Germans by zzzmarcus


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Germans Deutsche, Nemci Paraguay 200,000 450,000 164,000 Switzerland Poland Chile 153,000 150,000
[19] [20][21] [17]


(left to right): Luther, Beethoven, Bismarck, Nietzsche, Planck, Noddack-Tacke, Angela Merkel, Claudia Schiffer

600,000 (including immigrants from Austria and Switzerland) 110,000

Total population ~66,420,000 - ~160,000,000[1] Regions with significant populations Germany

Venezuela Mexico South Africa Austria 100,000 80,000-160,000
[22] [23][24]

66.42 million - 75 million

74,000 70,000 120,344

[25] [26] [27]

United States Brazil Canada Argentina The
(mainly Russia and Kazakhstan)

51,000,000 5,000,000 3,000,000 2,650,000 1,500,000


Israel Hungary

[6] [7] [8][9]

60,088 Romania 46,000





Uruguay Czech Republic Bolivia 40,000

40,000 328,000

[31] [32][33]

(mainly Alsace and Moselle)



(mainly South Tyrol)

742,212 Australia 320,000 Netherlands United Kingdom Spain 266,136 208,349


Ecuador Dominican Republic Namibia

33,000 25,000

[34] [35]



20,000 15-20,000

[36] [37]




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Languages German: High German (Upper German, Central German), Low German (see German dialects), Sorbian Religion Roman Catholic, Protestant (chiefly Lutheran), secular, others Related ethnic groups Dutch, Austrians, Flemish, Peoples of German Descent, Bavarians, Saxons, Other Germanic Peoples;, Poles, Sorbs, Czechs, Old Prussians, Lietuwininkai

other nations. In English usage, but less often in German, Ethnic Germans may be used for assimilated descendants of German emigrants. Ethnic Germans form an important minority group in several countries in central and eastern Europe (Poland, Hungary, Romania, Russia) as well as in Namibia, Brazil (German-Brazilian), Chile (approx. 4% of the population) and Argentina (approx. 7.5% of the population). Some groups may be classified as Ethnic Germans despite no longer having German as their mother tongue or belonging to a distinct German culture. Until the 1990s, two million Ethnic Germans lived throughout the former Soviet Union, particularly in Russia and Kazakhstan. In the United States 1990 census, 57 million people are fully or partly of German ancestry, forming the largest single ethnic group in the country. Most Americans of German descent live in the northern Midwest (especially in Wisconsin, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, southern Michigan and eastern Missouri), and the MidAtlantic states (especially Pennsylvania). But historically Germanic immigrant enclaves can be found in many other states (e.g., the German Texans and the Denver, Colorado area) and to a lesser extent, the Pacific Northwest (i.e. Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington state). Notable Ethnic German minorities also exist in other Anglosphere countries such as Canada (approx. 9% of the population) and Australia (approx. 4% of the population). As in the United States, most people of German descent in Canada and Australia have almost completely assimilated, culturally and linguistically, into the English-speaking mainstream.

The German people (German: Deutsche) are an ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent, and speaking the German language as a mother tongue. Within Germany, Germans are defined by citizenship (Federal Germans, Bundesdeutsche), distinguished from people of German ancestry (Deutschstämmige). Historically, in the context of the German Empire (1871-1918), German citizens (Imperial Germans, Reichsdeutsche) were distinguished from ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche). Out of approximately 100 million native speakers of German in the world, about 66-75 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry (mainly in the USA, Brazil, Argentina, France and Canada) who are not native speakers of German. Thus, the total number of Germans worldwide lies between 66 and 160 million, depending on the criteria applied (native speakers, single-ancestry ethnic Germans, partial German ancestry, etc.). In the U.S., 43 million or 15.2% of citizens identify as German American according to the United States Census of 2000[38]. Although the percentage has declined, it is still more than any other group.[39] According to the U.S. Census Bureau - 2006 American Community Survey, approximately 51 million citizens identify themselves as having German ancestry.[40]

The Germans are a Germanic people which as an ethnicity emerged during the Middle Ages. From the multi-ethnic Holy Roman Empire, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) left a core territory that was to become Germany.

