Immigration_to_the_United_Kingdom_since_1922 by zzzmarcus


									From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922

Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922
Immigration to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland since 1922[1] has been substantial, in particular from Ireland and the former colonies of the British Empire - such as India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Kenya and Hong Kong - under British nationality law. Others have come as asylum seekers, seeking protection as refugees under the United Nations 1951 Refugee Convention, or from European Union (EU) member states, exercising one of the EU’s Four Freedoms. About half the population increase between the 1991 and 2001 censuses was due to foreign-born immigration. 4.9 million people[2] (8.3 percent of the population at the time) were born abroad, although the census gives no indication of their immigration status or intended length of stay. In 2006, there were 149,035 applications for British citizenship, 32 percent fewer than in 2005. The number of people granted citizenship during 2006 was 154,095, 5 per cent fewer than in 2005. The largest groups of people granted British citizenship were from India, Pakistan, Somalia and the Philippines.[3] In 2006, 134,430 people were granted settlement in the UK, a drop of 25 per cent on 2005.[4] Meanwhile, migration from Central and Eastern Europe has increased since 2004 with the accession to the European Union of eight Central and Eastern European states, since there is free movement of labour within the EU. The UK government is currently phasing in a new pointsbased immigration system for people from outside of the European Economic Area. of independence to most colonies after Second World War, the vast majority of immigrants to the UK were from either current or former colonies, most notably those in the Indian subcontinent and the Caribbean. Following the end of the Second World War, the British Nationality Act 1948 was passed to allow the 800 million[5] subjects in the British Empire to live and work in the United Kingdom without needing a visa. These people filled a gap in the UK labour market for unskilled jobs and many people were specifically brought to the UK on ships such as the Empire Windrush. Commonwealth immigration, made up largely of economic migrants, rose from 3,000 per year in 1953 to 46,800 in 1956 and 136,400 in 1961.[5] The heavy numbers of migrants resulted in the establishment of a Cabinet committee in June 1950 to find "ways which might be adopted to check the immigration into this country of coloured people from British colonial territories".[5] Although the Committee recommended not to introduce restrictions, the Commonwealth Immigrants Act was passed in 1962 as a response to public sentiment that the new arrivals "should return to their own countries" and that "no more of them come to this country".[6] Introducing the legislation to the House of Commons, the Conservative Home Secretary Rab Butler stated that: The justification for the control which is included in this Bill, which I shall describe in more detail in a few moments, is that a sizeable part of the entire population of the earth is at present legally entitled to come and stay in this already densely populated country. It amounts altogether to one-quarter of the population of the globe and at present there are no factors visible which might lead us to expect a reversal or even a modification of the immigration trend.[7]

British Empire & the Commonwealth
From the mid-eighteenth century until at least 1947, and longer in many areas, the British Empire covered a large proportion of the globe, at its peak over a third of the world’s people lived under British rule. Both during this time, and following the granting


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922
– Rab Butler MP, 16 November 1961 The new Act required migrants to have a job before they arrived, to possess special skills or who would meet the "labour needs" of the national economy. In 1965, to combat the perceived injustice in the case where the wives of British subjects could not obtain British nationality, the British Nationality Act was adopted. Shortly afterwards, refugees from Kenya and Uganda, fearing discrimination from their own national governments, began to arrive in Britain; as they had retained their British nationality granted by the 1948 Act, they were not subject to the later controls. The Conservative MP Enoch Powell campaigned for tighter controls on immigration which resulted in the passing of the Commonwealth Immigration Act in 1968.[8] For the first time, the Act required migrants to have a "substantial connection with the United Kingdom", namely to be connected by birth or ancestry to a UK national. Those who did not could only obtain United Kingdom nationality at the discretion of the national authorities.[9] One month after the adoption of the Act, Enoch Powell made his infamous Rivers of Blood speech. By 1972, with the passing of the Immigration Act, only holders of work permits, or people with parents or grandparents born in the UK could gain entry - effectively stemming primary immigration from Commonwealth countries. The Act abolished the distinction between Commonwealth and nonCommonwealth entrants. The Conservative government nevertheless allowed, amid much controversy, the immigration of 27,000 individuals displaced from Uganda after the coup d’état led by Idi Amin in 1971.[8] In the 1970s, an average of 72,000 immigrants were settling in the UK every year from the Commonwealth; this decreased in the 1980s and early 1990s to around 54,000 per year, only to rise again to around 97,000 by 1999. The total number of Commonwealth immigrants since 1962 is estimated at around 2.5 million.[10] The Ireland Act 1949 has the unusual status of recognising the Republic of Ireland, but affirming that its citizens are not citizens of a foreign country for the purposes of any law in the United Kingdom. This act was initiated at a time when a republic withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations after declaring itself a republic.

