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General Motors

General Motors
General Motors

Type Founded Founder(s) Headquarters Area served Key people

Public (NYSE: GM) 1908 William C. Durant Renaissance Center Detroit, Michigan, USA Worldwide Kent Kresa, (Chairman)[1] Fritz Henderson, (CEO)[1] Robert Lutz, (Vice Chairman) Ray Young, (CFO) Ed Welburn, (VP Global Design) Automotive Automobiles Engines Financial services ▼ US$ 148.979 billion (2008)[2] ▼ US$ −21.284 billion (2008)[2] ▲ US$ −30.9 billion (2008)[2] ▼ US$ 91.047 billion (2008)[2] ▼ US$ −86.154 billion (2008)[2] 252,000 (2008)[2] General Motors Canada General Motors Europe General Motors do Brasil Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GM Daewoo, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Pontiac, Opel, Saab, Saturn, Vauxhall, and Wuling GM.com

Industry Products Services Revenue Operating income Net income Total assets Total equity Employees Divisions

Subsidiaries

Website

General Motors Corporation (GM) (NYSE: GM), is a global automaker founded in 1908 with headquarters in Detroit,

Michigan. It is the world’s second-largest automaker after Toyota, ranked by 2008 global unit sales.[3] GM was the global sales leader for 77 consecutive calendar years from 1931 to 2007. It manufactures cars and trucks in 34 countries. GM employs 244,500 people around the world, and sells and services vehicles in some 140 countries. In 2008, 8.35 million GM cars and trucks were sold globally under the following brands: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, GM Daewoo, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn, Vauxhall and Wuling.[4] In late 2008 GM, along with Chrysler, became and continues to be dependent on government loans from the United States, Canada, and the Canadian province of Ontario[5] to avoid bankruptcy resulting from the late 2000s recession, record oil prices and fierce competition. (See also automotive industry crisis of 2008–2009). GM’s higher labor costs compared to its competitors, resulting from its union agreements and pension costs, has contributed significantly to its financial problems. On February 20, 2009, GM’s Saab division filed for reorganization in a Swedish court after being denied loans from the Swedish government. On April 27, 2009, amid ongoing financial problems and restructuring efforts, GM announced that it would phase out the Pontiac brand by the end of 2010 and focus on four brands in North America: Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick, and GMC. It also announced that the resolution (sale) of its Hummer, Saab, and Saturn brands would take place by the end of 2009 at the latest.[6] GM had previously eliminated the Oldsmobile brand earlier in the decade for similar reasons. As of April 24, 2009, GM has received US$15.4 billion in loans from the US Treasury Department under the Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP). GMAC, a financing company held 49% by GM, has received US$5 billion in loans under the same program, while GM has received an additional US$1 billion loan to buy more equity in GMAC.[7][8] General Motors Canada, 100% owned by GM,[9] has received a combined

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loan commitment of C$3 billion from the Canadian and Ontario governments.[5]

General Motors
countries.[10] GM is the majority shareholder in GM Daewoo Auto & Technology Co. of South Korea and has had many collaborations with the world’s various automakers. This includes product, powertrain and purchasing collaborations with Suzuki Motor Corp. and Isuzu Motors Ltd. of Japan, advanced technology collaborations with Toyota Corporation and BMW AG of Germany and vehicle manufacturing ventures with several of the world’s automakers including Toyota, Suzuki, Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation. of China, AvtoVAZ of Russia, Renault SA of France, and most recently, UzAvtosanoa of Uzbekistan. GM also had collaborations with Fiat S.p.A (see GM/Fiat Premium platform) and Ford Motor Company. To this day, GM retains various stakes in many different automakers. According to at least one automotive columnist, as GM seeks aid from European governments in 2009 while acknowledging it has no alternative plan, and admits it is willing to surrender control of its operations in Europe to enable an infusion of cash, the "de facto de-globalization" of GM is in progress.
[11]

History
General Motors (GM) was founded on September 27, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company for Buick, then controlled by William C. Durant. It acquired Oldsmobile later that year. In 1909 Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore, Oakland (later known as Pontiac) and several others. In 1909, General Motors acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso, Michigan, and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, Michigan, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers’ trust because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales. A few years later, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor car company and through this he secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant took back control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in American business history. Shortly after, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation and led it to its post war global dominance. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s when it employed 349,000 workers and 150 assembly plants.

The domain name gm.com attracted at least 7 million visitors annually by 2008.[12]

Corporate governance
Current members of the board of Directors of General Motors are: Percy Barnevik, Erskine Bowles, John Bryan, Melissa Armando Codina, Erroll Davis, George Fisher, Mark Guildenstern, Karen Katen, Kent Kresa, Philip Laskawy, Kathryn V. Marinello, and Eckhard Pfeiffer.

Company overview

Corporate structure
General Motors is structured into the following groups:

Human resources
General Motors GMT800 car assembly line. General Motors currently employs approximately 266,000 people around the world. GM’s global headquarters is the Renaissance Center located in Detroit, Michigan, United States. In 2007, 9.35 million GM cars and trucks were produced in 19 different Together with the United Auto Workers, GM created a joint venture dedicated to the quality of life needs of employees in 1985. The UAW-GM Center for human resources in Detroit is dedicated to providing GM salaried employees and GM UAW members programs and services related to medical care, diversity issues, education, training and tuition assistance, as well as programs related to

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Group GMAP - Asia-Pacific GME - Europe GM LAAM - Latin America, Africa and the Middle East GMNA - North America GMAC Finance and insurance services SPO Service, Parts and Operations Other Operations Total # of employees 2,000 252,000

General Motors
# of Employees as of September 2008[13] 35,000 56,000 36,000 123,000

common corporate management created substantial economies of scale, while the distinctions between the divisions created an orderly upgrade path, with an entry-level buyer starting out with a practical and economical Chevrolet and moving through offerings of the different divisions until the purchase of a Buick or Cadillac. The postwar automobile industry became enamoured with the concept of "planned obsolescence", implemented by both technical and styling innovations with a typical 3-year product cycle. In this cycle, a new basic body shell is introduced and then modified for the next two years with minor styling changes. GM, Ford, and Chrysler competed vigorously in this new restyling environment.

Distinguishing the brands
By 1958, the divisional distinctions within GM began to blur with the availability of high-performance engines in Chevrolets and Pontiacs. The introduction of higher trim models such as the Chevrolet Impala and Pontiac Bonneville priced in line with some Oldsmobile and Buick offerings was also confusing to consumers. By the time Pontiac, Oldsmobile and Buick introduced similarly styled and priced compact models in 1961, the old "step-up" structure between the divisions was nearly over.

The Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan, is General Motors’ world headquarters. work and family concerns, in addition to the traditional union-employer health and safety partnership.[14]

Marketing in the United States
At one time, each of GM’s automotive divisions in the United States were targeted to specific market segments and despite some shared components, each distinguished itself from its stablemates with unique styling and technology. The shared components and

Compacts arrive
The decade of the 1960s saw the creation of compact and intermediate classes. The Chevrolet Corvair was a flat 6-cylinder (air cooled) answer to the Volkswagen Beetle, the Chevy II was created to match Ford’s conventional Falcon, after sales of the Corvair failed to match its Ford rival, and the Chevrolet

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Camaro/Pontiac Firebird was GMs counter measure to the Ford Mustang. Among intermediates, the Oldsmobile Cutlass nameplate became so popular during the 1970s that Oldsmobile applied the Cutlass name to most of its products in the 1980s. By the mid 1960s, most of GM’s vehicles were built on a few common platforms and in the 1970s GM began to use nearly identical body panel stampings, differing only in internal and external trim items. The 1971 Chevrolet Vega was GM’s launch into the new subcompact class to compete against the import’s increasing market share. Problems associated with its innovative aluminum engine led to the model’s discontinuation after seven model years in 1977. During the late 1970s, GM would initiate a wave of downsizing starting with the Chevrolet Caprice which was reborn into what was the size of the Chevrolet Chevelle, the Malibu would be the size of the Nova, and the Nova was replaced by the troubled front-wheel drive Chevrolet Citation. In 1976 Chevrolet came out with the rear-wheel drive sub compact Chevette. It was a well built car but couldn’t compete with the Japanese imports in overall quality and standard features.

General Motors
Rolling campaign, which boosted sales, and other auto makers were forced to follow suit. The U.S. automakers saw sales increase to leverage costs as gross margins deteriorated. Although retiree health care costs remain a significant issue, General Motors’ investment strategy has generated a $17.1 billion surplus in 2007 in its $101 billion U.S. pension fund portfolio, a $35 billion reversal from its $17.8 billion of underfunding.[15] In 2004, GM redirected resources from the development of new sedans to an accelerated refurbishment of their light trucks and SUVs for introduction as 2007 models in early 2006. Shortly after this decision, fuel prices increased by over 50% and this in turn affected both the trade-in value of used vehicles and the perceived desirability of new offerings in these market segments. The current marketing plan is to tout these revised vehicles extensively as offering the best fuel economy in their class (of vehicle). GM claims its hybrid trucks will have gas-mileage improvements of 25%. In the middle of 2005, GM announced that its corporate chrome emblem "Mark of Excellence" will begin appearing on all recently introduced and all-new 2006 model vehicles produced and sold in North America. The move is seen as an attempt by GM to link its name and vehicle brands more closely. In 2005, GM promoted sales through an employee discount to all buyers. Marketed as the lowest possible price, GM cleared an inventory buildup of 2005 models to make way for its 2006 lineup. While the promotion was a temporary shot in the arm for sales, it did not help the company’s bottom line. GM has since changed its marketing strategy to a no haggle sticker policy in which all vehicle prices are lowered, but incentives are reduced, if not eliminated.

