Waste Management Jobs in Chicago - PDF

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					                                           LEED & Green
                                           Construction

                                           Waste Management
                                            Pamela Lippe LEED, AP
                                            plippe@e4inc.com




DESIGN + CONSTRUCTION
EXCELLENCE
Continuing Education for NYC Capital Program Staff
    Construction & Demolition (C&D)
                Waste
 Construction waste is defined as non-hazardous solid
waste resulting from construction, demolition and land-
 clearing activities, not including excavation material.
          What is current practice?

• All construction, demolition, and land clearing debris is
  hauled off site by private companies.
• Lowest bidder gets the job.
• All the prime contractors are responsible for their own
  waste.
• Recycling and salvage are not mandatory. Certain
  materials of value (metal, wood, etc.) are recycled as a
  matter of course, averaging about 40-50% of total waste.
• There is little or no record-keeping.
                   Why Bother?
• Nationwide, C&D debris accounts for 25% to 45% of
  the total solid waste stream (by weight), with the
  balance consisting of regular municipal and
  commercial trash.
• In NYC, C&D accounts for more than 60% of the
  solid waste stream, according to a recent study by
  the NYC Department of Sanitation (DSNY), and 39
  % when clean fill materials are excluded.
• The City no longer has any operating waste disposal
  facilities (landfills or incinerators) within its borders.
                 Why Bother?
• As a result, all waste produced in NYC that is not
  recycled or composted, must be exported to disposal
  facilities located outside of the City.
• NYC currently produces about 33,000 tons per day of
  construction and demolition debris.
• Since the closure of Fresh Kills landfill, the
  Department of Sanitation's cost for waste disposal
  have increased from $42 per ton at Fresh Kills
  between $85-$90 per ton for export.
• You have an opportunity to help mitigate a serious
  problem and resource drain for New York City.
          High Costs

That is 33,000 tons a day x $90 =

  – $2,970,000 A DAY
  – $20,790,000 A WEEK
  – $89,100,000 A MONTH
  – $1,069,200,000 A YEAR (1Billion+)
  Why is Construction Waste
Management (CWM) important?

•   Reduces waste.
•   Reduces demand for virgin resources.
•   Reduces groundwater contamination.
•   Reduces emissions.
•   Reduces costs.
•   Creates jobs.
•   Provides low cost building materials.
•   Preserves green space.
    What are other Cities doing?
• San Francisco, CA and Portland, OR are recycling
  close to 50% of their waste, and have set targets as
  high as 75%.
• City of Seattle/King County, WA has a Construction
  Waste Management Program which focuses on
  education and technical assistance for the building
  industry
• The City of Chicago instituted a mandatory 50%
  recycling rate for C&D waste as of January 1, 2007.
     What are other States doing?

• The California Integrated Waste Management Board
  has set a statewide target of diverting 50% of C&D
  waste from landfills.
• The New Jersey Department of Environmental
  Protection has established a goal to recycle 50% of
  the municipal solid waste stream and has proposed
  statewide recycling legislation.
         What is the DDC doing?
            Web-based Resources

• C&D Waste Management
  Manual
• Sample specification
• Sample waste management
  plan
• Waste management reporting
  forms will be available soon on
  the website.
• Waste recycler list. Ask for a
  copy from Office of Sustainable
  Design.
 Issues Specific to City Contracting

Obstacles
• Contractual issues: Four prime contractors
• It’s different and new – requires education and
  attention to detail.
Opportunities
• To lead by example to address a major city problem
• It’s easy and relatively inexpensive to achieve these
  credits for LEED.
       LEED for New Construction
                    C&D Recycling

•   Materials and Resources: Credit 2.1 (1 point)
    Recycle and/or salvage at least 50% of
    construction, demolition and land clearing waste
    (not including excavated material)
•   Materials and Resources: Credit 2.2 (1 point)
    Recycle and/or salvage an additional 25% (75%
    total) of construction, demolition and land clearing
    waste
    LEED for New Construction
                 Building Re-use
•   Materials and Resources: Credit 1.1 (1 point)
    Building Reuse -Maintain 75% of existing walls,
    floors and roof
•   Materials and Resources: Credit 1.2 (1 point)
    Building Reuse – Maintain 95% of existing walls,
    floors, and roof
•   Materials and Resources: Credit 1.3 (1 point)
    Building Reuse – Maintain 50% of interior non-
    structural elements (interior walls, doors, floor
    coverings and ceiling systems)
   LEED for New Construction
   Reuse on Site
• Materials and
  Resources Credit 3.1
  (1 point) Materials
  Reuse – 5%
• Materials and
  Resources Credit 3.1
  (1 point) Materials
  Reuse – 10%
 LEED for Commercial Interiors

