How to Write a Business Case for Government

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How to Write a Business Case for Government Powered By Docstoc
					   Developing and Presenting Business Cases
    for Civil Service Establishment Changes



                                The Personnel Office




                                         October 2008
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                    Guidance on Seeking Approval for New Personnel,
                     Revised Job Roles or Organisational Structures



                                                Index


Section                                                                               Page
1.             Writing a Business Case for Changes to Staffing Structure, Including      3
               New Posts and Regradings

Annex A        Business Case Cover Sheet                                                 8

Annex B        Supplementary Guidance on Reviewing Organisational Structures            10
               and Developing a Business Case

Annex C        Council Of Ministers, Personnel Control Policy And Mechanism             14




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      Writing a Business Case for Changes to Staffing Structure, Including New Posts
      and Regradings

Introduction

This guidance is intended to assist managers, especially new managers who are responsible
for civil servants to write business cases requesting the Civil Service Commission to vary
staffing establishments.

While all Departments, Statutory Boards and Offices are the managerial authorities for civil
servants, the Civil Service Commission is the legal body responsible for varying the Civil
Service establishment and appointing civil servants1. This means that the Civil Service
Commission must make all decisions regarding changes to staffing structures, including the
creation of new posts, deletion of posts no longer required and changes to the grades of
posts. Within the establishment determined by the Commission, the Department, Statutory
Board or Office is free to decide how the posts are used according to the needs of the
services being delivered and organisational objectives, subject to the grades and full time
equivalence of the individual posts being preserved. For example, a Department which no
longer has need for an Administrative Officer post in one Division, may re-allocate that post to
another Division where an additional post is required without needing to make a business
case and seek approval from the Commission2. However, managers should be aware of any
HRFS system alterations resulting from such a change and make the appropriate
arrangements with their HR Section or the Personnel Office.

In addition to the authority of the Commission to vary the Civil Service establishment,
authority to determine personnel and financial budgets is vested in the Council of Ministers
and the Treasury, respectively. Accordingly, any requests made to the Commission to change
the establishment are also subject to the approval of the Council of Ministers and Treasury
and will be addressed through the annual budgetary mechanisms.



                                           Council of Ministers
                                             Personnel Budget




                                             Establishment
                       Civil Service            Change
                       Commission                                      Treasury
                       Changes to Civil                                 Financial
                       Service                                            Budget
                       Establishment




The common aims of these three bodies is to ensure that staffing establishment and
budgetary decisions are made on the basis of achieving efficiency and effectiveness and this
should be the theme of any business case written to request a change to staffing. It follows
therefore that work can be saved by using the contents of a business case prepared for the
Council of Ministers3 for a business case to be sent to the Commission, albeit with appropriate

1
    Authority: The Civil Service Act (As amended by the Civil Service Amendment Act 2007), Section 3(1)
2
    Subject to proper discussion with staff affected by the re-allocation

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changes to details. Useful guidance issued by the Chief Secretary‟s Office complements this
document and is attached at Annex C

The Structure of the Business Case

Introduction
Clearly, the business case needs to begin with housekeeping details such as the name of the
department and division, the name of the author and a headline or summary regarding
exactly what is requested. The headline or summary need only be very short but does need
to contain key details, for example:

               A new permanent part time (0.5 fte) post at Administrative Officer grade to
                support the administration of Scheme X; or

               A limited term full time post at the D500 grade to support Project Y.

It is important to include all the key details relating to

               numbers of posts
               grade
               full time equivalence
               permanency; and
               purpose

so that officers of the Commission who will take it forward on your behalf can prepare the
paper and deal with subsequent administration on the HRFS system effectively. A summary
sheet template which should be used at the front of the business case and which covers some
of these information requirements is attached at Annex A.

Organisational Charts
Organisational charts showing the current and proposed staffing structures are helpful to
provide an easily understood representation of the organisation now and in the future. Only
the sections relevant to the request being put to the Commission are necessary and it is
important to show the job titles and grades of the posts. It is likely that in most cases, only a
Division or, in large organisations a Section, may need to be shown but as a general „rule of
thumb‟, the larger the organisational impact of the request, the more Sections and Divisions
will need to be shown.

