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Hybrid electric vehicle
gas-electric hybrid on the market, ranked as the top-selling vehicle in Japan for April 2009 -- the first time a hybrid has clinched that spot. [4] Hybrid cars are now a top priority for every American automaker.[5]

Further information: History of plug-in hybrids In 1901, while employed at Lohner Coach Factory, Ferdinand Porsche designed the "Mixte", a series-hybrid vehicle based on his earlier "System Lohner-Porsche" electric carriage. The Mixte broke several Austrian speed records, and also won the Exelberg Rally in 1901 with Porsche himself driving. The Mixte used a gasoline engine powering a generator, which in turn powered electric hub motors, with a small battery pack for reliability. It had a range of 50 km, a top speed of 50 km/h and a power of 5.22 kW during 20 minutes. In 1905, H. Piper filed a US patent application for a hybrid vehicle. [6] The 1915 Dual Power, made by the Woods Motor Vehicle electric car maker, had a fourcylinder ICE and an electric motor. Below 15 mph (25 km/h) the electric motor alone drove the vehicle, drawing power from a battery pack, and above this speed the "main" engine cut in to take the car up to its 35 mph (55 km/h) top speed. About 600 were made up to 1918.[7] In 1931 Erich Gaichen invented and drove from Altenburg to Berlin a 1/2 horsepower electric car containing features later incorporated into hybrid cars. Its maximum speed was 25 miles per hour (40 km/h), but it was licensed by the Motor Transport Office, taxed by the German Revenue Department and patented by the German Reichs-Patent Amt. The car battery was re-charged by the motor when the car went downhill. Additional power to charge the battery was provided by a cylinder of compressed air which was recharged by small air pumps activated by vibrations of the chassis and the brakes and by igniting oxyhydrogen gas. An account of the car and his characterization as a "crank

The Prius is one of Toyota’s top sellers in the United States, which combined with Lexus reached 1 million hybrids sold in the US, and 1.7 million worldwide by February 2009.[1] A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional propulsion system with a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) to achieve better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle. Its secondary propulsion system, additional to the electric motors, means that it does not require regular visits to a charging unit as a battery electric vehicle (BEV) does. Modern mass-produced HEVs prolong the charge in their batteries by capturing kinetic energy by means of regenerative braking, and some HEVs can use the internal combustion engine (ICE) to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator (often a motor-generator) to either recharge the battery or directly feed power to an electric motor that drives the vehicle. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed (startstop system). An HEV’s engine is smaller than a non-hybrid petroleum fuel vehicle and may be run at various speeds, providing greater efficiency. HEVs became widely available to the public in late 1997 with the introduction of the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius, and are viewed by some automakers as a core segment of the future automotive market.[2] Futurist magazine recently included hybrid electric vehicles as cars of the near future.[3] Worldwide sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrids reached 1.7 million vehicles by January 2009.[1] Honda Insight, billed as the cheapest


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inventor" can be found in Arthur Koestler’s autobiography, Arrow in the Blue, pages 269-271, which summarize a contemporaneous newspaper account written by Koestler. No production beyond the prototype was reported.

Hybrid electric vehicle
to the extra weight of the electric drive, the vehicles were less efficient when running on their engines alone than standard Audi 100s with the same engine. Two years later, Audi, unveiled the second duo generation - likewise based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. Once again this featured an electric motor, a 28.6 bhp (21.3 kW) three-phase machine, driving the rear wheels. This time, however, the rear wheels were additionally powered via the Torsen differential from the main engine compartment, which housed a 2.0-litre four-cylinder engine. The Bill Clinton administration initiated the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program on 29 September 1993 that involved Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, USCAR, the DoE, and other various governmental agencies to engineer the next efficient and clean vehicle.[10] The NRC cited automakers’ moves to produce HEVs as evidence that technologies developed under PNGV were being rapidly adopted on production lines, as called for under Goal 2. Based on information received from automakers, NRC reviewers questioned whether the “Big Three” would be able to move from the concept phase to cost effective, pre-production prototype vehicles by 2004, as set out in Goal 3.[11] The program was replaced by the hydrogen-focused FreedomCAR initiative by the George W. Bush administration in 2001,[12] an initiative to fund research too risky for the private sector to engage in, with the long-term goal of developing effectively carbon emissionand petroleum-free vehicles.

