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Gun politics

Gun politics
This article is part of the Politics series Gun politics by country Australia Brazil Canada Czech Republic Finland Germany Mexico New Zealand Norway South Africa Switzerland United Kingdom United States Politics portal

Gun politics is a set of legal issues surrounding the ownership, use, and regulation of firearms as well as safety issues related to firearms both through their direct use and through legal and criminal use.[1]

International
National sovereignty
Most nations hold the power to protect themselves and police their own territory as a fundamental power vested by sovereignty. However, this power can be lost under certain circumstances. Some nations have been forced to disarm by other nations, upon losing a war, or by having arms embargos or sanctions placed on them. Likewise, nations that violate international arms control agreements, even if claiming to be acting within the scope of their national sovereignty, may find themselves with a range of penalties or sanctions regarding firearms placed on them by other nations.

A tower of confiscated smuggled weapons about to be set ablaze in Nairobi, Kenya

Enforcement
National and regional police and security services also conduct their own gun regulations. For example, the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) supports the United States’ International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) program "to aggressively enforce this mission and reduce the number of weapons that are illegally trafficked worldwide from the United States and used to commit acts of international terrorism, to subvert restrictions imposed by other nations on their residents, and to further organized crime and narcotics-related activities. [2]

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Gun politics
In 2005, a referendum was held in Brazil on the sale of firearms and ammunition to attempt to lower the number of deaths due to guns. Material focused on gun rights in opposition to the gun ban was translated from information from the National Rifle Association, much of which focused on US Constitutional discussions focused around the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. As a result, "Now, a lot of Brazilians are insisting on their right to bear arms, they don’t even have a pseudo right to bear arms. It’s not in their Constitution."[5] Although the Brazilian Government, the Catholic Church, and the United Nations, among others, fought for the gun ban, "The gun ownership lobby successfully argued that guns were needed for personal security."[3]

Worldwide politics and legislation
There are many areas of debate into what kinds of firearms should be allowed to be privately owned, if any, and how, where and when they may be used.

Australia
Firearm laws in Australia are enforced at a State level. The minimum age for any shooter is 12 years. To obtain a full firearm license a person must pass a background check, a basic course of firearm safety and be of at least 18 years of age. For every firearm, a purchaser must obtain a Permit To Acquire. The first permit for each person has a mandatory 28 day delay before it is issued. In some states, such as Queensland, this is waived for second and subsequent firearms of the same class, whilst in others, it is not. For each firearm a "Genuine Reason" must be given, relating to pest control, hunting, target shooting, or collecting. Self-defense is not accepted as a reason for issuing a license.

Canada
Canada requires all firearms to be registered with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and all firearms owners to be licensed by the Canadian Firearms Program. The licensing requires extensive background and criminal record checks, that applicants take the Canadian Firearms Safety Course, and that all firearms must be stored locked and unloaded.[7] There is concern in Canada about the smuggling of handguns into Canada across the border from the United States where firearms are more easily purchased.[8]

Brazil
All firearms in Brazil are required to be registered with the state; the minimum age for ownership is 25[3] and it is generally illegal to carry a gun outside a residence.[4] The total number of firearms in Brazil is thought to be around 17 million[4] with 9 million of those being unregistered.[3] Some 39,000 people died in 2003 due to gun-related injuries nationwide.[4] In 2004, the number was 36,000.[3] Although Brazil has 100 million fewer citizens than the United States, and more restrictive gun laws, there are 25 percent more gun deaths;[5] other sources indicate that homicide rates due to guns are approximately four times higher than the rate in the United States.[6] Brazil has the second largest arms industry in the Western Hemisphere.[6] Approximately 80 percent of the weapons manufactured in Brazil are exported, mostly to neighboring countries; many of these weapons are then smuggled back into Brazil.[6] Some firearms in Brazil come from police and military arsenals, having either been "stolen or sold by corrupt soldiers and officers."[6]

East Timor
Under East Timorese law, only the military and police forces may legally possess, carry and use firearms. However, despite these laws, East Timor has many problems with illegally-armed militias, including widespread violence in 2006 which resulted in over 100,000 people being forced from their homes, as well as two separate assassination attempts on the Prime Minister and President in early 2008. However, in late June 2008, the Prime Minister, Xanana Gusmao, introduced a proposed gun law to Parliament for "urgent debate", pushing back scheduled budgetary discussions. This has sparked heated scenes in the East Timorese parliament between the parliamentarians who support the new law and those who oppose it. The United Nations, which has a peacekeeping force deployed in the nation, also expressed concern over the new law. However, State Secretary for

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Defence, Julio Tomas Pinto, defended the proposed law in Parliament on Monday, saying many countries in the world allowed citizens to own guns.[9]

Gun politics
reason" for each firearm held (e.g. pest control or target shooting) and may place restrictions on the FAC relating to the type and amount of ammunition that is held and the places and the uses the firearms are put to.[17] While as late as the 1950s most certificates approved for handguns listed "self defence" as a reason, since 1968 self defense alone is not considered an acceptable "good reason" for firearm ownership. The police may amend, or revoke an FAC at any time and refuse a FAC for any reason. Air rifles under 12 ft/lbs and air pistols under 6 ft/lbs can be brought legally by anyone over the age of 18, and do not require any licensing.[18]

European Union
In late 2007 the European Union lawmakers adopted a legislative report to tighten gun control laws and establish an extensive firearms database.[10] Passed with overwhelming backing, the tough new gun control rules were "hoped to prevent Europe from becoming a gun-friendly culture like the United States".[11]

Czech Republic
Gun ownership in the Czech Republic is regulated by relatively liberal gun laws compared to the rest of Europe. The last Gun Act was passed in 2001 and replaced the old Law tightening the legislation slightly. Generally guns in the Czech Republic are available to anybody above 18 (or 21) with a clean criminal history. The gun ownership is also acceptable for self-defense purposes. Unlike most European countries the Czech gun laws allow its citizens to carry a concealed weapon without having any specific reason.