The Body of the Business Case
There are no hard and fast rules regarding writing a business case for changes to the staffing
establishment as each individual case is different but it is important to take a structured
approach in „telling the story‟ with

             a beginning (the background)
             middle (the current situation) and
             end (a summary of the request and how the proposal will make things better).

It should also be written on the assumption that the Commission has no prior knowledge of
the Department‟s staffing or business situation as this will ensure that gaps in the „story‟ are
kept to a minimum. A business case does not need to be lengthy and will be sufficient as
long as all the key details are included.



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A useful model to use to aid thinking when writing and structuring the business case is the
NONG model:

                Need            -   What is the business need?
                Organisation    -   How is the work organised within the Division or Section?
                Numbers         -   How many posts are required?
                Grade           -   What grades do the job descriptions indicate?

Business Need
The first thing the Commission will need to know is the driving force behind the request.
What is the business need which makes the request necessary?

There are two levels of business need, strategic and operational. For example, a strategic
need would be where a Department is seeking to staff a whole new area of work which gives
the Department a new direction. On the other hand, staffing changes required because the
amount of work has increased or because a re-organisation will provide efficiency benefits
would represent an operational need. It is likely that there will be a number of facets driving
the business need and they need to be explained clearly.

Organisation of the Work
Once a business need has been recognised, the work which is required to be done must be
organised into functional areas. The kinds of questions which need to be addressed here
relate to how well the existing functional areas are working and how proposed new areas of
work will be organised. For example:

       What new tasks need to be done to fit the organisational objectives?
       How well does the functional area work, given the organisational objectives in the
        Service Delivery Plan?
       How well does the work flow?
       Are there bottlenecks and slack areas?
       Are there unequal volumes of work at different organisational levels?

Some analysis and an explanation as to why problems are occurring and how the situation
can be improved are required.

Numbers of Posts
Determining the number of posts required is essentially about estimating workload. In the
business case, it is not necessary to provide a full analysis of the tasks which need to be
undertaken but some work in this regard should be done and reference to it made in the
business case in order to demonstrate to the Commission that the proposal is an estimate and
not a „guesstimate‟.

Grades of Posts
The proposed grades of any new posts should be clearly stated. Also, if the proposal includes
changes to grades of existing posts, the reasons should be explained and the new roles
described in terms of the knowledge and skills, problem solving, decision making and level of
autonomy required of the role. Full job descriptions of new posts and those which are
affected by the proposal should be attached as annexes to the business case. The job
descriptions should include approximate percentages of time allocated to each main activity
bearing in mind that half a day spent on a particular activity every week amounts to 10% of
the role.


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A tool to aid your thinking in addressing the above areas is attached at Annex B. Please
bear in mind that this document is a tool only and some areas may not be relevant to the
case in hand.

Personnel Implications
The implications of the proposal for existing staff must be explored and addressed in the
business case. For example, a re-organisation of work may mean that payment of regular on-
call allowance is no longer necessary or putting in a new post will take away some of the work
of an existing post. The Commission will want to know that management has discussed the
proposal with staff and that any issues have been resolved or will be resolved as an integral
part of the proposal.

Clearly, where the proposal affects posts which are vacant, personnel implications will be
minimal. All vacancies should be clearly shown on the organisational chart and vacant posts
should be referred to as such in the body of the business case.

It‟s an Iterative Process
Use of the NONG model may not be a simple, sequential process and an analysis of the
existing situation and the problems causing it may result in a re-examination of other stages
of the model.

For example, the business need may be that a new area of work needs to be introduced to a
Division and there is insufficient capacity among existing staff (numbers) to accommodate it.
This would indicate that a new post is required but it may make sense that the work is re-
organised (organisation) so that some of the new work is done by an existing post and the
rest of the new work is done by the new post along with some of the existing work. This
means that the grade of the existing post may alter and should be considered alongside that
of the new post (grade). Assessment of the grades may reveal poor job design and therefore
a further review of the organisation of the work (organisation) would be appropriate.

