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Presidency of George W. Bush

Presidency of George W. Bush
Presidency of George W. Bush

43rd President of the United States In office January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009 Vice President Preceded by Succeeded by Born Political party Spouse Residence Occupation Dick Cheney Bill Clinton Barack Obama July 6, 1946 (1946-07-06) New Haven, Connecticut Republican Laura Bush Crawford, Texas Businessman (Oil, Baseball), President of the United States United Methodist

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The Presidency of George W. Bush began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd President of the United States of America. The oldest son of former president George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush was elected president in the 2000 general election, thus becoming the second 2nd generation president (after John Quincy Adams), succeeding his father after just one other president, and with just two terms between them. The Supreme Court’s decision in Bush v. Gore effectively resolved the 2000 presidential election in favor of Bush by allowing the Florida Secretary of State’s previous certification of Bush as the winner of Florida’s electoral votes to stand. Florida’s 25 electoral votes gave Bush, the Republican

candidate, 271 electoral votes, defeating Democratic candidate Al Gore in a close and controversial election. Bush was re-elected in 2004, and his term ended on January 20, 2009. As president, Bush pushed through a $1.3 trillion tax cut program and the No Child Left Behind Act, and also pushed for socially conservative efforts such as the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act and faith-based welfare initiatives. After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, Bush declared a global War on Terrorism and, in October 2001, ordered an invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban, destroy Al-Qaeda, and to capture Osama bin Laden. In March 2003, Bush received a mandate from the U.S. Congress to lead an invasion of Iraq, asserting that Iraq was in violation of UN Security Council Resolution 1441.[1] Bush also initiated an AIDS program that committed $15 billion to combat AIDS over five years and is credited for saving millions of lives.[2] His record as a humanitarian can also be tied to help enroll as many as 29 million of Africa’s poorest children in schools.[3] Running as a self-described "war president" in the midst of the Iraq War,[4] Bush won re-election in 2004,[5] as his campaign against Senator John Kerry was successful despite controversy over Bush’s prosecution of the Iraq War and his handling of the economy.[6][7] His second term was highlighted by several free trade agreements, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 alongside a strong push for offshore and domestic drilling, the nominations of Supreme Court Justices John Roberts and Samuel Alito, a push for Social Security and immigration reform, a surge of troops in Iraq, which was followed by a drop in violence, and several different economic initiatives aimed at preventing a banking system collapse, stopping foreclosures, and stimulating the economy during the recession.[8][9][10][11][12] After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism, even from former allies. His worldwide and domestic popularity


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decreased[13] due to the war and other issues such as the federal response to Hurricane Katrina, the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy, record budget deficits affecting the administration, and the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis. As president, Bush received some of the highest approval ratings in American history as well as some of the lowest, and he left office as one of the most unpopular Presidents in history.[14], 2008-0508, The Washington Post[15]

Presidency of George W. Bush
• USA PATRIOT Act Major treaties • No Child Left Behind Act signed • Economic • SORT (2002) Stimulus Act of better known as 2008 the Moscow • Emergency Treaty, the United Economic States and Russia Stabilization Act agreed to limit of 2008 their nuclear • CAFTA arsenal to • Partial-Birth 1700–2200 Abortion Ban Act operationally • Hurricane Katrina deployed relief effort warheads each • Establishing the White House Office of FaithBased and Community Initiatives • President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief • Creation of Medicare Part D

Major issues of Presidency
State of the Union Addresses
• First inaugural address (20 January 2001) • Second inaugural address (20 January 2005) • 2001 address (not officially a State of the Union address) (27 February 2001) • 2002 State of the Union address (29 January 2002) • 2003 State of the Union address (28 January 2003) • 2004 State of the Union address (20 January 2004) • 2005 State of the Union address (2 February 2005) • 2006 State of the Union address (31 January 2006) • 2007 State of the Union address (23 January 2007) • 2008 State of the Union address (28 January 2008)

Major acts as president
• Responding to the September 11, 2001 attacks • Waging the Afghanistan War against Osama bin Laden, Al-Qaeda, and the Taliban government • Waging the Iraq War against Saddam Hussein and the Ba’ath Party government • U.S.-Iraq Status of Forces Agreement • Establishing the United States Department of Homeland Security • Establishing the Office of the Director of National Intelligence • $1.3 trillion tax cut, tax rebates in 2001 and 2008 • Establishing prison for terrorism suspects at Guantanamo Bay

Major treaties withdrawn
• ABM Treaty (2002) - limited anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missiledelivered nuclear weapons between the United States and the U.S.S.R. • United Nations Population Fund (2002) - promoted the human right of "reproductive health", that is physical, mental, and social health in matters related to reproduction and the reproductive system.