Ethnic Germans
The term Ethnic Germans may be used in several ways. It may serve to distinguish Germans from those who may have citizenship in the German state but are not Germans; or it may indicate Germans living as minorities in


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Further information: peoples and Theodiscus Germanic

Germanic tribes from ca. 100 AD until 300 AD. The area of modern-day Germany in the European Iron Age was divided into the (Celtic) La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the (Germanic) Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. The predominant Y-chromosome haplogroup in Germans is R1b, followed by I and R1a; the predominant mitochondrial haplogroup is H, followed by U and T.[41] The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples; in the case of the populations settling in the territory of modern Germany, they encountered Celts to the south, and Balts and Slavs towards the east. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria. The migration-period peoples who would coalesce into a "German" ethnicity were the Saxones, Frisii, Franci, Thuringii, Alamanni and Bavarii. By the 800s, the territory of modern Germany had been united under the rule of Charlemagne. Much of what is now Eastern Germany remained Slavonic-speaking (Sorbs and Veleti).

The Holy Roman Empire around AD 1000. The sphere of German influence (Regnum Teutonicorum) is marked in blue. unity of Eastern Francia (later Kingdom of Germany) from the 9th century. The process was gradual and lacked any clear definition. After Christianization, the Roman Catholic Church and local rulers led German expansion and settlement in areas inhabited by Slavs and Balts (Ostsiedlung). Massive German settlement led to their assimilation of Baltic (Old Prussians) and Slavic (Wends) populations, who were exhausted by previous warfare. At the same time, naval innovations led to a German domination of trade in the Baltic Sea and parts of Eastern Europe through the Hanseatic League. Along the trade routes, Hanseatic trade stations became centers of German culture. German town law (Stadtrecht) was promoted by the presence of large, relatively wealthy German populations and their influence on political power. Thus people who would be considered "Germans", with a common culture, language, and worldview different from that of the surrounding rural peoples, colonized trading towns as far north of present-day Germany as Bergen (in Norway), Stockholm (in Sweden), and Vyborg (now in Russia). The Hanseatic League was not exclusively German in any ethnic sense: many towns who joined the league were outside the Holy

Medieval history
Further information: Kingdom many, Stem duchy, Medieval graphy, and Holy Roman Empire of Gerdemo-

A German ethnicity emerged in the course of the Middle Ages, under the influence of the


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The Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648 Roman Empire and a number of them may only loosely be characterized as German. The Empire was not entirely German either.

Early Modern period
Further information: Volksdeutsche and Reichsdeutsche It was only in the late fifteenth century that the Holy Roman Empire came to be called the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. It was not exclusively German, and notably included a sizeable Slavic minority. The Thirty Years’ War, a series of conflicts fought mainly in the territory of modern Germany, confirmed the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The Napoleonic Wars gave it its coup de grâce. Since the Peace of Westphalia, Germany has been "one nation split in many countries" (Kleinstaaterei). The Austrian–Prussian split, confirmed in 1871 when Austria remained outside of the Imperial Germany, was only the most prominent example. Most recently, the division between East Germany and West Germany kept the idea alive. In the nineteenth century, after the Napoleonic Wars and the fall of the Holy Roman Empire (of the German nation), Austria and Prussia emerged as two opposite poles of Germany. They could be seen as trying to reestablish the divided German nation. Austria, trying to remain the dominant power in Central Europe, led the way in the terms of the Congress of Vienna. The Congress of Vienna was essentially conservative, assuring that little would change in Europe and preventing Germany from uniting. The terms of the Congress of Vienna came to a sudden halt

The development of the German linguistic area. following the Crimean War in 1856. This paved the way for German unification in the 1860s. In 1870, Prussia attracted even Bavaria (the old ally of France) in the FrancoPrussian War. It created the German Empire as a German nation-state, effectively excluding the multi-ethnic Austrian Habsburg monarchy. German-speaking Austrians continued to consider themselves Germans until the second half of the 20th century. This sense of continuity originated in the separate political developments of the 19th century. During the 19th century in the German territories, rapid population growth due to lower death rates, combined with poverty, spurred millions of Germans to emigrate, chiefly to the United States. Today, roughly 17% of the United States’ population (23% of the white population) is of mainly German ancestry.[42]

20th century
The dissolution of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire after World War I led to a strong desire of the population of the new Republic of Austria to be integrated into Germany. This was, however, prevented by the Treaty of Versailles. The Nazis attempted to unite "all Germans" into one realm, including ethnic


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Curtain, "Aussiedler" — ethnic Germans, mainly from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union — took advantage of Germany’s liberal law of return to leave the harsh conditions of Eastern Europe. Approximately 2 million have resettled in Germany since the late 1980s.[46]

