LEED & Green Construction Waste Management Pamela Lippe LEED, AP firstname.lastname@example.org DESIGN + CONSTRUCTION EXCELLENCE Continuing Education for NYC Capital Program Staff Construction & Demolition (C&D) Waste Construction waste is defined as non-hazardous solid waste resulting from construction, demolition and land- clearing activities, not including excavation material. What is current practice? • All construction, demolition, and land clearing debris is hauled off site by private companies. • Lowest bidder gets the job. • All the prime contractors are responsible for their own waste. • Recycling and salvage are not mandatory. Certain materials of value (metal, wood, etc.) are recycled as a matter of course, averaging about 40-50% of total waste. • There is little or no record-keeping. Why Bother? • Nationwide, C&D debris accounts for 25% to 45% of the total solid waste stream (by weight), with the balance consisting of regular municipal and commercial trash. • In NYC, C&D accounts for more than 60% of the solid waste stream, according to a recent study by the NYC Department of Sanitation (DSNY), and 39 % when clean fill materials are excluded. • The City no longer has any operating waste disposal facilities (landfills or incinerators) within its borders. Why Bother? • As a result, all waste produced in NYC that is not recycled or composted, must be exported to disposal facilities located outside of the City. • NYC currently produces about 33,000 tons per day of construction and demolition debris. • Since the closure of Fresh Kills landfill, the Department of Sanitation's cost for waste disposal have increased from $42 per ton at Fresh Kills between $85-$90 per ton for export. • You have an opportunity to help mitigate a serious problem and resource drain for New York City. High Costs That is 33,000 tons a day x $90 = – $2,970,000 A DAY – $20,790,000 A WEEK – $89,100,000 A MONTH – $1,069,200,000 A YEAR (1Billion+) Why is Construction Waste Management (CWM) important? • Reduces waste. • Reduces demand for virgin resources. • Reduces groundwater contamination. • Reduces emissions. • Reduces costs. • Creates jobs. • Provides low cost building materials. • Preserves green space. What are other Cities doing? • San Francisco, CA and Portland, OR are recycling close to 50% of their waste, and have set targets as high as 75%. • City of Seattle/King County, WA has a Construction Waste Management Program which focuses on education and technical assistance for the building industry • The City of Chicago instituted a mandatory 50% recycling rate for C&D waste as of January 1, 2007. What are other States doing? • The California Integrated Waste Management Board has set a statewide target of diverting 50% of C&D waste from landfills. • The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection has established a goal to recycle 50% of the municipal solid waste stream and has proposed statewide recycling legislation. What is the DDC doing? Web-based Resources • C&D Waste Management Manual • Sample specification • Sample waste management plan • Waste management reporting forms will be available soon on the website. • Waste recycler list. Ask for a copy from Office of Sustainable Design. Issues Specific to City Contracting Obstacles • Contractual issues: Four prime contractors • It’s different and new – requires education and attention to detail. Opportunities • To lead by example to address a major city problem • It’s easy and relatively inexpensive to achieve these credits for LEED. LEED for New Construction C&D Recycling • Materials and Resources: Credit 2.1 (1 point) Recycle and/or salvage at least 50% of construction, demolition and land clearing waste (not including excavated material) • Materials and Resources: Credit 2.2 (1 point) Recycle and/or salvage an additional 25% (75% total) of construction, demolition and land clearing waste LEED for New Construction Building Re-use • Materials and Resources: Credit 1.1 (1 point) Building Reuse -Maintain 75% of existing walls, floors and roof • Materials and Resources: Credit 1.2 (1 point) Building Reuse – Maintain 95% of existing walls, floors, and roof • Materials and Resources: Credit 1.3 (1 point) Building Reuse – Maintain 50% of interior non- structural elements (interior walls, doors, floor coverings and ceiling systems) LEED for New Construction Reuse on Site • Materials and Resources Credit 3.1 (1 point) Materials Reuse – 5% • Materials and Resources Credit 3.1 (1 point) Materials Reuse – 10% LEED for Commercial Interiors Building Reuse - Credit 1.2 -1.3 Maintain 40-60% of Interior Non-Structural Components Construction Waste Management - Credit 2.1 - 2.2 Divert 50-75% from Landfill Resource Reuse - Credit 3.1 -3.2 Reuse 5-10% on site