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Presidency of George W. Bush

Major legislation
Legislation signed
• June 7: Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 • September 18: Authorization for Use of Military Force • September 28: United StatesJordan Free Trade Area Implementation Act • October 26: USA PATRIOT Act • November 28: Internet Tax Nondiscrimination Act

• March 11: Do-NotCall Implementation Act • April 30: PROTECT Act of 2003 (Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today Act) (see also Age of consent) • May 27: United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Act of 2003 • May 28: Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 • September 3: United StatesChile Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act • September 3: United StatesSingapore Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act • November 5: Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 • December 3: Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003 • December 8: Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 • December 16: Controlling the Assault of Non-

• January 11: United StatesBahrain Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act • March 9: USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act • July 27: Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act • August 17: The Pension Protection Act of 2006[17] • September 30: Iran Freedom and Support Act • October 4: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2007[18] • October 17: Military Commissions Act of 2006 • October 26: Secure Fence Act of 2006

• April 1: Unborn Victims of Violence Act (Laci and Conner’s Law) • July 17: United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act • August 3: United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act


• February 18: Class Action Fairness Act of 2002 2005 • January 8: No • April 20: Child Left Behind Bankruptcy Act Reform Act of • March 9: Job 2005 Creation and • August 2: Worker Assistance Dominican Act of 2002 Republic-Central • March 27: America-United Bipartisan States Free Trade Campaign Reform Agreement Act of 2002 Implementation • May 13: Farm Act Security and Rural • August 8: Energy Investment Act of Policy Act of 2005 [16] 2002 • August 10: Safe, • July 30: SarbanesAccountable, Oxley Act of 2002 Flexible, and • October 16: Joint Efficient Resolution to Transportation Authorize the Use Equity Act of 2005 of United States (SAFETEA) Armed Forces • October 26: Against Iraq Protection of • November 25: Lawful Commerce Homeland in Arms Act Security Act of 2002


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Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act (CAN-SPAM)

Presidency of George W. Bush
clerical error, this act was repealed by Pub.L. 110-246. • 18 June 2008: Vetoed H.R. 6421, 2007 U.S. Farm Bill, re-passed by Congress to correct a clerical error in HR 2419.[25][26] Overridden by House, 317-109 (284 votes required). Overridden by Senate, 80-14 (63 votes needed). Enacted as Pub.L. 110-246 over the President’s veto. • July 15, 2008: Vetoed H.R. 6331, Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act.[27][28] Overridden by House, 383-41 (283 votes required.) Overridden by Senate, 70-26 (64 votes required). Enacted as Pub.L. 110-275 over the President’s veto.

Legislation vetoed
President Bush vetoed 12 pieces of legislation, eight of which were overturned by congress: • July 19, 2006: Stem Cell Research Enactment Act of 2006 • May 1, 2007: H.R. 1591, U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans’ Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act of 2007 • June 20, 2007: Stem Cell Research Enactment Act of 2007 • October 3, 2007: State Children’s Health Insurance Program Expansion H.R. 976 • November 2, 2007: Vetoed H.R. 1495, Water Resources Development Act of 2007. Overridden by House, 361-54 (277 votes needed). Overridden by Senate, 79-14 (62 needed), and enacted as Pub.L. 110-114 over President’s veto. • November 13, 2007: Vetoed H.R. 3043, Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 2008. Override attempt failed in House, 277-141 (279 votes needed). • December 12, 2007: Vetoed H.R. 3963, Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2007.[19] Override attempt failed in House, 260-152 (275 votes needed). • December 28, 2007: Pocket Vetoed H.R. 1585, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008.[20] A later version of the bill that changed a minor provision of which the President disapproved was quickly passed by Congress (H.R. 4986) and was enacted with the President’s approval as Pub.L. 110-181 on January 28, 2008. • March 8, 2008: Vetoed H.R. 2082, Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008.[21][22] Override attempt failed in House, 225-188. • May 21, 2008: Vetoed H.R. 2419, 2007 U.S. Farm Bill.[23][24] Overridden by House, 316-108 (283 votes needed). Overridden by Senate, 82-13 (64 votes needed). Enacted as Pub.L. 110-234 over the President’s veto. Due to a