Finland Germany

Japan
Japan, in the postwar period, has had gun regulation which is strict in principle, but the application and enforcement has been inefficient. Gun licensing is required, but is generally treated as only a formality. There are background check requirements, but these requirements are typically not enforced unless a specific complaint has been filed, and then background checks are made after the fact. As is common in Japan, "regulations are treated more as road maps than as rules subject to active enforcement. Japan is still a very safe country when it comes to guns, a reality that has less to do with laws than with prevailing attitudes".[19][20] The weapons law begins by stating "Noone shall possess a fire-arm or fire-arms or a sword or swords", and very few exceptions are allowed.[19] The only types of firearms which a Japanese citizen may even contemplate acquiring is a rifle or shotgun. Sportsmen are permitted to possess shotguns or rifles for hunting and for skeet and trap shooting, but only after submitting to a lengthy licensing procedure.[21] Without a license, a person may not even hold a gun in his or her hands. Recently in Japan the ruling conservative Liberal Democratic Party, in response to violent crimes by minors and gangsters, has called for rewriting the constitution to include new more stringent firearms control measures.[22] In January 2008 Prime Minister

United Kingdom
The UK has one of the lowest levels of gun ownership and one of the lowest rates of intentional gun deaths.[12] The gun crime rate rose between 1997 and 2004 but has since fallen back a little,[13] while the number of homicides from gun crime has largely remained static over the past decade.[14] Over the course of the 20th century, the UK gradually implemented tighter regulation of the civilian ownership of firearms through the enactment of the 1968, 1988, 1994 and 1997 Firearms (Amendment) Acts[15] leading to the current outright ban on the ownership of all automatic, and most self-loading, firearms in the UK. The ownership of breech-loading handguns is, in particular, also very tightly controlled and effectively limited (other than in Northern Ireland[16]) to those persons who may require such a handgun for the non routine humane killing of injured or dangerous animals. Each firearm owned must be registered on a Firearms Certificate (FAC) or shotgun certificate which is issued by the local police authority who will require the prospective owner to demonstrate a "good

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Yasuo Fukuda in a policy speech called for tighter regulations on firearms.[23]

Gun politics
and shooting is a popular sport in all the Swiss cantons.

Mexico
Mexico has strict gun laws. Mexican citizens may purchase arms for self-protection or hunting only after receiving approval of a petition to the Defense Ministry, which performs extensive background checks. The allowed weapons are restricted to relatively low-caliber and must be purchased from the Defense Ministry only. President Felipe Calderón has recently called attention to the problem of the smuggling of guns from the United States into Mexico, guns which are easily available both legally and illegally in the United States, and has called for increased cooperation from the United States to stop this illegal weapons trafficking.[24][25]

United States

Houston gun show at the George R. Brown Convention Center The issue of firearms takes a high-profile position in United States culture and politics.[30] Michael Bouchard, Assistant Director/Field Operations of ATF, estimates that 5,000 gun shows take place each year in the United States.[31] Incidents of gun violence in ’gunfree’ school zones, such as the Virginia Tech massacre of 2007 have ignited debate[32] involving gun politics in the United States. Support for gun control in America has been steadily dropping. Currently, the American public strongly opposes attempts to ban gun ownership, and is divided on attempts to limit gun ownership. A 2008 Gallup poll revealed that 28% of the population supported a total ban on handguns — the lowest level since the poll was first taken in 1959 (when support for a total ban was 60% of the population). This same poll revealed that 49% of Americans in 2008 preferred more restrictive gun laws, compared to 78% when the question was first asked in the 1990 version of the poll.[33] A 2009 CNN poll found even lower levels of support for gun laws: in this poll, only 39% favored more restrictive laws. The poll indicates that the drop in support (compared to 2001 polls) came from self-identified Independents, with levels of opposition among Democrats and Republicans remaining consistent.[34] There is a sharp divide between gun-rights proponents[35] and gun-control proponents.[36] This leads to intense political debate over the effectiveness of firearm regulation.[37]

Norway
While having a large amount of civilian owned guns, Norway has a low gun crime rate.

South Africa Switzerland
Switzerland requires every male over the age of 20 to own an assault rifle (specifically SIG 550 in 5.56 cal.). In one study by David Kopel of seven countries, including the United States and Japan, Switzerland is found to be one of the safest countries in the study.[26] In recent times political opposition has expressed a desire for tighter gun regulations.[26] Switzerland practices universal conscription, which requires that all able-bodied male citizens keep fully-automatic firearms at home in case of a call-up. Every male between the ages of 20 and 42 is considered a candidate for conscription into the military, and following a brief period of active duty will commonly be enrolled in the militia until age or an inability to serve ends his service obligation.[27] During their enrollment in the armed forces, these men are required to keep their government-issued selective fire combat rifles and semi-automatic handguns in their homes.[28] Up until September 2007, soldiers also received 20 rounds of government-issued ammunition in a sealed box for storage at home.[29] In addition to these official weapons, Swiss citizens are allowed to purchase surplus-to-inventory combat rifles,

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On the whole, Republicans are far less likely to support gun control than are Democrats. According to a 2004 Harris Interactive survey: Republicans and Democrats hold different views on gun control. A 71% to 11% majority of Democrats favors "stricter" rather than "less strict" gun control, whereas Republicans are split 35% "stricter" to 35% "less strict" with 24% of Republicans and 13% of Democrats opting for "neither".[38] The division of beliefs may be attributable to the fact that Republicans are more likely to own guns, according to General Social Surveys conducted during the last 35 years. The graphs, below, show that gun ownership has generally declined; however, Republicans — especially men — are far more likely to own "guns or revolvers."[39] More recently in a 2008 survey completed by Gallup, there are large differences between Republicans and Democrats on the issues of gun ownership and control:[40] •More than half of Republicans report having a gun in their homes, while only about a third of Democrats report this. •Two in three Republicans say they are satisfied with the nation’s laws or policies on guns. This percentage is much lower among Democrats, at 37%. •The strong majority of Democrats feel that gun laws in the United States should be stricter, while only about 4 in 10 Republicans feel this way. Forty-eight percent of Republicans feel gun laws should remain as they are at the present time.

Gun politics

Incidents of gun violence and self-defense have routinely ignited bitter debate. About 10,000 murders are committed using firearms annually,[41] while an estimated 2.5 million crimes are thwarted through civilian use of firearms annually.[42][43][44][45] The American Journal of Public Health conducted a study that concluded "the United States has higher rates of firearm ownership than do other developed nations, and higher rates of homicide. Of the 233,251 people who were homicide victims in the United States between 1988 and 1997, 68% were killed with guns, of which the large majority were handguns."[46] The ATF estimated in 1995 that the number of firearms available in the US was 223 million.[47] Some perceive that firearms registration – by making it easier for Federal agents to target gun owners for harassment and confiscation – constitutes an easily exploited encroachment upon individual personal privacy and property rights.[48][49][50][51] In contrast, in a 2008 brief submitted to the United State Supreme Court, the Department of Justice advocated that reasonable regulation of weaponry has always been allowed by the Second Amendment in the interests of public safety.[52] In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Second Amendment secures an individual right to own and possess handguns in a home for self-defense. See below. Fully-automatic firearms are legal in most states, but have requirements for registration and restriction under federal law. The National Firearms Act of 1934 required approval of the local police chief, federally registered fingerprints, federal background check and the payment of a $200 tax for