Building Reuse - Credit 1.2 -1.3
  Maintain 40-60% of Interior Non-Structural
  Components
Construction Waste Management - Credit 2.1 - 2.2
  Divert 50-75% from Landfill
Resource Reuse - Credit 3.1 -3.2
  Reuse 5-10% on site
             Three Paths
Easy
       Demo contract and Construction Waste off-
       site separation – 75% is no problem
Hard
       Maximize deconstruction and separate on-
       site
Hybrid position
       Selectively deconstruct and separate a
       limited number of valuable items on-site and
       use off-site separation for the bulk.
       Demolition & Deconstruction

•   Must remove hazardous
    materials.
•   Why not remove valuable
    materials?
•   Deconstruction is the
    process that allows for
    salvage
•   Requires dismantling,
    storage, protection and   Courtesy: Build It Green

    removal from site
                  Deconstruction

•   First step of demolition
•   Must schedule time for it
•   More care must be used to
    dismantle for reuse rather
    than demolish (destroy for
    quick removal).
•   Must arrange for sale or
    donation of salvaged
                                 Courtesy: Build It Green
    material
                           Deconstruction




Courtesy: Build It Green
                  Deconstruction
Resources
 • Build It Green Reuse
    Center - Low cost
    construction materials
 • Local Deconstruction
    Expertise
 • Green Goat
    Deconstruction Spec
 • Institute for Local Self-
    Reliance Job Descriptions
    & Tool List                 Courtesy: Build It Green


 • DDC Office of Sustainable
    Design’s C&D Waste
    Recycler List
                   Demolition

Maximize Recycling
  – Metals
  – Wood
  – Gypsum Board
  – Cardboard
  – Concrete
  – Take back programs
     • Armstrong ceiling         Courtesy Gruzen Samton LLP
         tiles, carpeting, etc
           Construction Waste
•    Decide about on-site or off-site separation
    – Off site can achieve extremely high recycling
       rates
      • Not many sub-contractors/haulers do it.
•    On-site is much more complicated.
      • On-site separation and labeling of containers
      • “Policing” to avoid contamination
      • Scheduling of pickups
      • Housekeeping
  Post Collection Recycling (Offsite)

• No onsite separation
• Hauled to yard, dumped
  and separated
• Wood
• Metal
• Concrete
• Cardboard
• All residual waste
  transported to landfill.

                             Courtesy: Joan Ulbrich
            On-site separation?

• Do you have enough room?
• What materials will generate income?
• Will your hauler/subcontractor offer a reduced fee if
  recyclables are separated?
• Are there specific requirements for separating?
• How much contamination is allowed (e.g. painted
  wood, lunch waste?)
           Cambridge City Hall Annex
           Recycling Saved $55,000
Material            Tons    Recycling Cost     Avoided Cost *       Savings

Brick                531          $22,833           $71,154        $48,321
Concrete              29            $2,407            $3,886        $1,479
Wood                 112          $10,640           $15,008         $4,368
Metal                 15              $690             $2010         $1320
Asphalt                 1             $465              $134        (-$331)
Roofing
TOTALS               688          $37,035           $92,192        $55,157


* Cost that would have been paid if the material was sent to a landfill.
Based on local rates in 2003.
         How is it done?

• Planning
• Specifications
• Waste Management
  Plans and Forms
• Bid Process
• Contractor and
  Subcontractor
  Education



                     Courtesy: Pamela Lippe
                        Planning
•   Set goals. 75% is easy.
•   Conduct hazmat survey as
    required by DDC policy
•   Conduct pre-demolition
    survey. Outside expert?
    – Identify materials of value
       • Doors, beams, lighting,
           water-efficient fixtures,
           chillers, structural steel.


