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Lawrence County Pennsylvania Property Deeds

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Lawrence County Pennsylvania Property Deeds Powered By Docstoc
					Sectional Conflict
       &
     Politics

  1830 - 1857
                     Wedges of Separation
• North vs. South suspicious gov’t to advance their
  interests
    – South -Thomas Kettell’s – “Southern Wealth & Northern
      Profits”
        • South producing wealth – North is a leech (dependent)
        • Northern charges large sums of money for shipment of
          goods
        • North needed the South for raw materials to trade for
          other goods
    – North
        • South caused economic stagnation
              – South utilized systems that impeded northern economic
                superiority
              – Southerners help destroy the national banking system –
                deprived U.S. of economic focus
    – North Blamed South for economic issues
        • Southern Congressmen defeat legislation for internal
          improvements
              – Transcontinental Railroad: Homestead Act
    – Each failed to see how they depended on one another
      economically & politically Economic differences
      enhanced the idea of Favoritism.
        • South refused to believe North helped Southern economy
        • North failed to see how much their profit depended on
          Southern materials
Wedges of Separation
 • Divergent difference in Slavery
   Policy:
      • Should slavery exist on American Soil?
      • Should the U.S. continue to assume the
        position of a proslavery power?
      • How did slavery provide unfair competition.
      • Would slavery expand into the west?
 • Western migration Spells growing
   pains
      • Gold Rush, Mexican – American War, Texas
        coming into the Union,
          – Increased tension surrounding slave issue
          – Many Northerners saw these conflicts as
            missions of southern conquest
          – Southerners accused the North of taking away
            their rights as citizens
          – Fueled Sectional Conflict
                  Wedges of Sectionalism
•   Missouri Compromise 1820
    – Missouri Compromise - 1820
        • Equal number of slave & free states (11 each)
             – 1819 Missouri wants to be admitted into the union – slave state
             – Northerners opposed the admittance of another slave state – lose
               power in Congress
                   » Northerners argued that slaves could not be carried past
                     boundary 36 – 30
                   » Southerners argued that laws could not prevent chattel
                     (property into new territory.)
             – Heated debates took place on Congressional floors
                   » Slavery (as a moral question) is not the issue - law
             – Maine’s admittance into the union the union saved the issue – thus
               allowing one free & slave state into union Nine free states – nine
               slave
             – Balance in the union, in congress, in law making, and
               representation
• 1840s California’s proposed admission disrupted the
  balance
    – David Wilmot
        • Wilmot’s Proviso – (1846) House of Rep. resolution to prohibit
          slavery in Mexican territories – California included
        • Polarized the nation – Congressional prohibition of slavery –
          Violated & threatened Southern rights
        • Southern democrats (in Senate) refused to act on the bill (killed
          the bill)
        • 1848-1849 House of Rep. voted to pass Wilmot Proviso –
          blocked by Senate
    Wedges of Sectionalism
• South outraged – exclusion of slavery in territories
      • Southerners Questioned Manifest Destiny
      • Southerners held Nashville Convention 1850
          – Purpose to discuss what South should do if anti-southern measures
            were passed (e.g. Wilmot Proviso)
              » Southern extremists called for immediate secession
              » Southern Cooperationists favored future secession if north
                 continued in usurpation of rights
              » Conservative group called for no action
          – This convention increased antagonism of Southerners towards the
            North
              » Secession from union becomes the option of the South thru this
                 convention
              » Vital question at this meeting – not Shall we secede? But Shall
                 we secede together?
      • Southerners insisted – all territories belong equally to North &
        South –
          – Our right to take slave into federal territories
          – Southern language became attuned to the language of disunion
      • Wilmot Proviso for Southerners = Death
          – no hope future slave states
          – Southern rights not maintained – created a disadvantaged for South
      • The admittance of California into the Union meant North would
        have advantage – free states have a majority
            Wedges of Sectionalism
• Thirty-Six Congress 1849
     • North & South on congressional floor
         – 17 days to vote on a house speaker
         – Foul language, verbal attacks, fistfights, and
           duels
     • 1850 – President Taylor called to admit
       California as a State immediately (no territorial
       phase)
         – Wilmot Proviso - Georgia’s Rep. Robert
           Toombs “If it should pass, I am for disunion”
         – William Colcock (South Carolina) “If slavery
           should be excluded from the territories, that he
           would offer a resolution for declaring the Union
           to be dissolved”
     • Thirty – Six Congress tense, volatile, emotional
       and about to break
     • Henry Clay’s – 1850 Compromise - Southern
       Senator
Clay’s Compromise of 1850
 • Several Parts:
       • Let California be a free state
       • Pass a strict fugitive slave law to please South
       • Organize new territories in Southwest without Wilmot-
         Proviso
       • Abolish Slave Auctions in D.C.