Administration and Cabinet

Cabinet meeting Bush’s Cabinet had included figures that were prominent in past administrations, notably former Secretary of State Colin Powell, who had served as United States National Security Advisor under Ronald Reagan. Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld had served as White House Chief of Staff and Secretary of Defense under Gerald Ford; Rumsfeld’s successor, Robert Gates, served as Director of Central Intelligence under George H.W. Bush. Vice President Dick Cheney served as Secretary of Defense under George H. W. Bush. Bush placed a high value on personal loyalty and, as a result, his administration had high message discipline. He maintained a "hands-off" style of management. "I’m confident in my management style. I’m a delegator because I trust the people I’ve asked to join the team. I’m willing to delegate. That makes it easier to be President," he said in


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an interview with Diane Sawyer on ABC in December 2003. Critics allege, however, that Bush is willing to overlook mistakes[29] made by loyal subordinates.
The Bush Cabinet Office President Vice President Secretary of State Name George W. Bush Dick Cheney Colin Powell Condoleezza Rice Paul O’Neill John Snow Henry Paulson Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld Robert Gates Attorney General John Ashcroft Alberto Gonzales Michael Mukasey Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton Dirk Kempthorne Ann Veneman Mike Johanns Ed Schafer Secretary of Commerce Donald Evans Carlos Gutierrez Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao Term 2001–2009 2001–2009 2001–2005 2005–2009

Presidency of George W. Bush
Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy Thompson Michael Leavitt Rod Paige Margaret Spellings Mel Martinez Alphonso Jackson Steve Preston Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta Mary Peters Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham Samuel Bodman Secretary of Veterans Affairs Anthony Principi Jim Nicholson James Peake Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge Michael Chertoff Andrew Card Joshua Bolten Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Christine Todd Whitman Michael Leavitt Stephen Johnson 2001–2005 2005–2009

Secretary of Education

2001–2005 2005–2009

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

2001–2003 2003–2008 2008–2009

Secretary of Treasury

2001–2002 2003–2006 2006–2009

2001–2006 2006–2009 2001–2005 2005–2009

2001–2006 2006–2009

2001–2005 2005–2007 2007–2009

2001–2005 2005–2007 2007–2009

2001–2006 2006–2009

2003–2005 2005–2009

Secretary of Agriculture

2001–2005 2005–2007 2008–2009 2001–2005 2005–2009

Chief of Staff

2001–2006 2006–2009


2003–2005 2005–2009



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Director of the Office of Management and Budget Mitch Daniels Joshua Bolten Rob Portman Jim Nussle Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy United States Trade Representative John Walters 2001–2003 2003–2006 2006–2007 2007–2009 2001–2009

Presidency of George W. Bush
providing guidelines for detainee interrogation methods prior to his appointment,[33][34] he claimed there was no right to Habeas Corpus.[35] Michael Mukasey succeeded Gonzales and was the country’s 81st Attorney General.

Bush’s first nomination for Secretary of Labor was Linda Chavez. This nomination came under attack when evidence came to light that she had given money to an illegal immigrant from Guatemala who lived in her home. Chavez claimed that the woman was not an employee and she had merely provided her with emergency assistance due to the domestic abuse the woman had been facing at the time.[36] Chavez’s nomination was withdrawn.

Robert Zoellick Rob Portman Susan Schwab

2001–2005 2005–2006 2006–2009

Bush’s first Secretary of Energy, Spencer Abraham, was controversial at the time of his 2001 appointment because as a senator he co-sponsored S.896, a bill to abolish the United States Department of Energy, in 1999.[37] Samuel Wright Bodman III, Sc.D. is the United States Secretary of Energy and was previously Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Treasury Department.