The electric car
In 1990, GM debuted the revolutionary "Impact" concept car at the Los Angeles Auto Show. It was the first car with zero-emissions marketed in the US in over three decades. The Impact was eventually produced as the EV1 for the 1996 model year. It was available through dealers located in only a few regions (e.g., California, Arizona, Georgia). Vehicles were leased, rather than sold, to individuals. In 2003 GM decided to cease production of the vehicles. All EV1’s were either destroyed or donated to museums or universities.

GM in the new century
In the late 1990s, the U.S. economy was on the rise and GM and Ford gained market share producing enormous profits primarily from the sale of light trucks and sport-utility vehicles. From 2000 to 2001, the Federal Reserve in a move to quell the stock market, made twelve successive interest rate increases. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, a severe stock market decline caused a pension and benefit fund underfunding crisis. GM began its Keep America

Decline of SUV sales
In 2008, rapidly rising gas prices resulted in a 30% drop-off of sales of SUVs, which had been GM’s most profitable product often returning profits of $10,000 to $15,000 per vehicle. Sales of SUVs had been decreasing since 2004, and in May 2008 a $2 billion investment program for a new SUV platform, the CXX program, was canceled.[16] During the first 6 months of 2008 GM lost $18.8 billion, and by late October its stock had dropped 76% and it was considering a merger with Chrysler. In only 12 months

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(October 2007-2008) GM sales in the US dropped 45 percent.[17] GM’s concentration on SUVs as a profit center dated from the 1990s.[18] On Tuesday, December 23, 2008 the Janesville, Wisconsin plant which produced the Chevrolet Tahoe and Suburban and the GMC Yukon, and the Moraine, Ohio plant which produced the Chevrolet Blazer and the GMC Envoy, closed permanently leaving General Motors with only one factory (in Arlington, Texas) producing SUVs.[19]

General Motors
Daimler, formerly DaimlerChrysler – recently revalued its 19.9% Chrysler stake down to zero, which may or may not reflect its value in a potential sale.[22] On December 12, 2008, General Motors stated that it was nearly out of cash, and may not survive past 2009. The U.S. Senate voted and strongly opposed any source of government assistance through a bailout bridge loan (originally worth $14 billion in emergency aid) which was aimed toward helping the struggling Big Three automakers financially, despite strong support from President George W. Bush and President-elect Barack Obama, along with some mild support from the Democratic and Republican political parties. Prior to the U.S. Senate’s announcement, General Motors announced that it had hired several lawyers to discuss the possibility of filing for bankruptcy, with Chapter 11 bankruptcy being one of the options discussed. GM stated that "all options are on the table" for the company. Chrysler LLC, which is owned by Cerberus Capital Management, is in a similar financial situation and like General Motors, warned that it, too, was nearly out of cash and may not survive much longer. On December 18, 2008, President Bush announced that an "orderly" bankruptcy is one option being considered for both General Motors and Cerberus-owned Chrysler LLC. Sources say that setting up this type of "orderly" bankruptcy would be complicated because it would not only involve talks with the automakers, but also the unions and other stakeholders would have to be involved. On December 19, 2008, President Bush approved a bailout plan and gave General Motors and Chrysler $13.4 billion in financing from TARP (Troubled Assets Relief Program) funds, as well as $4 billion to be "withdrawn later." As of February 14, 2009, General Motors is considering filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy under a plan that would assemble all of their viable assets, including some U.S. brands and international operations, into a new company.[23] Less than a week later, its Saab subsidiary filed for bankruptcy protection in Sweden.[24] On March 5, 2009, GM’s independent public accounting firm (Deloitte & Touche) issued a qualified opinion as part of GM’s 2008 annual report that stated "these conditions raise substantial doubt about its ability to

GM in China
General Motors is the best selling foreign auto maker in China.[20] The Buick brand is especially strong, led by the Buick Excelle subcompact. Cadillac initiated sales in China in 2004, starting with imports from the United States. GM pushed the marketing of the Chevrolet brand in China in 2005 as well, moving the former Buick Sail to that marque. The company manufactures most of its Chinamarket vehicles locally, through its Shanghai GM joint venture. Shanghai GM, a joint venture between the Chinese company SAIC and General Motors, was created on March 25, 1997. The Shanghai GM plant was opened December 15, 1998, when the first Chinesebuilt Buick came off the assembly line. The SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile joint-venture is also successful selling trucks and vans under the Wuling marque (34% belongs to GM). GM plans to create a research facility in Shanghai for $250m to develop hybrid cars and alternative energy vehicles. This move has been criticized because it pushes outsourcing to the very limit.

Reaction to 2008/2009 global economic decline
On October 10, 2008, GM considered exchanging its remaining 49% stake in GMAC to Cerberus Capital Management for Chrysler LLC, potentially merging two of Detroit’s "Big Three" automakers.[21] Acquisition talks involving Chrysler were cancelled, however, before November 7, 2008, as part of a broader response to the increasing urgency of GM’s own cash flow problems. That was a result of Chrysler’s senior bank debt currently trading at less than 50 cents on the dollar and because Chrysler’s other owner –

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continue as a going concern". A qualified going concern audit letter like this is only issued by the auditors when the company is in extreme financial distress and it is likely that they may file for bankruptcy protection. On March 12, 2009, GM’s CFO Ray Young said that it would not need the requested $2B in March noting that the cost-cutting measures are starting to take hold.[25] On March 29, 2009, GM’s Chairman and CEO, Rick Wagoner, agreed to immediately resign his position as part of an Obama administration automotive restructuring plan.[26][27][28] In announcing that plan, on March 30, 2009, President Obama stated that both GM and Chrysler may need to use "our bankruptcy code as a mechanism to help them restructure quickly and emerge stronger."[29] He also announced that the warranties on cars made by these companies will be guaranteed by the U.S. Government. On March 31, 2009, President Barack Obama announced that he will give GM 60 additional days to try and restructure their company and prove their viability. If they succeed, Washington will provide General Motors with additional bridge loans. However, if GM cannot meet the requirements set by the White House, a prepackaged bankruptcy is probable. President Obama has reiterated that GM will be part of the future even if bankruptcy is necessary.[30] New GM CEO Fritz Henderson has stated that Chapter 11 bankruptcy is very possible at this time; by mid-April, he was using the word "probable"[31] (in his weekly conference call of May 11, his words became "more probable").[32] They may file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy by June 1, 2009.[33]. With a large segment of the GM workforce unionized, 11 U.S.C. §1113 will most likely come into play if bankruptcy is pursued. On April 22, 2009, GM stated that it will not be able to make their June 1, 2009 debt payment.[34] On April 24, 2009, GM announced that they will be scrapping the Pontiac brand in an effort to invest more money into their major brands (Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, and GMC). [35] On May 4, 2009, German Economy Minister Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg said Fiat (among others)[36] might be interested in the GM European unit. [37]

General Motors

Advertising 2008–2009
On August 18, 2008, GM announced it has dropped its advertising for the Emmys in September and for the 2009 Academy Awards.[38] GM cited cost cutting and a return to marketing that works best. Media outlets have been struggling in the face of American automakers cutting "billions" in advertisements as the economy slows and American automakers struggle. American automakers have cut $414 million in advertising spending in the first quarter of 2008 alone.[39] On September 22, 2008, GM announced that it would not advertise in the 2009 Super Bowl, citing the cost and the fact that it will not have any particular vehicles to launch at that time.[40][41][42] In November 2008, GM terminated its marketing agreement with PGA golfer Tiger Woods, whose Buick contract had been extended for a second five-year period in 2004.[43]

Environmental record
In the middle of 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) removed 23,000 cubic yards (18,000 m3) of contaminated sediments and soil from the General Motors site in Massena, New York for disposal at a licensed facility in Utah. The amount contained 13,000 cubic yards (9,900 m3) of contaminated sediments dredged from the St.Lawrence River. The sediments had been stored on the site since 1995. There was also 10,000 cubic yards (7,600 m3) of contaminated sludge from the active wastewater treatment plant on the General Motors property.[44] General Motors was ranked 20th in the 2002 Toxic 100. The company released 12,771,830 pounds of gases in the year 2002.[45] In September 2006, the state of California filed suit against General Motors, Chrysler, Nissan, Toyota, Honda, and Ford. The companies were accused of producing cars that emitted over 289 million metric tons of carbon per year in the United States, accounting for nearly 20% of carbon emissions in the United States and 30% of carbon emissions in California.[46] The Union of Concerned Scientists ranked General Motors as 7th of the top 8 manufacturers in terms of environmental impact. Although the company touts the most cars getting 30 mpg or better,

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it also has the most cars getting under 15 mpg.[47]

General Motors

Impact of other strikes
A strike at American Axle and Manufacturing Holdings Inc. will result in lost production of an additional 230,000 vehicles in the second quarter, with an estimated $1.8 billion impact on earnings before tax. With a total strike cost of $2.81 billion. [48]

Subsidies in Canada
In March 2005, the Government of Canada provided C$200 million in incentives to General Motors for its Ontario plants to expand production and provide jobs, according to Jim Harris. Similar incentives were promised to non-North American auto companies like Toyota; Premier Dalton McGuinty said the money the province and Ottawa are pledging for the project is well-spent.

