Grape

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Grape

Grape
making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, and grape seed oil. Grapes are also used in some kinds of candy.

History
Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics show the cultivation of grapes. Scholars believe that ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans also grew grapes both for eating and wine production. Later, the growing of grapes spread to Europe, North Africa, and eventually to the United States. Native grapes in North America grew along streams; however, the first cultivated grapes in California were grown by Spanish Franciscan Friars looking to make a sacramental wine for the California Missions. The first table grape vineyard in California is credited to an early settler by the name of William Wolfskill in the Los Angeles area. As more settlers came to California, more and more varieties of European grapes were introduced, some for wine-making, others for raisins and some for eating fresh. Today in the United States, approximately 98 percent of commercially grown table grapes are from California (California Table Grape Commission).

Green table grapes

Grapes, red or green
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 70 kcal 290 kJ Carbohydrates - Sugars 15.48 g - Dietary fiber 0.9 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.069 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.07 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.188 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.05 mg Vitamin B6 0.086 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 2 μg Vitamin C 10.8 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.36 mg Magnesium 7 mg Manganese 0.071 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 191 mg Zinc 0.07 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

18.1 g

0.16 g 0.72 g 5% 5% 1% 1% 7% 1% 18% 1% 3% 2% 4% 3% 4% 1%

Description
Grapes grow in clusters of 6 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the red grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are responsible for the color of red grapes.[1] Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in red grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.[2][3]

A grape is the non-climacteric fruit, botanically a true berry, that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or used for

Grapevines
Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor

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Country Spain France Italy Turkey United States Iran Romania Portugal Argentina Australia Lebanon Area Dedicated 11,750 km² 8,640 km² 8,270 km² 8,120 km² 4,150 km² 2,860 km² 2,480 km² 2,160 km² 2,080 km² 1,642 km² 1,122 km²

Grape

amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: • Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines (including the concord cultivar), sometimes used for wine. Native to the Eastern United States and Canada. • Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, sometimes used for winemaking and for jam. Native to the entire Eastern U.S. and north to Quebec. • Vitis rotundifolia, the muscadines, used for jams and wine. Native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. • Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species.

reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. The following table of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making: Top Ten Grapes Producers — 11 June 2008 Country Italy France People’s Republic of China United States Spain Turkey Iran Argentina Chile India World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 8,519,418 6,500,000 6,250,000 6,105,080 6,013,000 3,923,040 3,000,000 2,900,000 2,350,000 1,667,700 7,501,872 A F F F F F

Distribution and production

Grape production in 2005 According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 75,866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be

No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official, semi-official or estimates); Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Grape
English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins). A currant is a dried Zante grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Note also that currant has come to refer also to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes. A sultana was originally a raisin made from a specific type of grape of Turkish origin, but the word is now applied to raisins made from common grapes and chemically treated to resemble the traditional sultana.

Seedless grapes
Seedlessness is a highly desirable subjective quality in table grape selection, and seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is, however, an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of north-eastern United States and southern Ontario.[4] An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds (see Health claims, below).[5][6]

Health claims
French Paradox
Comparing diets among western countries, researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, surprisingly the incidence of heart disease remains low in France, a phenomenon named the French Paradox and thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself, including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation,[7] polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits, such as:[8] • alteration of molecular mechanisms in blood vessels, reducing susceptibility to vascular damage • decreased activity of angiotensin, a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure • increased production of the vasodilator hormone, nitric oxide (endotheliumderived relaxing factor) Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities,[9] a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption, such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men, may confer health bene[10][11][12] Emerging evidence is that fits. wine polyphenols like resveratrol[13] provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.[14]

Raisins, currants, sultanas and Kismis

Raisins In most of Europe, dried grapes are universally referred to as ’raisins’ or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents. A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (from which the

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Grape
compounds are present in grape skin, and only red wine is fermented with skins. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content.[6] Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/L,[26] depending on the grape variety, because it is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol. By contrast, a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins. Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L, an exceptional phenolic content.[27][22] In muscadine skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics.[28] Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes.

