Smith, Theodore C. (2005) Fifty-One Competencies for Online by Btoxtoczko


									Project Agreement Number: 2004 – 3041 / 001 – 001 ELE ELEB12

Document title: WP4 Teacher training background readings
Date of issue: 20 July 2006, revised 5.12.2006
Version: 2
Author(s): Reetta Koski, Anna-Kaarina Kairamo
Contact name: Anna-Kaarina Kairamo
Organisation: Teknillinen korkeakoulu (Helsinki University of Technology)
Address: P.O.Box 8000, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland
Telephone: +358 9 451 4015
Contributors to the document
(incl. quality review):
Agreed date of delivery:
Actual date of delivery:
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Confidentiality status:
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The REVE project is carried out with the support of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Education and
Culture, under the eLearning programme. However, the sole responsibility of the information contained in these pages lies
with the authors and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information.
eLearning portal European Commission:
Background Reading WP4: Services

Reetta Koski, Helsinki University of Technology

WP4 aim:

“For the further elaboration and implementation of training of teachers and
support staff in e-competences related to virtual mobility”

  1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 3
  2 Supporting teacher training ........................................................................ 3
  3 K.U.Leuven and eCompetence .................................................................. 4
  4 TieVie Nationwide Training in Educational ICT Use for University Staff .... 5
  5 Computer-Mediated Communication and Science Teacher Training: Two
  Constructivist Examples .................................................................................... 6
  6 Tips and Tricks for Teaching Online: How to Teach Like a Pro!................. 6
  7 elene-TT: e-learning network for Teacher training Teachers are lifelong
  learners too ....................................................................................................... 7
  8 Fifty-One Competencies for Online Instruction........................................... 7
  9 Online Training in an Online World ............................................................ 8
  10     Responding to Technological Change: IT Skills and the Academic
  Teaching Profession.......................................................................................... 8
  11     Learning faculty to teach with an e-learning platform: Some design
  principles ........................................................................................................... 9
  12     Preparing Educators for Online Writing Instruction: Principles and
  Processes ....................................................................................................... 10
  13     Virtual Necessities: Assessing Online Course Design .......................... 10
  14     References / Additional Links ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.11

  1   Introduction

There is a lot of material available on the education of teachers in e-learning
techniques and e-competency in general and specifically at a primary or high
school level. However, much fewer sources are available considering the training
of university teachers in this field. Most e-learning surveys have explored
technological infrastructure problems or have performed price and feature
analyses on different types of online delivery platforms. This document gives an
overview by providing summaries of some relevant projects and research
concerning the teacher training at the university level.

  2 Supporting teacher training

A common understanding is that teaching online requires specific skill sets
(competencies). Fast technological development in several fronts, and new
demands of students, there is a need to improve teacher's skills and
understanding in using information and communication technology. Nowadays
most educators and learners use a variety of tools including video, e-mail,
desktop conferencing, online programs such as WebCT and Blackboard, as well
as video conferencing. Thus, it is no longer acceptable for educators to be
technology illiterate and also a lot has been done to raise the pedagogical use of
the technology.
It is said that the key to successful teaching and learning is relationships. The
role of the teacher is different in e-learning than in traditional class room
teaching. Student satisfaction in online courses is highly correlated with
interaction with the instructor (Shea, Swan, Fredericksen, Pickett, 2001; Trippe,
2001). Online students need frequent support from the instructor to allay feelings
of isolation and insecurity. Devoid of the visual cues and interaction of the
traditional classroom, students need instructors present throughout of the course;
to give complete and explicit directions and to provide ongoing feedback. A lot
has been done to improve teacher quality in e-learning. To demonstrate this
aspect, this paper will firstly present K. U. Leuven‘s e-competence project and
nationwide training in educational ICT use for university staff in Finland.