Predecessors of current technology
A more recent working prototype of the HEV was built by Victor Wouk (one of the scientists involved with the Henney Kilowatt, the first transistor-based electric car). Wouk’s work with HEVs in the 1960s and 1970s earned him the title as the "Godfather of the Hybrid".[8] Wouk installed a prototype hybrid drivetrain (with a 16 kW electric motor) into a 1972 Buick Skylark provided by GM for the 1970 Federal Clean Car Incentive Program, but the program was stopped by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1976 while Eric Stork, the head of the EPA at the time, was accused of a prejudicial coverup.[9] The regenerative braking system, the core design concept of most production HEVs, was developed by electrical engineer David Arthurs around 1978 using off-the shelf components and an Opel GT. However the voltage controller to link the batteries, motor (a jet-engine starter motor), and DC generator was Arthurs’. The vehicle exhibited 75 miles per US gallon (3.1 L/100 km; 90 mpg-imp) fuel efficiency and plans for it (as well as somewhat updated versions) are still available through the Mother Earth News web site. The Mother Earth News’ own 1980 version claimed nearly 84 miles per US gallon (2.8 L/100 km; 101 mpg-imp). In 1989, Audi produced its first iteration of the Audi Duo (or Audi 100 Avant duo) experimental vehicle, a plug-in parallel hybrid based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. This car had a 12.6 bhp Siemens electric motor which drove the rear wheels. A trunk-mounted nickel-cadmium battery supplied energy to the motor that drove the rear wheels. The vehicle’s front wheels were powered by a 2.3-litre five-cylinder engine with an output of 136 bhp (101 kW). The intent was to produce a vehicle which could operate on the engine in the country and electric mode in the city. Mode of operation could be selected by the driver. Just ten vehicles are believed to have been made; one drawback was that due

Production HEVs

The Honda Insight is a Mild Parallel Hybrid.


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Hybrid electric vehicle
appearing and performing identically to their non-hybrid counterparts while delivering 40% better fuel efficiency. The Honda Civic Hybrid appears identical to the non-hybrid version, for instance, but delivers about 50 miles per US gallon (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp). The redesigned 2004 Toyota Prius improved passenger room, cargo area, and power output, while increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions. The Honda Insight, while not matching the demand of the Prius, stopped being produced after 2006 and has a devoted base of owners. In 2004, Honda also released a hybrid version of the Accord but discontinued it in 2007 citing disappointing sales.[13] An R.L. Polk survey of 2003 model year cars showed that hybrid electric car registrations in the United States rose to 43,435 cars, a 25.8% increase from 2002 numbers. California had the most HEVs registered: 11,425. The proportionally high number may be partially due to the state’s higher gasoline prices and stricter emissions rules, which HEVs generally have little trouble passing. Honda, which offers Insight, Civic and Accord models, sold 26,773 HEVs in the first 11 months of 2004. Toyota had sold a cumulative 306,862 HEVs between 1997 and November 2004, and Honda had sold a total of 81,867 HEVs between 1999 and November 2004.[14] Audi was the first European car manufacturer to put in 1997 a hybrid vehicle into series production, the third generation Audi duo, then based on the A4 Avant.[15] 2005 saw the first hybrid electric sport utility vehicle (SUV) released, the Ford Escape Hybrid. Toyota and Ford entered into a licensing agreement in March 2004 allowing Ford to use 20 patents from Toyota related to hybrid technology, although Ford’s engine was independently designed and built. In exchange for the hybrid licenses, Ford licensed patents involving their European diesel engines to Toyota. Toyota announced model year 2005 hybrid electric versions of the Toyota Highlander and Lexus RX 400h with 4WD-i, which uses a rear electric motor to power the rear wheels negating the need for a differential. Toyota also plans to add hybrid drivetrains to ten new hybrid models by 2012 and expects to sell worldwide one million hybrids per year early in the coming decade.[1][16]

The Toyota Prius is a series-parallel hybrid.

The Ford Escape Hybrid has a parallel drivetrain.

A Honda Civic Hybrid used by Zipcar, a car sharing service at Washington, D.C. Automotive hybrid technology became successful in the 1990s when the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius became available. These vehicles have a mechanical linkage from the ICE to the driven wheels, so that some power is transferred from the engine to the wheels without conversion to and from electric energy. The Prius has been in high demand since 2004. Newer designs have more conventional appearance and are less expensive, often