Further information: German dialects The Germans are divided into sub-nationalities, some of which form dialectal unities with groups outside Germany that are not considered "Germans". The southern Upper German groups retain a pronounced identity. In the case of the Swabians, there was even a limited movement for Alemannic separatism. The Low German Platt speakers also retain a certain ethnic identity, while the Central German majority has largely abandoned individual nationalisms. • Upper German • the Bavarians (ca. 10 million) form the Austro-Bavarian linguistic group, together with those Austrians who speak German and do not live in Vorarlberg and • the Swabians (ca. 10 million) form the Alemannic group, together with the Alemannic Swiss, Liechtensteiners, Alsatians and Vorarlbergians. • Central German dialect group (ca. 45 million) • Central Franconian, forms a dialectal unity with Luxembourgish • Rhine Franconian (Ripuarian, Kölsch) • Thuringian • Hessian • Upper Saxon • High Prussian • German Silesian • Yiddish dialects of Ashkenazi Jews in Germany and eastern Europe • Low German (ca. 3-10 million), forms a dialectal unity with Dutch Low Saxon

Map of Austria-Hungary, showing areas inhabited by ethnic Germans in red according to the 1910 census. Germans in eastern European countries, many of whom had emigrated more than one hundred fifty years before and developed separate cultures in their new lands. This idea was initially welcomed by many ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia, Austria, Poland, Danzig and western Lithuania. The Swiss resisted the idea. They had viewed themselves as a distinctly separate nation since the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. After World War II, because of the ostensible reasons for war and in retaliation for Nazi excesses, eastern European nations, including areas annexed by the Soviet Union and Poland, expelled ethnic Germans from their territories, including Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia. Most of the 12 million ethnic German refugees fled to western Germany and Europe, the United States, and South America.[43] In reaction to WWII, Austrians increasingly saw themselves as a nation distinct from other German-speaking areas of Europe. Today, some recent polls have indicated that no more than 10% of the Germanspeaking Austrians consider themselves as part of a larger German community linked by ancestry or language. Austrians moved to separate from Germany shortly after the Second World War, when Austrian identity was emphasized along with the "first-victim of Nazism" theory.[44] Between 1950 and 1987, about 1.4 million ethnic Germans and their dependents, mostly from Poland and Romania, arrived in Germany under special provisions of (right of return).[45] With the collapse of the Iron

Ethnic nationalism
After the Napoleonic Wars, a strong ethnic nationalism arose that emphasized, and sometimes overemphasized, the cultural bond among Germans. It was later alloyed at the end of the nineteenth century with the high standing and worldwide influence of German science and culture, to some degree


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enhanced by Bismarck’s military successes. During the following 40 years of almost perpetual economic boom (the Gründerzeit), the Germans assumed a cultural and ethnic supremacy, particularly compared to their neighbors, the Slavs. Because ethnic nationalism was considered a contributing cause to World War II, the concept has been repressed in German society since World War II. German reunification and other factors have caused some people to embrace and revive the concept. The ethnic nationalist National Democratic Party of Germany received 1.6% of the popular vote in the 2005 federal election.

national problems. The Nazis conceived and carried out extreme discrimination and an effort to exterminate the Jews, leading to the deaths or exile of almost all of the pre-World War II Jewish population. Today Germany is trying to better integrate Gastarbeiter (guest workers) and more recent refugees from ex-Yugoslavia, such as Bosnian Muslims.

Since the post-World War II decades and especially the later 20th century, the Germanspeaking countries of Europe have reflected striking demographic changes resulting from decades of immigration. These changes have led to renewed debates (especially in the Federal Republic of Germany) about who should be considered German. Non-ethnic Germans now make up more than 8% of the German population. They are mostly the descendants of "guest workers" who arrived in the 1960s and 1970s. The Poles, Turks, Moroccans, Italians, Greeks, Portuguese and people from the Balkans form the largest groups of non-ethnic Germans in the country. As of December 2004, about seven million foreign citizens were registered in Germany, and 19% of the country’s residents were of foreign or partially foreign descent. The young are more likely to be of foreign descent than the old. Thirty percent of Germans aged 15 years and younger have at least one parent born outside the country.[48] In the big cities, 60% of children aged 5 years and younger have at least one parent born abroad.[49] The largest group (2.7 million) are descended from ethnic Turks.[50] A significant number of German citizens (close to 5%), although traditionally considered ethnic Germans, are in fact foreignborn. They retain cultural identities and languages from their native countries. This sets them apart from native Germans. Foreignborn repatriates are not unique to Germany. The English and British equivalent legal term of lex sanguinis (law of blood) stipulates that citizenship is inherited by the child from his/ her parents. It has nothing to do with ethnicity. Ethnic German repatriates from the former Soviet Union constitute by far the largest such group and the second largest ethno-national minority group in Germany. The repatriation provisions made for ethnic

