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									                              The Global Link
                                 N E W S                F O R             T H E            A V I A T I O N                   I N D U S T R Y

                               ARINC IN EUROPE, THE MIDDLE EAST, AND AFRICA
MAY 2008                                                                                        open up automatically and the user will be able to access
                            Onboard Internet (Oi)                                               a variety of free and paid-for facilities.
                                                                                                  ARINC has established a basic look and feel for Oi that
Inside                                                                                          customer airlines will be free to adopt or have customized
2 Chairman’s Perspective                        ARINC’s new Oi service, which offers            to reflect their own branding. The offering is a mixture
3 ARINC in Latin America                        airline passengers versatile in-flight          of communication tools and entertainment content that
  and the Caribbean                             connectivity to the Internet, was               should appeal to business and leisure travelers alike.
3 ARINC in Asia                                 launched at the Aircraft Interiors Expo           The news can be served up as text plus brief audio
4 GLOBALink/HF                                  in Hamburg in April.                            and video clips; the latter is transmitted from the ground
4 GLOBALink/VHF                                    Last year’s launch of SwiftBroadband         in segments, cached on the airborne server, and then
4 GLOBALink/Satellite       Colette Parks       from Inmarsat has paved the way for             reassembled into complete files for streaming to the
                            Business Manager,
5 GLOBALink/Iridium         Airline Services,
                                                new passenger application capabilities.         passenger in near real time.
5 Aviation Communications   EMEA, ARINC         Affordable Internet access is a real              The web facility is designed to allow the user of web-
  Services                                      prospect for the airlines, and ARINC            based services such as Yahoo Mail or Hotmail to view
6 Technotalk                has added this capability—called Oi, for Onboard                    their inboxes and send messages. It also accommodates
7 Acronyms                  Internet—to its portfolio.                                          the web e-mail services offered by major Internet service
8 Spotlight on                The service centers on a web portal hosted on the                 providers such as AOL, allowing the user to access e-mail
  John Patterson            aircraft’s cabin server, which passengers access with               remotely via any PC with a browser. Attachments are
8 Squitters                 their own laptops by either wired or wireless technology.                                                     CONTINUED ON PAGE 7
                            An intuitive, user-friendly selection of screens allows
                            the passenger to select various offerings, including
                            Internet and corporate network access, Webmail, instant
                            messaging, live news and sport, podcasts, and airline
                            information. The service is open to both Mac and PC
                            laptops, and the user will not have to load special
                                                                                                ARINC Responds to Airlines’
                            software.                                                           Needs for Fuel Savings and
                              Unlike earlier efforts that used other satellite
                            technologies to offer unmetered Internet access to
                                                                                                Reduced CO2 Emissions
                            passengers, this is a managed connectivity service that                                    ARINC recently announced the
                            will encourage users to make economical use of the                                         launch of AirPlan enRouteSM, an
                            available communications capacity. That capacity is                                        arrival management service that will
                            expected to be enough to mimic the ADSL connections                                        bring much-needed fuel savings to
                            used in many homes and offices.                                                            airlines. AirPlan enRoute is based on
                              ARINC wants Oi to be as easy to use as the best Wi-Fi                                    proven technology that has saved
                            hotspots on the ground. All users have to do is start their         Pete Wright            fuel and reduced delays at one of the
                            laptop and open a browser. The Oi home page will then               Senior Manager,        world’s busiest airports by making
                                                                                                Technical Innovation,
                                                                                                ARINC                  adjustments in the arrival times of
                                                                                                                       incoming flights. Fuel savings of more
                                                                                                than $20,000 per day were reported by a major U.S.
                                                                                                carrier at this location. This technology also yields more
                                                                                                efficient use of available airspace and landing slots. Other
                                                                                                benefits include reduced CO2 emissions, decreased noise
                                                                                                pollution, and improved on-time performance.
                                                                                                   During periods of busy operations at airports, incoming
                                                                                                flights typically arrive unevenly and must be vectored into
2551 Riva Road                                                                                  long, time-consuming, and costly approach patterns.
Annapolis, Maryland 21401                                                                       AirPlan’s patented technology calculates improved arrival
USA                                                                                             times—starting when aircraft are hours from landing—
+1 800.633.6882                                                                                 and sends recommended small changes to each aircraft’s
arinc.com                   Oi offers a mix of communications tools and entertainment content                                             CONTINUED ON PAGE 7


                                 Fulfilling Critical Needs for Aviation
                                 ARINC was built on one of the greatest             passengers to use check-in shortcuts—such
                                 innovations of the 20th century—aviation.          as the Internet—at their hotels or convention
                                 What was once an impossible dream is now           centers, or even on cruise ships.