Shea, P., Swan, K., Fredericksen E., & Pickett, A. (2001). Student Satisfaction
and Reported Learning in the SUNY Learning Network, in book, Elements of
quality online education, Volume 3 in the Sloan-C series, The Sloan Consortium
New York, NY

  3 K.U.Leuven and eCompetence

The European eCompetence Initiative is an e-learning project supported by the
European Commission. ‗eCompetence‘ is the ability of teaching staff members to
support effectively the students' learning process by using ICT in teaching and
learning. The project was coordinated by the University of Dortmund. It aimed to
undertake a wide-ranging study of current eCompetence training and a needs
analysis in higher education, and to develop examples of blended learning
scenarios combining face-to-face and online modules in a coherent manner.
Specifically four activities were being undertaken in the project:
    Field-based analysis of eCompetence programmes in higher education
       throughout Europe.
    Policy-focused analysis of the integration of eCompetence programmes
       into the institutional innovation strategies of higher education institutions.
    Building a European service platform for eCompetence consultancy and
    Distribution and application of the research results and of the European
       service platform for staff development.

In the following we summarise the paper written by
Wim Van Petegem and Jef Van den Branden (2005)                    ‗K.U.Leuven and

The notion of ―eCompetence‖ can be considered in various ways, limited to
individuals or institutions, restricted to competencies of teachers or widened to all
actors in the teaching-learning processes, connected to e-learning or valid for all
learning and its support. Within K.U.Leuven, eCompetence has clearly the
double notion of individual and institutional competencies, as it has been linked
to the institution‘s pedagogical concept of ―guided independent learning‖ (GIL).
The e-competence development is grafted on the pedagogical concept of
―Guided independent Learning‖. This concept within K.U.Leuven fits in a larger
approach of institutional as well as personal eCompetence development. The
latter is not only directed towards faculty members, but also to other staff
(teaching assistants and other members of educational innovation teams) and
even to students.
Although GIL has been adopted by the university at large, it has been noticed
that such adoption is a slow process that needs not only conceptual change of

participants in the adoption process, but also emotional acceptance (Laga et al.,
2002). Convincing examples of good practice can contribute, but need good
dissemination. As essential are the varied, just-in-time and needs tailored
support facilities that are provided to the actors (Laga & Elen, 2001).
One of the observations that must be made is the large difference between the
number of faculty members in the university and the number of people that takes
up training and uses the provided support. The implementation of GIL and
Toledo is of course interfering with the implementation of the Bachelor-Master
structure (and its implied curriculum reforms), which needs very much effort and
time, but resistance to change of the traditional role of teacher and student is not
to be neglected as well.
Increasing acceptance of GIL is backed up with a growing believe that the
university took the right decision in embracing the concept to provide high quality
and future oriented education. In a time when accreditation is no longer granted
automatically, it can only contribute to create confidence in the own (e-)

  4 TieVie Nationwide Training in Educational ICT Use for
    University Staff

Finnish Virtual University

Ruotsalainen, Merja, Tenhula, Tytti, Vaskuri, Paula (2005) TieVie - Nationwide
Training in Educational ICT Use for University Staff. Paper presented at the
annual EDEN conference, Helsinki 2005.


In 2000, the Ministry of Education started to fund a wide national project
organisation - the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) - to promote networking in
universities. One of FVUs projects is named "TieVie", a national staff training
programme for information and communication technologies.

TieVie provided a training programme of 8 ECTS, which is offered to teachers
teaching graduate and postgraduate students. The aim of this training is to
promote the use of ICTs in university teaching by helping teachers to apply ICT
in their own teaching in a pedagogically sound manner. The project also offers an
expert training programme of 15 ECTS. This training programme involves
training of educational ICT trainers, IT support personnel, experts and proficient
users to help universities and their virtual university projects.

The training is free of charge to the participants. In the course of the last few
years, the TieVie project has trained more than 1000 of agents and experts

nationally for the educational use of ICT in Finnish universities. It is important to
study the effects that the training and the participants‘ development projects
integrated with their work have had on the activities of the universities and on the
development of teaching: at its best, a participant in these programmes can
function as an agent of change in his own work community, but his or her
development project can also remain a one-time experiment with no living
consequences after the training. The major challenge is to establish the
participants‘ progressive development projects as part of their work communities‘
activities and at the same time to generate new well-functioning practices for the

  5 Computer-Mediated Communication and Science Teacher
    Training: Two Constructivist Examples

Mackinnon, Gregory R. 2004. Computer-Mediated Communication and Science
Teacher Training: Two Constructivist Examples. Journal of Technology and
Teacher Education.