Resveratrol
Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol, a polyphenol antioxidant, have been positively linked to inhibiting cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease, viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease.[15][16] Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol.[17] In laboratory studies, resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging, and prevent age-related heart failure.[18] Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials,[19] among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease.[20] Synthesized by many plants, resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets.[21] Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds which, in muscadine grapes, have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp.[22] Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.[23]

Seed constituents
Since the 1980s, biochemical and medical studies have demonstrated significant antioxidant properties of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins.[29] Together with tannins, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, these seed constituents display inhibitory activities against several experimental disease models, including cancer, heart failure and other disorders of oxidative stress.[30][31] Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for many perceived health benefits. Grape seed oil is notable for its high contents of tocopherols (vitamin E), phytosterols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.[32][33][34]

Anthocyanins and other phenolics
Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in red grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (e.g., catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties.[24] Total phenolic content, an index of dietary antioxidant strength, is higher in red varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in red grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin.[24] It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health.[25] Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar, soil composition, climate, geographic origin, and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases, such as fungal infections. Red wine offers health benefits more so than white because many beneficial

Fabien grape juice
Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies, showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer,[35] platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis,[36] loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging[37] and hypertension in humans.[38]

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Grape

Diagram

[5] Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly JE, Kakuda Y (2003). "Polyphenolics in grape seedsbiochemistry and functionality". J Med Food 6 (4): 291–9. doi:10.1089/ 109662003772519831. PMID 14977436. [6] Parry J, Su L, Moore J, et al (May 2006). "Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (11): 3773–8. doi:10.1021/jf060325k. PMID 16719495. [7] Providência R (November 2006). "Cardiovascular protection from alcoholic drinks: scientific basis of the French Paradox". Rev Port Cardiol 25 (11): 1043–58. PMID 17274460. [8] Opie LH, Lecour S (July 2007). "The red wine hypothesis: from concepts to protective signalling molecules". Eur. Heart J. 28 (14): 1683–93. doi:10.1093/ eurheartj/ehm149. PMID 17561496. • List of grape varieties [9] American Heart Association, Alcohol, • Annual growth cycle of grapevines wine and cardiovascular disease.[1] [10] Alcohol. Harvard School of Public Health [11] Mukamal KJ, Kennedy M, Cushman M, et al (January 2008). "Alcohol consumption • Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et and lower extremity arterial disease du Vin (pdf) among older adults: the cardiovascular • Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation. health study". Am. J. Epidemiol. 167 (1): Footnotes 34–41. doi:10.1093/aje/kwm274. PMID [1] Walker AR, Lee E, Bogs J, McDavid DA, 17971339. Thomas MR, Robinson SP (2007). "White [12] de Lange DW, van de Wiel A (May 2004). grapes arose through the mutation of "Drink to prevent: review on the two similar and adjacent regulatory cardioprotective mechanisms of alcohol genes". Plant J 49 (5): 772–85. and red wine polyphenols". Semin Vasc doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02997.x. Med 4 (2): 173–86. doi:10.1055/ PMID 17316172. s-2004-835376. PMID 15478039. [2] Waterhouse AL (May 2002). "Wine [13] Das S, Das DK (June 2007). "Resveratrol: phenolics". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 957: a therapeutic promise for cardiovascular 21–36. PMID 12074959. diseases". Recent Patents Cardiovasc http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/ Drug Discov 2 (2): 133–8. doi:10.2174/ openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0077-8923&date=2002&volume=957&spage=21. 157489007780832560. PMID 18221111. [3] Brouillard R, Chassaing S, Fougerousse [14] Sato M, Maulik N, Das DK (May 2002). A (December 2003). "Why are grape/ "Cardioprotection with alcohol: role of fresh wine anthocyanins so simple and both alcohol and polyphenolic why is it that red wine color lasts so antioxidants". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 957: long?". Phytochemistry 64 (7): 1179–86. 122–35. PMID 12074967. PMID 14599515. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/ http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/ openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0077 pii/S0031942203005181. [15] Shankar S, Singh G, Srivastava RK [4] Reisch BI, Peterson DV, Martens M-H. (2007). "Chemoprevention by "Seedless Grapes", in "Table Grape resveratrol: molecular mechanisms and Varieties for Cool Climates", Information therapeutic potential". Front. Biosci. 12: Bulletin 234, Cornell University, New 4839–54. doi:10.2741/2432. PMID York State Agricultural Experiment 17569614. http://www.bioscience.org/ Station, retrieved December 30, 2008 2007/v12/af/2432/fulltext.htm.