On the other hand, only parts of the model may be relevant to a particular proposal.
In order to address all the salient points, it is helpful to keep asking the question “how does
this part of the proposal fit the problem?”

Concluding
In order to show how the proposal is the best option, an explanation of the other options
which have been considered is required. There are always more options than a „do nothing‟
scenario and the Commission will want to know that all the other options have been
considered and discarded for valid reasons.

The business case should also confirm that the headcount and finance required to facilitate
the proposal are available to accommodate it.

The business case must have the authority of the Chief Officer of the Department, Statutory
Board or Office and must be signed by the Chief Officer or a person who has delegated
authority. If an officer has been assigned delegated authority, the Personnel Office must be
formally advised, otherwise the business case cannot be accepted for processing.

If you intend to prepare a business case for varying the staffing establishment,
you are advised to speak to one of the Employee Relations Advisors at the
Personnel Office or your own Department’s HR Section for advice in the first
instance.


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                                                                                       Annex A


                  Business Case for Establishment Changes
                                Cover Sheet
    Department                  <<NAME>>
    Division:                   <<NAME>>
    Request made by:            <<NAME>>
    Date:                       <<DATE>>


    Summary of request:

    For example: To make more effective use of support posts by increasing the hours of a
    Senior Secretary post and reducing the hours of a vacant Secretary post which will also be
    regraded to Administrative Officer grade as detailed below.

    Post:                       <<Oracle Postion>>
    Post Holder:                <<Name>>
    WTE:                        Increase from 0.5 to 1.00 (+ 18.5 hrs per week)
    Duration:                   Permanent
    Grade:                      Senior Secretary, no change
    Personnel budget:           Available from vacant post <<Oracle position>>.


    Post:                       <<Oracle Postion>>
    Post Holder:                Vacant
    WTE:                        Decrease from 1.00 to 0.5 (- 18.5 hrs per week)
    Duration:                   Permanent
    Grade:                      Secretary, Re-grade to AO
    Personnel budget:           Re-allocated to post <<Oracle position>>

    NB You should give Oracle details for all posts that you are asking the Civil Service
    Commission to amend, establish or delete.

    Confirmation of Departmental Approval

    <<Signature of Accounting Officer>>



If your proposals involve a number of post it may be helpful to also include a table
summarising the establishment changes, as shown in the example overleaf.




Summary of Establishment Changes
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Section        Post              Increase         Comments
                                 decrease
                                 in hours
Corporate      Secretary         +2               Held by A N Other. Increase in fte
Services
Finance        AO                - 12             Vacant post
Chief          CEO‟s             + 10             Held by A N Other1. Increase in fte
Executive‟s    Secretary
Office
Finance        AO payroll        No change        Vacant post. Move to HR - more appropriate
                                                  location/ better management support. No
                                                  establishment change.
Corporate      Receptionist      + 37             New post
Services       DES post
Corporate      AA HR             - 37             Regrade of vacant post in light of revised job
Services                                          description
Corporate      AO HR             + 37
Services

Your business case should include a rationale for each of the changes requested.




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                                                                                      Annex B
                       Employment Services, The Personnel Office

                      Guidance On Seeking Approval for New Personnel,
                       Revised Job Roles or Organisational Structures


These guidance notes have been developed to assist managers in reviewing their
staffing and putting forward a business case in support of any proposed changes.
They should be seen as a tool, not a rule, as all the elements may not be applicable
to all reviews. Employment Services will be happy to provide one to one coaching
or guidance to managers when they are conducting reviews or preparing business
cases.




                                            Ten Point Plan

COVER SHEET – use the cover sheet attached at Annex A

               Your Department‟s name.
               Your Division‟s name.
               Your name.
               Date.

