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									Low Emission Lawn Care

    The Master Gardener
        Connection
   Low emission lawn care
Who we are
– City of Wichita
– Conrady Western Inc.
– KSU Small Business Environmental
  Assistance Program
   K-State program
   Office here at Extension (room 104)
   Provide environmental assistance to small
   business – free, confidential, non-regulatory
   Lawn care project this fall


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   Low emission lawn care?
Why - environmental impact
– Ozone
– Health impacts

A conventional lawn mower pollutes as much in an hour
  as 40 late model cars.




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           Program overview
    Introductions and program overview

    Defining the air quality problem
–     what is ozone
–     what are the health issues
–     how does this relate to lawn care and our program?

    Opportunities to address the problem
–     equipment maintenance
–     low emission equipment
–     low maintenance turf options and reduced turf area

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        Program overview
Conclusion - Why is this important to
master gardeners?
– Common questions – expert advise
– Personal and community health


Door prizes



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 How do we measure air
    pollution levels?

An air quality monitor is an instrument that
takes a sample of air and measures the
amount of an air pollutant such as ozone or
particulate matter in the air.

All air monitors in the national network
have to meet the same strict quality
control standards so that data from all
sites across the country is accurate and
comparable.     Low Emission Lawn Care
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   Air Pollutants of Local
           Concern
Ground Level Ozone (O3)

Particulate Matter
•PM 2.5
•PM 10


Carbon Monoxide (CO)

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Typical Air Monitoring Site
          Layout




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Air Monitoring Network




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 Health Effects of
 Exposure to Ozone

       Asthma
is the fastest growing
    childhood disease
  in the United States

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           What is Ozone?
  Ozone, or smog, is an odorless, colorless gas
  composed of three oxygen atoms.


• Ozone occurs naturally about 10 to 30 miles
  above the earth and protects us from the sun’s
  harmful ultraviolet rays.


• However, at ground-level in the air we
  breathe, ozone poses serious risks to human
  health.
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        Where Does Ozone
          Come From?
 Ozone is not emitted directly into the air
 but is created by a chemical reaction in the
 air:
              +               = O3
   VOC + NOx + Heat + Sunlight = Ozone

• Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Nitrogen
  Oxides (NOx) come from cars, trucks, buses,
  power plants, industrial facilities, citizen
  activities and other sources.

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             Ozone
Is a Seasonal Pollutant

Highest pollution levels in summer
– (May-September)

Hot, sunny afternoons & evenings
typically have the highest ozone
concentrations
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   What is Ozone Pollution?
Every day, the average adult breathes over 3,000
gallons of air, and children breathe even more air
per pound of body weight.

Ozone pollution has many effects on public health.
Some of these are very serious.

In the air we breathe, ozone poses serious risks to
human health.

Environmental repercussions - Ozone also
adversely affects domestic and native plants and
animals.
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      Why is Ozone Bad to
           Breathe?
  Ozone can irritate lung and airways, and
  cause inflammation much like a sunburn
  on your lungs.

• Ozone can aggravate respiratory illnesses
  such as asthma.

• 10 to 20 % of all summertime respiratory-
  related hospital visits in the US are
  associated with ozone pollution.
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         Health Effects of
         Exposure to Ozone
  Coughing
• Nose and throat irritation
• Chest pain
• Reduced lung function
• Increased susceptibility to respiratory illnesses
• Aggravation of asthma
• Children and people with chronic lung
  diseases are particularly at risk
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              Ozone Pollution
• WHERE IS IT COMING FROM?

• Possible sources
    Wichita citizens and businesses create our own urban air
    pollution.

    Ozone precursor compounds are transported to the Wichita
    urban area from Mexico, Texas, Arkansas, & Oklahoma by
    our south winds.

    Combination of the two above scenarios




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     What Makes a Bad Air Day
   (Ozone) in South Central Kansas?
Hot temperatures…
        +
  Sunny skies… =          unhealthy ozone levels
        +
 South winds???


Wichita Dept of Environmental
Health and KDHE are working
   together to determine:
    –What local sources are
    significant contributors
  –The impact of weather and
  transport from other upwind
     urban/industrial areas
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                             Wichita Health Dept. - Ozone 8-Hour
      0.100
                                  8-Hour Standard = .084 PPM
      0.090
      0.080

      0.070

      0.060
PPM




      0.050

      0.040
      0.030

      0.020

      0.010
      0.000
              86   87   88   89      90   91    92     93   94        95   96   97   98   99   00   01   02   03   04
                                                               Year
                                                     4th High Daily Maximum 8 Hr.

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  What is Particulate Matter?
Airborne “particulate matter” consists of many
different substances suspended in the air in the form
of particles (solid and liquid droplets) that vary widely
in size.




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     What are Fine Particles?
  Fine particles are            Cross section of a human hair
                                    (magnified to 60 mm)
  only a fraction of
                       Coarse Particles              Fine Particles
  the size of a            (10 mm)                      (2.5 mm)
  human hair.

• Fine particles come from a variety of sources
  such as diesel trucks and buses, construction
  equipment, power plants, woodstoves, and
  wildfires.

• Fine particles can also be formed in the
  atmosphere when gases are transformed by
                   Low in the air.
  chemical reactions Emission Lawn Care
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         Why are Fine Particles
           Bad to Breathe?
  Scientific studies have linked fine particles, with
  a series of significant health problems, because
  they easily reach the deepest parts of the lungs.