                                         Courtesy: Pamela Lippe
                     Planning
•   Develop strategies to
    maximize value for the
    contractor or the community.
    Identify markets for material.
    Research take-back programs.
•   Are there any opportunities for
    reuse on the job?
•   Decide about on-site and/or
    off-site recycling


                                      Courtesy: Pamela Lippe
    Construction Waste Management
             Specifications
•   Develop construction waste management (CWM)
    specification language for all relevant sections
    – Consult DDC spec and modify it for your project.
        Requires minimum of 50% recycling.
    – MasterSpec addresses only on-site separation.
•   Integrate into project spec and sub-contractor
    agreements
•   Emphasize reporting and submittal requirements
    Construction Waste Management
             Plans & Forms
•   It’s all about focus and record-keeping.
•   Provide templates, but review work products and
    require revisions, if needed.
•   Require demo & CWM plan from GC (overall
    responsibility) and CWM plan from key contractors -
    HVAC, Plumbing, Electrical.
•   Decide on reporting in weight or volume (weight is
    typical)
•   Require to-date accounting and detailed record-
    keeping
           Typical Form
•   Date
•   Ticket #
•   Subcontractor
•   Container Volume (Cu Yds)
•   Total Weight (Tons)
•   Material Types
•   Estimated % of Total Load
•   Weight of Recycled & Landfilled Material
•   Material Recipient
Waste Management Sample
         Form
________________: Project Demolition and Construction Waste Management Log - SAMPLE
Recycled Materials (Off-Site Sorting)
Period Documented: June 30, 2004 - July 30, 2004



                                                         Total                                                         Weight of   Weight of
                                           Container   Weight of                                       Estimated %     Recycled    Landfilled
                                            Volume      Refuse              Material Types             of Total Load   Materials    Material
 #     Date     Ticket #   Subcontractor   (Cu. Yds)    (Tons)        (Wood, Steel, Cardboard, etc.)    (by weight)     (Tons)      (Tons)      Material Recipient

 1    7/26/04    0004        Cardella         20         6.95
                                                                   Wood                                                    1                     Taylor Recycling
                                                                   Metals                                                  3                     Taylor Recycling
                                                                   Concrete                                                1                     Taylor Recycling
                                                                   Brick                                                                                n/a
                                                                   Cardboard                                                                            n/a
                                                                   Misc. Fines                                                                          n/a
                                                                   Rubbish                                                            1.95      Waste Management
 2
                                                                   Wood
                                                                   Metals
                                                                   Concrete
                                                                   Brick
                                                                   Cardboard
                                                                   Misc. Fines
                                                                   Rubbish
 3
                                                                   Wood
                                                                   Metals
                                                                   Concrete
                                                                   Brick
                                                                   Cardboard
                                                                   Misc. Fines
                                                                   Rubbish
 4
                                                                   Wood
                                                                   Metals
                                                                   Concrete
                                                                   Brick
                                                                   Cardboard
                                                                   Misc. Fines
                                                                   Rubbish

                                                                                                                       Recycled    Landfilled

                                                                   MONTHLY TOTALS (TONS)                                  5          1.95

                                                                   RECYCLING % FOR THIS PERIOD                                      71.9%
          Materials Estimated

•   Wood
•   Metals
•   Concrete
•   Brick
•   Cardboard
•   Miscellaneous Fines
•   Rubbish

                          Courtesy: Gruzen Samton LLP
                Bid Process

•   Specs and plan
    requirements must be
    integrated into bid
    documents
•   Discuss spec, plan
    and forms at pre-bid
    meetings.
Contractor and Subcontractor Education
•   GC must have someone who is knowledgeable &
    responsible
•   Organize kick-off meeting and discuss at pre-bid
    and regular meetings
•   Discuss waste avoidance – minimize packaging,
    return pallets, etc.
•   The 4 Rs - Reporting, Review and Return & Review
    (until they get it right)
•   Handholding
•   Be prepared to withhold interim payment
•   Final requisition should be tied to completion and
    approval of documentation.
             Four Times Square

• A 48-story, 1.6 million square
  foot office tower, designed in
  1995-1996 completed in
  1999.
• Before construction could
  begin, demolition of 462,500
  square feet was necessary.
• Pre-demolition salvage took
  place, and construction
  materials were sorted off-site
  because of space limitations.