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initial registration and for each transfer.[53] The Gun Control Act of 1968 prohibited imports of all nonsporting firearms and created several new categories of restricted firearms. The act also prohibited further registry of most automatic firearms. A provision of the Firearm Owners Protection Act of 1986 banned private ownership of machine guns manufactured after it took effect.[54] The result has been a massive rise in the price of machine-guns available for private ownership, as an increased demand chases the fixed, pre-1986 supply. For example, the Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine-gun, which may be sold to law enforcement for about $1,000,[55] costs a private citizen about $20,000.[56] This price difference dwarfs the $200 tax stamp. Political scientist Earl R. Kruschke states, regarding the fully-automatic firearms owned by private citizens in the United States, that "approximately 175,000 automatic firearms have been licensed by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (the federal agency responsible for administration of the law) and evidence suggests that none of these weapons has ever been used to commit a violent crime."[57]

Gun politics
though lesser correlation between gun ownership and total homicide rates.[63] It also reported a strong correlation between gun-related homicide of women and gun-related assaults against women; however, this was not the case for similar crimes against men.[64] Similarly, a study by Rich et al. on suicide rates in Toronto and Ontario and psychiatric patients from San Diego reached the conclusion that increased gun restrictions, while reducing suicide-by-gun, resulted in no net decline in suicides, because of substitution of another method — namely leaping.[65] Killias argues against the theory of complete substitution, citing a number of studies that have indicated, in his view "rather convincingly", that suicidal candidates far from always turn to another means of suicide if their preferred means is not at hand.[64]

Resisting tyranny
Advocates for gun rights often point to previous totalitarian regimes that passed gun control legislation, which was later followed by confiscation. Totalitarian governments such as Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, as well as some communist states such as the People’s Republic of China are cited as examples of this,[66][67][68] (Note that Nazi Germany only restricted Jews’ gun rights, while lessening restrictions for others). Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union did not abolish personal gun ownership during the initial period from 1918 to 1929; the introduction of gun control in 1929 coincided with the beginning of the repressive Stalinist regime as part of Resolutions, 1918 Decree, July 12, 1920 Art. 59 & 182, Pen. code, 1926. Gun control opponents often cite the example of the Nazi regime. In their view, once the Nazis had taken and consolidated their power, they proceeded to implement gun control laws to disarm the population and wipe out the opposition, and genocide of disarmed Jews, gypsies, and other undesirables followed.[69][70][71] Pro-gun control historians have pointed out that already the democratic Weimar Republic had restrictive gun laws, which were actually liberalized by the Nazis. According to the Weimar Republic 1928 Law on Firearms & Ammunition, firearms acquisition or carrying permits were “only to be granted to persons of undoubted reliability, and — in the case of a firearms carry permit — only if a demonstration of need is set

District of Columbia v Heller
On June 26, 2008, the U.S. Supreme Court held that American citizens have an individual right to own guns, as defined by the Second Amendment of the Constitution. In District of Columbia v. Heller,[58] the Court stated that an absolute firearm ban was unconstitutional.[59] The Court further determined that its decision in Heller does not impinge upon existing statutes and regulations, such as those that prohibit felons and the mentally-ill from owning or possessing firearms.[60]

Arguments
Gun ownership and gun violence
Several studies have examined the correlations between rates of gun ownership and gun-related as well as overall homicide and suicide rates within various jurisdictions around the world.[61][62] Martin Killias, in a study covering 21 countries, found that there were substantial correlations between gun ownership and gun-related suicide and homicide rates. There was also a substantial

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forth.” The Nazis replaced this law with the Weapons Law of March 18, 1938, which was very similar in structure and wording, but relaxed gun control requirements for the general populace. The relaxation included, for example, the exemption from regulation of all weapons and ammunition except handguns, the extension of the range of persons exempt from the permit requirement, and the lowering of the age for acquisition of firearms from 20 to 18. It did, however, prohibit manufacturing of firearms and ammunition by Jews.[72] Shortly thereafter, in the additional Regulations Against Jew’s Possession of Weapons of November 11, 1938, Jews were forbidden from possession of any weapons at all.[71][72] Location and capture of such records is a standard doctrine taught to military intelligence officers; and was widely practiced by German and Soviet troops during World War II.[69][70] The Battles of Lexington and Concord, sometimes known as the Shot heard ’round the world, in the 1770s, were started in part because General Gage sought to carry out an order by the British government to disarm the populace.[73]

Gun politics
uses of guns by crime victims each year are probably substantially larger than the largest estimates of the number of crimes committed of offenders using guns.[77] Thus, defensive gun use by victims is both effective and, relative to criminal uses, frequent. The economist John Lott, in his book More Guns, Less Crime, claims to have shown the laws making it easier for noncriminals to get a permit to carry a gun in public places causes reductions in crime. Lott’s results suggest that allowing law-abiding citizens to carry concealed firearms deters crime because potential criminals do not know who may or may not be carrying a firearm. Lott’s data came from the FBI’s crime statistics from all 3,054 US counties.[78] Critics, mostly gun-control advocates, have asserted that Lott’s county-based crime data were largely meaningless because they did not reflect actual rates of crime in all the counties that Lott studied, but rather the number of crimes occurring in whatever local jurisdictions (towns and cities) that happened to report their crime statistics to state authorities. Thus, some of the supposed crime drops that Lott attributed to the new carry laws could merely have been the result of fewer local police forces reporting crime statistics. Lott answered their assertions by publishing his study and noting that this fact was taken into account by using the same police agencies that reported their statistics both before and after the new concealed carry laws took effect. The efficacy of gun control legislation at reducing the availability of guns has been challenged by, among others, the testimony of criminals that they do not obey gun control laws, and by the lack of evidence of any efficacy of such laws in reducing violent crime. The most thorough analysis of the impact of gun control laws, by Kleck, covered 18 major types of gun control and every major type of violent crime or violence (including suicide), and found that gun laws generally had no significant effect on violent crime rates or suicide rates.[79] In his paper, Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do not,[80] University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt argues that available data indicate that neither stricter gun control laws nor more liberal concealed carry laws have had any significant effect on the decline in crime in the 1990s. While the debate remains

Self-defense
In an extensive series of studies of large, nationally representative samples of crime incidents, criminologist Gary Kleck found that crime victims who defend themselves with guns are less likely to be injured or lose property than victims who either did not resist, or resisted without guns. This was so even though the victims using guns typically faced more dangerous circumstances than other victims. The findings applied to both robberies and assaults.[74] Other research on rape indicated that although victims rarely resisted with guns, those using other weapons were less likely to be raped, and no more likely to suffer other injuries besides rape itself, than victims who did not resist, or resisted without weapons.[75] There is no evidence that victim use of a gun for self-protection provokes offenders into attacking the defending victim or results in the offender taking the gun away and using it against the victim.[76] Kleck has also shown, in his own national survey, and in other surveys with smaller sample sizes, that the numbers of defensive