Three Paths Easy Demo contract and Construction Waste off- site separation – 75% is no problem Hard Maximize deconstruction and separate on- site Hybrid position Selectively deconstruct and separate a limited number of valuable items on-site and use off-site separation for the bulk. Demolition & Deconstruction • Must remove hazardous materials. • Why not remove valuable materials? • Deconstruction is the process that allows for salvage • Requires dismantling, storage, protection and Courtesy: Build It Green removal from site Deconstruction • First step of demolition • Must schedule time for it • More care must be used to dismantle for reuse rather than demolish (destroy for quick removal). • Must arrange for sale or donation of salvaged Courtesy: Build It Green material Deconstruction Courtesy: Build It Green Deconstruction Resources • Build It Green Reuse Center - Low cost construction materials • Local Deconstruction Expertise • Green Goat Deconstruction Spec • Institute for Local Self- Reliance Job Descriptions & Tool List Courtesy: Build It Green • DDC Office of Sustainable Design’s C&D Waste Recycler List Demolition Maximize Recycling – Metals – Wood – Gypsum Board – Cardboard – Concrete – Take back programs • Armstrong ceiling Courtesy Gruzen Samton LLP tiles, carpeting, etc Construction Waste • Decide about on-site or off-site separation – Off site can achieve extremely high recycling rates • Not many sub-contractors/haulers do it. • On-site is much more complicated. • On-site separation and labeling of containers • “Policing” to avoid contamination • Scheduling of pickups • Housekeeping Post Collection Recycling (Offsite) • No onsite separation • Hauled to yard, dumped and separated • Wood • Metal • Concrete • Cardboard • All residual waste transported to landfill. Courtesy: Joan Ulbrich On-site separation? • Do you have enough room? • What materials will generate income? • Will your hauler/subcontractor offer a reduced fee if recyclables are separated? • Are there specific requirements for separating? • How much contamination is allowed (e.g. painted wood, lunch waste?) Cambridge City Hall Annex Recycling Saved $55,000 Material Tons Recycling Cost Avoided Cost * Savings Brick 531 $22,833 $71,154 $48,321 Concrete 29 $2,407 $3,886 $1,479 Wood 112 $10,640 $15,008 $4,368 Metal 15 $690 $2010 $1320 Asphalt 1 $465 $134 (-$331) Roofing TOTALS 688 $37,035 $92,192 $55,157 * Cost that would have been paid if the material was sent to a landfill. Based on local rates in 2003. How is it done? • Planning • Specifications • Waste Management Plans and Forms • Bid Process • Contractor and Subcontractor Education Courtesy: Pamela Lippe Planning • Set goals. 75% is easy. • Conduct hazmat survey as required by DDC policy • Conduct pre-demolition survey. Outside expert? – Identify materials of value • Doors, beams, lighting, water-efficient fixtures, chillers, structural steel. Courtesy: Pamela Lippe Planning • Develop strategies to maximize value for the contractor or the community. Identify markets for material. Research take-back programs. • Are there any opportunities for reuse on the job? • Decide about on-site and/or off-site recycling Courtesy: Pamela Lippe Construction Waste Management Specifications • Develop construction waste management (CWM) specification language for all relevant sections – Consult DDC spec and modify it for your project. Requires minimum of 50% recycling. – MasterSpec addresses only on-site separation. • Integrate into project spec and sub-contractor agreements • Emphasize reporting and submittal requirements Construction Waste Management Plans & Forms • It’s all about focus and record-keeping. • Provide templates, but review work products and require revisions, if needed. • Require demo & CWM plan from GC (overall responsibility) and CWM plan from key contractors - HVAC, Plumbing, Electrical. • Decide on reporting in weight or volume (weight is typical) • Require to-date accounting and detailed record- keeping Typical Form • Date • Ticket # • Subcontractor • Container Volume (Cu Yds) • Total Weight (Tons) • Material Types • Estimated % of Total Load • Weight of Recycled & Landfilled Material • Material Recipient Waste Management Sample Form ________________: Project Demolition and Construction Waste Management Log - SAMPLE Recycled Materials (Off-Site Sorting) Period Documented: June 30, 2004 - July 30, 2004 Total Weight of Weight of Container Weight of Estimated % Recycled Landfilled Volume Refuse Material Types of Total Load Materials Material # Date Ticket # Subcontractor (Cu. Yds) (Tons) (Wood, Steel, Cardboard, etc.) (by weight) (Tons) (Tons) Material Recipient 1 7/26/04 0004 Cardella 20 6.95 Wood 1 Taylor Recycling Metals 3 Taylor Recycling Concrete 1 Taylor