World War II
See also: British Germans In the lead up to the World War II, many Germans, particularly those belonging to minorities which were persecuted under Nazi rule, such as Jews, sought to emigrate to the United Kingdom, and it is estimated that as many as 50,000 may have been successful. There were immigration caps on the number who could enter and, subsequently, some applicants were turned away. When the UK declared war on Germany, however, migration between the countries ceased.

Post-war immigration (1945-1983)
Until the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, all Commonwealth citizens could enter and stay in the United Kingdom without any restriction. The Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 made Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies (CUKCs) whose passports were not directly issued by the United Kingdom Government (i.e. passports issued by the Governor of a colony or by the Commander of a British protectorate) subject to immigration control. Indians began arriving in the UK in large numbers shortly after their country gained independence in 1947. More than 60,000 arrived before 1955, many of whom drove buses, or worked in foundries or textile factories. Later arrivals opened corner shops or ran post offices. The flow of Indian immigrants peaked between 1965 and 1972, boosted in particular by Idi Amin’s sudden decision to expel all 50,000 Gujarati Indians from Uganda. Around 30,000 Ugandan Asians migrated to the UK.[11] By 1972, only holders of work permits, or people with parents or grandparents born in the UK could gain entry - effectively stemming primary immigration from Commonwealth countries. Following the end of World War II, substantial groups of people from Soviet-controlled territories settled in Britain, particularly Poles and Ukrainians. The UK recruited displaced people as so-called European Volunteer Workers in order to provide labour to


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922
industries that were required in order to aim economic recovery after the war.[12] In the 1951 census, the Polish-born population of the UK numbered some 162,339, up from 44,642 in 1931.[13][14] There was also an influx of refugees from Hungary, following the crushing of the 1956 Hungarian revolution, numbering 20,990.[15]

Contemporary immigration (1983 onwards)
The British Nationality Act 1981, which was enacted in 1983, distinguishes between British citizen or British Overseas Territories citizen. The former hold nationality by descent and the latter hold nationality other than by descent. Citizens by descent cannot automatically pass on British nationality to a child born outside the United Kingdom or its Overseas Territories (though in some situations the child can be registered as a citizen). Immigration officers have to be satisfied about a person’s nationality and identity and entry could be refused if they were not satisfied.[16] Inflow migration (the top of the bars), outflow migration (the bottom of the bars) and net overall immigration (the bars themselves) increased between 1994 and 2004. Source:Office for National Statistics[17] Commonwealth connection. There are restrictions on the benefits that members of eight of these accession countries can claim, which are covered by the Worker Registration Scheme.[18] Most of the other European Union member states have exercised their right for temporary immigration control (which must end by 2011[19]) over entrants from these accession states,[20] although some are now removing these restrictions.[21] The Home Office publishes quarterly statistics on the number of applications to the Worker Registration Scheme. Figures published in August 2007 indicate that 682,940 people applied to the scheme between 1 May 2004 and 30 June 2007, of whom 656,395 were accepted.[22] Self-employed workers and people who are not working (including students) are not required to register under the scheme so this figure represents a lower limit on immigration inflow. These figures do not indicate the number of immigrants who have since returned home, but 56 per cent of applicants in the 12 months ending 30 June 2007 reported planning to stay for a maximum of three months. Figures for total immigration show that there was a net inflow of 64,000 people from the eight Central and Eastern European accession states in 2005.[23] An investigation by more4 found that Poles (who make up the majority of those registered with the WRS) currently represent a substantial proportion of the population of some UK cities.[24] Research suggests that a total of around 1 million people had moved from the new EU member states