There was only one non-Republican in Bush’s cabinet: Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta, the first Asian American cabinet secretary, who had previously served as Secretary of Commerce under Bill Clinton, is a Democrat. Mineta resigned from Bush’s cabinet on July 7, 2006 to pursue "other challenges".[30] Mary Peters, a Republican, was nominated and confirmed to succeed him as Transportation Secretary. In 2006, Bush replaced long-time chief of staff Andrew Card with Joshua Bolten and made major staff and cabinet changes with the intention of revitalizing his Administration.[31] On November 8, 2006 (the day after the Democrats took back Congress in the midterm elections), Bush announced plans to replace Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld with former CIA Director Robert Gates. Gates was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 6 and took office as the 22nd Secretary of Defense on December 18.[32]

Homeland Security
When Tom Ridge announced his decision to resign as Secretary of Homeland Security, Bush’s first choice to replace him was Bernard Kerik, who served as Police Commissioner of the City of New York during the September 11, 2001 attacks. Kerik’s nomination raised controversy when it was discovered that he had previously hired an undocumented worker as a nanny and housekeeper. After a week, Kerik pulled his nomination and Bush went on to nominate Michael Chertoff.[38]

Cabinet members
Attorney General
Bush’s first Attorney General, John Ashcroft, was politically controversial, but widely viewed as competent. Ashcroft resigned days after Bush’s 2004 re-election. Bush’s second Attorney General was Alberto Gonzales. In addition to his work on

Advisors and other officials
• – Paul Wolfowitz (2001–2005), Gordon R. England (2005–2009) • - George Tenet (2001–2004), John E. McLaughlin (acting, 2004), Porter J. Goss (2004–2006), Michael Hayden (2006–2009) • - Louis Freeh (2001), Thomas J. Pickard (acting, 2001), Robert S. Mueller (2001–2009)


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• - Sean O’Keefe (2001–2005), Michael D. Griffin (2005–2009) • - Marion Blakey (2002–2007), Robert A. Sturgell (acting) (2007–2009) • - Mark McClellan (2002–2004), Lester Crawford (2005), Andrew von Eschenbach (2005–2009) • - Condoleezza Rice (2001–2005), Stephen Hadley (2005–2009) • - Meghan O’Sullivan (?–2007), Douglas Lute (2007–2009) • - John Negroponte (2001–2004), John Danforth (2004); John R. Bolton (2005–2006), Zalmay Khalilzad (2007–2009) • - Michael Powell (2001–2005), Kevin Martin (2005–2009) • - Joe Hagin (2001–2008), Joshua Bolten (2001–2003), Harriet Miers (2003–2004), Karl Rove (2005–2007), Joel Kaplan (2006–2009) • - John Negroponte (2005–2007), John Michael McConnell (2007–2009) • - Alberto R. Gonzales (2001–2005), Harriet Miers (2005–2007), Fred Fielding (2007–2009) • - Ari Fleischer (2001–2003), Scott McClellan (2003–2006), Tony Snow (2006–2007), Dana Perino (2007–2009) • – Lewis Libby (2001–2005) • - Karen Hughes (2001–2002) Appointed in 2005 to rank of Ambassador and Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs in the State Department, left that position in 2007. • (body man) - Blake Gottesman (2000–2006)

Presidency of George W. Bush
• – 2005, was first nominated for Associate Justice replacing Sandra Day O’Connor; after the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, Bush nominated him for the position of Chief Justice. Confirmed: 78–22 • – 2005, was nominated upon the elevation of John G. Roberts as the Chief Justice. Her nomination was later withdrawn. • – 2006, nominated in 2005 upon the withdrawal of Harriet Miers. Confirmed: 58-42