2008 Canadian Auto Workers bargaining
In an unusual move, GM Canada and the Canadian Auto Workers (CAW) union ratified a new collective bargaining contract in May 2008, four months before the expiration of the existing contract. As part of the agreement, among other production commitments, GM pledged to maintain production at the Oshawa, Ontario pickup truck plant. Less than three weeks later, GM announced that rising gasoline prices and falling truck sales made it necessary to close certain truck and SUV plants, including the Oshawa pickup plant.[49] In response, CAW members staged a 12-day blockade of the GM Canada headquarters. After further discussions with the CAW, GM agreed to compensate workers at the truck plant, as well as making product commitments for the Oshawa car assembly plant.[50]

Labor relations
2007 United Auto Workers strike
On September 24, 2007 General Motors workers represented by the United Auto Workers union went on the first nationwide strike against GM since 1970. The ripple effect of the strike reached into Canada the following day as two car assembly plants and a transmission facility were forced to close. Overnight a tentative agreement was reached, however, and UAW officials declared the end of the strike in a news conference at 4 a.m. on September 26. By the following day, all GM workers in both countries were back to work.

Financials
Labor costs
GM has announced elimination of lifetime health benefits for about 100,000 of its white collar retirees by the end of 2008.[51]

Outcome of strike
A new labor contract was ratified by UAW members exactly one week after the tentative agreement was reached, passing by a majority 62% vote. In the contract are several product and employment guarantees stretching well into the next decade. One of GM’s key future products, the Chevy Volt, was promised to the GM Poletown/DetroitHamtramck plant in 2010. Also included is a VEBA (Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association) which will transfer retiree health care obligations to the UAW by 2010. This eliminates more than 50 billion dollars from GM’s healthcare tab. It will be funded by 30 billion in cash and 1.4 billion in GM stock paid to the UAW over the next 4 years of the contract. It also eliminates 70% of the labor cost gap with GM’s Japanese rivals.

Auto racing
General Motors has an extensive history in numerous forms of racing. Vehicles of most, if not all, of GM’s brands have been represented in competition, with perhaps Chevrolet being the most prominent. In particular, the Chevrolet Corvette has long been popular and successful in international road racing. GM also is a supplier of racing components, such as engines, transmissions, and electronics equipments. GM’s Oldsmobile Aurora engine platform was successful in the Indy Racing League (IRL) throughout the 1990s, winning many races in the small V-8 class. An unmodified Aurora V-8 in the Aerotech, captured 47

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world records, including the record for speed endurance in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America. Recently, the Cadillac V-Series has entered motorsports racing. GM has also used many cars in the American racing series NASCAR. Currently the Chevrolet Impala is the only entry in the series but in the past the Pontiac Grand Prix, Buick Regal, Oldsmobile Cutlass, Chevrolet Lumina, Chevrolet Malibu, and the Chevrolet Monte Carlo were also used. In touring cars (mainly in Europe) Vauxhall is a key player and former champion in the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) series and competes with a Vauxhall Vectra in Super 2000 spec, although have announced plans to withdraw at the end of 2009. Opel used to participate in the DTM series and also in the 1980s in the World Rally Championship and other Rally Series with Group B Spec Opel Manta’s before this category of Rallying was banned. Chevrolet competes with a Chevrolet Cruze in the FIA World Touring Car Championship (WTCC). Tempus Sport and RML also complete with a privately run Lacetti in the BTCC. In Australia, there is the prestigious V8 Supercar Championship which is battled out by the two main rivals of Holden & Ford. The current Holden Racing Team cars are based on the Holden Commodore and run a 5.0-litre V8-cylinder engine producing 635+ BHP (approx 467 kW Power). These cars have a top speed of 294 km/h (182 mph) and run 0-100 km/h in 3.8 seconds. The Holden Racing Team is Australia’s most successful team in Australian Touring Car History. In 2007 the Drivers championship was won by the very closely linked HSV Dealer Team. GM also holds the record for most deaths from result of legal automobile racing in Australia.

General Motors
catalytic converters and controlled air-fuel ratios. The production ECMs were becoming more complex, and were becoming powertrain controllers controlling the transmission, spark timing, Idle speed, as well as air-fuel intake mixtures. Delco Electronics used a small group of electronic designers and technicians at their facility in Goleta, California (near Santa Barbara, California) to do special assignable projects that were advanced or more state of the art. This facility was called Delco Systems Operations (formerly known as GM Defense Research Labs), a part of Delco Electronics Corporation at the time. Delco Systems Operations is the place where the Apollo Program’s Lunar Rover Mobility Sub-system[52] was developed and built, also the Apollo Program’s guidance computers (Apollo PGNCS) and the Boeing 747 guidance computers (Delco Carousel IV) were developed and manufactured there. All Delco Electronics Motorsports products developed before 1994 were designed by this group. From 1994 to present, this activity is at Delco Electronics/Delphi in Kokomo, IN. The first generation of engine management controller for CART racing used a modified production ECM, but performed poorly in the race car due to the harsh EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) environment. This version was never used in racing, but the experience gained enabled the engineers to design a more successful Generation 2 controller for use in the 1988 CART IndyCar World series.

Development of electronics for GM Auto Racing
In 1986, the GM Motorsports group asked Delco Electronics Corporation (December), a subsidiary of GM Hughes Electronics (headquarters - Kokomo, Indiana) if an electronic engine management system could be developed for the Chevy Indy V8 engines used in the CART open-wheel race series. Delco Electronics had been supplying all GM automobiles sold in the USA with Engine Control Modules (ECMs) since 1981 when the USA Clean Air Act required 3-way

Practice at Phoenix 1988. Mario Illien introduces the Gen II to Mario Andretti Generation 2 controllers were used experimentally by Newman/Haas Racing in 1988 and the first win was in the Cleveland GP with Mario Andretti driving.

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In 1989 Newman/Haas Racing, Team Penske, Galles Racing, and Patrick Racing teams used Delco Electronics Gen-2 controllers with the Ilmor Chevy Indy V8 engine. "By the start of the 1989 season, racing pundits recognized that Chevrolet, with its Ilmor Engineering engines and Delco Electronics equipment, had assembled perhaps the most potent racing power in the history of the sport. As the season got under way in April, the pattern of winning began. Racing’s elite drivers -- Al Unser, Jr. and Senior, Emerson Fittipaldi, Rick Mears, Danny Sullivan, and Mario and Michael Andretti—were driving the best equipment in the world. The results began to show early on. By October, Chevy engines with DE equipment had won 13 of the 15 IndyCar races. When Emerson Fittipaldi crossed the finish line to win the 1989 Indianapolis 500, racing fans witnessed history being made. Fans thrilled to the neck-and-neck finish between Fittipaldi and Al Unser, Jr. who went spinning on lap 198 after brushing tires with Emmo, and the 43-year-old Brazilian had his first Indianapolis 500 win. Fittipaldi’s victory—in a Chevrolet Indy V8 engine controlled by a Delco Electronics electronic engine control module (ECM) -- was the first time in the 500’s storied history that the engine of the winning vehicle was controlled by an electronic engine management system.[53] For the 1990 season, all teams using the Ilmor Chevy Indy V8 were provided a redesigned Gen-3 system and it won 15 poles, 16 wins including the 1990 Indianapolis 500, with 17 races in the IndyCar World Series. To prove the system, the components were used with GM engines in the Trans-Am Racing series during 1989. In the 1991 IndyCar World Series, Gen-3 had a perfect score: 17 poles, 17 wins, 17 races including the 1991 Indianapolis 500. At the 1991 Indianapolis 500, Delco Electronics introduced telemetry to the electronic system using the advanced spread spectrum radio technology[54] . It was so popular that all IndyCar teams eventually used it, and many still use it. ABC TV used the data from the systems to display real time data with ABC’s in-car video cameras. In 1990 and 1991, the Chevy engine with the Delco Electronics Gen-3 controller won 33 straight IndyCar races. Chevy’s dominance proved electronics had found their place in IndyCar racing.

General Motors
In the 1992 IndyCar World Series, race cars with Gen-3 captured 7 poles, 11 wins including the 1992 Indianapolis 500, in 16 races. For the 1993 IndyCar World Series, Delco Electronics had been developing a smaller more powerful controller using 32-bit computers and a high-level software language called Modula-GM. This system was called Gen-4 and won much praise for its improved functions and features. The telemetry system developed for the 1992 season was used, and a new Distributorless Ignition module component was added to the overall engine management system. 10 wins including the 1993 Indianapolis 500 in 16 CART races.