Census data reveals the number of UK residents who were born abroad (1951-2001). total foreign-born population percentage of total population Source:Office for National Statistics[17]

European Union
One of the Four Freedoms of the European Union, of which the United Kingdom is a member, is the right to the free movement of people. Since the expansion of the EU on 1 May 2004, the UK has accepted immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe, Malta and Cyprus, although the substantial Maltese and Greek- and Turkish-Cypriot communities were established earlier through their


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922
to the UK by April 2008, but that half this number have since returned home or moved on to a third country.[25][26] The Government announced that the same rules would not apply to nationals of Romania and Bulgaria when those countries acceded to the EU in 2007. Instead, restrictions were put in place to limit migration to students, the self-employed, highly skilled migrants and food and agricultural workers.[27] Statistics released by the Home Office indicate that in the first three months of Romania and Bulgaria’s EU membership, 7,120 people (including family members) from the two countries successfully registered on the various schemes.[28] Between April and June 2007, a further 9,335 Bulgarian and Romanian nationals had their applications granted. This includes those registering as self-employed and self-sufficient. An additional 3,980 were issued cards for the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme (SAWS).[29] to enter the UK with the right to work without first having to find an offer of employment and without an employer needing to sponsor the visa. Points are awarded for education, work experience, past earnings, achievements in the field and achievements of the applicant’s partner. There are also points for being aged under 28 and for doctors currently working in the UK. Some people work in the UK under a Working holiday visa which allows 12 months of work within a 24 month period for those aged 17 to 30. UK Ancestry Entry Clearance allows a person to work in the UK for five years if they have a grandparent who was born in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man at any time; or a grandparent born in what is now the Republic of Ireland on or before March 31, 1922. After that they may apply for indefinite leave to remain. Though immigration is a matter that is reserved to the UK government under the legislation that established devolution for Scotland in 1999, the Scottish Government was able to get an agreement from the Home Office for their Fresh Talent Initiative which was designed to encourage foreign graduates of Scottish universities to stay in Scotland to look for employment.[31] In April 2006 changes to the current Managed Migration system were proposed that would primarily create one points-based immigration system for the UK in place of all other schemes. The replacement for HSMP (Tier 1 in the new system) gives points for age and none for work experience. This points based system is being phased in over the course of 2008.[32][33] For family relatives of European Economic Area nationals living in the UK, there is the EEA family permit which enables those family members to join their relatives already living and working in the UK.

Managed migration
"Managed migration" is the term used for all legal work permits and visas and this accounts for a substantial percentage of overall immigration figures for the UK. Many of the immigrants who arrive under these schemes bring skills which are in short supply in the UK. This area of immigration is managed by Work Permits (UK), a department within the Home Office. Applications are made at UK Embassies or Consulates or directly to Work Permits (UK), depending upon the type of visa or permit required. Employer Sponsored Work Permits allow employers to sponsor an employee’s entrance into the UK by demonstrating that they possess skills that cannot be found elsewhere. Immigrants who have education or experience in occupations which are listed on the Skills Shortage List[30] may apply for a work permit. This includes engineers, doctors, nurses, actuaries and teachers. Employers can also obtain work permits for occupations not on the Skills Shortage List by advertising the position and demonstrating that no suitable UK resident or EU worker can be found. Approvals for a work permit are usually based upon the suitability of the applicant to the role, by education and/or experience. In addition there is a points-based system called the Highly Skilled Migrant Programme (HSMP) which allows a highly skilled migrant

Refugees and asylum seekers
The UK is a signatory to the United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, which means that it has a responsibility under international law not to return (or refoule) refugees to the place where they would face persecution. Nonetheless the issue of immigration has been a controversial political issue since the late 1990s. Both the ruling Labour Party and the opposition Conservatives have suggested