        Include a summary in the cover sheet:

                The number of personnel you are seeking.
                The grade of the personnel you are seeking.
                Whether you are seeking temporary / permanent, full time / part-time personnel.
                An indication of workforce establishment and Treasury concurrence may be
                 helpful information.
                Cost implications where applicable.


BODY OF BUSINESS CASE

1       Make sure your business case includes your OBJECTIVE(S)

            What you want to achieve?
            What service level you require to maintain?
            Are your objectives:
        S pecific and not vague
        M easurable and not abstract
        A greed, achievable and not imposed
        R esults oriented and realistic
        T ime related and not open ended




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2       BACKGROUND

             What changes have taken place to cause the problem?
             Have changes to legislation or customer demand increased or decreased
              workload?
             Have there been geographical changes?
             Has there been a change in staff levels?
             Have new areas of work been added?

    3   PROBLEM

             Give an outline of the problem. Eg statutory responsibilities or service level
              agreements are not being met, staff are reqularly required to work over their
              conditioned hours, staff are required to undertake work inappropriate to their
              role.
             Why is your situation different from somebody else‟s situation?
             What do you do about the problem?
             What impact is there if the work isn‟t done?

4       PEOPLE

             Have your staff been involved the process of proposed change?
             Do you have any appointed staff representation (GOA or TU) in your Department
              who would need to be involved/consulted with?
             Do you have evidence of staff involvement such as employee surveys or minutes
              of staff meetings?

5       CULTURE

             How will any changes affect „the way thing are done around here‟?
             What is the informal (grapevine) response likely to be?
             Can you identify natural influencers - positive or negative? And can they be
              utilised or controlled?

6       POLITICS

             You need to provide evidence that your request is congruent with your
              Department‟s overall policy and strategy. Examples of useful evidence would be:
             A quote from the policy document.
             A quote from your operational plan.
             If you are not the Chief Executive of your Department you will be required to
              obtain confirmation from your him/her confirming agreement to proposed
              changes.
             In some instances political endorsement may support your case.




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7.      WORKLOAD AND GRADE

If your proposal seeks to address issues of workload and grade you will need to show how
you have assessed these. It would be useful to conider:

             What tasks need to be done?
             Look at the nature of each task; what grade does it fall into? Use the grade
              descriptions in the Civil Service Regulations to help you but be aware that these
              are a generalised guidance only. Are there clearly established duties for
              particular grades in your organisation that you can use to benchmark? Seek
              advice from the Personnel Office if you are in doubt.
             Allocate the tasks according to grade.
             How long do each of the tasks take?
             How often does each task have to be carried out?
             Can any of the tasks be carried out by an existing postholder or redistributed
              among several existing postholders?
             Calculate the number of working days required in a year to do the work (1
              working day = 7.4 hours)
             Consider the number of days lost as a result of annual leave, sickness absence
              and training. Try to be as realistic as possible. Annual leave may be determined
              accurately. Sickness absence and training may need to be estimated. Use the
              records of sickness absence and training in your Department or Division to help
              you.
             Calculate the number of staff required to do the work:

                There are 250 days in the year excluding weekends, bank holidays and
                privilege days. Subtract the allowances you have determined for annual leave,
                sickness absence and training. The resulting figure will be the number of
                working days available within one post to carry out the work. Divide this
                figure by the number of working days required to carry out the work. The
                result will be an assessment of the number of staff required.

                Example:

                Activities
                Typing weekly reports           -        2 hours each
                Opening post                    -        15 minutes per day
                Entering computer records       -        5 minutes each, 500 records per week

                Number of working days required to do the work
                Typing: 2 x 52                      = 104 hours
                Opening post: ¼ x 5 x 52            =   65 hours
                Computer records: (5/60) x 500 x 52 = 2167 hours
                                            Total     2336 hours

                2336 / 7.4 = 316 working days required to do the work.