Left to Right Gen-4, Gen-3, Gen-2, & Gen-1 Delco Electronics Motorsport Engine Control Modules In 1994, a totally new Ilmor engine was introduced to IndyCar teams and the engine controller was Delco Electronics Gen-4: 12 wins including the 1994 Indianapolis 500, 16 races. In 1995, Gen-4 won 6 races out of 17. In 1996, the Indy Racing League split from CART and used the naturally aspirated Oldsmobile Aurora engine which used the Delco Electronics Gen-4 system until the engine was retired from the IRL IndyCar Series a few years ago. 1997 was the last year the Gen-4 ran in the CART IndyCar World Series. Per a February 27, 2003 Delphi Press Release[55], Delphi’s current involvement in open wheel racing is as follows: "Delphi is the official electronics provider to the IRL and has been involved in openwheel racing since 1988. Today, a majority of the vehicles in the IRL are equipped with several of Delphi’s racing products including: • Delphi Earpiece Sensor System measures dynamic forces to a driver’s head during an accident. It uses small sensors integrated into the left and right radio earpieces worn by the driver. The six accelerometers—one for each of the

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three axes on each side—measure acceleration in the X, Y and Z axes during an accident. The combined data from the earpiece sensor system and onboard accident data recorder provide accident researchers valuable data for a clearer picture of what happens during a crash. • Accident Data Recorder (ADR2) - senses and records key vehicle parameters at 1,000 samples per second just prior to, during, and after an accident-triggering event. • Track Condition Radio - helps alert drivers with critical information by transmitting messages from race control to the racecar. A dash-mounted display communicates messages including safety warnings, track condition and pits opened/ closed. • Radio Telemetry Module - transmits engine and chassis data from a speeding racecar to race team engineers located in the pits. The telemetry module helps enhance driver safety and race team strategy by making real-time data available. • Multec(R) Bottom Feed Methanol Electronic Fuel Injector - provides a high flow rate and a low profile package that are ideal for port fuel racing applications. The injector is able to operate at high temperatures and provide a high level of spray atomization. • Connectors, Cables and Terminals connectors are coupling devices that provide an electrical and mechanical connection/disconnection in a system. Cables are insulated electrical conductors. Terminals are devices attached to the end of a wire to facilitate electrical connections. All of these Delphi components enable a vehicle’s electrical/ electronic system to function under the tough conditions in racing. Delphi also has begun offering services to the racing industry, including Hydraulic Sled Testing from its state-of-the-art testing laboratory in Vandalia, Ohio. Delphi provides comprehensive safety testing using a hydraulic test sled to simulate a crash. Services include on-board data acquisition, on- and off-board digital video monitoring and the use of Delphi safety products such as the earpiece sensor system and accident data recorder." Awards for this program:

General Motors
Louis Schwitzer Awards for Engineering Excellence (since 1967): 1994: Mario Illien, Mercedes 209 CID Engine with Delco Electronics Gen-4 controller (Also won in 1986 for Ilmor-Chevrolet Engine that used Gen-2, 3, & 4 controllers 1988 to 1996) 1996: Dave Schnelker, Ning wu, I-Fu Shih of Delco Electronics & Ed Rothrock of Bell Sports (Design of Racing EyeCue) 1997: Ed Keating and Roger Allen of GM Motorsports (Oldsmobile Aurora Engine with Delco Electronics Gen-4 controller) 2005: Delphi engineers Erskine Carter, Glen Gray, Andy Inman, Tim Kronenberg and Bruce Natvig (Delphi Earpiece Sensor System) 2007: Delphi engineers Erskine Carter, Glen Gray, Andy Inman, Tim Kronenberg and Bruce Natvig (Delphi Accident Data Recorder 3 - ADR 3))

Alternative fuels and electric vehicles
General Motors is both active in environmental causes and, as a major industrial force, implicated in ecologically harmful activity. The company has long worked on alternative-technology vehicles, and has recently led the industry with ethanol burning flexible-fuel vehicles that can run on either E85 (ethanol) or gasoline. The company was the first to use turbochargers and was an early proponent of V6 engines in the 1960s, but quickly lost interest as the muscle car race took hold. They demonstrated [56] gas turbine vehicles powered by kerosene, an area of interest throughout the industry, but abandoned the alternative engine configuration in view of the 1973 oil crisis. In the 1970s and 1980s, GM pushed the benefits of diesel engines and cylinder deactivation technologies with disastrous results due to poor durability in the Oldsmobile diesels and drivability issues in the Cadillac V8-6-4 variable cylinder engines. In 1987 GM, in conjunction with Aerovironment built the Sunraycer which won the inaugural World Solar Challenge and was a showcase of advanced technology. Much of the technology from Sunraycer found its way into the Impact prototype electric vehicle (also built by Aerovironment) and was the predecessor to the EV1.

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GM supported a compromise version of the CAFE standard increase from 27 mpg to 35 mpg, the first such increase in over 20 years.[57] Hybrid electric initiative

General Motors
Hybrid." The two-mode is used by the Chevrolet Tahoe/GMC Yukon and will later be used on the Saturn Vue, and possibly other vehicles.[58] GM’s current hybrid electric models: • 2009 Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid • 2009 Saturn Aura Green Line Hybrid • 2009 GMC Yukon Hybrid • 2009 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid • 2009 Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid • 2009 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid (coming late 2009: 2009 Chevy Silverado 2 Mode Hybrid and 2009 GMC Sierra 2 Mode Hybrid) The GM Magic Bus is a hybrid powered bus.[59] GM sold 843 hybrids of all types during the first quarter of 2008, according to the industry newspaper Automotive News. Compared that with Ford, which sold 5,225 hybrids during that time. CSM Worldwide, expects GM to seriously increase its hybrid output, turning the automaker into a serious contender within the next few years. He expects it to produce 40,000 to 50,000 hybrids this year, more than doubling last year’s production.[60] All-electric vehicles

Plug-in hybrid Chevrolet Volt.

Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid 2009. In May 2004, GM delivered the world’s first full sized hybrid pickups, and introduced a hybrid passenger car. In 2005, the Opel Astra diesel Hybrid concept vehicle was introduced. The 2006 Saturn Vue Green Line was the first hybrid passenger vehicle from GM and is also a mild design. GM has hinted at new hybrid technologies to be employed that will be optimized for higher speeds in freeway driving. GM has recently introduced the concept cars Chevrolet Volt and Opel Flextreme, which are electric vehicles with back-up generators, powered by gasoline, E85, or fuel cells. According to GM, a production Chevrolet Volt will be available by late 2010 as a 2011 model. GM currently offers two types of hybrid systems. The first type, used in the Silverado Hybrid, Saturn Vue, Saturn Aura, and Chevrolet Malibu, is what GM calls a "Mild Hybrid" or "BAS" system. The second hybrid drive system,co-developed with DaimlerChrysler and BMW, is called a "Two-Mode

Electric car EV1 shown plugged into charging station The process of obtaining the EV1, GM’s first electric vehicle, was difficult. The vehicle could not be purchased outright. Instead, General Motors offered a closed-end lease for three years, with no renewal or residual purchase options. The EV1 was only available from specialist Saturn dealerships, and only in California and Arizona.[61] Before reviewing leasing options, a potential lessee would be taken through a ’pre-qualification’ process

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in order to learn how the EV1 was different from other vehicles. Next came a waiting list with no scheduled delivery date.[62] In June 2006 the documentary Who Killed the Electric Car? was released, criticizing among others, GM for being responsible for the demise of the EV1. Several weeks before the debut of the movie, the Smithsonian Institution announced that its EV1 display was being permanently removed and the EV1 car put into storage. GM is a major financial contributor to the museum, but both parties denied that this fact contributed to the removal of the display.[63] General Motors has responded to complaints about the scrapping of the EV1 program and they dispute the existence of any conspiracy surrounding its demise. An entry was posted on the GM blog FastLane in 2006 in which GM defended its decision by saying that it was unable to guarantee the vehicles could continue to be maintained in a safe operating state.[64] GM alleges that during the four years available to the public, only 800 EV1’s were released. Over $1 billion was spent on the EV1 program, with a great portion used for consumer incentives and marketing. With a waiting list of 5,000 applicants, only 50 individuals actually were willing to accept a lease on the EV1. Suppliers ceased production of replacement parts due to the low demand for the EV1. This made repairs and continued safety of the vehicles difficult. The EV1 was designed as a developmental vehicle and was never intended for serial production. GM responded to allegations made in the film through a blog post by Dave Barthmuss, who said "Sadly, despite the substantial investment of money and the enthusiastic fervor of a relatively small number of EV1 drivers — including the filmmaker — the EV1 proved far from a viable commercial success."[65] Barthmuss notes investments in electric vehicle technology since the EV1: Two-Mode Hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicle programs. The filmmakers suggested that GM did not immediately channel its technological progress with the EV1 into these projects, and instead let the technology languish while focusing on more immediately profitable enterprises such as SUVs. Contrary to this suggestion, as Barthmuss points out, GM is bullish on hydrogen: According to GM, not all of the EV1’s were destroyed. Many were donated to research

General Motors
institutions and facilities, along with museums. Some are still owned by General Motors themselves, and are kept at their technical design center in Warren, Michigan, and can occasionally be seen on the road within a closed area of the tech center.[64] On September 16, 2008, as part of its 100th anniversary celebration, GM unveiled the "production" version of the Chevrolet Volt at the GM headquarters in Detroit[66]. General Motors has announced that it is building a prototype two-seat electric vehicle with Segway. An early prototype of the Personal Urban Mobility and Accessibility vehicle—dubbed Project P.U.M.A. -- will be shown off in New York a day ahead of the press previews for the 2009 New York International Auto Show. [67] Battery Packs for Electric Vehicles GM will build battery packs with LG Chem in Michigan. GM also plans to build an automotive battery laboratory in Michigan[68]. GM will take full responsibility for all the battery management systems and power electronics. The company will build a new factory in Michigan, but a specific site has yet to be announced, in part because negotiations are ongoing with state and local authorities on the usual incentives and approvals. LG Chem’s US subsidiary, Compact Power of Troy, Michigan, has been building the prototype packs for the development vehicles and will continue to provide integration support and act as a liaison for the program.