Court of Appeals nominations and appointments
• Jeffrey R. Howard - 1st Circuit (2002) • Barrington Daniels Parker, Jr. - 2nd Circuit (2001) • Reena Raggi - 2nd Circuit (2002) • Richard C. Wesley - 2nd Circuit (2003) • Peter W. Hall - 2nd Circuit (2004) • Debra Ann Livingston - 2nd Circuit (2007) • D. Brooks Smith - 3rd Circuit (2002) • Michael Chertoff - 3rd Circuit (2003) • D. Michael Fisher - 3rd Circuit (2003) • Franklin Stuart Van Antwerpen - 3rd Circuit (2004) • Michael A. Chagares - 3rd Circuit (2006) • Kent A. Jordan - 3rd Circuit (2006) • Thomas M. Hardiman - 3rd Circuit (2007) • Roger L. Gregory - 4th Circuit (2001) • Dennis W. Shedd - 4th Circuit (2002) • Allyson Kay Duncan - 4th Circuit (2003) • G. Steven Agee - 4th Circuit (2008) • Edith Brown Clement - 5th Circuit (2001) • Edward C. Prado - 5th Circuit (2003) • Priscilla Owen - 5th Circuit (2005) • Jennifer Walker Elrod - 5th Circuit (2007) • Leslie H. Southwick - 5th Circuit (2007) • Catharina Haynes - 5th Circuit (2008) • Julia Smith Gibbons - 6th Circuit (2002) • John M. Rogers - 6th Circuit (2002) • Jeffrey S. Sutton - 6th Circuit (2003) • Deborah L. Cook - 6th Circuit (2003) • David W. McKeague - 6th Circuit (2005) • Richard Allen Griffin - 6th Circuit (2005) • Susan Bieke Neilson - 6th Circuit (2005) • Raymond M. Kethledge - 6th Circuit (2008) • Helene N. White - 6th Circuit (2008) • Diane S. Sykes - 7th Circuit (2004) • John Daniel Tinder - 7th Circuit (2007) • William J. Riley - 8th Circuit (2001)

Defence force nominations and appointments
• – Richard B. Myers (2001 –2005), Peter Pace (2005 –2007), Michael Mullen (2007 –) • – Peter Schoomaker (2003–2007), George W. Casey, Jr. (2007 –) • – John P. Jumper (2001–2005), T. Michael Moseley (2005–2008) • – Michael Mullen (2005–2007), Gary Roughead (2007–)

Supreme Court nominations and appointments
Bush nominated the following people to the Supreme Court of the United States:


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• Michael Joseph Melloy - 8th Circuit (2002) • Lavenski R. Smith - 8th Circuit (2002) • Steven M. Colloton - 8th Circuit (2003) • Raymond W. Gruender - 8th Circuit (2004) • William Duane Benton - 8th Circuit (2004) • Bobby E. Shepherd - 8th Circuit (2006) • Richard R. Clifton - 9th Circuit (2002) • Jay Bybee - 9th Circuit (2003) • Consuelo Maria Callahan - 9th Circuit (2003) • Carlos T. Bea - 9th Circuit (2003) • Milan D. Smith, Jr. - 9th Circuit (2006) • Sandra Segal Ikuta - 9th Circuit (2006) • N. Randy Smith - 9th Circuit (2007) • Harris L. Hartz - 10th Circuit (2001) • Terrence L. O’Brien - 10th Circuit (2002) • Michael W. McConnell - 10th Circuit (2002) • Timothy M. Tymkovich - 10th Circuit (2003) • Neil M. Gorsuch - 10th Circuit (2006) • Jerome A. Holmes - 10th Circuit (2006) • William H. Pryor, Jr. - 11th Circuit (2004) • John G. Roberts, Jr. - D.C. Circuit (2003) • Janice Rogers Brown - D.C. Circuit (2005) • Thomas B. Griffith - D.C. Circuit (2005) • Brett M. Kavanaugh - D.C. Circuit (2006) • Sharon Prost - Federal Circuit (2001) • Kimberly Ann Moore - Federal Circuit (2006)

Presidency of George W. Bush

First term (2001–2005) Second term (2005–2009) Political philosophy
The guiding political philosophy of the Bush administration has been termed neoconservative. The specific elements of neoconservative leadership have been itemized in policy papers by members of the Project for a New American Century, and is represented in the editorial perspective of the political journal the Weekly Standard. Administration officials chosen from the membership of the Project for a New American Century (PNAC) began with the selection of the candidate for vice president, Dick Cheney. Others included Richard Armitage, Zalmay Khalilzad, Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Richard Perle, former U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, and Paul Wolfowitz. In 1998, members of the PNAC, including Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz, wrote to President Bill Clinton urging him to remove Saddam Hussein from power using US diplomatic, political and military power. In September 2000, the PNAC issued a report entitled Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategies, Forces, and Resources For A New Century, proceeding "from the belief that America should seek to preserve and extend its position of global leadership by maintaining the preeminence of U.S. military forces." The group stated that when diplomacy or sanctions fail, the United States must be prepared to take military action. The PNAC argued that the Cold War deployment of forces was obsolete. Defense spending and force deployment must reflect the post-Cold War duties that US forces are obligated to perform. Constabulary duties such as peacekeeping in the Balkans and the enforcement of the No Fly Zones in Iraq put a strain upon, and reduced the readiness of US forces. The PNAC recommended the forward redeployment of US forces at new strategically placed permanent military bases in Southeast Europe and Southeast Asia. Permanent bases would ease the strain on US forces, allowing readiness to be maintained and the carrier fleet to be