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Rank Nation 1 2 3 4 5 United States Japan Canada United Kingdom Netherlands Top 5 World Rank City 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Portland, OR San Francisco, CA Monterey, CA Santa Barbara, CA San Diego, CA Los Angeles, CA Charlottesville, VA Seattle, WA Sacramento, CA Washington, DC United States metropolitan area average In 2007, Lexus released a hybrid electric version of their GS sport sedan dubbed the GS450h with a power output of 335bhp [17]. The 2007 Camry Hybrid became available in Summer 2006 in the United States and Canada. Nissan announced the release of the Altima hybrid (technology supplied by Toyota) in 2007.Hybrid cars see record sales.[18] Commencing in 2008 General Motors began to market their 2-Mode Hybrid models of their GMT900 based Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon SUVs. [19] The Toyota hybrids combined with Lexus reached 1 million hybrids sold in the US by February 2009, and worldwide sales of hybrids by both carmakers reached over 1.7 million vehicles by January 2009. As a top seller in the US market, the Toyota Prius made up more than half of the 1.2 million Prius sold worldwide by early 2009.[1][16] Top national markets for hybrid electric vehicles in 2008[20] Number of registered hybrids 279,847 77,937 17,911 14,137 11,080 400,912 449,626

Hybrid electric vehicle
Percent of global hybrid registrations 62% 17% 4% 3% 2% 89% 100% New registered hybrids per 1000 Households 11.141 8.016 6.621 6.295 5.947 5.474 4.875 4.461 4.444 4.338 1.812

US Hybrid vehicle sales 2004-2007 by model. By 2007 Toyota had an 85 % share of the US hybrid market. Top U.S. metropolitan markets for hybrid electric vehicles in 2008[20]

Pre-production HEVs
For the 2009 model year, the same technology will be offered in the Cadillac Escalade


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Hybrid electric vehicle
standard terminology for such vehicles, although they may be termed mild hybrids. The 2000s saw development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which can be recharged from the electrical power grid and do not require conventional fuel for short trips. The Renault Kangoo was the first production model of this design, released in France in 2003.

and their 1/2-ton pickup truck models, the 2009 Chevrolet Silverado[22] and GMC Sierra[23] 2-mode hybrid models. Also in 2009 GM’s Saturn division is releasing the first front wheel drive version of the 2-mode technology with the appearance of the 2009 Saturn Vue 2-mode hybrid model.[24] General Motors has announced plans to release this same Saturn Vue 2-mode hybrid as a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for the 2010 model year.[25] Hyundai Motor Company plans to start retail sales of its first LPG–electric hybrid vehicle in July 2009. To be sold initially in the Korean domestic market under the Avante badge, the Elantra LPI Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is the world´s first hybrid vehicle to be powered by liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and the first to adopt advanced Lithium Polymer (Li–Poly) batteries. Comparing operating costs among different types of hybrid vehicles currently available in the marketplace, the Elantra LPI HEV promises to be the cheapest of all to run. The Elantra LPI HEV promises to be as much as 40 percent cheaper to operate than other competitor models in the marketplace[26]

Engines and fuel sources
Fossil fuels
Free-piston engines could be used to generate electricity as efficiently as, and less expensively than, fuel cells [27]. Gasoline Gasoline engines are used in most hybrid electric designs, and will likely remain dominant for the foreseeable future. While petroleum-derived gasoline is the primary fuel, it is possible to mix in varying levels of ethanol created from renewable energy sources. Like most modern ICE-powered vehicles, HEVs can typically use up to about 15% bioethanol. Manufacturers may move to flexible fuel engines, which would increase allowable ratios, but no plans are in place at present. Diesel Diesel-electric HEVs use a diesel engine for power generation. Diesels have advantages when delivering constant power for long periods of time, suffering less wear while operating at higher efficiency. The diesel engine’s high torque, combined with hybrid technology, may offer substantially improved mileage. Most diesel vehicles can use 100% pure biofuels (biodiesel), so they can use but do not need petroleum at all for fuel (although mixes of biofuel and petroleum are more common, and petroleum may be needed for lubrication). If diesel-electric HEVs were in use, this benefit would likely also apply. Diesel-electric hybrid drivetrains have begun to appear in commercial vehicles (particularly buses); as of 2007, no light duty dieselelectric hybrid passenger cars are currently available, although prototypes exist. Peugeot is expected to produce a diesel-electric hybrid version of its 308 in late 2008 for the European market.[28] PSA Peugeot Citroën has unveiled two demonstrator vehicles featuring a diesel-electric hybrid drivetrain: the Peugeot 307, Citroën C4 Hybride HDi and Citroën C-

Plug-in hybrids (PHEVs)
Further information: Plug-in hybrid In 2007 the United States Department of Energy recommended plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for mass-production.