Hydrogen initiative

Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from GM. GM has prided its research and prototype development of hydrogen powered vehicles, to be produced in early 2010, using a support

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infrastructure still in a prototype state. The economic feasibility of the technically challenging hydrogen car, and the low-cost production of hydrogen to fuel it, has also been discussed by other automobile manufacturers such as Ford and Chrysler. In June 2007, Larry Burns, vice president of research and development, said he’s not yet willing to say exactly when hydrogen vehicles will be mass produced, but he said it should happen before 2020, the year many experts have predicted. He said "I sure would be disappointed if we weren’t there" before 2020.[69]

General Motors
fueling stations are available nearby, except for the Corn Belt states, where there is a great concentration of E85 stations, as most corn ethanol is produced there.[77][78] A 2005 survey found that 68% of American flex-fuel car owners were not aware they owned an E85 flex.[79] Several critics have argued that GM and the other American automakers have been producing E85 flex models motivated by a loophole in the CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) requirements, that allows for a fuel economy credit for every flex-fuel vehicle sold, whether or not in practice these vehicles are fueled with E85.[78][80][81] This loophole might have allowed the car industry to meet the CAFE targets in fuel economy just by spending between USD 100 to USD 200 that it cost to turn a conventional vehicle into a flex-fuel, without investing in new technology to improve fuel economy, and saving them the potential fines for not achieving that standard in a given model year.[80][82] Brazilian market

Flexible-fuel vehicles
North American market

US E85 FlexFuel Chevrolet Impala LT 2009. GM produces several flexible-fuel vehicles that can operate on E85 ethanol fuel or gasoline, or any blend of both. Since 2006 GM started featuring a bright yellow gas cap to remind drivers of the E85 capabilities,[70][71][72][73] and also using badging with the text "Flexfuel/E85 Ethanol" to clearly mark the car as an E85 FFV.[74][75] GM is the North American leader in E85 flex fuel vehicles, with over 3 million FlexFuel vehicles on the road in the U.S. As of 2009, GM offers 18 ethanol-enabled FlexFuel cars and trucks in the US, and produce more than one million new FlexFuel vehicles. GM’s goal is to have half of their annual vehicle production be E85 or biodiesel capable by 2012. GM’s goal is to have half of their annual vehicle production be E85 or biodiesel capable by 2012.[76] Despite the significant amount of flex fuel vehicles sold in the US and Canada, the percentage of users actually using ethanol has been very low as many owners are not aware they owned an E85 flex or not enough E85

Brazilian Chevrolet Celta FlexPower. GM’s largest overseas subsidiary is General Motors do Brasil, which started producing flexible-fuel vehicles since its inception in the Brazilian market in 2003. Like other Brazilian flex-fuel vehicles, GM’s flex fuel cars and light-duty trucks are optimized to run on any mix of E20-E25 gasoline and up to 100% hydrous ethanol fuel (E100).[79] GM launched its first flex fuel in June 2003, the Chevrolet Corsa 1.8 FlexPower, just two months after the first flex car was launched by another Brazilian carmaker.[83][84] GM do Brasil also introduced the MultiPower engine in August 2004 which was capable of using natural gas (CNG), ethanol

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and gasoline (E20-E25 blend) as fuel, and it was used in the multifuel Chevrolet Astra 2.0 model 2005, aimed at the local taxi cab market.[85][86] The Brazilian GM Powertrain unit also developed the EconoFlex technology, used for the first time in the Chevrolet Prisma 1.4, which allows the flex fuel engine to maximize fuel economy and power.[87] Due to the success and rapid consumer acceptance of the flex versions, GM sold 192,613 flex vehicles and 135,636 gasolinepowered automobiles in 2005,[88] jumping to 501,681 flex-fuel vehicles while only 949 cars and 6,834 light trucks powered by gasoline were sold in 2007,[89] and reaching new car sales of 535.454 flex fuels in 2008, representing 97 percent of all cars and light duty trucks sold in that year.[90]

General Motors
disagreement with the bond ratings; moreover, GM’s benefit funds were performing at higher than expected rates of return. Then, following a $10.6 billion loss in 2005, GM acted quickly to implement its restructuring plan. For the first quarter of 2006 GM earned $400 million, signaling a turnaround had already begun even though many aspects of the restructuring plan had not yet taken effect. Although retiree health care costs remain a significant issue, General Motors’ investment strategy has generated a $17.1 billion surplus in 2007 in its $101 billion U.S. pension fund portfolio, a $35 billion reversal from its $17.8 billion of underfunding.[15] In February 2005, GM successfully bought itself out of a put option with Fiat for $2 billion USD (€1.55 billion). In 2000, GM had sold a 6% stake to Fiat in return for a 20% share in the Italian automaker. As part of the deal, GM granted Fiat a put option which, if exercised between January 2004 and July 2009, could have forced GM to buy Fiat. GM had agreed to the put option at the time, perhaps to keep it from being acquired by another automaker such as Daimler AG competing with GM’s Opel and Vauxhall marques. The relationship suffered, and Fiat had failed to improve. In 2003, Fiat recapitalized, reducing GM’s stake to 10%. In February 2006, GM slashed its annual dividend from 2.00 to $1.00 per share. The reduction saved $565 million a year. In March 2006, GM divested 92.36 million shares (reducing their stake from 20% to 3%) of Japanese manufacturer Suzuki, in order to raise $2.3 billion. GM originally invested in Suzuki in the early 1980s. On March 23, 2006, a private equity consortium including Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, Goldman Sachs Capital, and Five Mile Capital purchased $8.8 billion, or 78% of GMAC’s commercial mortgage arm. The new entity, in which GMAC will own a 21% stake, will be known as Capmark Financial Group.[94] On April 3, 2006, GM announced that it would sell 51% of GMAC as a whole to a consortium led by Cerberus Capital Management, raising $14 billion over 3 years. Investors also include Citigroup’s private equity arm and Aozora Bank of Japan. The group will pay GM $7.4 billion in cash at closing. GM will retain approximately $20 billion in automobile financing worth an estimated $4 billion over three years.

Political and charitable contributions
In the 2008 election cycle General Motors contributed $802,414, with 52% of that amount going to the Democrats and 48% to the Republicans.[91] Since 1996, General Motors has been the exclusive source of funding for Safe Kids USA’s "Safe Kids Buckle Up" program, a national initiative to ensure child automobile safety through education and inspection.[92] GM’s Saturn division put up a display at the 2009 Detroit Auto Show congratulating Barack Obama on his election as the first African-American president of the United States. [93]

Corporate restructuring
After gaining market share in the late 1990s and making enormous profits General Motors stock soared to over $80 a share. However, in 2000, twelve successive interest rate hikes by the Federal Reserve led to a severe stock market decline following the September 11, 2001 attacks, caused a pension and benefit funds crisis at General Motors and many other American companies. General Motors’ rising retiree health care costs and Other Post Employment Benefit (OPEB) fund deficit prompted the company to enact a broad restructuring plan. Although GM had already taken action to fully fund its pension plan, its OPEB fund became an issue for its corporate bond ratings. GM had expressed its

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Plants Doraville Assembly Moraine Assembly Oklahoma City Assembly Location Georgia Ohio Oklahoma Closing September 26 2008 December 23 2008 Role Minivans (Buick, Pontiac, Chevrolet, Saturn) Mid-size SUV assembly

General Motors
# Employees ? 4,165 2,734 398 2,800 1,398 95 182 613 278 2,677 500 ?