                                   Courtesy: Fx Fowle
         Demolition Recycling
• 1,800 tons of steel
• 95 tons of scrap metal
• 6,000 yards of brick,
  concrete and dirt
• 22 pieces of ornate stone
  work
• 200 assorted office doors
• 60 copper facial corners
• 750 2” x 12” x 20' beams
• 2,000 yards concrete,
  brick and dirt              Courtesy: Joan Ulbrich
       Construction Recycling
         1997-1999 - 58%

• 42% Residue to
  Landfill
• 1% Aluminum
• 11% Light Metal
• 7% Cardboard
• 39% Wood                    Courtesy: Joan Ulbrich


All off-site separation. Four Times Square launched
this contractor’s recycling business in 1997.
    Construction Offsite Recycling
           2005 – 97.3%
• Wood: A. B Dauman
• Metal: A&A Scrap and Cinelli
• Concrete: Eagle, Bedrock.
  Stone and North Bergen
  Recycling
• Cardboard: Galaxy and
  Atlantic Coast Fibers
• Residual waste is transported
                                  Courtesy: Joan Ulbrich
  to Ohio landfills by train
Courtesy: Pamela Lippe
Courtesy: Pamela Lippe
               Four Times Square
  • An EPA case study calculated savings from
    the recycling and reuse efforts at $895,000,
    which were estimated to exceed the added
    costs involved with planning and instituting
    these recovery practices.

Project Phase    Waste         Waste to      Materials
                 Generated     Landfill      Diverted
Demolition       27,027 tons   11,097 tons   15,930 tons

Construction     3,287 tons    1,383 tons    1,904 tons

Total            30,314 tons   12,480 tons   17,834 tons
               125 W. 31st Street
                Deconstruction




Courtesy: Fx Fowle
               125 W. 31st Street
• NY Wa$teMatch and
  Community Environmental
  Center (CEC) worked with
  the developer and
  construction manager to
  deconstruct five buildings in
  Midtown Manhattan.
• CEC ran the salvage
  operation and harvested
  over 47 tons of building
  materials with a potential
  resale value of over
  $100,000.
                                  Courtesy: Pamela Lippe
                 Buildings on Site
125-127 W 31st St.     2-story; built in   9,621 gsf
                            1930
129-131 W 31st St.     6-story; built in   25,628 gsf
                            1920
126-128 W 32nd St.     3-story; built in   14,314 gsf
                            1920
130 W 32nd St.         4-story; built in   6,637 gsf
                            1920
132-134 W 32nd St.     6-story; built in   27,612 gsf
                            1921
                    125 W. 31st Street
Category                  Quantity            Total salvaged     62,665
Ceiling Tiles                  4,000 sf                 (lbs)
                                          Total recycled (lbs)   26,710
Windows and Doors              7.1 tons
                                               Total material    89,375
Interior Finishes,             1.4 tons        diverted from
Hardware, Cabinetry                            landfill by lbs
Plumbing, Electrical,          2.2 tons
                                              Total materials     7,800
& Mechanical
                                                diverted from
Equipment
                                             landfill by cubic
Wood Flooring                  5,000 sf                   feet
Wood Paneling &                1,000 sf
Trim
Misc. shelving,                  8 tons
racking, furniture etc.
            125 W. 31st Street

• CEC diverted 47 tons of materials from the five
  buildings. About 28% of these materials were
  recycled, including 6 tons of paper and 13 tons of
  ceiling tiles.
• CEC salvaged approximately 20 truckloads over a
  two-month period.
• However, the diversion rate could have been higher if
  there had been better coordination with other
  subcontractors.
                ONE BRYANT PARK
                       One Bryant Park participated
                       in a huge deconstruction effort,
                       donating 36 tons of reusable
                       building materials and
                       recyclables to the Community
                       Environmental Center (CEC).

                       Buildings deconstructed in part
                       included: 129 W. 42nd St., 123
                       W. 42nd St., 1113 6th Ave.,
                       102 W. 43rd St. and 106 W.
                       43rd St.
Courtesy: Cook + Fox
                       ONE BRYANT PARK

                               This groundbreaking effort
                               directly contributed to the
                               creation of “Build it Green!”
                               – New York City’s first
                               building materials re-use
                               center, a non-profit retail
                               outlet for reusable,
                               environmentally friendly and
Courtesy: Cook + Fox
                               low-cost building materials.
Items Deconstructed from OBP site

• Toilets             • Windows
• Sinks               • Wall panels
• Marble thresholds   • Wood shelving
• Urinals             • Theater seats
• Fluorescent light   • Furniture (desks, chairs,
  fixtures              tables)
• Wood flooring       • Electrical panels
• Ceiling panels      • LED exit signs
• Doors               • Aluminum handrails
       Sunrise Maintenance Yard
• DDC Project for the NYC DOT
• Demolition of 1939 maintenance structures
• Materials audit during design, with the participation of
  Wa$teMatch and full team