                Number of staff required to do the work

                Number of days in one year                                   365

                LESS: Weekends                                    104
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                          Bank holidays and privilege days          11
                          Annual leave                              25
                          Sickness absence                           2
                          Training                                   3
                                                                         145
                                                                         220 days available

                                              316 / 220 = 1.44 FTE

8                OPTIONS

                Have all the options been presented?
                Is there a clear case for your preferred option?


9            PROPOSAL

                  What is your solution to the problem?
                  Can you do it yourself?
                  What do you need from outside sources?




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                                                                                        Annex C

                                  ISLE OF MAN GOVERNMENT

                                    COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

                     PERSONNEL CONTROL POLICY AND MECHANISM

POLICY
The fundamental policy underpinning the Personnel Control Mechanism is that any growth in
the Government workforce should be properly managed so as to ensure that such growth as
is permitted is directed at achieving Government‟s priorities. In doing so, the Government
workforce should, wherever practicable, not be allowed to exceed:

(a)     the rate of growth of employment in the private sector (measured by comparison with
        the size of the economically active population); and

(b)     the rate in increase in real terms in Government income

Underlying these two elements is an expectation that the mechanism should provide an
incentive for Departments to maximise efficiency, including the release of labour from
marginal activities and the effective use of contracted-in resources.

The intended effect of the mechanism is to avoid unhealthy competition for a limited number
of available personnel between the public and the private sectors, and to safeguard the ability
of Government to fund the salaries of additional staff and ultimately associated pension costs.

AIMS
The stated aims of the Personnel Control Mechanism are:-


(a)     to limit and control Government‟s long term pension liabilities;

(b)     to restrict the public sector from becoming disproportionately large compared to the
        private sector;

(c)     to provide an incentive for Departments and Boards to maximise the use of their
        existing labour, and to invest in new technology and improved productivity;

(d)     to lead to a scrutiny of labour-intensive marginal activities to release workers for new
        priority recruitment in other areas;

(e)     to encourage Departments when considering new capital schemes to identify fully the
        staffing implications of a range of options at an early stage; and

(f)     to cause Departments and Boards to examine whether it would be more efficient and
        cost-effective to buy in services from the private sector.


APPLICATION
All posts directly employed by Government and reported in the Annual Treasury Budget must
be allocated a personnel budget, and therefore cannot be recruited unless such a budget
exists, with the following exemptions:-

(a)     Office of the Clerk of Tynwald

(b)     Crown Officers

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(c)     Trading Statutory Boards –
               Manx Electricity Authority
               Isle of Man Post Office
               Isle of Man Water Authority

(d)     Trading Operations Seasonal Staff -
               Tourism & Leisure – Railways/Wild Life Park
               Tourism & Leisure - Villa Marina/Gaiety Complex
               Manx National Heritage – Heritage Sites

(e)     Non-Core/Multiple Employments
              Transport - Road Crossing Patrols
              Education - Part Time Youth Service
              Tourism & Leisure – Leisure Division Coaches & Tutors

(f)     Contract Appointments (as defined in Appendix 1)

(g)     Paid Students/Trainees (e.g. posts where there is no commitment to employment on
        expiry of the training opportunity or work placement).

(h)     Unpaid employees of Government (e.g. voluntary staff or work experience placements
        in full time education)

(i)     People with Disabilities (as defined in Appendix 2)

TREASURY REPORTING
Whilst the posts identified at items (a) to (e) above are outside the Personnel Control
Mechanism, the Departments, Boards and Offices concerned are required to provide annual
budget estimates of these posts to the Treasury for the purpose of the Budget in February
each year.


DEPARTMENTAL EFFICIENCY
As part of the annual Basic Expenditure and Activity Review, where Departments, Boards and
Offices submit bids which have personnel implications which are not exempt under the
mechanism, business cases should include narrative explaining the reasons the posts are
required, the extent consideration has been given to fulfilling the service need by alternative
means, and the options which have been considered in relation to the reallocation of current
staffing resources.