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922
number of asylum seekers by half within 7 months,[41] apparently catching unawares the members of his own government with responsibility for immigration policy. David Blunkett, the then Home Secretary, called the promise an objective rather than a target.[42] It was met according to official figures,[43] despite increase world instability caused by the Iraq War. There is also a Public Performance Target to remove more asylum seekers who have been judged not to be refugees under the internation definition than new anticipated unfounded applications. This target was met early in 2006.[44] Official figures for numbers of people claiming asylum in the UK were at a 13 year low by March 2006.[45] Opponents of the government’s policies on asylum seekers and refugees, such as Migration Watch UK[46] and some newspapers are critical of the way official figures are calculated. Human rights organisations such as Amnesty International have argued that the government’s new policies, particularly those concerning detention centres, have detrimental effects on asylum applicants[47] and those facilities have seen a number of hunger strikes and suicides. Others have argued that recent government policies aimed at reducing ’bogus’ asylum claims have had detrimental impacts on those genuinely in need of protection.[48]

Asylum applications rose then fell during the period 1993 to 2006. Source:Home Office[34][35]

Acquisition of British citizenship by previous nationality, 2006. Source:Home Office[36] policies perceived as being "tough on asylum"[37] (although the Conservatives have dropped a previous pledge to limit the number of people who could claim asylum in the UK, which would likely have breached the UN Refugee Convention)[38] and the tabloid media frequently print headlines about an "immigration crisis".[39] This is denounced by those seeking to ensure that the UK upholds its international obligations as disproportionate. Critics suggest that much of the opposition to high levels of immigration by refugees is based on racism. Concern is also raised about the treatment of those held in detention and the practice of dawn raiding families, and holding young children in immigration detention centres for long periods of time. However, critics of the UK’s asylum policy often point out the "safe third country rule" the international agreement that asylum seekers must apply in the first free nation they reach, not go "asylum shopping" for the nation they prefer. EU courts have upheld this policy.[40] In February 2003, Prime Minister Tony Blair promised on television to reduce the

Illegal immigration
Illegal (sometimes termed irregular) immigrants in the UK include those who have: • entered the UK without authority • entered with false documents • overstayed their visas Although it is difficult to know how many people reside in the UK illegally, a Home Office study released in March 2005 estimated a population of between 310,000 and 570,000.[49] Migration Watch UK has criticised the Home Office figures for not including the UK-born dependent children of unauthorised migrants. They suggest the Home Office has underestimated the numbers of unauthorised migrants by between 15,000 and 85,000.[50] In 2002 the Home office stated that the figures Migration Watch produces should be treated with ’considerable caution’[51], without any further explanation as to why.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922
A recent study into irregular immigration states that "most irregular migrants have committed administrative offences rather than a serious crime".[52] Jack Dromey, Deputy General of the Transport and General Workers Union and Labour Party treasurer, suggested in May 2006 that there could be around 500,000 illegal workers. He called for a public debate on whether an amnesty should be considered.[53] David Blunkett has suggested that this might be done once the identity card scheme is rolled out.[54] London Citizens, a coalition of community organisations, is running a regularisation campaign called Strangers into Citizens, backed by figures including the leader of the Catholic church in England and Wales, the Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O’Connor.[55] Analysis by the Institute for Public Policy Research suggested that an amnesty would net the government up to £1.038 billion per year in fiscal revenue,[56] although analysis by MigrationWatch UK suggests that if the migrants granted amnesty were given access to healthcare and other benefits, the net cost to the exchequer would be £5.530 billion annually.[57] It has since been suggested that to deport all of the irregular migrants from the UK would take 20 years and cost up to £12 billion.[58] Current Mayor of London Boris Johnson has commissioned a study into a possible amnesty for illegal immigrants, citing larger tax gains within the London area which is considered to be home to the majority of the country’s population of undocumented migrants.[59] In February 2008, the government introduced new £10,000 fines for employers found to be employing illegal immigrants where there is negligence on the part of the employer, with unlimited fines or jail sentences for employers acting knowingly[60] [2] Foreign-born population National Statistics Online, 24 October 2006. [3] John Freelove Mensah, Persons Granted British Citizenship United Kingdom, 2006, Home Office Statistical Bulletin 08/07, 22 May 2007, accessed 21 September 2007 [4] Home Office, Control of Immigration: Statistics United Kingdom 2006, Norwich: TSO, August 2007, accessed 21 September 2007 [5] ^ HC Deb 19 March 2003 vol 401 cc270-94WH. [6] HC Deb 09 February 1965 vol 706 cc178-82. [7] HC Deb 16 November 1961 vol 649 cc687-819. [8] ^ The National Archives, "Commonwealth Immigration control and legislation". [9] HL Deb 29 February 1968 vol 289 cc917-1217. [10] Migration Watch UK, "History of Immigration". [11] "1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda". BBC On This Day. stories/august/7/newsid_2492000/ 2492333.stm. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. [12] Diana Kay and Robert Miles (1998) Refugees or migrant workers? The case of the European Volunteer Workers in Britain (1946–1951), Journal of Refugee Studies 1(3-4), pp. 214-236 [13] Colin Holmes (1988) John Bull’s Island: Immigration and British Society 1871-1971, Basingstoke: Macmillan [14] Kathy Burrell (2002) Migrant memories, migrant lives: Polish national identity in Leicester since 1945, Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society 76, pp. 59-77 [15] UNHCR (2006) ’A matter of the heart’: How the Hungarian crisis changed the world of refugees, Refugees 114(3), pp. 4-11 [16] Immigration staff can ask Muslim women to remove veils, 26 October 2006 [17] ^ Focus on People and Migration: 2005, National Statistics UK [18] The Worker Registration Scheme Home Office [19] Freedom of movement for workers after enlargement Europa