See also Sources

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[16] Mancuso C, Bates TE, Butterfield DA, et al (December 2007). "Natural antioxidants in Alzheimer’s disease". Expert Opin Investig Drugs 16 (12): 1921–31. doi:10.1517/ 13543784.16.12.1921. PMID 18042001. [17] Gatz SA, Wiesmüller L (February 2008). "Take a break—resveratrol in action on DNA". Carcinogenesis 29 (2): 321–32. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgm276. PMID 18174251. [18] Barger JL, Kayo T, Vann JM, et al (2008). "A low dose of dietary resveratrol partially mimics caloric restriction and retards aging parameters in mice". PLoS ONE 3 (6): e2264. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0002264. PMID 18523577. [19] Listing of resveratrol clinical trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, a service of the US National Institutes of Health[2] [20] Randomized Trial of a Nutritional Supplement in Alzheimer’s Disease, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, May 2008 [3] [21] Chan WK, Delucchi AB (November 2000). "Resveratrol, a red wine constituent, is a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450 3A4". Life Sci. 67 (25): 3103–12. doi:10.1016/ S0024-3205(00)00888-2. PMID 11125847. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/ pii/S0024320500008882. [22] ^ LeBlanc, MR (2005). Cultivar, Juice Extraction, Ultra Violet Irradiation and Storage Influence the Stilbene Content of Muscadine Grapes (Vitis Rotundifolia Michx.). PhD Dissertation, Louisiana State University[4] [23] Li X, Wu B, Wang L, Li S (November 2006). "Extractable amounts of transresveratrol in seed and berry skin in Vitis evaluated at the germplasm level". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (23): 8804–11. doi:10.1021/jf061722y. PMID 17090126. [24] ^ Cantos E, Espín JC, Tomás-Barberán FA (September 2002). "Varietal differences among the polyphenol profiles of seven table grape cultivars studied by LC-DAD-MS-MS". J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (20): 5691–6. doi:10.1021/jf0204102. PMID 12236700. [25] Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Presents Research from the 2007 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium, Journal of Agricultural and

Grape
Food Chemistry ACS Publications, February 2008 [26] Gu X, Creasy L, Kester A, Zeece M (August 1999). "Capillary electrophoretic determination of resveratrol in wines". J. Agric. Food Chem. 47 (8): 3223–7. doi:10.1021/jf981211e. PMID 10552635. [27] Ector BJ, Magee JB, Hegwood CP, Coign MJ. Resveratrol Concentration in Muscadine Berries, Juice, Pomace, Purees, Seeds, and Wines. [5] [28] Pastrana-Bonilla E, Akoh CC, Sellappan S, Krewer G (August 2003). "Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine grapes". J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (18): 5497–503. doi:10.1021/ jf030113c. PMID 12926904. [29] Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ, et al (August 2000). "Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention". Toxicology 148 (2-3): 187–97. doi:10.1016/ S0300-483X(00)00210-9. PMID 10962138. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/ pii/S0300483X00002109. [30] Agarwal C, Singh RP, Agarwal R (November 2002). "Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release". Carcinogenesis 23 (11): 1869–76. doi:10.1093/carcin/23.11.1869. PMID 12419835. http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12419835. [31] Bagchi D, Sen CK, Ray SD, et al (2003). "Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Mutat. Res. 523-524: 87–97. PMID 12628506. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/ pii/S002751070200324X. [32] Beveridge TH, Girard B, Kopp T, Drover JC (March 2005). "Yield and composition of grape seed oils extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and petroleum ether: varietal effects". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (5): 1799–804. doi:10.1021/jf040295q. PMID 15740076. [33] Crews C, Hough P, Godward J, et al (August 2006). "Quantitation of the main constituents of some authentic grape-

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
seed oils of different origin". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (17): 6261–5. doi:10.1021/jf060338y. PMID 16910717. [34] Tangolar SG, Ozoğul Y, Tangolar S, Torun A (September 2007). "Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes". Int J Food Sci Nutr 60: 1–8. doi:10.1080/09637480701581551. PMID 17886077. [35] Jung KJ, Wallig MA, Singletary KW (February 2006). "Purple grape juice inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and in vivo DMBA-DNA adduct formation". Cancer Lett. 233 (2): 279–88. doi:10.1016/ j.canlet.2005.03.020. PMID 15878797. [36] Shanmuganayagam D, Warner TF, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Folts JD (January 2007). "Concord grape juice attenuates platelet aggregation, serum cholesterol and development of atheroma in hypercholesterolemic rabbits". Atherosclerosis 190 (1): 135–42. doi:10.1016/ j.atherosclerosis.2006.03.017. PMID 16780846.

Grape

[37] Shukitt-Hale B, Carey A, Simon L, Mark DA, Joseph JA (March 2006). "Effects of Concord grape juice on cognitive and motor deficits in aging". Nutrition 22 (3): 295–302. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2005.07.016. PMID 16412610. [38] Park YK, Kim JS, Kang MH (2004). "Concord grape juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in Korean hypertensive men: double-blind, placebo controlled intervention trial". Biofactors 22 (1-4): 145–7. doi:10.1002/ biof.5520220128. PMID 15630270. http://iospress.metapress.com/ openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0951-6433&volume

External links
• Taxonomic listings for Vitis genus, US Department of Agriculture, Germplasm Resources Information Network • SAFECROP - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Grapevine Downy and Powdery Mildew • World’s Healthiest Foods, in-depth nutrient profile for grapes • Information on virus diseases of wine grapes

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