February 20 Mid-size trucks and SUV 2006 assembly March 17 2006 December 23 2008 2006 2006 2006 Chevrolet SSR roadster assembly Full Size SUV Assembly Metal fabricating Parts distribution Parts distribution Metal fabricating Parts processing Engines Foam Transmissions

Lansing Craft Centre Michigan Janesville Assembly Lansing Metal Center Wisconsin Michigan

Portland Distribution Oregon Center Saint Louis Distribu- Missouri tion Center Pittsburgh Metal Ypsilanti Processing Center Flint North 3800 Massena Castings Plant 250 Muncie Transmission Plant Michigan Michigan New York Muncie, IN

Pennsylvania 2007 2007 2008 2008 2004

GM sold its remaining 8% stake in Isuzu (which had peaked at 49% just a few years earlier)[95] on April 11, 2006, to raise an additional $300 million.[96] 12,600 workers from Delphi, a key supplier to GM, agreed to buyouts and an early retirement plan offered by GM in order to avoid a strike, after a judge agreed to cancel Delphi’s union contracts. 5,000 Delphi workers were allowed to flow to GM. On June 28, 2007, GM agreed to sell its Allison Transmission division to private-equity firms Carlyle Group and Onex for $5.1 billion. The deal will increase GM’s liquidity and echoes previous moves to shift its focus towards its core automotive business. The two firms will control seven factories around Indianapolis but GM will retain management of a factory in Baltimore. Former Allison Transmission president Lawrence E. Dewey will be the new CEO of the standalone company.[97] On February 12, 2008 GM announced its loss of $39 billion, the biggest loss of any

U.S. automaker. GM has offered buyouts to all its UAW members. In March 24, 2008 GM reported a cash position of $24 billion, or $6 billion less than what was on hand September 31, 2007, which is a loss of $1 billion dollars a month. [98] A further quarterly loss of $15.5 billion, the third-biggest in the company’s history, was announced on August 1, 2008.[99] On November 17, 2008 GM announced it would sell its stake in Suzuki Motor Corp. (3.02%) for 22.37 billion yen ($230 million)[100] in order to raise much needed cash to get through the 2008 US economic crisis. As GM opens new plants, those scheduled to close under the planned GM restructuring include (source: General Motors Corporation): On November 18, 2008, General Motors together with Ford and Chrysler, sought financial aid at a Congressional hearing in Washington D.C. in the face of worsening conditions caused by the automotive industry crisis. All three companies were unsuccessful

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and were invited to draft a new action plan for the sustainability of the industry.[101] On December 2, 2008, General Motors submitted its "Restructuring Plan for Long-Term Viability" to the Senate Banking Committee and House of Representatives Financial Services Committee. [102]

General Motors
which it would proceed to eliminate them.[106] In 1996 documentary Taken for a Ride, GM is cited as being mastermind of purchase and destruction of private fixed rail transit systems in US cities from 1920s until 1950s. The documentary claims the motivations were to eliminate fixed rail systems and implement the idea of buses and cars as more efficient and better alternatives in order to increase GM sales.

US Government Guarantee of Warranties
On March 30, 2009 President Barack Obama issued a US Government guarantee of General Motor’s warranty liabilities:[103] "If you buy a car from Chrysler or General Motors, you will be able to get your car serviced and repaired, just like always. Your warranty will be safe. In fact, it will be safer than it’s ever been. Because starting today, the United States government will stand behind your warranty."[104]

1968 Corvair
Consumer advocate Ralph Nader issued a series of attacks on vehicle safety issues from GM - particularly the Chevrolet Corvair - in his book Unsafe at Any Speed, written in 1968. Being the first major action taken by Nader, he soon established his reputation as a crusader for safety. GM was then accused of sending spies after him. "A woman at the supermarket confronted me and said, ’How would you like to have a talk on foreign affairs?’ This wasn’t a classroom, this was a supermarket, I was buying cookies - I don’t think she wanted to talk about foreign affairs, I think she wanted to talk about domestic affairs," Nader said in the 2006 documentary An Unreasonable Man. Agents were supposedly trying to fix his mind and get him to engage in sexual activity. "Mother would get calls saying, ’We’ve got a package for Mr. Ralph Nader at 9 AM.’ There would also be threats like, ’You better back off, Buddy Boy’," said Claire, Nader’s sister. GM was put on trial for attempting manipulation with Nader, Robert Kennedy and numerous other notable figures present at the trial. In the end, the CEO apologized to Nader; however, Nader continued to work against General Motors.

Disability assistance
The GM Mobility program was launched in 1991 to assist people with disabilities with their transportation needs. The Mobility program provides financial assistance, plus two extra years of the OnStar safety and security service. This applies when one or more of the 35 eligible aftermarket mobility equipment modifications are installed on the vehicle (i.e., hand controls, scooter hoists or wheelchair lifts). All GM brands (Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, HUMMER, Pontiac, Saab and Saturn) are included in the program.

Criticism
Deliberate dismantlement of urban rail infrastructure
See also: Great American streetcar scandal Facing a saturated car market in the US in the early 1920s GM engaged in a controversial policy along with road-builders that triggered the massive shift from the mass transportation of the previous century to the ’one-person-one-car’ trip of today.[105] In order to expand auto sales and maximize profits GM bought local mass transit systems and privately-owned railways, following

Top-level management
In 1980, J. Patrick Wright wrote a book named On a Clear Day You Can See General Motors. This book, which critics acclaimed "blows the lid off the king of carmakers" was about the allegations of corruption, "mismanagement and total irresponsibility" at the top level of the company, as seen by John Z. DeLorean, the Vice-President, who in 1973 resigned from his position in spite of a brilliant and meteoric rise (he was earning $ 650,000 per year and was expected to be the next President of GM).

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Calendar Year 2001[108] 2002 2003 2004[109] 2005 2006[110] 2007 2008[111] Total U.S. sales 4,904,015 4,858,705 4,756,403 4,707,416 4,517,730 4,124,645 3,866,620 2,980,688

General Motors
Chg/yr. −0.9% −2.1% −1.0% −4.0% −8.7% −6.3% −22.9% Motors for closing down its factories in Moore’s hometown of Flint, Michigan, despite record profits. After Flint residents lose their many jobs at GM, Moore claims the town descends into economic chaos. • Who Killed the Electric Car? - A documentary film charting GM’s launch, then alleged self-sabotage of the electric car EV1. • General Motors is mentioned several times in Wheels a novel by Arthur Hailey

Electric car project cancelled
In June 2006 the documentary Who Killed the Electric Car? was released, criticizing GM, among others, for the cancellation of its first electric car, the EV1. It should be noted that with the introduction of the production Chevrolet Volt, Chris Paine, director of the documentary, has shown substantial affinity for General Motors. The sequel to the documentary, to be titled Revenge of the Electric Car is expected to portray a less antagonistic view of General Motors.[107] However, the Volt is expected to go 64 km in electric-only mode on a single charge, while the all-electric EV1 could travel up to 240 km before recharging. This shorter range is characteristic of the typical commuter’s daily range. An on board generator will use gasoline to extend the maximum range.

Active brands (as of 2009)
The following GM brands were being produced in April 2009: • Holden (1856-present) • Opel (1863-present) • GMC (1901-present) • Cadillac (1902-present) • Buick (1903-present) • Vauxhall (1903-present) • Chevrolet (1911-present) • Pontiac (1926-present) • Daewoo (1937-present) • Saab (1947-present) • Saturn (1985-present) • Hummer (1992-present) • Wuling (2002-present)

Yearly American sales See also
• Automotive industry

People
• • • • • • Irving Jacob Reuter Alfred P. Sloan William C. Durant Robert Lutz Wayne Cherry John DeLorean

Defunct brands
• • • • • • • • • • • Acadian (1962-1971, Canada) Asüna (1993, Canada) Beaumont (1966-1969, Canada) Bedford Vehicles (1930–1987, UK) Elmore (1909-1912) Envoy (1960-1970, Canada) Geo (1989–1997) LaSalle (1927–1940) Marquette (1930) Oakland (1907–1931) Oldsmobile (1897-2004)

Books and films
• Final Offer - A documentary film that shows the 1984 GM contract negotiations, that would result in the union split of the Canadian arm of the UAW. • Roger & Me - the first movie by filmmaker Michael Moore. The film criticizes General

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• • • • Rapid Truck (1909–1912) Reliance Truck (1909–1912) Samson Tractor (tractor) (1917-1922) Statesman (1971–1984) These were made by GM Holden in Australia so it cannot be considered as a defunct brand as Statesman is still available new from GM Holden in Australia, and was never a separate company • Viking (1929–1931) • General Motors Diesel Division

General Motors
• Allison Transmission All assets except the Allison plant in Baltimore were divested in early 2007. GM-Allison hybrid-powered buses. • General Motors Acceptance Corporation 51% stake sold to Cerberus Capital management for $14.7 billion in late 2006. • General Motors Canada • General Motors do Brasil • General Motors India • Global Hybrid Cooperation • General Motors South Africa • GM-AvtoVAZ • GM Daewoo (50.9%) • GM Defense • GM Europe • GM Holden Ltd • GM Performance Division • GM Powertrain Europe • OnStar • Pontiac • Saab Automobile • Shanghai GM (50%) • Vauxhall Motors • SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Joint venture in China.