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hotly disputed, it is therefore not surprising that a comprehensive review of published studies of gun control, released in November 2004 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was unable to determine any reliable statistically significant effect resulting from such laws, although the authors suggest that further study may provide more conclusive information. Thirty-nine U.S. states have passed "shall issue" concealed carry legislation of one form or another. In these states, law-abiding citizens (usually after giving evidence of completing a training course) may carry handguns on their person for self-protection. Other states and some cities such as New York may issue permits. Only Illinois, Wisconsin and the District of Columbia have explicit legislation forbidding personal carry. Vermont and Alaska do not require permits to carry concealed weapons, although Alaska retains a shall issue permit process for reciprocity purposes with other states. Supporters of gun-rights consider self-defense to be a fundamental and inalienable human right and believe that firearms are an important tool in the exercise of this right. They consider the prohibition of an effective means of self defense to be unethical and to violate Constitutional guarantees. For instance, in Thomas Jefferson’s "Commonplace Book," a quote from Cesare Beccaria reads, "laws that forbid the carrying of arms ... disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes ... Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants; they serve rather to encourage than to prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed man."[81][82][83]

Gun politics
each over five years, and found that the risk of a homicide was in fact slightly higher in homes where a handgun was present, rather than lower. From the details of the homicides he concluded that the risk of a crime of passion or other domestic dispute ending in a fatal injury was much higher when a gun was readily available (essentially all the increased risk being in homes where a handgun was kept loaded and unlocked), compared to a lower rate of fatality in domestic violence not involving a firearm. This increase in mortality, he postulated, was large enough to overwhelm any protective effect the presence of a gun might have by deterring or defending against burglaries or home invasions, which occurred much less frequently. The increased risk averaged over all homes containing guns was similar in size to that correlated with an individual with a criminal record living in the home, but substantially less than that associated with demographic factors known to be risks for violence, such as renting a home versus ownership, or living alone versus with others.[84] Critics of Kellermann’s work and its use by advocates of gun control point out that since it deliberately ignores crimes of violence occurring outside the home (Kellermann states at the outset that the characteristics of such homicides are much more complex and ambiguous, and would be virtually impossible to classify rigorously enough), it is more directly a study of domestic violence than of gun ownership. Kellermann does in fact include in the conclusion of his 1993 paper several paragraphs referring to the need for further study of domestic violence and its causes and prevention. Researchers John Lott, Gary Kleck and many others dispute Kellermann’s work.[85][86][87][88] Kleck showed that no more than a handful of the homicides that Kellermann studied were committed with guns belonging to the victim or members of his or her household, and thus it was implausible that victim household gun ownership contributed to their homicide. Instead, the association that Kellermann found between gun ownership and victimization merely reflected the widely accepted notion that people who live in more dangerous circumstances are more likely to be murdered, but also were more likely to have acquired guns for self-protection prior to their death[89] Kleck and others argue that guns being used to protect property, save lives,

Domestic violence
Gun control advocates argue that the strongest evidence linking availability of guns to injury and mortality rates comes in studies of domestic violence, most often referring to the series of studies by Arthur Kellermann. In response to public suggestions by some advocates of firearms for home defense, that homeowners were at high risk of injury from home invasions and would be wise to acquire a firearm for purposes of protection, Kellermann investigated the circumstances surrounding all in-home homicides in three cities of about half a million population

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and deter crime without killing the criminal accounts for the large majority of defensive gun uses.[90][91][92]

Gun politics
in...recommending...policy prescriptions on the basis of the promised or probable results [on crime]...Thus these essays are not fundamentally about guns at all. They are, foremost, about...the kind of people we intend to be...and the ethical and political consequences of decisions [to control firearms]."[100] He terms the main principle behind gun control "the instrumental theory of salvation:" that, lacking the ability to change the violent intent in criminals, we often shift focus to the instrument in an attempt to "limit our ability to hurt ourselves, and one another."[101] His work discusses the consequences that flow from conditioning the liberties of all citizens upon the behavior of criminals. Some of the earliest gun-control legislation at the state level were the "black codes" that replaced the "slave codes" after the Civil War, attempting to prevent blacks’ having access to the full rights of citizens, including the right to keep and bear arms.[102] Laws of this type later used racially neutral language to survive legal challenge, but were expected to be enforced against blacks rather than whites.[103] A favorite target of gun control is so-called "junk guns," which are generally cheaper and therefore more accessible to the poor. However, some civil rights organizations favor tighter gun regulations. In 2003, the NAACP filed suit against 45 gun manufacturers for creating what it called a "public nuisance" through the "negligent marketing" of handguns, which included models commonly described as Saturday night specials. The suit alleged that handgun manufacturers and distributors were guilty of marketing guns in a way that encouraged violence in black and Hispanic neighborhoods. "The gun industry has refused to take even basic measures to keep criminals and prohibited persons from obtaining firearms," NAACP President/CEO Kweisi Mfume said. "The industry must be as responsible as any other and it must stop dumping firearms in over-saturated markets. The obvious result of dumping guns is that they will increasingly find their way into the hands of criminals."[104] The NAACP lawsuit was dismissed in 2003.[105] It, and several similar suits—some brought by municipalities seeking re-imbursement for medical costs associated with criminal shootings—were portrayed by gunrights groups as "nuisance suits," aimed at

Armed forces’ reserves and reservist training
In several countries, such as in Finland, the firearm politics and gun control is directly linked on the armed forces’ reserves and reservist training. This is especially true in countries which base their armies on conscription; since every able-bodied male basically is a soldier, he is expected to be able to handle the gun reasonably and be able to practice for the time of need. Switzerland is a noted example of a country in which, due to the country’s conscription and militia traditions, firearm ownership is widespread. Owing to Switzerland’s history, all able-bodied male Swiss citizens aged between 21 and 50 (55 for officers) are issued assault rifles and ammunition in order to perform their annual military obligations. Because of this, Switzerland is one of the few nations in the world with a higher rate of firearm ownership than the United States.[93] Also, Switzerland has a relatively low rate of gun crime.[93] The comparatively low level of violent crime, despite the liberal gun laws, is demonstrated by the fact that Swiss politicians rarely have the same level of police protection as their counterparts in the United States and other countries, as was noted following the fatal shooting of several government officials in the Swiss canton of Zug in September 2001.[94] According to many historians, Switzerland’s militia tradition of "every man a soldier" contributed to the preservation of its neutrality during the Second World War, when it was not invaded by Nazi Germany. Switzerland was not invaded because the military cost to the Nazis would have been too high,[95][96][97] although this is meanwhile considered a legend regarding the existence of detailed invasion plans, which rated the Swiss defense capacity as overall low.[98][99]

Civil rights
Jeff Snyder is perhaps the best known spokesman for the view that gun possession is a civil right, and that therefore arguments about whether gun restrictions reduce or increase violent crime are beside the point: "I am not here engaged

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driving gun manufacturers (especially smaller firms) out of business through court costs alone, as damage awards were not expected.[106] These suits prompted the passage of the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act in October, 2005. Martin Luther King said, "By our readiness to allow arms to be purchased at will and fired at whim... we have created an atmosphere in which violence and hatred have become popular pastimes."[107] Inversely, the Dalai Lama said "If someone has a gun and is trying to kill you, it would be reasonable to shoot back with your own gun." (May 15, 2001, The Seattle Times) speaking at the "Educating Heart Summit" in Portland, Oregon, when asked by a girl how to react when a shooter takes aim at a classmate.