                                 an integral and everyday part of our lives. And       At ARINC, we know our job is to have
                                 we’ve been there the whole way, spreading          the vision to anticipate market demand, to
John Belcher
                                 our wings to deliver critical solutions to a       adapt to changing customer needs when
Chairman and
Chief Executive Officer,         thriving industry whenever they are needed.        it benefits them most. Our unique and
                                    Over the years—nearly eight decades             versatile innovations are transforming airport
                                 now—it’s become a natural extension of who         operations, bridging experience with forward
                                 we are to lend our expertise to the airport        thinking to deliver unmatched design and
                                 industry as well. It didn’t take long before       integration solutions.
                                 ARINC was delivering communications,                  In an effort to eliminate the costly
                                 integration, and complete infrastructure           printing of magnetic boarding passes,
                                 solutions from one end of the airport to the       ARINC has developed ways to convert them
                                 other.                                             using two-dimensional barcodes, and even
                                    Today ARINC remains at the forefront            made them available on cell phones for
                                 of aviation and airport innovation—a global        passenger convenience. We have deployed
                                 leader in providing the most efficient, reliable   the latest radio frequency identification (RFID)
                                 21st century technology and services               technology to bolster baggage security and
                                 available.                                         increase public safety at some of the world’s
                                    Maximizing efficiency is of paramount           busiest airports. We dedicate ourselves every
                                 importance in the airport industry—reducing        day to meeting each new challenge with one
                                 operating costs for airlines and waiting times     eye on today and one on tomorrow.
                                 for passengers. We know how critical both of          We are excited for the future of passenger
                                 these are. That is why we built ourselves into     processing to be on full display at new
                                 the largest provider of self-service kiosks in     terminals in Dallas-Fort Worth, Narita, and
                                 the world. We’ve installed more than 60% of        Dubai. With the International Air Transport
                                 the 2,500 kiosks in 85 airports around the         Association (IATA) forecasting a more than
                                 globe.                                             50 percent increase in passenger traffic by
                                    Our state-of-the-art common-use systems         2020, there is high demand for both new
                                 have been leading the way since we first           and integrated airport services around the
                                 introduced them more than ten years ago,           world. All of us here at ARINC look forward to
                                 and kiosks represent only the beginning of a       fulfilling such a critical need and seizing such
                                 growing trend. It has become the norm for          tremendous market opportunity.
                                                                                                                             THE GLOBAL LINK | MAY 2008   3


Maximizing the Capabilities of Advanced Avionics
                     Aircraft manufacturers are      fleet in the world. With this in mind, ARINC         Reina Beatrix International Airport in Aruba
                     producing aircraft with         is working with our airline customers in this      is the first location where D-ATIS is operational
                     highly sophisticated and        region to enable them to use their data link       and provides worldwide broadcast via ACARS®.
                     advanced avionics. These        communications to its full potential. ARINC        The next scheduled airports are in Argentina:
                     aircraft demand data            is also providing the civil aviation authorities   Ezeiza (Buenos Aires) and Cordoba. With our
                     link communications to          (CAAs) with solutions to enhance the safety,       latest innovation of a dual-language capability,
 Veronica Lozano     maximize their avionics’        efficiency, and regularity of air transport in     those D-ATIS sites will transmit data in English
 Business Manager,   capabilities. One of the        these countries.                                   and Spanish.
 Aviation Solutions,
 ARINC               most important regions in          In addition to the VHF expansion efforts          As for DCL, Tocumen International in
                     the world to expedite the       in the region, ARINC is implementing the           Panama and El Dorado International in Bogota
implementation of new technologies is the            Digital Automatic Terminal Information Service     have been targeted as candidates for the
Latin American region.                               (D-ATIS) and Departure Clearance (DCL),            implementation of this application.
   Latin American carriers have high-tech            thus allowing the airlines to take advantage of
                                                                                                         veronica.lozano@arinc.com | +1 410.266.4008
aircraft among their fleet. In fact, the region is   modern avionics on board.
known to have the most advanced and modern


The Airlines Team of Asia Pacific                                                                                            Some of the Airlines Team
                                                                                                                             members from ARINC’s
                    I am pleased to reintroduce                                                                              Asia Pacific Division
                    the ARINC Asia Pacific
                    Division’s Airlines Team,
                    which is responsible for
                    the planning and manage-
                    ment of all airline-related
 Dan Pendergast
                    activities throughout the
 Senior Director,   entire Asia region. And I
 Airline Programs,
                    am very pleased to join
                    this motivated and capable
team after spending more than 10 years in
the GLOBALink services business at our head-
quarters in Annapolis, Maryland.
   Our Airlines Team is organized into five areas
that focus on delivering ARINC’s aviation
communication products and services to
carriers based within the region as well as
those that fly to the region from the Americas,      value-added services are additional important      mailboxes in response to its growing popularity
Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. The five        ARINC service offerings that the team delivers     among customers in the aviation industry. Our
focus areas are:                                     to Asian-based carriers. The GLOBALink             AviNet services team is led by Keng Wai Low,
                                                     services team members who are responsible          and the team members are Edmund Goh, Tess
•	 GLOBALink	services
                                                     for the entire range of ARINC’s GLOBALink          Tan, Gladys Koh, John Kim, and Desmond
•	 AviNet	services
                                                     services are Shane Assawachaichit, Cherlene        Huang.