The varieties of hybrid electric designs can be differentiated by the structure of the hybrid vehicle drivetrain, the fuel type, and the mode of operation. In 2007, several automobile manufacturers announced that future vehicles will use aspects of hybrid electric technology to reduce fuel consumption without the use of the hybrid drivetrain. Regenerative braking can be used to recapture energy and stored to power electrical accessories, such as air conditioning. Shutting down the engine at idle can also be used to reduce fuel consumption and reduce emissions without the addition of a hybrid drivetrain. In both cases, some of the advantages of hybrid electric technology are gained while additional cost and weight may be limited to the addition of larger batteries and starter motors. There is no


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Cactus.[29] Volkswagen made a prototype diesel-electric hybrid car that achieved 2 L/ 100 km (140 mpg-imp; 120 mpg-US) fuel economy, but has yet to sell a hybrid vehicle. General Motors has been testing the Opel Astra Diesel Hybrid. There have been no concrete dates suggested for these vehicles, but press statements have suggested production vehicles would not appear before 2009. Robert Bosch GmbH is supplying hybrid diesel-electric technology to diverse automakers and models, including the Peugeot 308.[30] So far, production diesel-electric engines have mostly just appeared in mass transit buses. FedEx, along with Eaton Corp. in the USA and Iveco in Europe, has begun deploying a small fleet of Hybrid diesel electric delivery trucks.[31] As of October 2007 Fedex now operates more than 100 diesel electric hybrids in North America, Asia and Europe.[32]

Hybrid electric vehicle

Conversion kits
One can buy a stock hybrid or convert a stock petroleum car to a hybrid electric vehicle using an aftermarket hybrid kit .[37]

Environmental impact
Fuel consumption
Hybrid vehicles are the best bet to get the most out of each tank of fuel during city driving [38][39]. Current HEVs reduce petroleum consumption under certain circumstances, compared to otherwise similar conventional vehicles, primarily by using three mechanisms [40]: 1. Reducing wasted energy during idle/low output, generally by turning the ICE off 2. Recapturing waste energy (i.e. regenerative braking) 3. Reducing the size and power of the ICE, and hence inefficiencies from underutilization, by using the added power from the electric motor to compensate for the loss in peak power output from the smaller ICE. Any combination of these three primary hybrid advantages may be used in different vehicles to realize different fuel usage, power, emissions, weight and cost profiles. The ICE in an HEV can be smaller, lighter, and more efficient than the one in a conventional vehicle, because the combustion engine can be sized for slightly above average power demand rather than peak power demand. The drive system in a vehicle is required to operate over a range of speed and power, but an ICE’s highest efficiency is in a narrow range of operation, making conventional vehicles inefficient. On the contrary, in most HEV designs, the ICE operates closer to its range of highest efficiency more frequently. The power curve of electric motors is better suited to variable speeds and can provide substantially greater torque at low speeds compared with internal-combustion engines. The greater fuel economy of HEVs has implication for reduced petroleum consumption and vehicle air pollution emissions worldwide[41]

Hybrid vehicles might use an internal combustion engine running on biofuels, such as ethanol fuel or biodiesel. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle would be the first commercially available flex-fuel plug-in hybrid capable of adapting the propulsion to the biofuels used in several world markets such as the ethanol blend E85 in the US, or E100 in Brazil, or biodiesel in Sweden.[33][34]

Design considerations
In some cases, manufacturers are producing HEVs that use the added energy provided by the hybrid systems to give vehicles a power boost, rather than significantly improved fuel efficiency compared to their traditional counterparts.[35] The trade-off between added performance and improved fuel efficiency is partly controlled by the software within the hybrid system and partly the result of the engine, battery and motor size. In the future, manufacturers may provide HEV owners with the ability to partially control this balance (fuel efficiency vs. added performance) as they wish, through a user-controlled setting.[36] Toyota announced in January, 2006 that it was considering a "high-efficiency" button.