Gun politics
the shootings occurring in that context. In many of the latter cases, the victim firing in self-defense is frequently a woman or youth victim of a more physically powerful abuser. In those situations gun rights advocates argue that the firearm arguably becomes an equalizer against the lethal and disabling force frequently exercised by the abusers.[110] In 2002 in the U.S., 1,202 women were killed by their intimate partners, accounting for 30 percent of the 4006 women murdered that year. A total of 700 women were killed by intimate partners using guns.[111] The same year, 175 men were killed by intimate partners.[112] Many gun control opponents point to statistics in advertising campaigns purporting that "approximately 9 or so children are killed by people discharging firearms every day across the US,"[113] and argue that this statistic is seldom accompanied by a differentiation of those children killed by individuals from unintentional discharges and stray bullets, and of those "children," under the age of majority—which is 18-21 in the U.S.—who are killed while acting as aggressors in street gang related mutual combat or while committing crimes,[114][115] many of which are seen as arising from the War on Drugs. There is further controversy regarding courts, trials, and the resulting sentences of these mostly "young men" as adults despite them not having reached the age of consent. A significant number of gun related deaths occur through suicide. According to statistics available from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, of nearly 31,000 firearm-related deaths in 2005, suicides account for 55 percent of deaths in the United States whereas homicides account for 40 percent of deaths, accidents account for three percent, and the remaining two percent were legal killings. Public Health researchers state that the likelihood of someone dying from suicide or homicide is greater in homes where guns are present.[116]

Civic duty
The Militia Information Service (MIS) contends that gun ownership is a civic duty in the context of membership of the militia, much like voting, neither of which they believe should be restricted to government officials in a true democracy.[108] MIS also states that the people need to maintain the power of the sword so they can fulfil their duty, implicit in the social contract, to protect the rights and liberties of their fellow citizens, much as individual citizens have a legal and ethical duty to protect dependents under their care, such as a child, an elderly parent or a disabled spouse.[109]

Statistics
Private Ownership of guns
Private ownership of guns and their relationship to domestic violence casualties is a significant variable used for political leverage in the policy debate. While many shootings occurring in the course of a mutual argument of passion, others occur where a partner or family member of a "romantic" or familial relationship, who is an ongoing victim of domestic physical abuse or sexual abuse, uses the force of a firearm in self-defense action against a perpetrator who also happens to be known to or related to the victim. As a corollary, in such policy advertising campaigns, the comparison of "domestic" gun casualties is usually not accompanied by murder and assault prosecution numbers stemming from

Gun safety and gun laws
There has been widespread agreement that the importance of gun safety education has a mitigating effect on the occurrence of accidental discharges involving children. There is somewhat less agreement about vicarious

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liability case law assigning strict liability to the gun owner for firearms casualties occurring when a careless gun owner loses proper custody and control of a firearm. The National Center for Policy Analysis, a conservative think tank, reported the following statistics[117] • New Jersey adopted what sponsors described as "the most stringent gun law" in the nation in 1966; two years later, the murder rate was up 46% and the reported robbery rate had nearly doubled. • In 1968, Hawaii imposed a series of increasingly harsh measures, and its murder rate tripled from a low of 2.4 per 100,000 in 1968 to 7.2 by 1977. • In 1976, Washington, D.C., enacted one of the most restrictive gun control laws in the nation. Since then, the city’s murder rate has risen 134% while the national murder rate has dropped 2%. In addition: • Over 50% of American households own guns, despite government statistics showing the number is approximately 35%, because guns not listed on any government roll were not counted during the gathering of data.[118] • Evanston, Illinois, a Chicago suburb of 75,000 residents, became the largest town to ban handgun ownership in September 1982 but experienced no decline in violent crime. It has subsequently ended its ban as a result of the District of Columbia v. Heller Supreme Court case, upon a federal lawsuit by the National Rifle Association being filed the day after Heller was settled. • Among the 15 states with the highest homicide rates, 10 have restrictive or very restrictive gun laws.[119] • Twenty percent of U.S. homicides occur in four cities with just 6% of the population—New York, Chicago, Detroit and Washington, D.C.—and each has or, in the cases of Detroit (until 2001) and D.C. (2008) had, a requirement for a licence on private handguns or an effective outright ban (in the case of Chicago).[120] • In England, Wales and Scotland, the private ownership of most handguns was banned in 1997 following a gun massacre at a school in Dunblane and an earlier gun massacre in Hungerford in which the combined deaths was 35 and injured 30. Gun ownership and gun crime was already

Gun politics
at a low level, which made these slaughters particularly concerning. Only an estimated 57,000 people —0.1% of the population owned such weapons prior to the ban.[121] Only 8 per cent of all criminal homicides are committed with a firearm of any kind.[122] In 2005/6 the number of such deaths in England and Wales (population 53.3 million) was just 50, a reduction of 36 per cent on the year before and lower than at any time since 1998/9. The lowest rate of gun crime was in 2004/4 whilst the highest was in 1994. There was, however, a noticeable temporary increase in gun crime in the years immediately after the ban, though this has since fallen back. The reason for the increase has not been investigated thoroughly but it is thought that 3 factors may have raised the number of guns in circulation. These are, the reduction in gun crime in Northern Ireland (which led to guns coming from there to the criminal black market in England); guns (official issue or confiscated) acquired by military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan; and guns coming from Eastern Europe after the fall of the iron curtain. Firearm injuries in England and Wales also noticeably increased in this time.[123] In 2005-06, of 5,001 such injuries, 3,474 (69%) were defined as "slight," and a further 965 (19%) involved the "firearm" being used as a blunt instrument. Twentyfour percent of injuries were caused with air guns, and 32% with "imitation firearms" (including soft air guns).[124] Since 1998, the number of fatal shootings has varied between 49 and 97, and was 50 in 2005. In Scotland the picture has been more varied with no pattern of rise or fall appearing. • Violent crime accelerated in Jamaica after handguns were heavily restricted and a special Gun Court established.[125] The FBI’s annual Uniform Crime Report ranking of cities over 40,000 in population by violent crime rates (per 100,000 population) finds that the ten cities with the highest violent crime rates for 2003 include three cities in the very strict state of New Jersey, one in the fairly restrictive state of Massachusetts.