•	 Electronic	flight	bag	(EFB)	and	Gatelink	
                                                     Chua, and Gavin Ng.                                  Over the recent years, EFBs and Gatelink
   products and services
                                                       Another important part of the Airlines           have emerged as distinct airline needs and
•	 Account	management
                                                     Team is the people who are responsible for         have grown in interest. In response to these
•	 The	Integrated	Product	Team	(IPT)
                                                     AviNet services to airlines serving the Asia       growing needs, our Airlines Team accepted
The GLOBALink services team plans and                Pacific region. The AviNet team supports our       responsibility for ARINC’s EFB-related offering
manages our GLOBALink VHF ACARS® services            growing airports business by implementing          and has teamed with the ARINC/ADCC joint
with our partners Aerothai and ADCC. In              connections to airport iMUSE platforms.            venture company ADARI to offer solutions
addition to VHF ACARS services, this team            They also implement a wide variety of ground       for EFB content and content management.
also provides Asian airlines with ARINC’s            connectivity in response to airline operational    Gatelink communications services complement
complementary HFDL, Inmarsat satcom, and             and country-specific customs border security       EFB content in that the higher bandwidth
Iridium satcom long-range communications             requirements. The AviNet team is also              offered by ARINC’s Gatelink services enable
services. OpCenter, air traffic services, and        increasing its focus on delivering AviNet                                          CONTINUED ON PAGE 7
 4    THE GLOBAL LINK | MAY 2008

                                                         Automation of the tool is still being refined       footprint covers 32 countries on 6 continents,
                                                       to take into account factors such as aircraft         yet we continue to augment that coverage. Our
                                                       operational requirements that can lead to             recent efforts in Latin America have resulted
                                                       false-positive reports. The HFDL medium has           in unprecedented growth in the Caribbean
                                                       very much benefited by this tool; the AOA/            and South America, most notably Brazil. We
                                                       POA and satcom media are being evaluated              are also focused on expanding the Middle
                                                       concurrently.                                         East and Africa regions that have become
     GLOBALink/HF                                        As the concept and tool matures, the tool           increasingly important to our customers. Our
                                                       will provide proactive notification to carriers of    commitment to expansion in the Asia/Pacific
Monitoring Equipment                                   failed or soon-to-fail equipment on the aircraft      region is evident by the recent deployment
with MOLD                                              rather than reactive reports that can ground a
                                                       revenue-generating aircraft.
                                                                                                             of VDLM2 in China in support of the A380
                                                                                                             and the expected increase in message traffic
                     Reliable communications.                                                                during the 2008 Olympics. Expansion in Asia/
                                                        john.patterson@arinc.com | +1 410.266.4249
                     Among the many factors                                                                  Pacific is not limited to China; soon we will see
                     that constitute a successful                                                            enhanced coverage in Thailand, Singapore,
                     flight, reliable communica-                                                             India, Australia, and elsewhere in that region.
                     tions ranks in the top five          GLOBALink/VHF                                         ARINC has a long history of providing the
                     items. Preflight checks can                                                             most dependable data link service to meet—
 John Patterson      determine if a communica-         ARINC’s Long-Term                                     if not exceed—the air/ground communica-
                     tions system is working or
                                                       Commitment to the                                     tion requirements of our customers. We will
 Principal Engineer,
 RF Engineering,
 ARINC               not. However, with many                                                                 continue to invest in the future and devote the
                     aircraft configurations, HFDL     GLOBALink Network                                     resources necessary to operate the highest
cannot be checked until the aircraft is in flight.                                                           quality service. We also remain dedicated to
The link maintenance pages can be selected                                   ARINC’s focus and commit-       providing the best support for our customers.
to see if any hard faults are being reported by                              ment to operate the “best       Our long-term commitment to the GLOBALink
the components’ built-in test function. With                                 in class” data link network     network ensures we will continue to meet the
the workload for crews growing, a “no-comm”                                  remains steadfast with          needs of our customers and the airline industry
condition on an HF system may be explained                                   our change in ownership.        for many years to come.