• In the US, particulate matter, especially fine
  particles, is responsible for 15,000 premature
  deaths every year.

• Diesel exhaust, a significant source of fine
  particles, can cause lung cancer.
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   Health Effects of Exposure
        to Fine Particles
  Premature death
• Respiratory related hospital admissions and
  emergency room visits for cardiac and other
  conditions
• Aggravated asthma
• Acute respiratory symptoms
• Chronic bronchitis
• Decreased lung function (shortness of breath)
• People with existing heart and lung disease, as
  well as the elderly and children, are
  particularly at risk Low Emission Lawn Care
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          What Can You Do?
 Avoid strenuous outdoor activities when ozone
  levels are high

 Share a ride or take public transportation


 Cut your grass after 6 pm


 Refuel your car after 6 pm (fuel when it’s cool)


 Combine your errands into one trip


 Purchase low-emitting and fuelCare
                      Low Emission Lawn
                                        efficient
  vehicles (www.epa.gov/autoemissions)
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Why lawn and garden?




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Lawn and garden is the largest non-road
  mobile category contributing VOCs




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Kansas non-road mobile source
    emissions (2002 NEI)




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Kansas commercial lawn and garden
      emissions (2002 NEI)




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Kansas residential lawn and
garden emissions (2002 NEI)




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Where To Check On Local Air Quality?
  “Real Time” Air Quality Data on the Web
  at: www.wichita.gov/aq

  Information on Air Quality on the Web
  at:
www.wichita.gov/CityOffices/Environmental/AirQuality/
Provides helpful information on air quality issues,
  increases awareness, and provides education to citizens
  and businesses about air pollution and how they can
  help.
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   Addressing the problem
Prevention is best
Adjusting mow times
Low maintenance turf option
– Existing master gardener publications
Low emission equipment
Equipment maintenance
– Very important and practical

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    Reduce emissions through
         maintenance
Tune up your lawn mower
once a year. This simple-
to-do task takes 30
minutes or less and cuts
your mower's emissions
by up to 50 percent and
fuel consumption up to 30
percent.
(www.mowertuneup.com)




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Equipment maintenance - engines
Engine oil and filter
 – Longer life
 – 25-50 hours or annually
Spark plugs
 – Better starting – annually
 – 2-cycle engines

Air filters – clean or replace
 – Improves fuel efficiency
 – Improves performance – HP
 – Some 2-cycles have compensating carburetors

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    Equipment maintenance
     Mowers
Blades – correctly
sharpen
– Better looking lawn
  (cut verses torn grass)
– Requires less fuel -
  saves fuel
– Stays sharp longer –
  1/64th rule
– Check 3 holidays

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    Equipment maintenance

Leveling the deck
                                        Questions:
Owners manual                         Darrel Stinson
                                      Conrady Western
Questions                             John Deere
                                      943-4261
Split boom trimmer

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    Equipment maintenance
Disposal of used oil
– Jiffy Lubes
– Wal-Mart
– Household Hazardous Waste
Oil, solvents, bad gas, and other
chemicals
– Sedgwick County Household Hazardous
  Waste facility (5 blocks South of Kellogg, 2 blocks east of
  Seneca)

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Household Hazardous Waste
          Facility




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HHW – swap and shop




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       Equipment evolution
New manufacturers
standards
– EPA
– California
Electric equipment –
mowers and handheld
– Issues with batteries
– Readily available
Solar powered

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          Equipment evolution
Reel mowers
– Readily available




Handheld
–   2-cycle verse 4-cycle
–   Weight of unit
–   Scavenge technology
–   Compensating carburetor
–   “easy-start” spring loaded


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          No-spill gas cans
Stats
– 75% reduction in VOCs
– 17 million gallons spilt
  annually with conventional
  cans
Where to get them
– Atwood
6235 N Broadway
– Woodard Mercantile
4160 N. Maize Road
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 Low maintenance lawn care
          options
Prevent need to mow
– Reduced turf areas
    Ornamentals
    Groundcover
    Native planting
Low maintenance turf options
– Chapter 8 Master Gardener manual



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     Low maintenance turf
Decrease or minimize fertilizing
– Pages 39-42

Turf species
– Buffalo
– Zoysia
– Bermuda
– Tall fescue
– Kentucky Bluegrass
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                Turf options
            Fertilizer     Drought-           Mowing    Short
                           tolerant           season    mowing
Buffalo     Less           Yes                A– S      Yes
Page 19                                       shorter
Zoysia      Less           Yes                A– S      Yes
Page 14                                       shorter
Bermuda     More           Yes                A– S      yes
Page 10                                       shorter
Fescue      More +         Moderate           March -   No
page 7                                        Nov
Kentucky    More+          Moderate           March -   No
Bluegrass                                     Nov
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Master Gardener Documents
Chapter 8

K-State fact sheets
– Turfgrass selection – professional series
– Turfgrass mowing – professional series
– Mowing your lawn -



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    Why is this important?
Master gardener connection
Common questions – expert advise
– Low maintenance turf
– Brown lawns
– Tune ups
– Equipment choices
Personal and community health
November 2nd event
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              Door prizes
Gas cans
– Small Business
  Environmental Assistance
  Program




John Deere



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    Suggestions or Questions?
 Wichita -
call Nancy at
722-7721 ext. 104

Nlarson@ksu.edu

 SBEAP Hotline
800-578-8898
www.sbeap.org



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