See also
• Ballistic fingerprinting

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# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 • • • • • • • City Saginaw Irvington Camden Alexandria Detroit East Orange Atlanta Springfield Fort Myers Miami State MI NJ NJ LA MI NJ GA MA FL FL

Gun politics

Concealed carry Gun violence and crime Gun violence in the United States Hoplophobia One handgun a month law Open carry Political arguments of gun politics in the United States • Right to arms • School shootings

References
[1] Spitzer, Donald J.,The Politics of Gun Control, Page 1. Chatham House Publishers, Inc., 1995. [2] Tracing Illegal Small Arms: An ATF Program US State Department [3] ^ "Brazilians reject gun sales ban". BBCNEWS. October 24, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/ americas/4368598.stm. Retrieved on 2008-06-17. [4] ^ Hearn, Kelly (October 5, 2005). "The NRA Takes on Gun Control – in Brazil". Alternet. http://www.alternet.org/story/ 27279/. Retrieved on 2008-06-17. [5] ^ Associated Press (October 23, 2005). "Brazilians Block Gun Ban". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/ 0,2933,173154,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-18. [6] ^ Rohter, Larry (October 20, 2005). "Gun-Happy Brazil Hotly Debates a Nationwide Ban". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/20/ international/americas/20brazil.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-18. [7] "Gun Control in Canada". http://www.canadianembassy.org/ government/guncontrol-en.asp. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. [8] "Layton talks tough on handguns". http://www.thestar.com/News/GTA/ article/295704. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. [9] "PM gunning for a law change". Herald Sun. 3 July 2008. http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/ story/ 0,21985,23961428-5012752,00.html.

Gun political groups
• American Hunters and Shooters Association • Americans for Democratic Action • Americans for Gun Safety Foundation • Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence • British Association for Shooting and Conservation • Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms • Coalition to Stop Gun Violence • Gun Control Australia • Gun Owners of America • Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership • Law Enforcement Alliance of America • League of Women Voters • Liberty Belles • Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition • National Rifle Association of the United States • Pink Pistols • Schweizerischer Schützenverein • Second Amendment Foundation • Second Amendment Sisters • Students for Concealed Carry on Campus • Sporting Shooters Association of Australia

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[10] "JURIST - Paper Chase: EU lawmakers seek tougher gun control rules". http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/ 2007/11/eu-lawmakers-seek-toughergun-control.php. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [11] "EU legislators push tougher gun controls - International Herald Tribune". http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/11/29/ europe/union.php. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [12] Cukier, Wendy; Antoine Chapdelaine, (April 2001). "Small Arms: A Major Public Health Hazard". Medicine & Global Survival (See Figure 2 Firearms possession and intentional firearm deaths) Vol. 7 (No. 1). http://www.ippnw.org/Resources/MGS/ V7N1Cukier.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-03-18. [13] Violent Crime Overview, Homicide and Gun Crime 2004/2005, Home Office, p. 72 (Fig 3.1), http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/ pdfs06/hosb0206.pdf [14] Violent Crime Overview, Homicide and Gun Crime 2004/2005, Home Office, p. 82 (Table 3.02), http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/ pdfs06/hosb0206.pdf [15] Firearms (Amendment) Act 1997 (c. 5) [16] [1] Article 3, page 75 [17] Firearms Enquiries [18] http://www.politics.co.uk/briefingsguides/issue-briefs/domestic-policy/ crime/weapons/gun-crime-$477769.htm [19] ^ Squires, Peter (2000). Gun culture or gun control?: firearms, violence and society. New York: Routledge. pp. Pg 184. ISBN 0-415-17086-9. "...Japanese firearm controls are reportedly strict...but enforcement of gun control policy is said to be complex and inefficient" [20] "Japan faces up to a world of gun crime". December 23, 2007. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/ fd20071223pb.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [21] D Bayley, Forces of Order: Police Behavior in Japan and the United States (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), Art 4, 23. [22] "LDP’s platform to call for a new Constitution". http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/

Gun politics
nn20070524a3.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [23] "CNW Group". http://www.newswire.ca/ en/releases/archive/January2008/18/ c2417.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [24] "US guns arm Mexico’s drug wars". http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0719/ p01s01-woam.html?page=1. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. [25] "U.S., Mexico set sights on stopping flow of weapons to cartels". http://www.dallasnews.com/ sharedcontent/dws/news/world/mexico/ stories/DNagmexico_17int.ART.North.Edition1.3736b8f.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. [26] ^ "International perspectives on gun conrol". http://www.davekopel.com/2a/ LawRev/lrnylstk.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-30. [27] The Swiss Army at Europeforvisitors.com [28] Swiss Miss, John R. Lott writing for The National Review, October 2nd, 2003. [29] "Gun laws under fire after latest shooting". Swissinfo. 27 November 2007. http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/search/ Result.html?siteSect=882&sid=8470114. [30] "A look inside America’s gun culture.". http://www.abc.net.au/news/indepth/ featureitems/s1899524.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. [31] "Oversight of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Part 2: Gun Show Enforcement" (PDF). Hearings before the House Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, 109th Congress, 2d Session, February 28, 2006. http://www.judiciary.house.gov/media/ pdfs/bouchard022806.pdf. [32] Nugent, Ted (2007-04-20). "Gun-free zones are recipe for disaster". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/04/19/ commentary.nugent/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-28. [33] "Before Recent Shootings, Gun-Control Support Was Fading". http://www.gallup.com/poll/117361/ Support-Gun-Control-Laws-TimeLows.aspx. Retrieved on 2009-05-17. [34] [hhttp://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/ 04/08/gun.control.poll/index.html "Poll: Fewer Americans support stricter gun control laws"]. hhttp://www.cnn.com/ 2009/POLITICS/04/08/gun.control.poll/ index.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-17.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gun politics