Reduced noise emissions resulting from substantial use of the electric motor at idling and low speeds, leading to roadway noise


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reduction,[42] in comparison to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles, resulting in beneficial noise health effects (although road noise from tires and wind, the loudest noises at highway speeds from the interior of most vehicles, are not affected by the hybrid design alone). Reduced noise may not be beneficial for all road users, as blind people or the visuallyimpaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets and feel quiet hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard.[43] The U.S. Congress and the European Commission are exploring legislation to establish a minimum level of sound for electric and hybrid electric vehicles when operating in electric mode, so that blind people and other pedestrians and cyclists can hear them coming and detect from which direction they are approaching. Tests have shown that vehicles operating in electric mode can be particularly hard to hear below 20mph (32kph).[44]

Hybrid electric vehicle
eCycle Inc produces series diesel-electric motorcycles, with a top speed of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a target retail price of $5500.[47] Peugeot HYmotion3 compressor [48][49], a hybrid scooter is a three-wheeler that uses two separate power sources to power the front and back wheels. The back wheel is powered by a single cylinder 125 cc, 20 bhp (15 kW) single cylinder motor while the front wheels are each driven by their own electric motor. When the bike is moving up to 10 km/h only the electric motors are used on a stop-start basis reducing the amount of carbon emissions [50]. SEMA has announced that Yamaha is going to launch one in 2010, with Honda following a year later, fueling a competition to reign in new customers and set new standards for mobility. Each company hopes to provide the capability to reach 60 miles (97 km) per charge by adopting advanced lithium-ion batteries to accomplish their claims. These proposed hybrid motorcycles could incorporate components from the upcoming Honda Insight car and its hybrid powertrain. The ability to mass-produce these items helps to overcome the investment hurdles faced by start-up brands and bring new engineering concepts into mainstream markets [46].

Reduced air pollution emissions, due to lower fuel consumption, lead improved human health with regard to respiratory problems and other illnesses. Pollution reduction in urban environments may be particularly significant due to elimination of idle-at-rest. Battery toxicity is a concern, although today’s hybrids use NiMH batteries, not the environmentally problematic rechargeable nickel cadmium. "Nickel metal hydride batteries are benign. They can be fully recycled," says Ron Cogan, editor of the Green Car Journal. Toyota and Honda say that they will recycle dead batteries and that disposal will pose no toxic hazards. Toyota puts a phone number on each battery, and they pay a $200 "bounty" for each battery to help ensure that it will be properly recycled.

Automobiles and light trucks
A number of manufacturers currently produce hybrid electric automobiles and light trucks. Other types of HEVs are manufactured including Microhybrids—small hybrid electric city cars. Diesel-electric hybrid vehicles may soon see mass-production. Taxis

Vehicle types
Companies such as Zero Motorcycles [45] and Vectrix have market-ready all-electric motorcycles available now, but the pairing of electrical components and an internal combustion engine (ICE) has made packaging cumbersome, especially for niche brands [46]. Ford Escape hybrid-electric taxi. New York City started converting its taxi fleet to hybrids in 2005,[51] with 375 active


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as of July, 2007. The mayor plans to convert 20% of the remaining 13,000 taxis each year. San Francisco intends to convert its entire fleet to hybrid or Compressed natural gas vehicles by 2008.[52]

Hybrid electric vehicle
• Big mining machines like the Liebherr T 282B dump truck or Keaton Vandersteen LeTourneau L-2350 wheel loader are powered that way. • NASA’s huge Crawler-Transporters are diesel-electric. • Mitsubishi Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid is a diesel-electric commercial truck. • Hino Motors (a Toyota subsidiary) has the world’s first production hybrid electric truck in Australia (110 kW/150 hp diesel engine plus a 23 kW/31 hp electric motor).[55] Other hybrid petroleum-electric truck makers are DAF Trucks, MAN AG with MAN TGL Series, Nissan Motors and Renault Trucks with Renault Puncher. Hybrid electric truck technology and powertrain maker: ZF Friedrichshafen.

Hybrid technology for buses has seen increased attention since recent battery developments decreased battery weight significantly. Drivetrains consist of conventional diesel engines and gas turbines. Some designs concentrate on using car engines, recent designs have focused on using conventional diesel engines already used in bus designs, to save on engineering and training costs. Several manufacturers are currently working on new hybrid designs, or hybrid drivetrains that fit into existing chassis offerings without major re-design. A challenge to hybrid buses may still come from cheaper lightweight imports from the former Eastern block countries or China, where national operators are looking at fuel consumption issues surrounding the weight of the bus, which has increased with recent bus technology innovations such as glazing, air conditioning and electrical systems. A hybrid bus can also deliver fuel economy though through the hybrid drivetrain. Hybrid technology is also being promoted by environmentally concerned transit authorities.

Military vehicles
The United States Army’s manned ground vehicles of the Future Combat System all use a hybrid electric drive consisting of a diesel engine to generate electrical power for mobility and all other vehicle subsystems. Other military hybrid prototypes include the Millenworks Light Utility Vehicle, the International FTTS, HEMTT model A3,and the Shadow RST-V.