as “It’s just HF” and a logbook writeup may                                  (ARINC was acquired by The
                                                                                                              barbara.carlsson@arinc.com | +1 410.266.2198
not be entered. The resulting loss of that spe-        Barbara Carlsson      Carlyle Group in October
cialized communication system can limit the            Sr. Business Manager, 2007.) There is no question
aircraft’s flight plans to a fuel-inefficient flight   ARINC                 that the GLOBALink network
route. In these days of rising fuel costs, every                             will be required for years to      GLOBALink/Satellite
factor for a successful flight becomes crucial.        come, and ARINC remains dedicated to provid-
   Since HFDL is used as a backup medium               ing service quality and support at the levels our     Service News
where VHF and satellite services are unavail-          customers have come to expect. Our sustained
able, HFDL should be ready at a second’s               investment in the GLOBALink infrastructure as                             CN94 Ground Earth
notice to take over when coverage issues or            well as our long-term global expansion plans                              Station (GES) Upgrade
media failures occur. In some cases, HFDL              will meet the needs of our customers and the                              Program Completed
customers rely on HF for primary communica-            entire airline industry for the foreseeable future                         An extensive, Inmarsat-
tions in areas not covered by satellite or VHF         and beyond.                                                                mandated upgrade program
networks. This is where the medium must be                ARINC’s continued investment in its network                             (called Change Notice 94, or
                                                                                                              Tom McCullough
reliable at all times.                                 infrastructure will ensure high availability, ample    Business Manager,
                                                                                                                                  CN94) associated with the
   So how can a service provider work with a           capacity, and the highest quality of service.          Satellite Services, Vizada satellite GES facilities
carrier to ensure the various media are avail-         Currently under way is a five-year, multimillion-                          was completed in 2007. The
able in the cockpit? By simply tapping into the        dollar technology program to upgrade the              Eik, Norway, GES operating the Atlantic and
data flowing through the networks and alerting         entire GLOBALink network. This will provide           Indian ocean regions was upgraded on October
the customer when a medium has not been                a more-robust host processing system, ease            4, and the Santa Paula, California (U.S.), GES
used for a predetermined number of flight legs         implementation of customer requirements,              was upgraded on November 9. This service
or days. With this concept, ARINC consulted            allow for more customer traffic visibility, and       enhancement allows the stations to operate
with Continental Airlines in developing a tool         eliminate any potential risk of obsolete hard-        with greater efficiency while protecting against
called MOLD, or Media Off-Line Detector.               ware and software within the network. Another         GES component obsolescence.
   MOLD has been successfully used with sev-           significant initiative in the upgrade program is
eral customers to highlight aircraft equipment         the development of a new digital VHF radio.           Inmarsat Terminal Activation
failures. In turn, the carrier can replace failed      These radios will be fielded worldwide as part of     Procedures
equipment, equipment vendors can make                  our next-generation multiservice ground station       During the commissioning of new satellite
reliability improvements to their equipment,           (MSGS), which will support both analog ACARS          terminals, the operational applications on
and the crew can be relieved of the burden             (“POA”) and VDLM2.                                    each Inmarsat Service Activation Registration
of reporting failed equipment. All in all, MOLD           Global expansion plans for the GLOBALink/          Form (SARF) should be reviewed to ensure the
helps make communications highly reliable.             VHF network have accelerated. Today our               services requested are actually configured and
                                                                                                                            THE GLOBAL LINK | MAY 2008   5

used. If incorrect service options (such as a
                                                                                                          Aviation Communications Services (ACS)
Data-2/ACARS request for satellite voice-only
equipped aircraft) are selected upon terminal
activation, this may cause degradation                                                                 The ARINC CertiPath
in satellite communications performance                                                                Certificate Service:
across the ground earth stations because of
incongruent Inmarsat database information.                                                             Identity Management
Your local Point of Service Activation (PSA)                                                           for the Aviation Industry
center can determine how your satellite
terminals are registered for service if this                                                                                 The aviation industry is rap-
information is not readily available through                                                                                 idly adopting Internet-based
your avionics engineering or flight operations                                                                               solutions as the standard
departments.                                                                                                                 operating procedure for a
                                                                                                                             variety of mission-critical
Atlantic Ocean Region West (AORW)                                                                                            business processes. This
Moves to Norway                                                                                        Mike Dufton           growing e-commerce trend
The Southbury, Connecticut (U.S.), GES
                                                                                                       Business              includes not only dramatic
serving the AORW was decommissioned for                                                                Director, ARINC       benefits, but also significant
aeronautical services on March 27, 2008.                                                                                     new challenges. One major
At this time, the AORW was moved to the                                                                requirement is the need to authenticate the
Eik GES, which now provides service to three                                                           identity of the various participants in your
oceanic regions: Atlantic Ocean Region West          Those accomplishments, in conjunction with        e-commerce activities.
(AORW), Atlantic Ocean Region East (AORE),         the continued progress of Safety Services              In a digital world how do you verify the iden-
and the Indian Ocean Region (IOR). The Santa       approval for Iridium, set the stage for 2008.       tity of people and systems that are electroni-
Paula GES continues to serve the Pacific             Already in 2008, we have had the first two        cally communicating with your company? The
Ocean Region (POR) via the Inmarsat-3 satel-       air transport carriers using the AOI service.       ARINC CertiPath Certificate Service is a solu-
lite constellation. The AORW station transition    Both carriers are planning to add several           tion that provides all of the identity authentica-
from Southbury to Eik enables access to the        aircraft in the second quarter of 2008. Another     tion needs in a service built to the exacting
latest CN94-upgraded satellite communica-          ARINC milestone is surpassing 100 Iridium           standards of our industry.