[1] The name of the country was formally changed in 1927 from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland by the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act. However, the change had effectively taken place when the Anglo-Irish Treaty had established the Irish Free State in 1922, granting near-independence to 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922
[20] Barriers still exist in larger EU, BBC News, 1 May 2005 managingborders/managingmigration/ [21] EU free movement of labour map, BBC apointsbasedsystem/ News, 4 January 2007, accessed 26 timetableforPBSlaunch. Retrieved on August 2007 2008-03-09. [22] Home Office, Department for Work and [34] Home Office Statistical Bulletin: Asylum Pensions, HM Revenue & Customs and Statistics United Kingdom 2003, Communities and Local Government, November 2004, accessed 27 May 2007 Accession Monitoring Report: A8 [35] Asylum Statistics: 4th Quarter 2006 Countries, May 2004-June 2007, 21 United Kingdom, accessed 27 May 2007 August 2007, accessed 26 August 2007. [36] Home Office Statistical Bulletin: Persons [23] 1,500 migrants arrive in UK daily, BBC Granted British Citizenship United News, 2 November 2006, accessed 2 Kingdom, 2006, accessed 8 December November 2006 2007 [24] Pole positions, Investigation into the [37] Tom Bentley Please, not again! influx of Polish immigrants into the UK: openDemocracy, 11 February 2005 [38] Q&A: Conservatives and Immigration, More4 News, 6 June 2006. Retrieved 7 BBC News, 9 Novermber 2006, accessed June 2006. 13 December 2007 [25] Naomi Pollard, Maria Latorre and [39] Roy Greenslade Seeking scapegoats: The Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah coverage of asylum in the UK press (2008-04-30). "Floodgates or turnstiles? (PDF), Institute for Public Policy Post-EU enlargement migration flows to Research, May 2005 (and from) the UK". Institute for Public [40] First Aid for asylum seekers Policy Research. members/ [41] Blair’s asylum gamble BBC News download.asp?f=%2Fecomm%2Ffiles%2Ffloodgates%5For%5Fturnstiles%2Epdf. 7 February, 2003 Retrieved on 2008-04-30. [42] Ministers back down on asylum pledge [26] "Half EU migrants ’have left UK’". BBC BBC News 10 February, 2003 News. 2008-04-30. [43] Blair’s asylum target met BBC News 27 1/hi/uk/7372025.stm. Retrieved on November, 2003 2008-04-30. [44] Public performance target: removing [27] Reid outlines new EU work curbs, BBC more failed asylum seekers than new News, 24 October 2006. Retrieved 24 anticipated unfounded applications October 2006. Home Office [28] Home Office and Department for Work [45] UK asylum claims at ’13-year low’ BBC and Pensions, Bulgarian and Romanian News 17 March 2006 Accession Statistics, January-March [46] Migration Watch Anti-immigration 2007, 22 May 2007, accessed 26 May website in the UK 2007. [47] Seeking asylum is not a crime: Detention [29] Home Office and Department for Work of people who have sought asylum (PDF) and Pensions, Bulgarian and Romanian Amnesty International, 20 June 2005 Accession Statistics, April-June 2007, 21 [48] Laurence Cooley and Jill Rutter (2007) August 2007, accessed 26 August 2007. Turned away? Towards better protection [30] Skills Shortage List for refugees fleeing violent conflict, [31] New Scots: Attracting Fresh Talent to Public Policy Research 14(3), pp. meet the Challenge of Growth 176-180, accessed 4 November [49] The thorny issue of illegal migrants BBC 2008 News, 17 May 2006. [32] "The points-based system". Border & [50] The illegal Migrant Population in the UK Immigration Agency. Migration Watch UK, Briefing paper 9.15,Migration Trends. managingborders/managingmigration/ [51] Immigration: Fact or hype? By Dominic apointsbasedsystem/. Retrieved on Casciani, BBC News, 5 August 2002. 