Recycling Brick n/a Cardboard n/a Misc. Fines n/a Rubbish 1.95 Waste Management 2 Wood Metals Concrete Brick Cardboard Misc. Fines Rubbish 3 Wood Metals Concrete Brick Cardboard Misc. Fines Rubbish 4 Wood Metals Concrete Brick Cardboard Misc. Fines Rubbish Recycled Landfilled MONTHLY TOTALS (TONS) 5 1.95 RECYCLING % FOR THIS PERIOD 71.9% Materials Estimated • Wood • Metals • Concrete • Brick • Cardboard • Miscellaneous Fines • Rubbish Courtesy: Gruzen Samton LLP Bid Process • Specs and plan requirements must be integrated into bid documents • Discuss spec, plan and forms at pre-bid meetings. Contractor and Subcontractor Education • GC must have someone who is knowledgeable & responsible • Organize kick-off meeting and discuss at pre-bid and regular meetings • Discuss waste avoidance – minimize packaging, return pallets, etc. • The 4 Rs - Reporting, Review and Return & Review (until they get it right) • Handholding • Be prepared to withhold interim payment • Final requisition should be tied to completion and approval of documentation. Four Times Square • A 48-story, 1.6 million square foot office tower, designed in 1995-1996 completed in 1999. • Before construction could begin, demolition of 462,500 square feet was necessary. • Pre-demolition salvage took place, and construction materials were sorted off-site because of space limitations. Courtesy: Fx Fowle Demolition Recycling • 1,800 tons of steel • 95 tons of scrap metal • 6,000 yards of brick, concrete and dirt • 22 pieces of ornate stone work • 200 assorted office doors • 60 copper facial corners • 750 2” x 12” x 20' beams • 2,000 yards concrete, brick and dirt Courtesy: Joan Ulbrich Construction Recycling 1997-1999 - 58% • 42% Residue to Landfill • 1% Aluminum • 11% Light Metal • 7% Cardboard • 39% Wood Courtesy: Joan Ulbrich All off-site separation. Four Times Square launched this contractor’s recycling business in 1997. Construction Offsite Recycling 2005 – 97.3% • Wood: A. B Dauman • Metal: A&A Scrap and Cinelli • Concrete: Eagle, Bedrock. Stone and North Bergen Recycling • Cardboard: Galaxy and Atlantic Coast Fibers • Residual waste is transported Courtesy: Joan Ulbrich to Ohio landfills by train Courtesy: Pamela Lippe Courtesy: Pamela Lippe Four Times Square • An EPA case study calculated savings from the recycling and reuse efforts at $895,000, which were estimated to exceed the added costs involved with planning and instituting these recovery practices. Project Phase Waste Waste to Materials Generated Landfill Diverted Demolition 27,027 tons 11,097 tons 15,930 tons Construction 3,287 tons 1,383 tons 1,904 tons Total 30,314 tons 12,480 tons 17,834 tons 125 W. 31st Street Deconstruction Courtesy: Fx Fowle 125 W. 31st Street • NY Wa$teMatch and Community Environmental Center (CEC) worked with the developer and construction manager to deconstruct five buildings in Midtown Manhattan. • CEC ran the salvage operation and harvested over 47 tons of building materials with a potential resale value of over $100,000. Courtesy: Pamela Lippe Buildings on Site 125-127 W 31st St. 2-story; built in 9,621 gsf 1930 129-131 W 31st St. 6-story; built in 25,628 gsf 1920 126-128 W 32nd St. 3-story; built in 14,314 gsf 1920 130 W 32nd St. 4-story; built in 6,637 gsf 1920 132-134 W 32nd St. 6-story; built in 27,612 gsf 1921 125 W. 31st Street Category Quantity Total salvaged 62,665 Ceiling Tiles 4,000 sf (lbs) Total recycled (lbs) 26,710 Windows and Doors 7.1 tons Total material 89,375 Interior Finishes, 1.4 tons diverted from Hardware, Cabinetry landfill by lbs Plumbing, Electrical, 2.2 tons Total materials 7,800 & Mechanical diverted from Equipment landfill by cubic Wood Flooring 5,000 sf feet Wood Paneling & 1,000 sf Trim Misc. shelving, 8 tons racking, furniture etc. 125 W. 31st Street • CEC diverted 47 tons of materials from the five buildings. About 28% of these materials were recycled, including 6 tons of paper and 13 tons of ceiling tiles. • CEC salvaged approximately 20 truckloads over a two-month period. • However, the diversion rate could have been higher if there had been better coordination with other subcontractors. ONE BRYANT PARK One Bryant Park participated in a huge deconstruction effort, donating 36 tons of reusable building materials and recyclables to the Community Environmental Center (CEC). Buildings deconstructed in part included: 129 W. 42nd St., 123 W. 42nd St., 1113 6th Ave., 102 W. 43rd St. and 106 W. 43rd St. Courtesy: Cook + Fox ONE BRYANT PARK This groundbreaking effort directly contributed to the creation of “Build it Green!” – New York City’s first building materials re-use center, a non-profit retail outlet for reusable, environmentally friendly and Courtesy: Cook + Fox low-cost building materials. Items Deconstructed