Federal Reserve appointment
On October 24, 2005, Bush nominated Ben Bernanke to succeed Alan Greenspan as Chairman of the Federal Reserve. The Senate Banking Committee recommended Bernanke’s confirmation by a 13-1 voice vote on November 16, 2005. With the full Senate’s approval on January 31, 2006 by another voice vote, Bernanke was sworn in on February 1, 2006.


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reduced. Furthermore, PNAC advocated that the US-globalized military should be enlarged, equipped and restructured for the "constabulary" roles associated with shaping the security in critical regions of the world.[39]

Presidency of George W. Bush
under the Clean Air Act, and that restricting carbon dioxide emissions would lead to higher energy prices.[41] In 2001, Bush appointed Philip A. Cooney, a former lobbyist for the American Petroleum Institute, to the White House Council on Environmental Equality. Cooney is known to have modernized government climate reports in order to minimize the findings of scientific sources tying greenhouse gas emissions to global warming.[42] In March 2001, the Bush administration announced that it would not implement the Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty signed in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan that would require nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, claiming that ratifying the treaty would create economic setbacks in the U.S. and does not put enough pressure to limit emissions from developing nations.[43] In February 2002, Bush announced his alternative to the Kyoto Protocol, by bringing forth a plan to reduce the intensity of greenhouse gasses by 18 percent over 10 years. The intensity of greenhouse gasses specifically is the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions and economic output, meaning that under this plan, emissions would still continue to grow, but at a slower pace. Bush stated that this plan would prevent the release of 500 million metric tons of greenhouse gases, which is about the equivalent of 70 million cars from the road. This target would achieve this goal by providing tax credits to businesses that use renewable energy sources.[44] In late November 2002, the Bush Administration released proposed rule changes that would lead to increased logging of federal forests for commercial or recreational activities by giving local forest managers the ability to open up the forests to development without requiring environmental impact assessments and without specific standards to maintain local fish and wildlife populations. The proposed changes would affect roughly 192,000,000 acres (780,000 km2) of US forests and grasslands. Administration officials claimed the changes were appropriate because existing rules, which were approved by the Clinton administration two months before Bush took office, were unclear.[45] In November 2004, Bush administration officials asked the United Nations to allow

Environmental Record

Cabinet meeting George W. Bush’s environmental record began with promises as a presidential candidate to clean up power plants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In a speech on September 29, 2000 in Saginaw, Michigan, Bush pledged to commit two billion dollars to the funding of clean coal technology research. In the same speech, he also promised to work with Congress, environmental groups and the energy industry to require a reduction of the emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury and carbon dioxide into the environment within a “reasonable period of time.”[40] He would later reverse his position on that specific campaign pledge in March 2001 in a letter to Nebraska senator Chuck Hagel, stating that carbon dioxide was not considered a pollutant


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US industries to use an additional 458 tons of methyl bromide, an ozone-destroying pesticide that was slated for elimination by the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The additional increase request brings the US’s total exemption for the year 2005 to 9,400 metric tons of methyl bromide, more than all other nations’ requests combined, and well over the 7,674 metric tons used by US agribusiness in 2002.[46] In January 2004, Interior Secretary Gale Norton approved a move to open nearly 9,000,000 acres (36,000 km2) of Alaska’s North Slope to oil and gas development, citing claims from the energy industry that nearly 13 billion barrels (2.1×109 m3) of oil could be extracted from the region. The North Slope neighbor’s the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a sanctuary and habitat for migratory birds, whales, seals and other wildlife. Reports from the U.S. Geological Survey, however, estimate that less than one-third of the reported 13 billion barrels (2.1×109 m3) is economically recoverable in the entire 23,500,000-acre (95,000 km2) National Petroleum Reserve.[47] In July 2005 the Environmental Protection Agency decided to delay the release of an annual report on fuel economy. The report shows that automakers have taken advantage of loopholes in US fuel economy regulations to manufacture vehicles that are less fuel-efficient than they were in the late 1980s. Fuel-efficiency had on average dropped six percent during that period, from 22.1 miles per gallon to 20.8 mpg. Evidence suggests that the administration’s decision to delay the report’s release was because of its potential to affect Congress’s upcoming final vote on an energy bill six years in the making, which turned a blind eye to fuel economy regulations.[48] In May 2006, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) allegedly blocked release of a report that suggested global warming had been a contributor to the frequency and strength of hurricanes in recent years. In February, NOAA (part of the Department of Commerce) set up a seven-member panel of climate scientists to compile the report. The panel’s chair, Ants Leema, received an e-mail from a Commerce Department official asking for the report to not be released as it needed to be