The education of science teachers necessarily involves instruction around the
use of computer technologies. Acadia University, a laptop institution, offers a
setting where students are immersed in the critique of pedagogical applications
of computers. The current trend to employ constructivist approaches in teaching
provides a backdrop for this article, which offers a discussion of two interactive
communication strategies: asynchronous electronic discussion and negotiative
concept mapping. The impacts of these approaches have been addressed with
students through surveys and qualitative interviews.

  6 Tips and Tricks for Teaching Online:
    How to Teach Like a Pro!

Shelton Kaye & Saltsman George. Tips and Tricks for Teaching Online:
How to Teach Like a Pro! Online Education.


Online teaching has brought a new modality to distance education. The best
ideas and practices are gathered from online instructors and recent literature.
Suggestions include good online class design, syllabus development, and online
class facilitation offering hints for success for both new and experienced online

Online teaching has also brought frustration and anxiety to the instructors
attempting this new methodology. Instructors who are comfortable with the
traditional methods for teaching in the classroom struggle to engage students
over the Internet. While many of the same techniques apply, teaching online
requires additional techniques for success. Author compares those techniques to
the steps that a gardener takes to develop a garden. In the online classroom, the
ground is prepared with a carefully designed syllabus and policies, the seed is
planted in the first session of class, and the learning community is nurtured to
grow and become self-sufficient. These steps yield students who are engaged
and working toward completion of the learning objectives. By utilizing these
strategies for teaching online effectively, an instructor has to engage the online
learner, nurture a successful learning community, and alleviate the frustration
and fear that goes along with teaching online.

  7   elene-TT: e-learning network                   for    Teacher       training
      Teachers are lifelong learners too


Elene-TT motivation: Lifelong learning and increased mobility, both physical and
virtual, will mean that both teachers and students need to constantly update their
skills, making the best possible use of the available technology within sound
pedagogical and didactic frameworks. As students become more and more
familiar with learning in a virtual environment, they ask more of their teachers, the
teaching process evolves and consequently the learning process itself.

The teacher training activities in eLene-TT fit clearly within the framework of
lifelong learning for teachers, integrating the notions of learning in the workplace
for higher education teachers, working and learning together on the innovative
use of ICT in their education. A major feature of eLene-TT is about bringing e-
learning closer to lifelong learning and the working life of teachers and students,
opening up systems and increasing the openness of universities.

The model for a Virtual Learning Resource Centre is created by the project.

  8 Fifty-One Competencies for Online Instruction

Smith, Theodore C. (2005) Fifty-One Competencies for Online Instruction. The
Journal of Educators Online.


The paper suggests that the effectiveness of distance learning has to be
measured in results—quality learning. Learner-center programs and competent
instructors are two oft-cited keys to success in higher education. Teaching online
requires specific skill sets (competencies).Ppaper identifies and describes 51
competencies needed by online instructors and outlines an instructor-training
program that satisfies 3 of the 24 benchmarks for excellence recommended by
the Institute for Higher Education Policy.

  9 Online Training in an Online World

Bonk, C. J. (2002). Online training in an online world. Bloomington, IN:


This report provides one glimpse into the world of online training and what is
presently possible with emerging Web-based training technologies. The results of
the survey reveal that online training is increasing in importance within an
organization. There were many insights and ideas provided by the respondents.
Survey responses ranged from data about the actual tools used in Web-based
learning to ideal or preferred e-learning. The survey report provided a ranking of
common pedagogical practices and motivational techniques for the Web. It also
summarized predictions about future online training commitments. The report
touch on currently sensitive e-learning issues such as course completion rates
and incentives, knowledge ownership, acceptable assessment practices, cultural
and technological barriers and supports, and multiple language support. As such,
the data within this report should prove valuable to those grappling with e-
learning vision statements and strategic plans as well as those in the trenches of
e-learning implementation.

 10 Responding to Technological Change: IT Skills and the
    Academic Teaching Profession

Haynes et al. (2004) Active Learning in Higher Education. 5: 152-165.


