%
                                                                     Needs Assistance - Not Employed                        27,339                64.4%       73.7%        81.3%                  30,218              50.4%       59.6%       68.2%

                                                                     Does Not Need Assistance - Employed                   144,790                61.9%       65.7%        69.3%                388,805               76.4%       78.7%       80.9%
                                                                     Does Not Need Assistance - Not Employed                75,660                30.7%       34.3%        38.1%                105,127               19.1%       21.3%       23.6%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: Ohio Family Health Survey, 2004
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   117
                                                                     Employment Status by Presence of High Blood Pressure
                                                                     Adults Ages 18 to 64, 2004

                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio
                                                                                                                                                     Cuyahoga County                                                            Ohio
                                                                                                                                                                   Percent                                                               Percent




Indicators
                                                                                                                                   Estimated             Lower     Point           Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point     Upper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Table 11.4




                                                                                                                                    Number              90% C.I.* Estimate        90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate   90% C.I.*

                                                                     Has High Blood Pressure - Employed                               102,276                54.3%       59.0%        63.5%                972,041               58.6%     59.8%      61.0%
                                                                     Has High Blood Pressure - Not Employed                            71,129                36.5%       41.0%        45.7%                654,040               39.0%     40.2%      41.4%

                                                                     Does Not Have High Blood Pressure - Employed                     465,465                70.7%       72.9%        74.9%              3,876,917               71.7%     72.4%      73.0%
                                                                     Does Not Have High Blood Pressure - Not Employed                 173,219                25.1%       27.1%        29.3%              1,479,695               27.0%     27.6%      28.3%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                          Cleveland                                                           Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                                    Percent                                                              Percent
                                                                                                                                   Estimated              Lower     Point          Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point     Upper
                                                                                                                                    Number               90% C.I.* Estimate       90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate   90% C.I.*

                                                                     Has High Blood Pressure - Employed                                30,647                39.4%       46.1%        53.0%                  71,520              60.8%     66.9%      72.6%
                                                                     Has High Blood Pressure - Not Employed                            35,806                47.0%       53.9%        60.6%                  35,323              27.4%     33.1%      39.2%

                                                                     Does Not Have High Blood Pressure - Employed                     123,746                60.9%       65.1%        69.0%                338,505               73.7%     76.2%      78.6%
                                                                     Does Not Have High Blood Pressure - Not Employed                  66,283                31.0%       34.9%        39.1%                105,573               21.4%     23.8%      26.4%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: Ohio Family Health Survey, 2004
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   118
                                                                     Employment Status by Presence of Heart or Circulatory Disease
                                                                     Adults Ages 18 to 64, 2004

                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio
                                                                                                                                                     Cuyahoga County                                                            Ohio
                                                                                                                                                                   Percent                                                               Percent




Indicators
                                                                                                                                   Estimated             Lower     Point           Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point     Upper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Table 11.5




                                                                                                                                    Number              90% C.I.* Estimate        90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate   90% C.I.*

                                                                     Has Circulatory Disease - Employed                                31,349                43.8%       51.5%        59.1%                303,213               46.1%     48.1%      50.0%
                                                                     Has Circulatory Disease - Not Employed                            29,503                40.9%       48.5%        56.2%                327,661               50.0%     51.9%      53.9%

                                                                     Does Not Have Circulatory Disease - Employed                     537,486                69.1%       71.2%        73.1%              4,549,103               71.0%     71.6%      72.1%
                                                                     Does Not Have Circulatory Disease - Not Employed                 217,859                26.9%       28.8%        30.9%              1,808,739               27.9%     28.5%      29.0%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                          Cleveland                                                           Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                                    Percent                                                              Percent
                                                                                                                                   Estimated              Lower     Point          Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point     Upper
                                                                                                                                    Number               90% C.I.* Estimate       90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate   90% C.I.*

                                                                     Has Circulatory Disease - Employed                                 9,408                27.1%       37.7%        49.6%                  21,796              50.2%     60.9%      70.7%
                                                                     Has Circulatory Disease - Not Employed                            15,531                50.4%       62.3%        72.9%                  13,973              29.3%     39.1%      49.8%

                                                                     Does Not Have Circulatory Disease - Employed                     145,501                58.4%       62.2%        65.8%                388,536               72.8%     75.2%      77.5%
                                                                     Does Not Have Circulatory Disease - Not Employed                  88,431                34.2%       37.8%        41.6%                128,064               22.5%     24.8%      27.2%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: Ohio Family Health Survey, 2004
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   119
                                                                     Employment Status by Presence of Diabetes
                                                                     Adults Ages 18 to 64, 2004

                                                                     A. Cuyahoga County and Ohio
                                                                                                                                           Cuyahoga County                                                            Ohio
                                                                                                                                                         Percent                                                               Percent




Indicators
                                                                                                                         Estimated             Lower     Point           Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point       Upper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Table 11.6




                                                                                                                          Number              90% C.I.* Estimate        90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*

                                                                     Has Diabetes - Employed                                 32,303                50.4%       59.0%        67.1%                261,665               51.2%       53.5%      55.7%
                                                                     Has Diabetes - Not Employed                             22,479                32.9%       41.0%        49.6%                227,609               44.3%       46.5%      48.8%

                                                                     Does Not Have Diabetes - Employed                      535,888                68.5%       70.5%        72.5%              4,578,231               70.1%       70.7%      71.3%
                                                                     Does Not Have Diabetes - Not Employed                  223,883                27.5%       29.5%        31.5%              1,897,304               28.7%       29.3%      29.9%


                                                                     B. Cleveland and Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                Cleveland                                                           Suburbs
                                                                                                                                                          Percent                                                              Percent
                                                                                                                         Estimated              Lower     Point          Upper               Estimated               Lower      Point       Upper
                                                                                                                          Number               90% C.I.* Estimate       90% C.I.*             Number                90% C.I.* Estimate     90% C.I.*

                                                                     Has Diabetes - Employed                                  8,897                34.5%       46.9%        59.6%                  23,300              53.7%       65.3%      75.3%
                                                                     Has Diabetes - Not Employed                             10,085                40.4%       53.1%        65.5%                  12,394              24.7%       34.7%      46.3%

                                                                     Does Not Have Diabetes - Employed                      145,736                57.2%       60.9%        64.6%                386,664               72.5%       75.0%      77.3%
                                                                     Does Not Have Diabetes - Not Employed                   93,465                35.4%       39.1%        42.8%                129,054               22.7%       25.0%      27.5%


                                                                     * C.I.= Upper and lower confidence intervals at the 90 percent level. When comparing rates for different areas (e.g., Cuyahoga County to Ohio), part of the
                                                                       difference may result from random fluctuations. The upper and lower confidence limits represent this "margin of error." If the confidence intervals for the rates
                                                                       in question overlap, then they fall within each other's margin of error, and we cannot conclude that the rates differ "significantly."

                                                                     Source: Ohio Family Health Survey, 2004
                                                                            Compiled by The Center for Community Solutions




The Center for Community Solutions: 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce
                                   120

				
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