tions platform while also incorporating new        aircraft. This mark was passed in early January        Digital certificates are the electronic equiva-
SS7 signaling technology that substantially        and continues to climb each month.                  lent of a government-issued form of photo
increases call setup times.                          ARINC continues to support RTCA efforts to        identification. They provide authentication of
                                                   complete the MASPS and MOPS for Iridium             the individual or device, and they are used in a
 thomas.mccullough@arinc.com | +1 410.266.4986     Safety Services. RTCA document DO-262,              variety of ways including:
                                                   which defines the minimum performance               •	 authenticating	identity	before	allowing	
                                                   requirements for Iridium-based avionics,               access to secure systems and applications
   GLOBALink/Iridium                               should be completed in the third quarter,           •	 facilitating	trusted	communications	between	
                                                   and DO-270, which defines the minimum                  individuals within a company
2008: A Year of                                    operational performance for the Iridium             •	 communications	between	companies	
Milestones for Iridium                             subnetwork, is expected to be completed by
                                                   year’s end. With the completion of these two
                                                                                                          throughout the industry

                     As we close the book on       documents, the FAA can begin the formal             Digital signatures form the foundation of a
                     2007, we can reflect on the   approval process of Iridium avionics platforms      trust-based relationship. Until now, these
                     many accomplishments that     and the subnetwork for Safety Services.             relationships often relied upon unique and
                     will lay the groundwork for     In parallel with the RTCA efforts, ARINC          proprietary formats for ensuring and securing
                     a watershed year in 2008      will be supporting the midyear FANS-1A trials       electronic identities. The ARINC CertiPath Cer-
                     for the GLOBALink/Iridium     using the AOI service. These trials will take       tificate Service simplifies and standardizes the
                     service.                      place in the Pacific Ocean region with the          complex world of identity management with an
 Brian Pemberton
 Iridium Service       One of the primary ARINC    FAA Oakland Center. The goal of the trials is       industry-focused identity management service
 Manager, ARINC
                     efforts in 2007 was to        to obtain operational data to assist the FAA        built on industry-based standards. Our sub-
upgrade our AQP lab to be able to test Iridium-    and other Air Navigation Service Providers          scriber’s certificates are signed and managed
based avionics systems with our GLOBALink/         in evaluating the performance of the Iridium        in a secure environment built for the exclusive
Iridium ACARS service. These improvements          subnetwork.                                         use of the world’s aviation community.
were completed midyear, and we were able             GLOBALink/Iridium continues to make strides          With a few simple steps your company can
to successfully test avionics units from           and reach new milestones. The efforts planned       be on the road to a more secure electronic
International Communications Group and             for 2008 will set the stage for Iridium’s           future. To learn more, contact Howard Panken,
Avionica, Inc. in the latter half of the year.     addition to the list of technologies approved for   Senior Manager, Identity Management, ARINC,
    Following the launch of our ACARS Over         safety communications.                              at 617.947.8743 or hpanken@arinc.com.
Iridium (AOI) service last year, we signed three
                                                    brian.pemberton@arinc.com | +1 410.266.4888         michael.dufton@arinc.com | +1 410.266.4607
customers to service contracts.
 6    THE GLOBAL LINK | MAY 2008


Aircraft Addressing: A Historical Review and Look Forward
                      In mail delivery, once a         for China, “C-“ for Canada, and “JA-“ for Japan.      Approximately 25% of the aircraft fleet today
                      postman has driven to the        The complete list of country prefixes can be          rely on an APM concept.
                      proper street and located the    found in Annex 7.
                      house number, there is very                                                            One Aircraft, Multiple Addresses
                      little question that he has      Setting the Aircraft Registration in                  Air Traffic Control recognizes and maintains
                      found the correct address to     the ACARS-Equipped Aircraft                           communications with aircraft by callsign. In
Steve Leger           drop the letter. With changes    For data link to work successfully, the ACARS         general aviation aircraft, the callsign is the
Director, GLOBALink   in our industry conventions      Management Unit (MU) or Communications                aircraft registration; however, for commercial
Customer Services,
ARINC                 as well as different types of    Management Unit (CMU) must report the                 airliners, where the specific aircraft covering
                      addressing to identify the       sending aircraft’s AN in each downlink and            a flight can change very quickly, the callsign
same aircraft, delivery of data link messages, in      respond only to those uplink messages that are        has historically been the Flight Identifier (FI);
comparison, is not nearly so straightforward.          specifically addressed to the AN of the aircraft it   for example, Continental Airlines Flight 86 is
   In this article, we will review the origins,        was installed on. To support rapid maintenance        represented with a FI of CO0086. The FI is well
technical concepts, and the earlier challenges         actions, such as the replacement of a defec-          known by the general public and is based on
associated with the proper delivery of data            tive MU, the aircraft registration must stay with     the flight plan that is filed well in advance with
link messages to aircraft. We will review the          the aircraft rather than follow the MU. How can       the regional CAA.