In May 2003, JR East started test runs with the so called NE (new energy) train and validated the system’s functionality (series hybrid with lithium ion battery) in cold regions. In 2004, Railpower Technologies had been running pilots in the US with the so called Green Goats,[56] which led to orders by the Union Pacific[57] and Canadian Pacific[58] Railways starting in early 2005. Railpower offers hybrid electric road switchers,[59] as does GE.[60] Diesel-electric locomotives may not always be considered HEVs, not having energy storage on board, unless they are fed with electricity via a collector for short distances (for example, in tunnels with emission limits), in which case they are better classified as dual-mode vehicles.

In 2003, GM introduced a hybrid diesel-electric military (light) truck, equipped with a diesel electric and a fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Hybrid electric light trucks were introduced in 2004 by Mercedes Benz (Sprinter) and Micro-Vett SPA (Daily Bimodale). International Truck and Engine Corp. and Eaton Corp. have been selected to manufacture diesel-electric hybrid trucks for a US pilot program serving the utility industry in 2004. In mid 2005 Isuzu introduced the Elf Diesel Hybrid Truck on the Japanese Market. They claim that approximately 300 vehicles, mostly route buses are using Hinos HIMR (Hybrid Inverter Controlled Motor & Retarder) system. In 2007, high petroleum price means a hard sell for hybrid trucks[53] and appears the first U.S. production hybrid truck (International DuraStar Hybrid).[54] Other vehicles are:

Marine and other aquatic
Produces marine hybrid propulsion: • eCycle Inc.[61] • Solar Sailor Holdings


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Fuel use in vehicle designs Vehicle type All-petroleum vehicle Regular hybrid electric vehicle Plug-in hybrid vehicle All-electric vehicle Fuel used Most use of petroleum

Hybrid electric vehicle

Less use of petroleum, but non-pluginable Residual use of petroleum. More use of electricity Most use of electricity differential, a hybrid Camry driver could save up to $6,700 in gasoline at current gasoline prices, with hybrid tax incentives as an additional saving.[65] In countries with incentives to fight against global warming and contamination and promote vehicle fuel efficiency, the payback period can be immediate and petroleum ICEVs can cost more than hybrids because they generate more pollution. Toyota and Honda have already said they’ve halved the incremental cost of electric hybrids and see cost parity in the future (even without incentives) [66].

Hybrid Premium and Cost Parity
HEVs can be initially more expensive (the socalled "hybrid premium") than pure fossilfuel-based ICE vehicles (ICEVs), due to extra batteries, more electronics and in some cases other design considerations (although battery renting can be used to reach the cost parity). The trade-off between higher initial cost and lower fuel costs (often referred to as the payback period) is dependent on usage - miles traveled, or hours of operation, fuel costs, and in some cases, government subsidies. Traditional economy vehicles may result in a lower direct cost for many users (before consideration of any externality). Consumer Reports ran an article in April 2006 stating that HEVs would not pay for themselves over 5 years of ownership. However, this included an error with charging the "hybrid premium" twice.[62] When corrected, the Honda Civic Hybrid and Toyota Prius did have a payback period of slightly less than 5 years.[63] This includes conservative estimates with depreciation (seen as more depreciation than a conventional vehicle, although that is not the current norm) and with gas prices. In particular, the Consumer Reports article assumed $2/ U.S. gallon for 3 years, $3/U.S. gallon for one year and $4/U.S. gallon the last year. As recent events have shown, this is a volatile market and hard to predict. For 2006, gas prices ranged from low $2 to low $3, averaging about $2.60/U.S. gallon. A January 2007 analysis by shows that all 22 currently available HEVs will save their owners money over a five year period. The most savings is for the Toyota Prius, which has a five year cost of ownership 40.3% lower than the cost of comparable non-hybrid vehicles.[64] A report in the Greeley Tribune says that over the five years it would typically take for a new car owner to pay off the vehicle cost

Raw materials shortage
Further information: Materials science The rare earth element dysprosium is required to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors and battery systems in hybrid propulsion systems [67][68]. However, nearly all the rare earth elements in the world come from China[69], and one analyst believes that an overall increase in Chinese electronics manufacturing may consume this entire supply by 2012.[68] In addition, export quotas on Chinese rare earth exports have resulted in a generally shaky supply of those metals [67][70]. A few non-Chinese sources such as the advanced Hoidas Lake project in northern Canada as well as Mt Weld in Australia are currently under development;[70] however it is not known if these sources will be developed before a shortage hits.

Legislation and incentives
In order to encourage the purchase of HEVs, several incentives and ecotaxes have been made into law.