2008-03-09. [33] "Timetable for PBS launch". Border & Immigration Agency.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922
[52] Irregular migration in the UK: An ippr factfile Institute for Public Policy Research, April 2006, p. 5. [53] Amnesty call over illegal workers BBC News, 20 May, 2006. [54] Blunkett: Immigration amnesty on cards, 14 June 2006 [55] Joe Boyle, Migrants find a voice in the rain, BBC News, 7 May 2007, accessed 21 May 2007 [56] "Jacqui Smith should back amnesty for illegal workers". Institute for Public Policy Research. 2007-07-15. ?id=2794. Retrieved on 2009-05-05. [57] "The true cost of an amnesty for illegal immigrants". MigrationWatch UK. 2007-08-30. Briefingpapers/legal/ 8_19_True_cost_of_Amnesty.asp. Retrieved on 2009-05-05. [58] "Tighter immigration controls could enable an amnesty for illegal immigrants say IPPR". Institute for Public Policy Research. 2009-05-03. ?id=3483. Retrieved on 2009-05-05. [59] "Johnson ponders immigrant amnesty". BBC News. 2008-11-22. 7743081.stm. Retrieved on 2008-11-24. [60] Richard Ford (2008-02-29). "£10,000 fines for employing illegal migrant without check". The Times. politics/article3455997.ece. Retrieved on 2008-03-22. • • • • • • • • • • British nationality law British national identity card EEA family permit Foreign-born population of the United Kingdom Fresh Talent Initiative Life in the United Kingdom test List of countries by British immigrants Refugee Council Rivers of Blood speech UK Borders Act 2007‎

External links
• Immigrants: The inconvenient Truth (A Channel 4 video documentary analyzing the pros and cons of immigrants coming over from various countries to the UK.) • Indians largest group among new immigrants to UK • National Coalition of Anti-Deportation Campaigns • Barbed Wire - Network to End Migrant and Refugee Detention • Born Abroad: An Immigration Map of Britain (BBC, 2005) • Destination UK, BBC News special • Optimum Population Trust • History of Chinese immigration to Britain • Immigration & Nationality Directorate at the Home Office • Moving Here, the UK’s biggest online database of digitised photographs, maps, objects, documents and audio items from 30 local and national archives, museums and libraries which record migration experiences of the last 200 years • Summary of UK immigration rules from the Home Office • hWeb - An outline of the immigration pattern of the Pakistani community in Britain

See also
• Asylum and Immigration Tribunal • Border and Immigration Agency

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Categories: Demographics of the United Kingdom, History of the United Kingdom, Immigration to the United Kingdom, Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom, Multiracial affairs This page was last modified on 13 May 2009, at 15:32 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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