       • Compensate Texas for lost territory
           – Clay’s Compromise debated for 6 months
               » Debates over: sectional crisis, slavery, recognizing each
                  others interests, there had to be concessions, etc..
       • Four major position emerge due to Clay’s compromise
       • The bill that clay provides: all must pass in the bill
           –   One – No slaves in any territories
           –   Two – There should be no restrictions on slavery
           –   Three – Let popular sovereignty of territorial peoples decide
           –   Four – Missouri Compromise of 1820 should extend 36*-30*
               degree parallel
       • Both sides argued that slavery would die out in the territories
           – Slave problem is both the north & south’s issue
           – Churches were to blame for growth in section conflict,
           – After 6 months Clay’s compromise was defeated
        Douglas Compromise of 1850
• Henry Clay retires – Stephen Douglas becomes
  advocate
      • Douglas separated the bill;
          – Five different parts
          – Calif. Admitted to union as free state
          – Utah – New Mexico organized as states (free)
               » Ability to choose free or slave state
      • Severe & strict fugitive slave law
          – Represents sectionalism –
              » Irritant to the North; and
              » Reminded the apathetic Americans about the issue
• Fugitive Slave Law
      • Owner pursue, seize, and arrest slaves without due
        process
      • Those claiming could provide proof: verbally, written,
        directly or indirectly to courts.
      • Authorities received payment for safe return of slaves.
      • All good citizens command to participate – North or South
          – Celebration In the streets – dodged another bullet
• Douglas compromise: reactions
      • North & South thought the compromise solved slave issue
 Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
• Territories (Platte County) awaiting admittance 1854 -
  Iowa
      • According to 1820 compromise – territory must be free (no
        slaves)
      • Douglas Kansas-Nebraska act initiated
          – “In-tune” with Great 1850 compromise
          – Popular sovereignty – residents of territories decide (Free or Slave)
      • North & South Discontent:
          – North Argued:
              » Missouri Compromise must be followed – no slavery above
                 36*30*
          – South Argued:
              » Insisted that slavery must be permitted during territorial phase
      • May 1854 Douglas proposed that the 1820 Compromise be
        “inoperative & void” –
          – Slavery decided by the popular sovereignty of the people
      • Reactions: Northerners – “infuriated”
          – Congress has on right to legislate slavery anywhere
          – Northerners argued “Freedom is national; slavery only local”
      • Southerners “indifferent”
          – Did not care for the bill at first – not enough protection of rights
          – Later they began to accept and support the measure
                  Theory vs. Practice
• Reintroduced Sectional debate
• Kansas-Nebraska - contest between
  pro and anti-slavery forces
     • North – creation of free state – stop Southern
       slave power (Mission)
     • South – Save Missouri from abolitionist
       (Mission)
     • Competition for offices, land, & authority
         – Congress failed to survey land – provide titles –
           or eliminate Indian land titles
• Feeding Instability in Kansas
     • Emigrant Aid Company promoted immigration
       assisted settlers (Northern Abolitionists)
         – Provoked the south – creation of border ruffians
     • South sent men from Georgia, Alabama, South
       Carolina (pro-slavery influence)
     • Each side reacted to “perceived actions”
                            Fight for Kansas
• Kansas Woe
       • Open territorial elections – ballot boxes stuffed with fake votes
       • Limited offices to pro-slavery men
       • Imprisonment to anyone who didn’t support slavery
• Power struggle – North vs. South
   – Wakarusa War 1855 (Dec) – Lawrence
       • Free-state settler killed by a pro-slavery rival (Private Feud)
            – Pro-slavery sheriff collected posse and arrested friend, for
              threatening revenge.