Today, Germans include both Protestants and Catholics, with each group about equally represented in Germany. Historically, Protestants formed the majority in the northern twothirds of the country. With the loss of traditionally Protestant regions after World War II and many Protestants’ turning to agnosticism and atheism, especially in the former East Germany, the two groups are about equally represented. Today, non-Christians constitute a majority in certain regions of Germany, both in urban as well as in rural (eastern) regions settled by numerous immigrants of Muslim affiliation.[47] Other large groups of immigrants were or are mostly Catholics (e.g., Poles, Italians and Croatians). The Protestant Reformation started in the German cultural sphere, when in 1517, Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses to the door of the Schlosskirche ("castle church") in Wittenberg. Among Protestant denominations, the Lutherans are well represented among Germans, while Calvinists are historically to be found primarily near the Dutch border and in a few cities like Worms and Speyer. The late nineteenth century saw a strong movement among the Jews in Germany and Austria to assimilate and define themselves as Germans, i.e., as Jewish Germans (a similar movement occurred in Hungary). They made great contributions to cultural, scientific, political and historic fields. In conservative circles, their acculturation was not always embraced. Beginning in social tensions of the 1920s, the rise of Nazis in the 1930s meant an increase in anti-Semitism, as they used the Jewish population as scapegoats for


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Germans in Eastern Europe are unique and have a historical basis. These were areas where Germans traditionally lived, that is, where they had migrated and maintained some German language and culture. Nonetheless, the fact of their separation meant they developed differently from populations within German borders. The Volga Germans, descendants of ethnic Germans who settled in Russia during the eighteenth century, have presented a controversial case of "repatriation". They have been permitted to claim German citizenship even though neither they nor their ancestors for several generations had been to Germany. In contrast, persons of German descent living in North America, South America, Africa, etc. do not have an automatic right of return. They must prove their eligibility for German citizenship according to applicable German nationality law. Other countries with postSoviet Union repatriation programs include Greece, Israel and South Korea. Unlike these ethnic German repatriates, some non-German ethnic minorities in the country, including some who were born and raised in the Federal Republic, choose to remain non-citizens. Although recently German citizenship laws have been relaxed to allow such individuals to become nationalized citizens, many choose not to give up allegiance to the countries of their ethnic roots. They live in Germany under the ambiguous status of an alien resident or a guest worker. Although this status means that people lack certain political rights, they often can still get work and free public higher education, and travel freely abroad. As a result, close to 10 million people permanently living in the Federal Republic today distinctly differ from the majority of the population in a variety of ways such as race, ethnicity, religion, language and culture. Official statistical sources often fail to account for them as minorities because such sources traditionally survey only German citizens classified under the so-called jus sanguinis (right of blood) system, limiting citizenship to those with German forebears, which has been in effect in Germany since the nineteenth century. It has only recently been partially replaced by the alternative jus soli (right of soil) system, allowing citizenship to all individuals born there. This situation contributes to the invisibility of Germany’s minorities. According to some records, Germany is

technically one of the most ethnically homogeneous nations; in fact, the Federal Republic is today one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Europe.


[1] 66.42 million is the lower estimate, number of Germans without immigrant background Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background. 156 is the estimate which counts all people claiming ethnic German ancestry in the U.S., Brazil and elsewhere. [2] 66.42 million is the number of Germans without immigrant background, 75 million is the number of German citizens Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background [3] Deutsche Welle: 2005 German Census figures [4] CIA World Factbook - Germany: People [5] 49.2 million German Americans as of 2005 according to the "US demographic census". servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&reg=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201:535;ACS_2005_EST qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201&qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201PR&qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201T&qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201TPR&ds_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_&TABLE_NAMEX=&-ci_type=A&redoLog=false&-charIterations=047&geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved on 2007-08-02. ; see also Languages in the United States#German. [6] A Imigração Alemã no Brasil | Brasil | Deutsche Welle | 25.07.2004 [7] 2001 Canadian Census gives 2,742,765 total respondents stating their ethnic origin as partly German, with 705,600 stating "single-ancestry", see List of Canadians by ethnicity. [8] «Relaciones culturales entre Alemania y la Argentina». Buenos Aires: Embajada de Alemania en Argentina. Consulted April 4, 2009. [9] According to the Centro Argentino Cultural Wolgadeutsche] there are 2,000,000 descendants of Volga Germans in Argentina [10] France [11] Alsatians