This approach provides a greater element of challenge to Departments, Boards and Offices in
the planning process, and encourages them to consider the aims of the mechanism when
developing services. The draft question framework for Personnel bids is attached at Appendix
3.


ACCOUNTABILITY
Accounting Officers will be responsible for complying with the requirements of the Personnel
Control Policy and Mechanism in accordance with Financial Regulations and Civil Service
Regulations (as appropriate).

Chief Secretary‟s Office
Revised, March 2006


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                                                                                    Appendix 1

                    DEFINITIONS OF CONTRACT APPOINTMENTS
               EXEMPTED FROM THE PERSONNEL CONTROL MECHANISM


        (a)     Genuine Fixed Term Contract

        This type of contract applies to posts where there is a defined end date established. It
        is used in relation to posts where a project has a clearly defined timetable and is not a
        permanent service requirement. These posts are EXEMPT from the Personnel
        Control Mechanism and would not be expected to exceed 3 years’ duration.

        (b)     Natural Discharge Agreements

        A natural discharge agreement makes it clear that the employment will only continue
        until the end of a project or until funding remains available, and is used in
        circumstances where there is no certainty to the end date of a project. Again, it
        applies to work that is not a permanent service requirement. There is automatic
        termination at the end of the contract and no period of notice is necessary. This type
        of contract precludes the need for extensions to a fixed term contract. These posts
        are EXEMPT from the Personnel Control Mechanism.


        (c)     Rolling Contracts

        Rolling, renewable, contracts are used in situations where it is inappropriate to commit
        to permanency as the continued requirement for the position needs to be reviewed
        after a specified period of time, or where a permanent service requirement is being
        fulfilled by contract posts. These posts are NOT EXEMPT from the Personnel
        Control Mechanism.


        Note: The pensionable status of contract appointees will be considered at
              the time of recruitment having regard to the period of the
              appointment and the normal age of retirement for the employee
              group.




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                                                                                       Appendix 2

GUIDELINES FOR THE RECRUITMENT OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES UNDER THE
                    PERSONNEL CONTROL MECHANISM

                                      (Revised March 2006)

THE PROPOSAL
The existing Personnel Control Mechanism is the accepted method of managing the growth of
Government‟s personnel numbers; however there are growing pressures for additional staff.
Partly to alleviate this, and partly to support the employment of people with disabilities, it has
been agreed that their recruitment should be outside the constraints of the Personnel Control
Mechanism. This will only apply to employees‟ recruitment after 1 May 1998 and depending
on the nature of the disability it will be in order for specific jobs to be tailored to the needs of
individuals.

SCOPE OF THE PROPOSAL
For the avoidance of doubt, the guidelines for the recruitment of people with disabilities will
apply to all public service posts.

The accepted definition of disability is:
“A disability is a physical or mental impairment which has, or which has had, a substantial and
long term adverse effect on a person‟s ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities”.

Further discussion of the meaning and scope of the above may be found in Annex One.

SOURCE OF APPLICANTS
People may present themselves in one of two ways:

    1. Disabled job applicants apply for vacant posts in the normal way, declaring that they
       have a disability.

    2. The Disability Employment Service will make departments aware of clients looking for
       employment within Government.

APPROVAL PROCESS
The Disability Employment Adviser (DEA) will co-ordinate and monitor the scheme. In order to
be eligible, applicants must have a disability or health problem, which affects the kind or
amount of work they can do. An effect must be likely to last for 12 months or longer.

    1. Either the DEA is notified when a Department believes it has an applicant to whom the
       procedure applies OR the Disability Employment Service notifies Government
       Departments when it has a client looking for employment within Government.

    2. The DEA assesses the applicant. If he (or she) is found to have a disability as defined
       above, the DEA has the authority to give approval for exemption from the Personnel
       Control Mechanism.

    3. The Department interviews the applicant. The procedure comes to an end if the
       applicant is found to be unsuitable for the job proposed. If the Department wishes to
       proceed it notifies the DEA.