Presidency of George W. Bush
made “less technical.”[49] NOAA would later go on to say that the report was not released because it “was not complete” and was in reality not a report, but a “two-page fact sheet about the issue.”[50]

Historians and pundits are largely unsure whether history will judge him critically, or in a positive light. Some may argue that accomplishments such as the President’s AIDS program, reform of education by the federal government with the No Child Left Behind Act, the Iraq War, no more foreign terrorist attacks on American soil after the September 11th attacks, public statements of American strength in the weeks immediately after the attacks, the creation of Medicare Part D, and sending 29 million African children to school will allow Bush to have a positive legacy. Others may argue that the economic crisis of 2008, the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy, his response to Hurricane Katrina, the planning of the Iraq War, handling of the Guantanamo Bay detainees and other terror suspects, and calls by Democrats for possible investigation and prosecution for war crimes committed under his name will leave him as one of the worst Presidents ever.[51] In response to a question on his popularity, Bush remarked "I know I gave it my all for eight years, and I did not sell my soul for the sake of popularity. And so when I get back home and look in the mirror, I will be proud of what I see."[52] On January 15, 2009, Bush gave a nationally televised farewell address in the East Room of the White House. He defended many of his decisions and cited the fact that he had kept the country safe since September 11, 2001 as a major accomplishment. Bush stated that "I have always acted with the best interests of our country in mind. I have followed my conscience and done what I thought was right." He also said that the United States must continue promoting human liberty, human rights, and human dignity around the world. One of his final lines was "We have faced danger and trial, and there’s more ahead. But with the courage of our people and confidence in our ideals, this great nation will never tire, never falter and never fail."[53][54]


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Presidency of George W. Bush
[15] History of approval ratings on Bush’s side for re-election, 2003-12-25, USA Today [16] Bush, George W. (2002-05-14). "President Signs Farm Bill". White House. 2002/05/print/20020513-2.html. Retrieved on 2006-09-10. [17] Bush, George W. (2002-08-17). "President Bush Signs H.R. 4, the Pension Protection Act of 2006". White House. 2006/08/print/20060817-1.html. Retrieved on 2006-09-10. [18] Bush, George W. (2006-10-04). "President’s Statement on H.R. 5441, the "Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2007"". White House. 2006/10/print/20061004-10.html. Retrieved on 2006-10-04. [19] Message to the House of Representatives, December 12, 2007, The White House [20] Memorandum of Disapproval for the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, December 28, 2007, The White House [21] Message to the House of Representatives Returning Without Approval the "Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, March 8, 2008, The White House [22] Bush Announces Veto of Waterboarding Ban, March 8, 2008, The Washington Post [23] Farm Bill Veto Message to the House of Representatives, May 21, 2008, The White House [24] Farm Bill Veto Message, CQ Politics [25] Bush vetos farm bill for second time, June 18, 2000, AFP [26] Message to the House of Representatives Returning Without Approval H.R. 6124, the "Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008", June 18, 2008, The White House [27] Bush to Veto Medicare Bill Tuesday; Override Expected, July 14, 2008, CQ Politics [28] Message to the House of Representatives Returning Without

See also
• George W. Bush’s first term to second term cabinet reorganization • Domestic policy of the George W. Bush administration