advances in avionics for overcoming some of            the MU automatically get the aircraft registra-          From the onset, the ACARS system was
these issues and, in part two (in an upcoming          tion (AN) it needs quickly and reliably without       designed to allow ATC and airline operations to
issue of The Global Link), look at independent         someone having to enter it into the MU?               send uplink messages by flight ID. While still
addressing schemes that are associated with               A clever solution was to define a set of 43        supported today, the industry has discouraged
our satellite and HF data link media as well as        pins on the aircraft side of the MU connec-           addressing by flight ID—the FI is ambiguous,
the new Aviation Telecommunications Network.           tor. Airline maintenance prewired these pins          and messages can inadvertently be delivered to
   When the ACARS® system was first developed          in the proper combination allowing the ACARS          the incorrect aircraft. Here are two examples:
in 1978, one objective was to find an                  MU to identify the complete seven-character              During preflight, the crew manually enters the
addressing scheme that would unambiguously             aircraft registration during each power up            fight ID into the CMU. If the crew accidentally
identify each aircraft. Fortunately, it was already    sequence. For at least 12 years, this was the         enters the incorrect flight ID, any uplink
available in a unique alphanumeric character           standard procedure used across the industry           addressed to the true flight ID for that aircraft
sequence that is known as the aircraft registra-       for all aircraft. While primarily effective, there    will be rejected.
tion or “AN” in ACARS terminology. The aircraft        are drawbacks. First, a weak connection can              With some worldwide operations, there have
registration is assigned by the International Civil    cause the MU to misread the program pins and          been instances when two aircraft are en route
Aviation Organization (ICAO). Since the 1920s,         the aircraft suddenly takes on a new aircraft         simultaneously in different regions, with an
this identification “number” has been assigned         registration. In most cases, the airline is left      identical flight ID. This could lead to the delivery
in a legal document called the Certificate of          without the ability to maintain data communica-       of a flight-critical message to the wrong aircraft.
Registration, which must be carried on the             tions with the aircraft. Second, with 43 wires,          In summary, flight identifiers are not unique
aircraft at all times. In addition, the registration   this method was prone to failures because one         and can cause messages to be undelivered
identifier must be prominently displayed on a          bad pin changes the aircraft ID. Third, the initial   or delivered to the incorrect aircraft. Over the
fireproof metal plate mounted on the aircraft,         wiring of the aircraft and any change in aircraft     years, the industry has transitioned to nearly
and it is usually painted on the aircraft fuse-        address requires several hours to rewire the MU       exclusive use of aircraft registration addressing.
lage. In the past, the registration most often         connector.
appeared on the aircraft tail; therefore, many            To solve these issues, the next generation of      Conclusion
within the aviation industry refer to the aircraft     ACARS MUs began reading the aircraft registra-        In part two of this discussion, we will look at
registration as the “tail number.” The assign-         tion that is broadcasted from other central air-      the new addressing scheme—a 24-bit ICAO
ment is not absolutely permanent—if an aircraft        craft systems (such as the Flight Management          Address—associated with ATN, the aviation
changes ownership, it may be assigned a new            System) that are connected over the aircraft          industry’s new communications network. In
registration number.                                   communications bus. Finally, in current genera-       addition, we will look at our alternative com-
   Annex 7 of the Convention on International          tion CMUs, the aircraft registration number and       munications media including HF data link,
Civil Aviation defines the rules and conventions       several other aircraft features are reported to       Inmarsat satellite, and the ACARS Over Iridium
associated with aircraft registrations. Gener-         the CMU by a device referred to as the Airline        service. Each of these media have supple-
ally, the registration is made up of two parts:        Personality Module (APM), which is mounted            mental subnetwork addressing schemes that
(1) the country’s callsign prefix as assigned by       in the aircraft, using minimal wires and serial       add another level of complexity and special
the International Telecommunications Union             communications to the CMU. In many aspects            processes to ensure proper message delivery.
(ITU) and (2) a one- to five-character alphanu-        this APM is very similar to an environmentally          As always, we appreciate your feedback and
meric code assigned by the local civil aviation        hardened and FAA-approved USB thumb drive.            are looking for suggestions for future Technotalk
authority (CAA) that uniquely identifies the           Once programmed by maintenance staff, the             articles.
aircraft. Examples of country prefixes are “N”         APM reliably stores the aircraft registration, but
                                                                                                              stephen.leger@arinc.com | +1 410.266.2169
for the USA, “G-“ for the United Kingdom, “B-“         it can be easily changed in a matter of minutes.