            – Governor (pro-slave) declared Lawrence in rebellion
            – Sent in state militia – many from Missouri to seize control of
              Lawrence
                 » Anti – slave & pro-slave persons were on the brink of war
   – Topeka – (Northerners) banned slavery, ratified a
     constitution, launched a state gov (1856)
            – Pro-slavery settlers took no part
   – Lecompton – (South) adopted slavery, “right of property…”,
     created a constitution, and a gov. (1856)
       • Both North and south made plans to push Kansas and
         Nebraska into statehood…free and slave
            – Each elected their territorial legislatures (Congress)
            – Each had their own constitution
                » Push tensions in Kansas & Nebraska
            – They excluded each other in voting on constitution
                » Only presenting plans to counties supportive of constitutions
   1856 & Bloody Kansas
• 1856 Sacking of Lawrence Kansas (Free Town)
       • 800 Missourian men (lead by local sheriff) to arrest treasonous free
         state supporters
            – Erupted into blood shed and the burning of several buildings in Lawrence
       • Blood loss relatively low
   – Expressions of Sectionalism
       • South
            – J.D.B. De Bow – “Build her own ships and conduct her trade with foreign
              power; manufacture at home every bale of cotton; cease the annual
              migrations north”
            – “Northerners slaves to capital” – “not giving enough property for people to
              live on”
            – Filibustering – expeditions into Cuba & Central America – create new
              nations/ states (pro-slave)
       • North
            – South is a “slave-ocrcay” bent on taking over and corrupting the nation
       • Intensification of sectionalism – a desire to part from one another
   – Intensified Sectionalism gave rise to increased tensions
       • Churches increased involvement in the growing sectionalism
            – A place to express moral outrage and moral justification
       • South
            – Albert G. Brown - “That slaver is a blessing to the masters”
            – Southern men are “courageous high-bred, and manly. The other is
              cowardly, low-flung, and sneaking”
       • North
            – Joshua Giddings ““when human government overstep the bounds of their
              constitutional powers to rob men of life or liberty, their actions are void”
                                 John Brown
• John Brown – “Grim Revolutionary”
   – Life of Brown:
       •   Tanner, Land Speculator, Sheep herder: failure at everything
       •   Son of Strict Calvinist; marries young,
       •   1850sRecruited by Emergency Aid to defend Kansas
       •   1837 Neighbor is killed (Elijah Lovejoy) vows to fight slavery
       •   Violence – only way to stop slavery (Action)
   – May 24-25 1856 (Brown & Sons attack pro-slavery family in
     Pottawatomie Creek)
       • Murder 5 men – mutilate their bodies
       • Left as an example for all pro-slavery supporters
• Why John Brown?
   – Men murdered connected with pro-slavery gov.
       • Retaliation for the recent murder of 6 anti-slavery families
       • Feared being convicted of treason for voting for Topeka constitution
• John Brown persecuted
       • Due to his attacks – brown and partisans attacked by 100’s of pro-
         slavery men
       • Battle of Osawatomie – son is killed & home his settlement burned
         to ground
• Brown’s Crazy thinking
       • He is convinced – Violence is the only way to end slavery – leaves
         Kansas
Caning of Charles Sumner
     • Charles Sumner (Massachusetts Senator) 1856
            • Publicly denounces the violence in Kansas “Crime
              against Kansas”
                 – Kansas is in “law-lessness”
                 – Communities are being violated by the South
            • Attacks the slave holders – using sexual references –
              “the rape of Kansas”
            • Attacks South Carolina and Senator Andrew Butler
     • Preston Brook (Cousin of Butler)
        – Code of personal honor – slander of relative must not
          go unpunished
            • May 22, 1856 walked up to Sumner and beat him with
              a cane
                 – Took three years for Sumner to recover
        – South applauded the caning – Sent Brooks canes
            • Enlivened by the spiritual action
        – North – angered and attributed it to Southern
          barbarism
            • Bleeding of Kansas synonymous with Bleeding Sumner
            • Northern symbols of anti-southernism
        – What did it mean? Increased antagonism of part of
          North and South.