[35] Homegrown Gun Politics Plays Well With violence. 63. Policy Review. pp. Voters, Washington Post, 17 May 2007 58–65. NCJ 153748. [36] Cook, Philip J., Jens Ludwig (2000). [45] Edgar A. Suter, MD. "Guns in the "Chapter 3". Gun Violence: The Real Medical Literature - A Failure of Peer Costs. Oxford University Press. ISBN Review". http://teapot.usask.ca/cdn0-19-513793-0. firearms/Suter/med-lit.html. [37] Spitzer, Robert J. (1995). The politics of [46] Miller, Matthew, Deborah Azrael, and gun control. New York: Chatham House. David Hemenway (December 2002). pgs 13–15. ISBN 1-56643-022-4. "Rates of Household Firearm Ownership [38] "Harris Interactive | The Harris Poll and Homicide Across US Regions and Majority in U.S. Favors Stricter Gun States, 1988–1997". American Journal of Control – But Gun Control Is Not Likely Public Health. To Be Much of an Issue in Upcoming http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ Presidential Election". articlerender.fcgi?artid=1447364. Harrisinteractive.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-19. http://www.harrisinteractive.com/ [47] "Bureau of Justice Statistics Selected harris_poll/index.asp?PID=471. Findings" (PDF). Retrieved on 2008-09-05. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/ [39] Fried, Joseph, Democrats and guic.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. Republicans - Rhetoric and Reality (New [48] Licensing and Registration Statutes, York: Algora Publishing, 2008), 50-1. Hamline Law Review - Symposium on [40] "Guns". Gallup. 2007. Firearms Legislation and Litigation, Vol. http://www.gallup.com/poll/1645/ 6, No. 2. 1983 Guns.aspx. Retrieved on 2009-03-01. [49] Story,Joseph, A Familiar Exposition of [41] The statistic is taken from FBI reports on the Constitution of the United crime in 2005 at FBI Web site. According States(1986) Regnery Gateway, Chicago, to the FBI, 10,100 murders in 2005 were Illinois, p.319-320, ISBN 0-89526-796-9 committed with firearms. [50] Hardy,David T. The origins and [42] Kleck, Gary. "Targeting Guns: Firearms Development of the Second and their control". Amendment(1986), Blacksmith Corp., http://books.google.com/ Chino Valley, Arizona, pp.64-93, ISBN books?id=xJ3Y2-CHYfMC&pg=PA150&lpg=PA150&dq=kleck+defensive+uses&source=web&ots=sB 0-941540-13-8 Retrieved on 2008-01-24. [51] Halbrook, Stephen P. That Every Man be [43] LaPierre, Wayne (1994). Guns, Crime, Armed--The Evolution of a Constitutional and Freedom. Regnery Publishing, Inc., Right(1987), The University of New Washington, DC. pp. 23. Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New [44] Suter, E.A. (1992). "Firearms and the Mexico, pp.55-87, ISBN 0-8263-0868-6 killing threshold (Letter)". New England [52] "The Federal Government’s Brief in the Journal of Medicine 326: 1159. PMID D.C. Gun Ban Case: A Glass That Is More 1552925. Than Half Full". http://www.heritage.org/ [1] Kates, D.B. (1991). "The value of Research/LegalIssues/ civilian handgun possession as a wm1775.cfm#_ftn7. Retrieved on deterrent to crime or a defense 2008-01-23. against crime". American Journal [53] The ATF National Firearms Act of Criminal Law 18: 113–167. Handbook NCJ 132948. [54] The Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law [2] "Go ahead, make our day". The 90-618, with subsequent amendments New Republic. February 22, including the Firearm Owners Protection 1988. pp. pp. 7-9. Act [3] "Do guns save lives?". Time. [55] "For Sale: "MP5’s in .40 S&W" August 12, 1988. pp. pp. 25-26. MassCops.com, 12/30/04 [4] "Are we "a nation of cowards"?". [56] [2] Heckler & Koch MP5 A3, listing Newsweek. November 15, 1993. #976963191, GunsAmerica.com pp. pp. 93-94. [57] Kruschke, Earl R. (1995). Gun control: a [5] Kopel, D.B. (1993). Hold your reference handbook. Santa Barbara, fire: gun control won’t stop rising

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Calif: ABC-CLIO. pp. 85. ISBN 0-87436-695-X. [58] District of Columbia v Heller opinion [59] See also Parker v District of Columbia, 478 F.3d 370 (D.C. Cir. 2007). [60] Id. "The Second Amendment right to bear arms does not apply to: certain individuals (e.g. felons, mentally ill persons), broad classes of arms, and a wide variety of situations. Under the Solicitor General’s theory, the government would have broad discretion to carve out exceptions" [61] Gun Ownership, Suicide and Homicide: An International Perspective, Martin Killias [62] Firearm-related deaths in the United States and 35 other high- and uppermiddle income countries, EG Krug, KE Powell and LL Dahlberg, 1998 [63] [|Martin Killias] (1993). "Gun Ownership, Suicide and Homicide: An International Perspective" (PDF). http://www.unicri.it/ wwk/publications/books/series/ understanding/ 19_GUN_OWNERSHIP.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-01-16. "The present study, based on a sample of eighteen countries, confirms the results of previous work based on the 14 countries surveyed during the first International Crime Survey. Strong correlations were found between gun ownership and gun-related as well as total suicide, but that the overall rate of suicide using firearms is low, and homicide rates. Widespread gun ownership has not been found to reduce the likelihood of fatal events committed with other means. Thus, people do not turn to knives and other potentially lethal instruments less often when more guns are available," [64] ^ Killias, van Kesteren, and Rindlisbacher, "Guns, violent crime, and suicide in 21 countries"Canadian Journal of Criminology, October 2001, http://rechten.uvt.nl/icvs/pdffiles/ Guns_Killias_vanKesteren.pdf, [65] Rich, et al: "Guns and suicide: possible effects of some specific legislation" Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147:342-346 [66] Rummel,RJ, Death by Government (1994) Transaction Publishers, New Jersey, ISBN 1-56000-145-3 [67] Simkin, J, Zelman, and Rice, A, Lethal Laws: Gun Control is the Key to

Gun politics
Genocide-- Documentary Proof that Enforcement of Gun Control Laws Clears the way for Governments to Commit Genocide, Jews for the Preservation of Firearm Ownership, Inc.,1994, ISBN 0-9642304-0-2 [68] Courtois,S, Werth, N, Panne, J-L, et al., The Black Book of Communism--Crimes, Terror, Repression(1999), Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, ISBN 0-674-07608-7 [69] ^ Simkin, J, Zelman, and Rice, A, Lethal Laws: Gun Control is the Key to Genocide-- Documentary Proof that Enforcement of Gun Control Laws Clears the way for Governments to Commit Genocide, Jews for the Preservation of Firearm Ownership, Inc.,1994, pp.149-186, ISBN 0-9642304-0-2 [70] ^ Rummel,RJ, Death by Government (1994) Transaction Publishers, New Jersey, pp.111-122, ISBN 1-56000-145-3 [71] ^ Halbrook, Stephen P. (2000) "Nazi Firearms Law and the Disarming of the German Jews." Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol 17. No. 3. p.528. [72] ^ Harcourt, Bernard E (2004) "On the NRA, Adolph Hitler, Gun Registration, and the Nazi Gun Laws: Exploring the Culture Wars (A Call to Historians)", page 22 [73] Kopel, David B. The Samurai, the Mountie, and the Cowboy--Should America Adopt the Gun Controls of Other Democracies? (1992), Prometheus Books, New York, pp.313,351, ISBN 0-87975-756-6 [74] Kleck "Crime control through the use of armed force." Social Problems Feb. 1988; Kleck and DeLone "Victim resistance and offender weapon effects in robbery" Journal of Quantitative Criminology March 1993; Tark and Kleck "Resisting Crime" Criminology Nov. 2004 [75] Kleck and Sayles "Rape and Resistance" Social Problems May 1990 [76] Kleck, Chapter 7 in Armed, by Kleck and Don B. Kates, Jr. [77] Kleck, Chapter 6 in Armed, by Kleck and Don B. Kates, Jr. [78] Lott, John R.Jr., More Guns, Less Crime-Understanding Crime and Gun Control Laws(1998), The University of Chicago Press, Chicago Illinois, pp.50-122, ISBN 0-226-49363-6