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    4. Normal methods of recruitment and management, together with the usual Conditions
       of Employment (including the normal rate of pay for the post) will be applied
       thereafter and will be under the control of the individual Department.

    5. The DEA will maintain records of people employed under the procedure and will
       provide a written report to the Governance Committee of the Council of Ministers twice
       yearly (January and July). The report will cover the numbers of people employed
       under the procedure, perceived benefits, difficulties encountered and measures taken
       to deal with them, and other matters of interest.

    6. One of the possible consequences of introducing the above policy on the recruitment
       of people with disabilities could be a request from Government Departments for
       increases in their financial targets to pay for specialised equipment and/or physical
       adjustments to their work places and means of access. The Governance Committee
       has agreed that Departments should meet any such costs from within their existing
       budgets.


Please note: The Department of Trade and Industry has introduced the Special Assistance
             (Employment and Self-employment) Scheme 1998. This provides financial and
             practical assistance to disadvantaged people in the Island‟s labour market,
             particularly to those with disabilities, and both private and public employers are
             eligible to apply.




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ANNEX ONE: DISABILITY - A WORKING DEFINITION

A disability is a physical or mental impairment which has, or which has had, a substantial and
long-term adverse effect on a person‟s ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities.

Impairment covers sensory losses (sight or hearing), physical impairments, and mental
impairments.

Substantial means something which is more than minor or trivial. This reflects the general
understanding of disability as a limitation which goes beyond the normal differences in ability
which exist among people.

A long-term effect is one which has lasted for 12 months or longer, or which is likely to last
for the rest of a person‟s life. If the effect ceases, it should be treated as continuing if it lasted
for 12 months or longer, and it is more probable than not that it will recur - for example,
rheumatoid arthritis (which can go into remission). A condition whose effects are substantial
but non-existent (or virtually nonexistent)
for the overwhelming majority of a person‟s life would not be included - for example, hay
fever.

Normal day-to-day activities are those which are carried out by most people on a regular
and frequent basis, i.e. those requiring:
    mobility
    manual dexterity
    physical co-ordination
    continence
    the ability to lift, carry or move everyday objects
    speech, hearing or eyesight
    memory or ability to concentrate, learn or understand
    the perception of risk of physical danger.

A learning disability is covered if it has a substantial and long-term effect on the ability to
carry out normal day-to-day activities.

Mental illnesses are covered if they are clinically well recognised. This will include
schizophrenia, manic depression and severe or extended depressive psychoses. Mood
disorders, mild eccentricities, psychopathic and anti-social disorders, and addictions are
excluded.

A condition whose effects are controlled or corrected, but the impairment is not
cured by medicine, equipment or other means is still covered by this definition - for example,
schizophrenia. An exception to this would be a visual impairment which is corrected by
wearing ordinary spectacles or contact lenses.

Progressive conditions like multiple sclerosis, cancer, muscular dystrophy and being HIV
positive are covered if and when there is any effect on a person‟s ability to carry out normal
day-to-day activities. Being diagnosed as having specific genetic conditions will not be cause
for inclusion until a condition expresses itself.




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                                                                                   Appendix 3

                         ASSESSMENT OF DEPARTMENTAL EFFICIENCY

                                    QUESTION FRAMEWORK

    The Council of Ministers has agreed that any application for an increase in existing
    personnel budgets will only be considered if a business case in support of the request is
    provided. In addition, posts will be awarded only where they are a consequence of
    agreed revenue/capital programmes.

    When considering new service developments with personnel consequences, Departments
    are required as part of the parameter setting process to submit business cases. The
    business case should seek to answer the following questions as fully as possible.

    WHY DO YOU CONSIDER THAT YOU NEED THE NEW POST(S)?
    These questions are designed to establish the changes which have occurred leading to the
    need for the new post(s).

    1. Please detail the reason for the requirement for the new post(s).

    2. Please explain why existing staffing resources are not adequate to meet this service
       need.

    HAVE YOU CONSIDERED ALTERNATIVE WAYS OF ADDRESSING THE CHANGES?
    Departments should answer these questions to demonstrate that they have considered
    other ways of addressing either the pressure for the change to be made at all or other
    methods of achieving necessary change than just increasing staff numbers.