Former affiliates
• • Fiat (2000-2005, GM owned 20% at one time with put option)[112] Fuji Heavy Industries, manufacturer of Subaru (1999-2006, was 20% owned by GM) [113] Isuzu (1971-2006, GM owned 49% at one time) [114] Suzuki (1981-2008, GM owned over 20% at one time) [115]

• •

Spin-offs
• GM Defense 1950-2003 was once part of General Motors Diesel Division and as General Dynamics Land Systems division of General Dynamics • was also once part of General Motors Diesel Division and now known as ElectroMotive Diesel • Detroit Diesel sold to Penske Corporation; broken up and portion sold to the former Daimler-Chrysler AG (now Daimler AG); now part of Daimler AG • Transit division was sold to Motor Coach Industries and Transportation Manufacturing Corporation • RTS and Classic bus rights owned by MCI And TMC were sold off to Nova Bus; now produced by Millennium Transit Services • spun off and later acquired by General Motors Canada as Diesel Division of General Motors of Canada Limited • EDS - Electronic Data Systems • Hughes Electronics(Now The DirecTV Group((Liberty Media))) • 1999 GM spun off its parts making operations as Delphi

Industry associations
• United States Council for Automotive Research • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers

Competitions
• EcoCAR

Categories
• • • • • • List of GM platforms List of GM engines List of GM transmissions List of GM factories GM vehicles by brand Tribrid

References

Subsidiaries
• AC Delco • Adam Opel GmbH

[1] ^ "U.S. Lays Down Terms for Auto Bailout". New York Times. 2009-03-30. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/30/ business/ 30auto.html?_r=1&pagewanted=2&partner=rss&em Retrieved on 2009-03-30. [2] ^ "GM Reports Calendar Year 2008 Financial Results". http://www.gm.com/ corporate/investor_information/earnings/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

General Motors

hist_earnings/08_q4/index.jsp. Retrieved [15] ^ Sloan, Allan (April 10, 2007).GM’s on 2009-05-07. High-Performance Pension Machine [3] http://articles.moneycentral.msn.com/ Washington Post, D02. Investing/Dispatch/Toyota-takes-sales[16] http://www.worldcarfans.com/ crown-from-GM.aspx 9081028.003/gm-cancels-all-future-full[4] http://media.gm.com/servlet/ size-suvs GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com/ [17] http://auto.mail.ru/text.html?id=27985 gmnews/ [18] Vlasic, Bill; Nick Bunkley (2008-10-25). viewmonthlyreleasedetail.do?domain=828&docid=51535 Motors, Driven to the Brink". "General [5] ^ Industry Canada (2009-03-30). "The The New York Times. Governments of Canada and Ontario http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/26/ Reject Automakers’ Restructuring business/26jane.html. Retrieved on Plans". http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ 2008-10-27. ic1.nsf/eng/04535.html. Retrieved on [19] Bunkley, Nick; Bill Vlasic (2008-12-23). 2009-April-06. "It’s the End of the Line for S.U.V.’s". [6] General Motors (April 27, 2009). "GM The New York Times. Accelerates its Reinvention as a Leaner, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/24/ More Viable Company". business/24auto.html. Retrieved on http://media.gm.com/servlet/ 2008-12-23. GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com/ [20] "GM becomes top-selling foreign gmnews/ automaker in China". Detroit News. viewmonthlyreleasedetail.do?domain=74&docid=53947. http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/ Retrieved on April 27, 2009. article?AID=/20060105/AUTO01/ [7] Associated Press (2009-04-25). "Treasury 601050436/1148. Retrieved on April 10 lends $2 billion more to General Motors". 2007. http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/ [21] Reports: Chrysler, GM discuss merger, US_AUTO_BAILOUT?SITE=MATAU&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT. acquisition Retrieved on 2009-April-26. [22] Bloomberg.com GM Says It May Run Out [8] USA Today (2009-04-24). "GM gets of Operating Cash This Year (Update2) another $2B in taxpayer loans, expected By Jeff Green and Mike Ramsey to scrap Pontiac". [23] http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/ http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/ idUSTRE51D1Q120090214 2009-04-24-gm-loans-chrysler[24] http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/21/ talks_N.htm. Retrieved on business/worldbusiness/21auto.html 2009-April-26. [25] http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/ [9] Deborah C. Sawyer, The Canadian 29657254/ Encyclopedia. "General Motors of [26] G.M. Chief Is Said to Be Resigning in Canada Limited". Deal With U.S. http://www.canadianencyclopedia.ca/ [27] GM CEO Wagoner to step down at White index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0003200. House request Retrieved on 2009-April-26. [28] WSJ: GM’s Wagoner Will Step Down [10] http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/ [29] President Obama’s remarks on U.S. auto gm.pdf industry, March 30, 2009 [11] http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/ [30] http://gm-volt.com/2009/03/30/ article?AID=/20090305/OPINION03/ government-decision-gm-gets-60-days-to903050366/1148/&source=nletterrestructure-otherwise-quick-surgicalbusiness bankruptcy/ [12] http://siteanalytics.compete.com/ [31] http://www.detnews.com/article/ gm.com?metric=uv 20090418/AUTO01/904180362/1148/ [13] General Motors Corporation SEC filing AUTO01/GM+bankruptcy+risk+grows 10-Q 3rd-quarter 2008, p.113 [32] http://www.autonews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/ [14] "Welcome to the UAW-GM Center for article?AID=/20090511/ANA02/ Human Resources". UAW-GM Joint 905119991/1229 Activity System. Retrieved on June 19, [33] http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/ 2007. 03/31/business/ main4906229.shtml?source=mostpop_story

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

General Motors

[34] http://www.freep.com/article/20090422/ [55] Delphi’s Innovative Earpiece Sensor BUSINESS01/90422068/1002/ System Becomes Safety Requirement for BUSINESS/ Indy Racing League Drivers GM++We+won+t+make+June+debt+payment America’s First Turbine Car [56] Detroit Free Press. April 22, 2009 [57] GM workers lobbying for less-stringent [35] http://money.cnn.com/2009/04/24/autos/ CAFE rule pontiac_obit/ [58] Tom Higgs, "Patents General Motors". [36] http://www.autoobserver.com/2009/05/ October 17, 2008 not-so-fast-fiat-russians-interested-in[59] "GM’s Hybrid Propulsion System for opel-too.html Transit Buses". http://www.gm.com/ [37] http://www2.journalnow.com/content/ company/gmability/adv_tech/ 2009/may/05/fiat-targets-gm-unit/ 300_hybrids/index_bus.html. Retrieved business/ on 2007-05-22. [38] "General Motors Drives Away From [60] Valdes-Dapena, Peter GM gets on the Oscar Stage", MEDIAWEEK, August 18, hybrid highway, CNNMoney, April 23, 2008 2008, retrieved 2008-07-06 [39] "Media Outlets Losing Money From a [61] General Motors EV1: Information and Lack of Auto Ads", New York Times, Much More from Answers.com August 10, 2008 [62] My EV experiences [40] "GM opts against Super Bowl ad amid [63] Smithsonian Kills the Electric Car. cost cutting" USA Today. September 22, Retrieved on 2008-05-19. 2008. [64] ^ GM FYI Blog: Who Ignored the Facts [41] "In Game Of Super Bowl Ads, GM About the Electric Car? Forfeits" Pesca, Mike. NPR, "All Things [65] Who Ignored the Facts About the Considered." September 22, 2008. Electric Car? [42] "Brand Winners... And Losers: GM and [66] http://media.gm.com/servlet/ Congress" Marketing Doctor Blog. GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com October 4, 2008. gmnews/ [43] /http://sports.espn.go.com/golf/columns/ viewpressreldetail.do?domain=827&docid=48589 story?columnist=harig_bob&id=3723104 [67] http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/ [44] GM To Start Removal Of Contaminated article?AID=/20090407/AUTO01/ Sediments and Soils Next Week At 904070332/1148/&source=nletterFederal Superfund Site in Massena, New business York | Newsroom | US EPA [68] http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/ [45] Toxic 100 Detailed Company Report news_detail.cfm/news_id=12177 [46] Gale Group Search [69] Tom Krisher, "GM steps up work on [47] UCS Automaker Rankings 2007 hydrogen cars", Business Week. June 15, [48] GM’s Cost - Auto News Report 2007 [49] http://media.gm.com/servlet/ [70] Ken Thomas (2007-05-07). "’Flex-fuel’ GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com/ touted". USA Today. vehicles gmnews/ http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/ viewmonthlyreleasedetail.do?domain=3&docid=46161 environment/ [50] http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ 2007-05-05-ethanolvehicles_N.htm. story/LAC.20080728.RGM28/TPStory/ Retrieved on 2008-09-15. Business [71] Christine Gable and Scott Gable. "Yellow [51] http://www.calthomas.com/ E85 gas cap". About.com: Hybrid Cars & index.php?news=2427 Alt Fuels. [52] Anthony Young, Lunar and Planetary http://alternativefuels.about.com/od/ Rovers: The Wheels of Apollo and the vehiclebuyingguide/ig/Alt-fuels---NewQuest for Mars. ISBN 0387307745 York-Auto-Show/Yellow-E85-gas-cap.htm. [53] Delco Electronics Electron Magazine, Retrieved on 2008-09-18. June 1994, pages 1-5 [72] John Neff (2006-10-06). "More gas cap [54] James Bogner, SAE paper 962327 : news: Chrysler going yellow for E85". Spread Spectrum Telemetry Data System AutoBlog. http://www.autoblog.com/ for Indy Car Racing, October 1996. 2006/08/10/more-gas-cap-news-chrysler-

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
going-yellow-for-e85/. Retrieved on 2008-10-08. [73] Sam Abuelsamid (2007-03-28). "AFVI: Ford confirms that all 2008 police interceptors will be flex-fuel". AutobogGreen. http://www.autobloggreen.com/2007/03/ 28/afvi-ford-confirms-thatall-2008-police-interceptors-will-be-fl/. Retrieved on 2008-10-08. [74] Christine Gable and Scott Gable. "2008 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 4WD LT2 flexfuel truck test drive". About.com: Hybrid Cars & Alt Fuels. http://alternativefuels.about.com/od/ 2008flexfuelreviews/fr/ 08SilveradoFFV_2.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-03. [75] Christine Gable and Scott Gable. "2007 Chevrolet Suburban 4WD 1500 LT test drive". About.com: Hybrid Cars & Alt Fuels. http://alternativefuels.about.com/ od/flexfuelffvreviews/fr/ 2007Suburban_2.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-03. [76] General Motors | Fuel Economy & Alternative Fuels - E85 Ethanol [77] National Renewable Energy Laboratory USDoE (2007-09-17). "Alternative and Advanced Vehicles: Flexible Fuel Vehicles". Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center. http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/ vehicles/flexible_fuel.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-19. [78] ^ Sperling, Daniel and Deborah Gordon (2009), Two billion cars: driving toward sustainability, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 73–743, ISBN 978-0-19-537664-7 [79] ^ Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007), Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and Sustainable Farming for Energy Independence, Prairie Oak Publishing, Maryville, Missouri, pp. 56–61, ISBN 978-0-9786293-0-4 [80] ^ Alexei Barrionuevo and Micheline Maynard (2006-08-31). "Dual-Fuel Vehicles Open Mileage Loophole for Carmakers". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/31/ business/31loophole.html?emc=eta1. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.