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[12] a result of population transfer in the Soviet Union; see ethnologue [13] The Australian Bureau of StatisticsPDF (424 KiB) reports 742,212 people of German ancestry in the 2001 Census. German is spoken by ca. 135,000 [1], about 105,000 of them Germany-born, see Demographics of Australia [14] CBS, as of 2006 [15] German born only; United Kingdom: Stock of foreign-born population by country of birth, 2001 [16] INE(2006) [17] It is estimated that ethnic Germans make up 3.3% of the population. [18] 163 923 resident aliens (nationals or citizens) in 2004 (2.2% of total population), compared to 112,348 as of 2000. 2005 report of the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics. 4.6 million including Alemannic Swiss: CIA World Fact Book, identifies the 65% (4.9 million) Swiss German speakers as "ethnic Germans". [19] 2002 census; mainly in Opole Voivodeship, see German minority in Poland. [20] Deutscher als die Deutschen [2] [21] Die soziolinguistische Situation von Chilenen deutscher Abstammung [3] [22] Expat Events in Mexico [23] Germans in South Africa [24] Professor JA Heese in his book Die Herkoms van die Afrikaner (The Origins of Afrikaners) claims the modern Afrikaners (who total around 3.5 million) have 34.4% German heritage. How ’Pure’ was the Average Afrikaner? [25] 0.9% of the population (German nationals or citizens only) Statistik Austria - Census 2001, CIA World Factbook; see also Demographics of Austria; 7.9 million including Austrians, if Austrians are regarded as Germans: Austrians are ethnically also included under "Germans" by the US Department of State [26] [4] [27] census 2001 [28] German minority [29] There are 6,000 Germans living in Uruguay today and 40,000 descendants of Germans [30] Ethnic German Minorities in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia


[31] Land reform worries Bolivia’s Mennonites [32] [5] [33] South Tyrol in figures. Provincial Statistics Institute. [34] Ethnic groups around the world [35] Dominican Republic [36] Amid Namibia’s White Opulence, Majority Rule Isn’t So Scary Now [37] in the German-Danish border region; see Bund Deutscher Nordschleswiger [38] [6] "Nearly 43 million people in the United States identify German as their primary ancestry, the US Census Bureau reported in July 2004" [39] This figure accounts for self-reported ancestry rather than race or ethnicity. See demographics of the United States and European American for more information. [40] [7] "Ancestry — German = 50,764,352" [41] World Haplogroups MapsPDF (386 KiB) [42] "US Census Factfinder". ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-_lang=en&-_caller= format=. [43] refugee -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia [44] Peter Utgaard, Remembering and Forgetting Nazism, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2003), 188-189. Frederick C. Engelmann, "The AustroGerman Relationship: One Language, One and One-Half Histories, Two States", Unequal Partners, ed. Harald von Riekhoff and Hanspeter Neuhold (San Francisco: Westview Press, 1993), 53-54. [45] "Fewer Ethnic Germans Immigrating to Ancestral Homeland" [46] "External causes of death in a cohort of Aussiedler from the former Soviet Union, 1990-2002" [47] Daten des Statistischen BundesamtesPDF [48] "Turks in Germany: Two unamalgamated worlds", The Economist, April 3, 2008 [49] BiBB: "Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund - neue Definition, alte Probleme", retrieved 25 of May 2008 [50] "Poll: Most Turks in Germany Feel Unwelcome", Deutsche Welle, March 13, 2008

See also

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

German diaspora German Filipinos German eastward expansion German idealism German Jews German language#Names of the German language in other languages German Peruvian German Russians List of Alsatians and Lorrainians List of Austrians List of Germans List of Swiss people List of terms used for Germans Organised persecution of ethnic Germans

German Americans are common in the US. Light blue indicates counties that are predominantly German ancestry. • • • • • • Culture of German-speaking Europe European ethnic groups Genetic history of Europe German Africans German Brazilian German-Chilean

External links
• • • • • Famous Germans German, Austrian and Swiss inventors Top 100 Germans Germans - First arrivals German American Heritage Foundation of the USA in Washington, DC

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