Took a hybrid
approach to
salvage and
C&D recycling


                 Courtesy: Gruzen Samton LLP
        Sunrise Maintenance Yard

• Modest targets for
  deconstruction
• Target – on site reuse of
  crushed brick and stone
   - Basis of % For Art – a wall
     representing Queens geology
   - Filler for permeable paving
• Target – Salvage of clean
  wood joists
• Target – Recycling of 75%
  of the C&D waste
                                   Courtesy: Gruzen Samton LLP
QUEENS BOTANICAL GARDEN
QUEENS BOTANICAL GARDEN
                 Recycled Material
•   Wood: 122.02 tons
•   Metal: 11.02 tons
•   Paper Product: 1.33 tons
•   Concrete: 596.92 tons
•   Re-used cobbles: 35 tons

• Total waste with reused: 812.35 tons
• Total recycled with reused: 766.29
      = 94% recycling rate
  LEED-NC 2.2 Submittal Template
• Responsible Individual & Company
• Identify units for diverted & landfill waste calculations
  (tons or cu.yds)
• Diverted Construction Waste
   – Diverted/Recycled Material Description
   – Diversion/Recycling Hauler or Location
   – Quantity of Diverted/Recycled Waste
• Landfill Construction Waste
   – Landfill Materials Description
   – Landfill Hauler or Location
   – Quantity of Landfilled Waste
  LEED-NC 2.2 Submittal Template
• Total Construction waste diverted divided by total
  construction waste generated = Total % diverted from
  landfill
• A required narrative must describe the projects CWM
  approach and plan
• An optional narrative can describe any special
  circumstances or considerations regarding the
  project’s credit approach.
   LEED-NC 2.2 Construction Waste
         Sample Narrative
• The project was completed over three phases from the
  summer of 2004 through the summer of 2006. During
  both construction and demolition, no waste was hauled
  directly to a landfill. The majority of waste was sent to
  mixed debris processing plants to reclaim recyclable
  materials. Reclamation rates ranged from 60 to 85%
  depending on the level of the mechanization at the
  processing plant and the composition of the debris.
  During demolition, there was also some source
  separation of concrete and brick, 100% of which was
  recycled. This represents an 80.43% waste diversion
  rate for the project.
  LEED-NC 2.2 Construction Waste
            Back up
• For demolition, the contractor maintained and provided
  a spread sheet that tracked every container, service
  date, pick-up number slip, type of material, facility it was
  delivered to, type of facility, total weight, tons recycled,
  tons to landfill, tons incinerated and the facility recycling
  percentage.
• For construction, the contractor maintained and
  provided a spread sheet that tracked each container or
  ticket number, haul date, total tonnage, concrete, metal,
  wood, cardboard-paper and other materials diverted in
  tons, total diverted and total residual trash in tons,
  percent recycled and name and location of where the
  material went.
    Best Practices/Recommendations
•   Don’t drive yourself crazy but try to do something
    extra on each job.
•   Make GC responsible to manage the program, and
    provide on-call support for questions.
•   Educate and involve design team, contractors and
    subcontractors. Encourage their innovation
•   Stress waste avoidance to design team, contractors
    and subs.
•   Review reporting forms and plans with contractors
    and subs in advance.
•   Bring it up regularly in multiple meetings.
•   Review and return forms until they’re in compliance.
               Design Phase
• Make the design team aware of the C&D
  requirements and resources in the Design Guide.
• Suggest a building audit to identify salvageable
  and/or recyclable materials
• Schedule discussion of C&D management strategies
  and targets
• Insure integration of CWM spec and targets into the
  project specifications
               Construction

• Discuss at pre-bid conference
• Request and review with the design team the GC
  waste management plan which should incorporate
  plans from other primes.
• Make sure that the GC designates a person to be
  responsible for C&D
• Require and review progress reporting including
  cumulative to-date totals.
             Lessons Learned

• It can be done easily and cheaply without delaying
  the schedule!
• It’s mostly about record-keeping and documenting
  what has been done.
• Insist on comprehensive and cumulative month-to-
  month tracking. You don’t want to try to figure out
  what has happened at the end of the job.
• Make the sub-contractors do the work for you.

				
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