General Motors
[81] Inslee, Jay; Bracken Hendricks (2007), Apollo’s Fire, Island Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 153–155, 160–161, ISBN 978-1-59726-175-3 See Chapter 6. Homegrown Energy. [82] "Bumpy ride for biofuels". The Economist. 2008-01-18. http://www.economist.com/science/ displaystory.cfm?story_id=10551762. Retrieved on 2008-09-14. [83] "Volkswagen to stop making gas-only cars for Brazil". Automotive News. 2006-03-23. http://www.autonews.com/ apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060323/ REUTERS/60323043/1111. Retrieved on 2008-10-18. [84] "Chevrolet Apresenta seu Novo Motor 1.8 Flexpower, mais Potente e Econômico" (in Portuguese). 2005-09-22. http://www.jornalexpress.com.br/ noticias/ detalhes.php?id_jornal=9095&id_noticia=2275. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. [85] GNVNews (November 2006). "Montadores Investem nos Carros á GNV" (in Portuguese). Institutio Brasileiro de Petroleo e Gas. http://www.bigas.com.br/sistema/ ?modulo=gnvnews&acao=abrir&id=22. Retrieved on 2009-04-19. [86] "Astra é líder no segmento dos compactos em 2004: As versões do Chevrolet Astra 2005" (in Portuguese). Journal Express. 2005-01-18. http://www.jornalexpress.com.br/ noticias/ detalhes.php?id_jornal=9095&id_noticia=1703. Retrieved on 2009-04-19. [87] "1.4 Econo.Flex, o motor que pulsa forte no coração do Prisma, o novo sedã Chevrolet" (in Portuguese). Chevrolet (Brazil). http://www3.chevrolet.com.br/ noticias/ noticia.do?acao=id&idNoticia=534. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. [88] "Tabela 08 - Vendas Atacado Mercado Interno por Tipo e Empresa Combustível Flex Fuel - 2005" (in Portuguese) (PDF). ANFAVEA Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veículos Automotores (Brazil). http://www.anfavea.com.br/tabelas2005/ autoveiculos/tabela08_vendas.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-16. See Table 08 for flex-fuel sales and Table 07 for gasoline sales.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

General Motors

[89] "Tabela 08 - Vendas Atacado Mercado [103]President Obama’s remarks on U.S. car " Interno por Tipo e Empresa industry". Yahoo! News. Reuters. March Combustível Flex Fuel - 2007" (in 30, 2009. http://uk.news.yahoo.com/22/ Portuguese) (PDF). ANFAVEA 20090330/tbs-uk-autos-obama-remarksAssociação Nacional dos Fabricantes de sb-03c9bed.html. Veículos Automotores (Brazil). [104] ttp://uk.news.yahoo.com/22/20090330/ h http://www.anfavea.com.br/tabelas2007/ tbs-uk-autos-obama-remarksautoveiculos/tabela08_vendas.pdf. sb-03c9bed.html Retrieved on 2009-04-16. See Table 08 [105] tephen Leahy, Time Expired S for flex-fuel sales and Table 07 for [106] radford Snell, The StreetCar B gasoline sales. Conspiracy. How General Motors [90] "Tabela 08 - Vendas Atacado Mercado Deliberately Destroyed Public Transit Interno por Tipo e Empresa [107]1] [ Combustível Flex Fuel - 2008" (in [108] ttp://www.theautochannel.com/news/ h Portuguese) (PDF). ANFAVEA 2003/01/03/152225.html Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de [109] ttp://www.theautochannel.com/news/ h Veículos Automotores (Brazil). 2006/01/05/205609.html http://www.anfavea.com.br/tabelas2008/ [110] ttp://media.gm.com/servlet/ h autoveiculos/tabela08_vendas.pdf. GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com Retrieved on 2009-04-16. See Table 08. gmnews/ [91] Top Contributors to Federal Candidates viewmonthlyreleasedetail.do?domain=6&docid=3159 and Parties: Automotive [111] ttp://media.gm.com/servlet/ h [92] Safe Kids USA. SK Buckle Up GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com usa.safekids.org. Retrieved 24/02/08. gmnews/ [93] http://jalopnik.com/5129704/gm-sucksviewpressreldetail.do?domain=2&docid=51161 up-to-obama-hard [112] ttp://www.upi.com/Business_News/ h [94] "article". Detroit Free Press. 2004/12/15/Italy-Hapless-Fiat-wants-tohttp://www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/ force-GM-hand/UPI-92961103125155/ article?AID=/20060323/NEWS11/ [113] ttp://articles.latimes.com/2005/oct/06/ h 60323002. Retrieved on March 23 2006. business/fi-gm6 [95] http://www.channel4.com/4car/news/ [114] ttp://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/ h news-story.jsp?news_id=14382 2006-04-11-isuzu-sale_x.htm [96] "GM sells Isuzu shares for $300 million". [115] ttp://www.cartype.com/pages/3403/ h Detroit News. http://www.detnews.com/ gm_sells_equity_stake_in_suzuki apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060411/ • GM gets 60 days, names Henderson CEO UPDATE/604110423/1148/AUTO01. • GM CEO: Bankruptcy looks more probable Retrieved on 2006-04-12. [97] GM Agrees to Sell Allison Transmission Unit, The Wall Street Journal, June 29, • Barabba, Vincent P. Surviving 2007 Transformation: Lessons from GM’s [98] GM Cash Burn 1B per month - Auto Surprising Turnaround (2004) News Report - May 29, 2008 • Chandler, Alfred D., Jr., ed. Giant [99] Bensinger, Greg; Green, Jeff (August 1, Enterprise: Ford, General Motors, and the 2008). "GM’s $15.5 Billion Loss Is ThirdAutomobile Industry 1964. Biggest in a Century". Bloomberg. • Cray, Ed. Chrome Colossus: General http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/ Motors and Its Times. 1980. news?pid=20601087&sid=au.TL_ofjGuM&refer=home. • Farber, David. Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Retrieved on 2008-08-02. Sloan and the Triumph of General Motors [100] M to sell stake in Suzuki to raise cash G U of Chicago Press 2002 November 17, 2008 • Gustin, Lawrence R. Billy Durant: Creator [101] etroit Chiefs Plead for Aid. New York D of General Motors, 1973. Times on November 18, 2008. Retrieved • Halberstam, David. The Reckoning (1986) November 21, 2008. detailed reporting on the crises of [102] estructuring Plan for Long-Term R 1973-mid 1980s Viability

Further reading

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Keller, Maryann. Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for Recovery of General Motors, 1989. • Leslie, Stuart W. Boss Kettering: Wizard of General Motors Columbia University Press, 1983. • Maxton, Graeme P. and John Wormald, Time for a Model Change: Re-engineering the Global Automotive Industry (2004) • Maynard, Micheline. The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car Market (2003) • Rae, John B. The American Automobile: A Brief History. University of Chicago Press, 1965. • Sloan, Alfred P., Jr. My Years with General Motors, 1963. • Weisberger, Bernard A. The Dream Maker: William C. Durant, Founder of General Motors, 1979

General Motors

External links
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Corporate website Official Canadian website Official European website Official Brazilian website Official wiki Blog of workers and works council members Database with GM part numbers General Motors Company Profile and Contacts NMEDA QAP Scooter Lift Installation Provider Bush Considering "Orderly" Auto Bankruptcy GM considering Chapter 11 filing, new company: report GM: Independent auditors raise the specter of Chapter 11 General Motors Now - GM News Blog

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Motors" Categories: Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Companies established in 1908, Companies formerly listed on the London Stock Exchange, Automotive transmission makers, Car manufacturers of the United States, General Motors, Motor vehicle manufacturers of the United States, Hybrid electric bus manufacturers, Companies based in Michigan, Companies based in Detroit, Michigan, Entities involved in United States housing bubble, Car manufacturers This page was last modified on 19 May 2009, at 23:36 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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