                                                                                                                               THE GLOBAL LINK | MAY 2008      7

restricted to 10 KB, though individual airlines       projected time at the arrival fix to achieve
are free within reason to set higher limits.          overall system goals and save fuel. These           ACARS    Aircraft Communications Addressing and
   ARINC’s aim is to offer managed live               Required Time of Arrival (RTA) messages are                  Reporting System
access with limited streaming service and             delivered over the airline’s existing ACARS®        ADCC     Aviation Data Communication Corporation
file downloads; this approach will provide a          communications equipment.                           ADSL     Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
better experience for passengers throughout              As a planning overlay that operates side         AOA      ACARS Over AVLC
the cabin and will allow the airlines to price        by side with current ATC processes, AirPlan’s       AOI      ACARS Over Iridium
the basic service attractively while still offering   time-based sequencing represents an                 APM      Airline Personality Module
access to private company networks (VPNs)             evolutionary step in air traffic management.        ATC      Air Traffic Control
at a premium price to those who are willing to        Time-based sequencing is a key element              ATN      Aeronautical Telecommunication Network
pay for it.                                           of next-generation ATC processes, reducing          AVLC     Aviation VHF Link Control
   The system is flexible enough to                   or eliminating the inefficiencies inherent in       CAA      Civil Aviation Authority
accommodate a variety of pricing schemes—             the use of miles-in-trail separation. AirPlan       CMU      Communications Management Unit
for example, access by hour or per day,               considers all flights coming into an airport        D-ATIS   Digital Automatic Terminal Information
including multiple flight legs—and payment            simultaneously, and also takes into account                  Service
by a variety of means such as credit card,            airline objectives such as operating schedule,      DCL      Departure Clearance
pre-paid cards, frequent flyer cards, or Internet     gate availability, connecting flights, and crew     EFB      Electronic Flight Bag
service provider accounts.                            legality when optimizing aircraft arrivals.         FAA      Federal Aviation Administration
   Until recently, the airlines have seen                AirPlan adds to ARINC’s long history of          FI       Flight Identifier
connectivity primarily as a customer-attracting       integrating air traffic management innovations      GES      Ground Earth Station
addition to their service offerings, while            with air/ground data link technology. By            HF       High Frequency
some have hoped it might be a net revenue             using existing data link equipment, this            HFDL     High Frequency Data Link
generator—but now some carriers believe it            service requires no new avionics, no software       IATA     International Air Transport Association
could also be used to supplement the basic            modifications, and no changes to an airline’s       ICAO     International Civil Aviation Organization
broadcast in-flight entertainment systems             IT infrastructure. The improved sequencing of       IP       Internet Protocol
fitted to their aircraft, easing the pressure for     flights en route brings critical fuel savings at    IPT      Integrated Product Team
installation of expensive in-seat, on-demand          a time when airlines are dealing with ever-         ITU      International Telecommunications Union
hardware.                                             increasing fuel costs.                              MASPS Minimum Aviation System Performance
  colette.parks@arinc.com | +44 1293 64 1352            peter.wright@arinc.com | +1 410.266.4819
                                                                                                          MOLD     Media Off-Line Detector
                                                                                                          MOPS     Minimum Operational Performance
                                                                                                          MSG      Multiservice Ground Station
the delivery of large files while an aircraft is        Engineering and program support to our            MU       Management Unit
at its gate. Asia airports will be among the          airlines businesses and our Aerothai and            POA      Plain Old ACARS
first locations in the world to have Gatelink         ADCC partners is provided by the Annapolis-         PSA      Point of Service Activation
technologies for the 777, A380, and 787               based Asia Integrated Product Team                  RFID     Radio Frequency Identification
aircraft, and our Airlines Team is working with       (IPT). This team provides engineering and           RTA      Required Time of Arrival
our Annapolis program office to set up ARINC’s        program management support to ensure our            SARF     Service Activation Registration Form
Gatelink services at Asian airports. Our EFB          partner networks are maintained at the latest       SATCOM Satellite Communications
and Gatelink team consist of Fei Huang,               configurations and are upgraded as needed.          VDL      Very High Frequency Digital Link
Wen Ming, and Bob Lentz; they have been               They also provide 24x7 on-call engineering          VDLM2    VDL Mode 2
leading the world in implementing these new           support to our partners. The team is led by         VHF      Very High Frequency
technologies, and we look forward to airlines         Pragnesh Patel and is supported by Ron              VPN      Virtual Private Network
benefiting from their successes soon.                 Marshall and Mark Blumberg.
   Our account management team directly                 Our Airlines Team is dedicated to ensuring
supports all Asian-based airlines to ensure that
our airline products and services are constantly
                                                      that ARINC’s services are operated and
                                                      maintained at the level of quality that you         Is there a topic
meeting expectations. The team is located             demand and expect. We have some of the              you’d like to see
throughout the region. In many instances, a
representative resides in the country where
                                                      best people in the industry who are totally
                                                      dedicated to serving your needs. I have             covered in the
our airline customers are headquartered. The          witnessed their dedication to our business first-   Technotalk
account management team consists of Kiki
Assawachaichit, Enrica Kuo, Wang Tang, Amy
                                                      hand in the few months I have been working
                                                      with them and have complete confidence that         column?
Xu, KB Cho, and Saira Kanchwala. Also, Danny          they will continue to exceed your expectations
Ying and Sakuma Hiroshi provide account               in the future.                                      send your suggestions to
management services in addition to their
                                                        daniel.pendergast@arinc.com | +1 410.266.2267
business development role.