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Hybrid electric vehicle
hybrid-, batteryvehicles. and fuel cell-electric

Residents in Ontario and Quebec, Canada can claim a rebate on the Provincial Retail Sales Tax of up to $2,000 CDN on the purchase or lease of a hybrid electric vehicle.[71] Ontario recently announced a new green license plate for hybrid car users and will announce a slew of benefits that go along with it in 2008.[72] Residents in British Columbia are eligible for a 100% reduction of sales tax up to a maximum of $2,000 if the hybrid electric vehicle is purchased or leased before April 1, 2011 (extended in 2007/2008 budget from March 31, 2008 and expanded from a maximum of only $1,000 from April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009, at which point the concession was scheduled to expire.)[73] Prince Edward Island residents can claim rebates on the Provincial Sales Tax of up to $3,000 CDN on the purchase or lease of any hybrid vehicles since March 30, 2004.[74]

United States
Further information: Hybrid tax credit The purchase of hybrid electric cars qualifies for a federal income tax credit up to $3,150 on the purchaser’s Federal income taxes. The tax credit is to be phased out two calendar quarters after the manufacturer reaches 60,000 new cars sold in the following manner: it will be reduced to 50% ($1700) if delivered in either the third or fourth quarter after the threshold is reached, to 25% ($850) in the fifth and sixth quarters, and 0% thereafter.[78]

States and local
• Certain states (e.g., New York, California, Virginia, and Florida) allow singlyoccupied HEVs to enter the HOV lanes on the highway. Initially, the Federal Highway Administration ruled that this was a violation of federal statute[79] until August 10, 2005 when George W. Bush signed the Transportation Equity Act of 2005 into law. • Some states, e.g. California, exempt hybrid electric cars from the biennial smog inspection, which costs over $50 (as of 2004). • The city of San Jose, California issued a free parking tag until 2007 when it became issued for a fee annually for hybrid electric cars that were purchased at a San Jose dealership. The qualified owners do not have to pay for parking in any city garage or road side parking meters. • The city of Los Angeles, California offers free parking to all HEVs which started on 1 October 2004. The experiment is an extension to an existing offer of free parking for all pure electrical vehicles. • In October, 2005, the city of Baltimore, Maryland started to offer discount on monthly parking in the city parking lots, and is considering free meter parking for HEVs. On 3 November 2005, the Boston Globe reports that the city council of Boston is considering the same treatment for hybrid electric cars.

Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland, a 50% reduction in VRT applies, which normally amounts to 25% of the market value of a car.

In the Netherlands, the Vehicle Registration Tax (VRT), payable when a car is sold to its first buyer, can earn the owner of an HEV a discount up to €6,000.

In Sweden there is an "Eco car" subsidy of SEK 10 000 (~ USD 1.600) cash payout to private car owners. For fringe benefit cars there is a reduction of the benefit tax of 40% for EV’s & HEV’s and 20% for other "Eco cars".[75]

United Kingdom
Drivers of HEVs in the United Kingdom benefit from the lowest band of vehicle excise duty (car tax), which is based on carbon dioxide emissions. In central London, these vehicles are also exempt from the £8 daily London congestion charge.[76] Due to their low levels of regulated emissions, the greenest cars are eligible for 100% discount under the current system. To be eligible the car must be on the current Power Shift Register.[77] At present, these include the cleanest LPG and natural gas cars and most


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• Annual vehicle registration fees in the District of Columbia are half ($36) that paid for conventional vehicles ($72).

Hybrid electric vehicle

See also
• • • • • • • • • • ACT Hybrid Vehicle Authority Energy Policy Act of 2005 Global Hybrid Cooperation Comparison of Toyota hybrids Internal Revenue Service List of hybrid vehicles Low-carbon fuel standard Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle Tribrid vehicle UltraCommuter

[1] ^ "Toyota and Lexus Hybrids Top One Million Sales in the U.S.". The Auto Channel. 2009-03-11. 2009/03/11/453029.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. [2] article?AID=/20070416/REG/70416014/ -1 [3] WFS Energy Diversity as a Business Imperative [4] 20090511/AUTO01/905110379/1148/ ?source=nletter-business [5] 1052.html [6] Victor Wouk, Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Scientific American, 1997-10, p70-74 [7] Georgano, N. (2000). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. London: HMSO. ISBN 1-57958-293-1. [8] "Godfather of the Hybrid". Engineering & Science. periodicals/EandS/articles/LXVII3/ wouk.html. Retrieved on 2006-01-11. [9] "The Great Hybrid Car Cover-up of ’74". Retrieved on 2006-10-12. [10] Sissine, Fred (1996). "CRS Report for Congress: The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV)" (http). National Library for the Environment.