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[79] Kleck and Patterson, Journal of Quantitative criminology Sept. 1993 [80] Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not, Steven D. Levitt, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 18 No. 1, 2004] [81] Story,Joseph, A Familiar Exposition of the Constitution of the United States(1986) Regnery Gateway, Chicago, Illinois, p.319-320, ISBN 0-89526-796-9 [82] Hardy,David T. The origins and Development of the Second Amendment(1986), Blacksmith Corp., Chino Valley, Arizona, pp.1-78, ISBN 0-941540-13-8 [83] Halbrook, Stephen P. That Every Man be Armed--The Evolution of a Constitutional Right(1987), The University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico, pp.1-88, ISBN 0-8263-0868-6 [84] Kellermann AL, Rivara FP, Rushforth NB, et al. Gun ownership as a risk factor for homicide in the home. N Engl J Med 1993;329(15):1084-1091. [85] Suter, Edgar A, Guns in the Medical Literature-- A Failure of Peer Review, Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia;83:133-152, March, 1994 [86] Kates DB, Schaffer HE, Lattimer JK, Murray GB, Cassem EH. Bad Medicine: Doctors and Guns in Guns – Who Should Have Them? (Ed., Kopel DB), New York, NY, Prometheus Books, 1995, pp. 233-308. [87] Faria MA Jr. The perversion of science and medicine (Part III): Public Health and Gun Control Research and (Part IV): The Battle Continues. Medical Sentinel 1997;2(3):81-82 and 83-86. [88] Kates DB, Schaffer HE, Lattimer JK, Murray GB, Cassem EH. Guns and public health: epidemic of violence or pandemic of propaganda? Tennessee Law Review 1995;62:513-596 [89] Kleck, Homicide Studies, Feb. 2001 [90] Suter E, Waters WC, Murray GB, et al. Violence in America-- effective solutions. J Med Assoc Ga 1995;84(6):253-264. [91] Lott, John JR. More Guns, Less Crime: Understanding Crime and Gun Control Laws. Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press, 1998. [92] Kleck G. Targeting Guns-- Firearms and Their Control. New York, NY, Aldine De Gruyter, 1997.

Gun politics
[93] ^ "What America can learn from Switzerland is that the best way to reduce gun misuse is to promote responsible gun ownership.", American Rifleman, February 1990 [94] ’Grudge’ behind Swiss gun massacre, CNN, September 2001 [95] Poe, Richard, The Seven Myths of Gun Control(2001), Prima Publishing, California, pp.75-83, ISBN 0-7615-2558-0 [96] Kopel, David B., Guns-- Who Should Have Them? (Ed., Kopel DB), New York, NY, Prometheus Books, 1995, pp. 42-43. [97] Kopel,David B., The Samurai, The Mountie and The Cowboy--Should America Adopt the Gun Control Laws of other Democracies? (1992) Prometheus Books, New York, pp.278-302, ISBN 0-87975-756-6 [98] Urner, Klaus Die Schweiz muss noch geschluckt werden, Zürich, Verlag Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 1990, ISBN 3-85823-303-X [99] Schelbert, Leo Switzerland under siege; Rockport, Maine; Picton, 2000, ISBN 0-89725-414-7 [100] nyder, J: Nation of Cowards: Essays on S the Ethics of Gun Control. Accurate Press, St. Louis, 2001:pp. i-ii [101]bid, p. 1 i [102] albrook, SP: That Every Man be Armed: H The evolution of a Constitutional Right. 2nd ed., The Independent Institute, Oakland, 1994:p. 108 [103] ramer, CE: The Racist Roots of Gun C Control, 1993 [104] ditors (Sept/Oct 1999) "NAACP causes E furor by suing gun manufacturers." New Crisis. [105]3] "Gun Makers Repel Lawsuit by [ N.A.A.C.P." New York Times, July 22, 2003 [106]Reckless Lawsuits: Courts Reject " Lawsuits against Gun Makers." NRA-ILA, October 16, 2003 [107] ing Jr., Martin Luther and Clayborne K Carson (2001) The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Grand Central Publishing. p. 147. [108] ilitia Information Service ": Facts M Page". http://www.militia.info/facts.html Militia Information Service. Retrieved on 2009-01-01. [109] ilitia Information Service ": Myths M Page". http://www.militia.info/myths.html

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Militia Information Service. Retrieved on 2009-01-01. [110] aciendapub.com gunpage 15 H [111] ISQARS, Injury Mortality Reports W [112] ureau of Justice Statistics, Homicide B Trends in the U.S.: Intimate Homicide [113] ed.umich.edu m [114] aciendapub.com gunpage12 H [115] aciendapub.com gunpage 13 H [116]More than half firearm deaths are " suicides" CNN.com, Retrieved 1 July 2008 [117] eynolds, Morgan O.; Caruth, W. W., III R (1992), Myths About Gun Control, National Center for Policy Analysis, ISBN 0-943802-99-7, http://www.ncpa.org/ pdfs/st176.pdf [118] df at ncjrs.gov p [119] ott, John JR. More Guns, Less Crime: L Understanding Crime and Gun Control Laws. Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press, 1998, pp.50-96,135-138. [120] eynolds, Morgan O. and Caruth, III, R W.W. (1992). NCPA Policy Report No. 176: Myths About Gun Control. National Center for Policy Analysis. p. 7. ISBN 0-943802-99-7. http://www.ncpa.org/pub/ st176/. "20 percent of U.S. homicides occur in four cities with just 6% of the population – New York, Chicago, Detroit, and Washington, D.C., and each has a virtual prohibition on private handguns" [121] ttp://www.firearmsafetyseminar.org.nz/ h _documents/Greenwood_Paper.pdf paragraph 58

Gun politics
[122] ttp://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/ h pdfs07/hosb0207.pdf Home Office statistical bulletin on Homicide and firearms offences in 2005/6 [123] lair wants gun crime age reduced, BBC B News, February 18, 2007 [124] omicides, Firearm Offences and H Intimate Violence 2005/2006 Supplementary Volume 1 to Crime in England and Wales 2005/2006) [125] opel, David B. The Samurai, the K Mountie, and the Cowboy--Should America Adopt the Gun Controls of Other Democracies? (1992), Prometheus Books, New York, pp.257-277, ISBN 0-87975-756-6

External links
• International Crime Survey data on gun ownership in eighteen nations • Interactive Maps Showing Differences in U.S. Gun Control Laws • First Reports Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Violence: Firearms Laws • State of Florida Information For Resident and Non-Resident Concealed Weapon / Firearm License. • Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Guns and Violence Symposium • Questionnaire for the Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, covering the period 1998 - 2000

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