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					   The Economic Impact of
Technology-Based Industries in
    Washington State 2003
          William B. Beyers
with Stephen J. Hyde & Derik Andreoli
       Department of Geography
       University of Washington
      beyers @ u.washington.edu
       sjh7 @ u.washington.edu
       dohne@u.washington.edu
                Background
• Three prior TA sponsored studies –
     benchmarked against 1995, 1997, and 2000
• The current study is benchmarked against 2003
• The goal of the current study was to undertake
  analyses as similar as possible to the prior
  studies.
• A major statistical issue for longitudinal
  comparisons is the shift in the U.S. from the
  SIC to the NAICS definitions for counting the
  economy.
  Overview of Research Project
• Defining Technology-Based Industry
• Trends in Washington State Technology
    Employment and Comparisons of Washington
    to Other U.S. States
• Economic Impact Analysis
• Conclusions
Defining Technology-Based Industry
 • Arbitrary considerations of industries (AEA)
 • Intensity of R&D expenditures
 • Share of labor force in R&D activities
 • Mixtures of the above
 • This TA study: Using consistent definition
       from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and
       WA Dept. of Employment Security
 • This definition differs from the three
       previous studies by industry
          Examples of R&D Related
               Occupations
SOC      Description
151011   Computer and Information Scientists, Research
151032   Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software
152021   Mathematicians
152041   Statisticians
171011   Architects, Except Landscape and Naval
171012   Landscape Architects
172011   Aerospace Engineers
172112   Industrial Engineers
173023   Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians
191022   Microbiologists
192031   Chemists
193092   Geographers
194031   Chemical Technicians
194092   Forensic Science Technicians
    “Hard” R&D Measures in Washington
             (2000 and 2001)
•   $10.5 Billion R&D Performance (8)
•   $9.3 Billion Industry R&D (7)
•   $642 Million University and College R&D (14)
•   $259 Million Federal R&D (14)
•   $151 Million Nonprofit FFRDC R&D (4)
•   $199 Other Non-profits R&D (7)



    Source: NSF Science & Engineering Indicators 2004
            Relative Measures of R&D:
          A Far More Relevant Perspective
R & D Location Quotients and State Rank
1.87 Total R & D Expenditures (5)
2.18 Industry R&D Expenditures (3)
0.98 University and College Expenditures (20)
0.70 Federal R&D (15)
4.84 Nonprofit FFRDC (2)
2.13 Other Nonprofits (6)
Calculated from 2004 NSF Science and Engineering Indicators.
Employment used as benchmark for location quotients.
      Comparison with Peer States
           All R&D 2000
                     0   0.5   1   1.5   2   2.5

    California (7)
   Colorado (15)
    Georgia (33)
    Maryland (9)
Massachusetts (2)
    Michigan (1)
       Texas (27)
     Virginia (20)


  Washington (5)


       Idaho (12)
     Oregon (23)
Composition of High-Tech Employment 2003
                               Federal &
    313,373 jobs               University
                               Research        Petroleum &
                                                           Machinery,
                                  4%            Chemicals
                                                          Instruments,
                                                    2%
       Scientific research Other Services                   Electrical
        and development          9%                        Equipment
            services                                           12%
                5%
Computer systems                                                    Manufacturing
design and related                                                      36%
     services                                                Aerospace
               Architectural and
       6%                                                       21%
                  engineering
                   services
                      9%

                   Telecomm., ISPs,                     Trade
                   web-hosting, data                      8%
   Services           processing                 Software
     64%                 10%                   Publishers &
                                            Internet Publishing
                                             and broadcasting
                                                   12%
 Employment Trend – Technology Based
Industries in Washington State: 1974-2002
 300,000




 250,000




 200,000




 150,000                                           Other Technology
                                                   Based Industries



 100,000




  50,000                                                  Aerospace




     -
         1974   1976   1978   1980   1982   1984   1986     1988      1990   1992   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002
Concentration of Technology-Based
  Industries in Washington State
                                                2001 LQ
   Manufacturing
   Aerospace                                       8.79
   Computers & Electronics                         1.15
   Nonelectrical Machinery                         0.52
   Petroleum & Chemicals                           0.27

   Services
   Telecommunications & ISP                        0.89
   Selected Wholesalers & Electronic Shopping      0.71
   Software & Computer Services                    1.37
   Business Services                               0.67
   Scientific R&D and Medical Labs.                1.11
   Waste Management                                1.99

   Total Technology Industries                     1.33
Location Quotients - All High Tech

      1.33



                                #1- 1.43

                             #2 – 1.37




 Washington Ranks #3
Location Quotients: High-Tech
      Except Aerospace
  1.03




         Washington Ranks #12
    Very High Tech: R&D
Occupations >30% of Labor Force
     1.76




                                  #1- 1.85




            Washington Ranks #2
Technology Based Employment in
     Washington Counties


                                      12,547
           36,258
         178,827             12,547


        11,451



                    17,658



      12,615
Economic Impact Model Framework
          Purchases Outside
                                                              Results:
                State
                                                              • Output
                 Direct




                              In-State Purchases
               High Tech                                      • Jobs
                Activity
                                                              • Labor
                                                   Indirect     Income
                                                   Activity

                                                              • Tax
                                                                Revenues
     Out-of-State Sales Revenues
         Impact Analysis Results
                                    % Change from
Direct Impacts                         2000 Study
Sales Revenue      $105.8 billion          48.4%
Employment              313,373             9.6%
Labor Income        $28.8 billion          64.4%
Taxes                  $1 billion          69.4%

Total Cumulative
Impacts
Sales Revenue      $184.5 billion          44.7%
Employment            1,155,516            14.0%
Labor Income        $53.7 billion          37.9%
Taxes                $4.5 billion          44.8%
Direct and Indirect Job Impacts
                                           1,155,516




                                                             Indirect
                      842,143               Services

                                                        Other
                                                        Industries
                                             Trade
   313,373                                                  Mfg.

                +                   =        High
                                             Tech

  Direct Jobs       Indirect Jobs       Total Jobs Impact
        Job Multipliers by Industry
                                              0   1   2   3   4   5   6

                                Aerospace

                   Computers & Electronics

                                Machinery

                   Petroleum & Chemicals

                Telecommunications & ISP

Selected Wholesalers & Electronic Shopping

             Software & Computer Services

      Arch/Eng, Mfg. Consult, Office Admin.

             Scientific R&D & Medical Labs

                       Waste Remediation

             University & Federal Research

                             All High Tech
                Conclusions
• Technology-based industries now account for 44%
  of all jobs in Washington State
• Economic impacts are relatively high due to high
  wages (93% above average in 2003)
• Technology-based industries have grown rapidly,
  expanding from 6.7% to 11.8% of state
  employment between 1974 and 2003
• Washington’s concentration of these industries has
  remained high compared to the nation
• R&D activity in Washington State is high relative
  to the size of our population

				
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