    3. What would be the negative effects of NOT establishing the post(s).

    4. Would delaying the establishment of the post(s) be possible?

    5. What would be the negative effects of a delay?

    6. Would it be appropriate to meet the service need (or any part of it) by means other
       than direct labour?

    7. Is there any scope for withdrawing existing services in order to release resources to
       meet this service need?

    8. Can any existing services be reduced in order to release resources?

    9. Is there any scope for and, if so, have you explored joining with other Departments to
       meet the service need?




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    HAVE YOU CONSIDERED ALL THE OPTIONS IN RELATION TO UTILISATION OF
    ALL YOUR CURRENT RESOURCES?
    If the pressure for change cannot be reduced and you cannot address the change other
    than by providing for it in your own Department, you should demonstrate, by answering
    the following questions, how you have considered re-utilising your existing resources to
    provide the necessary services other than by increasing staff numbers.

    10. Could you deliver the service by investing in IT/new technology?

    11. Could you deliver the service by retraining/re-skilling existing staff?

    12. Could you make structural changes within your Department that would enable you to
        deliver the service using your existing resources?

    13. Could changes in working practices release some or all of the necessary resources to
        address the change?

    14. Have you considered team optimisation? (e.g. in a team of 5, making a change that
        saves 20% of each person‟s time effectively releases one “person” without increasing
        the number of staff)

    15. Can you demonstrate that you have fully explored whether any existing staff have the
        capacity to take on additional roles or develop existing roles?


    OBJECTIVE/ PUBLISHED MEASUREMENTS OF CURRENT EFFICIENCY
    Many Departments can demonstrate efficiency by means of external reports or use of
    comparative metrics. If you have produced such reports or carried out any external
    comparative studies, please provide these with the business case.

    16. Have you carried out a review of current staffing resource efficiency (at Departmental
        or section level)?

    17. If so, please provide relevant extracts of any report produced.

    The information provided in your business case will be used to assess your individual bid
    for staffing resources. It may also be used in order to assist in ranking your bid along
    with other bids. To do this, the information you have provided may be compared with
    that provided by other Departments. If you wish to make any further comments on this
    you may do so.




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OTHER USEFUL EVIDENCE -         can be embedded within the report or lengthy
data can be included in annexes.

         WHO is responsible for the work? Are the lines of accountability clear and as short
            as they can be?
         Who does the work?
         Who are the customers?
         Who benefits from change or increase in resources?

         WHY is the work done?
         Why is it done by the Public Service?
         Why is it done the way it is?

           WHAT does it cost - in money and manpower?
           What most affects the costs?
           What are the objectives of the areas under review?
           What value is added by each activity?
           What would happen if any activity stopped?
           What does the customer want?
           What alternatives are there?

           HOW are decisions made?
           Are they made by the right people with the right information?
           How well is your Department meeting its objectives currently?
           How are things really done - are there cultural implications or blocks?
           How can you demonstrate that activities are done well?
           How are the results assessed? - ie. Performance indicators.
           How can value for money be improved - and the improvement be seen?
           How can your service to the public be improved?

If you have a business plan most of the above issues will be covered. This model will be
easier for some Departments than others and the level of support needed to present your
case will differ.

Current and proposed organisational charts are very useful to provide an at a glance
summary of proposed changes. Job Descriptions should be attached for new posts or
existing posts which have substantially changed.

The above format can be adapted to present any report ie. a business plan, a proposal, a
progress report etc., as long as it is clear to the reader and demonstrates that the research
done supports the case with fruitful evidence.




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        This document can be provided in large print or audio tape on request




                                  The Personnel Office
                           Goldie House, 1 – 4 Goldie Terrace
                            Douglas, Isle of Man, IM1 1EB
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Description: How to Write a Business Case for Government document sample