[1] Powell, Colin (February 5, 2003). "U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell Addresses the U.N. Security Council". The White House. 2003/02/print/20030205-1.html. Retrieved on 2006-05-25. [2] Frist, Bill (January 16, 2009), "Commentary: Bush saved 10 million lives", CNN, POLITICS/01/15/frist.bush/ [3] Michael Steele, Bush’s Africa legacy, 2008-03-27, Washington Times, (5th paragraph) [4] "Transcript for Feb. 8th". MSNBC. 2004-02-08. 4179618/. Retrieved on 2006-09-09. [5] U.S. Election results for 2004 [6] The Third Bush-Kerry Presidential Debate transcript, 2004-10-13, [7] CNN’s exit poll showed terrorism (19%) and Iraq (15%) as the third and fourth most important issues behind moral values (22%) and the economy (20%) CNN - U.S. President / National / Exit Poll / Election 2004 [8] Bush to Sign Economic Stimulus Plan, 2008-02-09, VOA News [9] Bush Unveils Foreclosure Relief Plan, 2007-12-06, NPR [10] Bush: Bailout plan necessary to deal with crisis, 2008-09-25, [11] President Bush’s Second Term Accomplishments and Agenda, 2005-08-03, The White House [12] Charles Krauthammer, Surge Results are Visible, 2007-04-13, Real Clear Politics [13] President Bush – Overall Job Rating in recent national polls, [14] How Unpopular Is George Bush? - Fact Checker


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Approval H.R. 6331, the "Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008", June 18, 2008, The White House [29] Eleanor (2004-05-28). "Gen. Sanchez Gets Promoted". gen_sanchez_gets_promoted.php. Retrieved on 2007-04-07. [30] Wilber, Del Quentin (2006-06-24). "Lone Democrat in Bush Cabinet Is Departing". Washington Post. AR2006062300579.html. Retrieved on 2006-11-20. [31] Associated Press (March 28, 2006). "White House shake-up: Chief of staff resigns". 12048598/from/ET/. Retrieved on 2006-09-30. [32] "New US defence secretary sworn in". BBC News. December 18, 2006. 6190279.stm. [33] Berlow, Alan (November 21, 2004). "The President’s Yes Man". Washington Post. p. B07. wp-dyn/ A64024-2004Nov19?language=printer. Retrieved on 2007-08-30. [34] Barton Gellman and Jo Becker (25 June 2007). "Pushing the Envelope on Presidential Power". Washington Post. chapters/ pushing_the_envelope_on_presi/ index.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-30. [35] Egelko, Bob (January 24, 2007). "Gonzales says the Constitution doesn’t guarantee habeas corpus". San Francisco Chronicle. article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/01/24/ MNGDONO11O1.DTL. Retrieved on 2007-06-19. [36] Chavez Withdraws As Labor Nominee Associated Press article in the January 9, 2001 Washington Post, accessed online November 22, 2006. [37] Mark Helm (2001-01-15). "Leading Environmentalists Urge Senate to Oppose Abraham". Common Dreams.

Presidency of George W. Bush news2001/0115-06.htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-30. [38] "As Kerik Faces Court, Questions Persist on Background Check" by William K. Rashbaum The New York Times 30 June 2006. [39] "Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategy, Forces and Resources For a New Century" (PDF). Project for the New American Century. September 2000. RebuildingAmericasDefenses.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-04-07. [40] George W. Bush for President Official Site: Speeches [41] - Bush reverses position on emissions reductions - March 14, 2001 [42] Bush Aide Softened Greenhouse Gas Links to Global Warming - New York Times [43] BBC News | SCI/TECH | US blow to Kyoto hopes [44] - Bush unveils voluntary plan to reduce global warming - February 14, 2002 [45] Logging rules may be eased [46] ES&T Online News: Methyl bromide phaseout drags [47] NRDC: The Bush Record - January 2004 Actions [48] NY Times Advertisement [49] Journal: Agency Blocked Hurricane Report - [50] binaries/nature-article [51] 2008/nov/16/bushs-tough-decisions-toshape-historical-legacy/ [52] 0,2933,479174,00.html [53] 01/15/bush-pass-torch-highlightaccomplishments-farewell-address/ [54] 28672018/

• George W. Bush Administration Appointee Directory (Archived) • George W. Bush Administration Nominations by Name or Date (Archived)


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Presidency of George W. Bush

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