from OBP site • Toilets • Windows • Sinks • Wall panels • Marble thresholds • Wood shelving • Urinals • Theater seats • Fluorescent light • Furniture (desks, chairs, fixtures tables) • Wood flooring • Electrical panels • Ceiling panels • LED exit signs • Doors • Aluminum handrails Sunrise Maintenance Yard • DDC Project for the NYC DOT • Demolition of 1939 maintenance structures • Materials audit during design, with the participation of Wa$teMatch and full team Took a hybrid approach to salvage and C&D recycling Courtesy: Gruzen Samton LLP Sunrise Maintenance Yard • Modest targets for deconstruction • Target – on site reuse of crushed brick and stone - Basis of % For Art – a wall representing Queens geology - Filler for permeable paving • Target – Salvage of clean wood joists • Target – Recycling of 75% of the C&D waste Courtesy: Gruzen Samton LLP QUEENS BOTANICAL GARDEN QUEENS BOTANICAL GARDEN Recycled Material • Wood: 122.02 tons • Metal: 11.02 tons • Paper Product: 1.33 tons • Concrete: 596.92 tons • Re-used cobbles: 35 tons • Total waste with reused: 812.35 tons • Total recycled with reused: 766.29 = 94% recycling rate LEED-NC 2.2 Submittal Template • Responsible Individual & Company • Identify units for diverted & landfill waste calculations (tons or cu.yds) • Diverted Construction Waste – Diverted/Recycled Material Description – Diversion/Recycling Hauler or Location – Quantity of Diverted/Recycled Waste • Landfill Construction Waste – Landfill Materials Description – Landfill Hauler or Location – Quantity of Landfilled Waste LEED-NC 2.2 Submittal Template • Total Construction waste diverted divided by total construction waste generated = Total % diverted from landfill • A required narrative must describe the projects CWM approach and plan • An optional narrative can describe any special circumstances or considerations regarding the project’s credit approach. LEED-NC 2.2 Construction Waste Sample Narrative • The project was completed over three phases from the summer of 2004 through the summer of 2006. During both construction and demolition, no waste was hauled directly to a landfill. The majority of waste was sent to mixed debris processing plants to reclaim recyclable materials. Reclamation rates ranged from 60 to 85% depending on the level of the mechanization at the processing plant and the composition of the debris. During demolition, there was also some source separation of concrete and brick, 100% of which was recycled. This represents an 80.43% waste diversion rate for the project. LEED-NC 2.2 Construction Waste Back up • For demolition, the contractor maintained and provided a spread sheet that tracked every container, service date, pick-up number slip, type of material, facility it was delivered to, type of facility, total weight, tons recycled, tons to landfill, tons incinerated and the facility recycling percentage. • For construction, the contractor maintained and provided a spread sheet that tracked each container or ticket number, haul date, total tonnage, concrete, metal, wood, cardboard-paper and other materials diverted in tons, total diverted and total residual trash in tons, percent recycled and name and location of where the material went. Best Practices/Recommendations • Don’t drive yourself crazy but try to do something extra on each job. • Make GC responsible to manage the program, and provide on-call support for questions. • Educate and involve design team, contractors and subcontractors. Encourage their innovation • Stress waste avoidance to design team, contractors and subs. • Review reporting forms and plans with contractors and subs in advance. • Bring it up regularly in multiple meetings. • Review and return forms until they’re in compliance. Design Phase • Make the design team aware of the C&D requirements and resources in the Design Guide. • Suggest a building audit to identify salvageable and/or recyclable materials • Schedule discussion of C&D management strategies and targets • Insure integration of CWM spec and targets into the project specifications Construction • Discuss at pre-bid conference • Request and review with the design team the GC waste management plan which should incorporate plans from other primes. • Make sure that the GC designates a person to be responsible for C&D • Require and review progress reporting including cumulative to-date totals. Lessons Learned • It can be done easily and cheaply without delaying the schedule! • It’s mostly about record-keeping and documenting what has been done. • Insist on comprehensive and cumulative month-to- month tracking. You don’t want to try to figure out what has happened at the end of the job. • Make the sub-contractors do the work for you.
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