Spotlight on John Patterson
John Patterson’s keen interest in           chased by a polar bear while                               John Patterson
                                                                                                       Principal Engineer,
astronomy combines well with his            repairing an HFDL station in Alaska;
                                                                                                       RF Engineering,
job working on ARINC’s HF data link         another time he experienced an                             ARINC
service. As a Principal Engineer in the     earthquake in India while on a
RF Engineering group in Annapolis,          customer visit.
John monitors HF performance and              John is also the president of the      children in a career military family.
the constantly changing effects that        ARINC Astronomy Club (AAC), which        He was born at West Point, New York,
space weather, particularly sunspots        helps foster an interest in astronomy    where his father was stationed as a
and solar flares, can have on HF            shared by ARINC employees                math professor. John had his first job
propagation.                                and retirees, their families, and        at West Point at age 14 selling hot
  John joined ARINC in 2000, a              community members. He is very            dogs at the Army football stadium
year after ARINC launched the HFDL          passionate about astronomy. On           (he needed the money to buy model
service. His other job duties include       a clear night, he enjoys going out       rockets). When his father retired,
working with customers and avionics         on his deck with his telescope,          the family settled in Maryland.
manufacturers on HF data link use           photographing the moon, stars,           John attended Capital College in
and avionics issues, troubleshooting        planets, comets, and nebulas.            Laurel, Maryland, earning a bachelor
customer issues on HFDL, and                  John belongs to the Porsche Club       of science degree in electrical
making VHF propagation maps for             of America and teaches technical         engineering. John earned a masters
ARINC’s POA/AOA and voice ground            sessions on how to repair Porsches.      degree in astronomy from Swinburne
stations.                                   When he finds the time, he will race     University in Australia.
  Working on HFDL for ARINC has             his 1985 Porsche 911. He also likes
                                                                                      john.patterson@arinc.com | +1 410.266.4249
involved John in some memorable             to watch and play ice hockey.
experiences. One time, he was                 John was the youngest of four


     Rockwell Collins and ARINC DirectSM have successfully        ARINC DirectSM has now added an automatic
     installed their high-speed Internet communications           Dosimetry Reporting capability to its standard
     solution for business jets—eXchangeTM with service           portfolio of flight support services for business
     by SKYLinkSM—on a customer’s Citation X aircraft,            aviation. The new capability allows operators to track
     Cessna’s largest airframe. This was the first                the exposure of flight crews to potential radiation.
     commercial aftermarket installation of the eXchange          ARINC Direct customers may choose to have their
     system. eXchange is the only Ku-band connectivity            flight plans and crew names automatically forwarded
     solution available for business jets and is supported        each week for dosimetry monitoring. ARINC has
                                                                                                                                   The Global Link
     by ARINC’s expanding SKYLink Internet satellite              arranged with radiation monitoring specialist IASON of           is published periodically by
     network services.                                            Graz, Austria, to archive and forward dosimetry data             ARINC and is distributed to
                                                                  for customers who wish to use their service. ARINC               its customers and others
                                                                                                                                   in the aviation community.
     ARINC and Gate Gourmet, a global leader in airline           does not charge a fee.
     catering and onboard retail management, will work                                                                             MANAGING EDITOR
     together to market on-board sales programs for the           In response to growing demand from general and                   Pete Grogan
     world’s airlines and passenger rail systems. Gate            corporate aviation customers, ARINC DirectSM has                 PRODUCTION EDITOR
     Gourmet will offer ARINC’s cutting-edge SkyBuyTM             expanded and relocated its Scottsdale, Arizona                   Cindy Zamarripa
     sales technology as the standard in its buy-on-board         (KSDL) aircraft service and maintenance operations.
                                                                                                                                   PRODUCTION STAFF
     programs, while ARINC will work exclusively with             ARINC Direct Scottsdale is now located in a new                  Karen Clark
     Gate Gourmet on outsourced catering and buy-on-              50,000-square-foot combined facility on the                      Theresa Degutis
     board projects. SkyBuy uses a wireless point-of-sale         northwest side of the Scottsdale, Arizona, airport.              Anne Sewell
     system to streamline in-flight sales transactions. With      The new location includes 40,000 feet of hangar                  Editorial comments or
     SkyBuy, airlines are able to sell food and beverages,        space, 5,000 feet of office space, and 5,000 feet                questions should be sent
     in-flight entertainment, duty-free items, rail passes—       of back-office space for sheet metal, avionics,                  to Cindy Zamarripa.
                                                                                                                                   tel +1 410.266.4644
     even tickets to ground shows and entertainment—              and interior work. The staff has expanded to                     e-mail czamarri@arinc.com
     with the flexibility of payment by credit card, cash, or     45 employees.
     smartcard, and in multiple currencies.                                                                                        Photocopying is allowed. Use
                                                                                                                                   of articles is allowed if source
                                                                                                                                   is cited, but no photographs
                                                                                                                                   may be incorporated into
                                                                                                                                   another publication.

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