Six academics in a new university were seconded to the role of part-time learning
technology support. It was necessary to have an informed view of the IT skills
level of all academic teaching staff. A self assessment questionnaire was
designed based on the core competencies in the European Computer Driving

Licence (ECDL). The results were used to offer a targeted pilot of a new online
learning training method. Results showed considerable diversity in the range of
IT skills. Over half of the staff could not use a range of IT software at a
prescribed benchmark level. Staff were more likely to be skilled at word-
processing and Internet tasks and less likely to be competent with presentations,
spreadsheets and databases. Staff working in science-based subjects tended to
score higher. As a result of the survey, some staff were offered an online basic
skills training programme. Staff liked the flexibility of this, but also found that they
needed personal support and encouragement. According to the article, it is
necessary to raise the profile of IT skills and to argue for their relevance. A range
of training opportunities is needed that will assist the needs and motivations of
staff. Staff prefer training that they see as relevant to their subject area and
professional context. Online software skills training does not provide a single
solution, but can add an additional method that will appeal to some learners.

 11 Learning faculty to teach with an e-learning platform: Some
    design principles

Elisabeth Laga, Mieke Clement, Herman Buelens


This paper includes a brief description of a faculty development programme of
the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). The evaluation of the programme
clearly pointed at the necessity to carefully analyse the characteristics of the
participants, as well as the competencies needed to integrate successfully an e-
learning platform in one's teaching practice. This exercise led to the formulation
of some design principles for faculty development programmes on e-learning
platforms. The change of faculty members' teaching conceptions as well as the
attention for their stages of concern can be pointed at as crucial elements of
these principles.

The paper design principles determine the development of ‗The Digital Chalk‘
2002-2003. Taken into account the differences in the target group (with regard to
their stages of concern) different modules were be offered. The acquisition of the
identified necessary competencies were the overarching objective for the
different initiatives. Every initiative were focused on a specific part of the group of
faculty members, characterised with certain concerns and teaching conceptions
and had specific objectives, all in line with the subobjectives identified. Change of
the participants' teaching conceptions were combined with attention for their
stages of concern.

 12 Preparing Educators for                 Online      Writing      Instruction:
    Principles and Processes

Hewett, Beth L.; Ehmann, Christa. (2004). Preparing Educators for Online Writing
Instruction: Principles and Processes. National Council of Teachers of English.


The book offers a theoretical justification for online writing instruction (OWI) and
a fully developed approach to training educators for such instruction – whether in
networked classrooms, distance learning, e-mail- or Internet-based conferences,
or online tutoring. The book includes examples of asynchronous (non-real-time)
and synchronous (real-time) training methods, complete with illustrations and
screen shots, showing how instructors can learn to engage their students in
productive conversations about their writing with or without face-to-face contact.

This book is ideal for directors of online instructional programs and teachers of
graduate and advanced undergraduate methods courses. Educators,
professional trainers, and administrators in a variety of fields can extrapolate
principles and processes for their own disciplinary contexts despite the book's
disciplinary focus on writing.

 13 Virtual Necessities: Assessing Online Course Design

McKnight, Roberta. (2004). Virtual Necessities: Assessing Online Course Design.
International Journal on E-Learning.


In this paper, the processes used to develop, field test, and refine measurable
indicators for online courses are described. It also gives a summary of some
other reports related to faculty support and training in information technology
remains one of the most pressing issues in higher education (Greene, 2001;
Gandel, et al., 2000; Lembke, et al., 2001; Kobulnicky, et al., 2002). In an effort
to address this issue, various organizations have published guidelines or
benchmarks of quality for distance learning (American Council on Education,
2001; Higher Education Program and Policy Council of the American Federation
of Teachers; 2000; Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2000). These
publications provide guidance from a broad organizational perspective. In a
critique of these reports, however, Twigg notes that a focus on the course level is
lacking (2001). Since 1999, study groups at Florida Gulf Coast University
(FGCU) have focused on the development and evaluation of benchmarks of
quality for online instruction that are aimed at the course level. The collaborative
efforts of these multidisciplinary study groups have resulted in the development

of the Principles of Online Design (Zhu & McKnight, 2001) and the Online Design
Checklist (McKnight, 2001).


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