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Hybrid electric vehicle

[24] [41] "Real Hybrid Mileage Database". product_services/r_cars/r_c_vue/ vue%202%20mode%20hybrid/ 09vue2mode_index.html mileage/. Retrieved on January 11 2006. [25] [42] C. Michael Hogan and Amy Gregory, GatewayServlet?target= vehicle emission noise Hybrid gmnews/ comparison study, Lumina Technologies, 1 2006 [26] [43] Ben Nuckols (2007-10-03). "Blind people: common/html/about/news_event/ Hybrid cars pose hazard". USA Today. press_read_2008_23.html [27] economy/2007-10-03-2698183585_x.htm. Energy/21442/?nlid=1374 Retrieved on 2009-05-08. [28] [44] "Electric cars and noise: The sound of autoexpressnews/207600/ silence". The Economist. 2009-05-07. peugeot_308.html Autoexpress on diesel electric Peugeot 308 displaystory.cfm?story_id=13606446. [29] Retrieved on 2009-05-08. document/presse_communique/ [45] x.php [30] Bosch says it has contract for diesel[46] ^ hybrid parts - Automotive News Europe ArticleDetail.aspx?fc_c=1204471x2638620x6605966 [31] [47] , responsibility/environment/ About Fedex hybrid-motorcycles.htm Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the USA [48] [32] 10/2/hymotion3-compressor-the-missing10/fedex-to-launch.html FedEx to Launch link.aspx?count=112&filterBy=1&page=1 Commercial Hybrid-Electric Vans from [49] Iveco in Europe 04/peugeot-unleashes-118-mpg[33] "Chevrolet Volt-GM’s concept electric hymotion3-compressor-concept/ vehicle could eliminate trips to the gas [50] station". General Motors. 2007-01-07. motorcyclenews/view/ first_look_peugeot_hymotion3_hybrid_scooter/ GeneralMotors/newsreleases/ 5693.html 20071838357.htm. Retrieved on [51] "Ford unveils fleet of hybrid NY taxis". 2009-04-02. CNN. November 10, 2005. [34] Kellen Schefter (2007-01-10). "GM Chevrolet Volt Plug-In Hybrid Electric 5-11-11/34504.html. Vehicle". GreenCar. [52] 375 in July 2007, plan to convert whole; SF transition: Some Big Apple chevrolet-volt-plug-hybrid-electricTaxis to Go Green vehicle.php. Retrieved on 2009-04-02. [53] Planet Ark : High Price Means a Hard [35] "Hybrids: More Power, Less Fuel", Sell for Hybrid Trucks Business Week, September 20, 2005. [54] Electric Drive Transportation Association [36] "Hybrid Cars Losing Efficiency, Adding [55] Barnwell, Peter. "Hybrid truck for; Oomph", National Geographic, August 8, greener transport". Manningham Leader. 2005. [37] EndUser?Action=UserDisplayFullDocument&orgId= [38] Top 10 Fuel Misers - MSN Autos Retrieved on 2007-06-13. [39] Fuel Economy [56] "Hybrid Locomotive Gains Traction". [40] Rius, B. (2008). Electric Drive Design for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Optimum Fuel 0,2782,66998,00.html. Efficiency. Aachen: Shaker Verlag. ISBN [57] "Union Pacific Bases First Hybrid 978-3-8322-7269-2. Locomotive in California".


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Insinger_Report.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. New York City Taxis to go all hybrid by 2012 2007-05-22 Mother Earth News article from 1978 on the original regenerative braking hybrid car GM Announces Chevrolet Volt Series Hybrid Concept Vehicle 2007-01-07 Hybrid-Electric "Bus of the Future" Tested By Capital Metro. Israel Mulls Hybrid Taxis FedEx to Launch Commercial HybridElectric Vans from Iveco in Europe About FedEx Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the USA 2004 Toyota Prius - Motor Trend Car of the Year

Hybrid electric vehicle
• "Looking for a hybrid? Prepare for a long wait" to obtain one (Star Tribune). • Doctors Orders: Buy a Hybrid

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External links
• Electric and Gas Hybrids at the Open Directory Project • Compare hybrid cars at • Series, Parallel, and series-parallel systems animation by Union of Concerned Scientists

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• Honda to build li-ion battery plant for hybrid vehicles - Apr 21, 09

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