                              1856 Elections
• Three choices:
       • Party Platform:
            – Know-nothing Party - avoid slavery Union in Peril
       • Milliard Fillmore & Andrew Jackson Donelson
   – Democratic Party - Divided (North/South)
       • Party Platform:
            – Non-interference by congress on slavery
            – “Republicanism is sweeping over the North like a tornado [and}
              Union is tottering”
       • James Buchanan & John Breckinridge
   – Republican Party - John Fremont & William L. Dayton (2
     yrs old)
       • Party Platform:
            – Repeal of Missouri Compromise unjust
            – Opposed slavery, ridiculed Kansas, denounced the Southern
              expansionism
            – Stomp out twin barbarism “Slavery & Mormon polygamy”
   – Buchanan won – revealing sectionalism
       • Buchanan was victorious cause he gained the southern vote
            – All of the south (14) plus California, New Jersey, Illinois, Indiana,
              & Pennsylvania
       • Republican’s & Know-nothing split vote in the north
            – Connecticut, Maine, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, New
              Hampshire, Ohio, New York, R.I., Vermont, Wisconsin
Harper’s Ferry & Reactions
  • John Brown
         • 1859 is a outcast in Canada
              – Obtained money and arms
              – Created a “constitution and ordinance for the people of the United
                States”
              – Created a plan of emancipation
         • Capture the Federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry Virginia
              – Arm slaves and lead a slave revolt
              – Establish a guerilla band in mountains
              – Take slave holders as hostage – force south to adopt emancipation
  • Oct. 16, 1859 - attacked Federal Arsenal
         • Incite a slave rebellion – slaves would rally to his call
              – Brown captured a few citizens of the town
              – Slaves had no clue to the rebellion
              – Designated no escape route
         • Town folk ran to defend themselves until Federal forces under
           Robert E. Lee arrived to negotiate surrender
  • Reactions
         • North - Brown is the Christ or a fanatic
              – Songs and folk tales written about John Brown
         • South considered him a traitor - hanged
              – Heightened sectional conflict
              – Reinforced Southern fear of North’s intentions
                   » North intends to free slavery by force
              – Direct result – South begin to arm state militias – mobilizing for war
         Harper’s Ferry & Reactions
• John Brown - 1861
       • He captured Harpers Ferry with his nineteen men so
                                   few,
        And he frightened Old Virginny till she trembled through
                              and through,
         They hung him for a traitor, themselves a traitor crew,
                      But his truth is marching on.
        The conflict that he heralded, he looks from heaven to
                                   view,
         On the army of the Union with its flag, red, white, and
                                   blue,
        And heaven shall ring with anthems oer the deeds they
                               mean to do,
                      For his truth is marching on.


     • Oct. 31, 1859 Brown on Trial
         – Found guilty of treason, inciting rebellion, & murder
               » Dec. 1859 hung – as were his conspirators
         – “if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for
           the furtherance of the ends of justice and mingle my blood
           further with the blood of my children and with the blood of
           millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded
           by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I say let it be
           done”
  1860 Election
• Turmoil abounds
     • Know-nothing party is gone and absorbed in
       republican party
     • Democrats are divided between Northern &
       Southern democrats
         – Democratic convention held in South Carolina
         – Two candidates – William Yancey (Southerner) &
           Stephen Douglas (Northerner)
             » Douglas supported the supreme courts
               recent decision on slavery
             » Yancey supported the protection of slavery
     • Southern democrats called for the protection of
       slavery “or the democrats would withdraw”
         – Northern Democrats opposed any platform
           geared towards slavery
         – Democratic party split
     • Northern democrats elected Stephen Douglas as
       Candidate –Southern democrats elected John
       Breckinridge
                         1860 Election
• Republicans - major political force
     • “Free Labor, Free Soil, Free Men”
         – Platform: rejected threats of disunion;
           recognized the power of states to control
           their own agendas, denounced Lecompton
           constitution; re-affirmed congressional right
           to make laws (Wilmot-Proviso)
         – Lincoln avoided comment on slavery – thus
           neither confirming or alleviating Southern
           fears of anti-slavery sentiments
     • Democrats feared their potential – called
       party “black republicans”
• Lincoln takes office March 1861
     • In south Lincoln was not even on the
       ballots
     • Gov will not allow south to succeed
         – South figured Lincoln election = attack on
           south
     • Division among the Democrats allowed
       republicans to capture the presidency
   1860 Elections
• Reactions
     • Southern Mobilization
         – Southerners' increased patrols around the south
         – Reorganization of military to be more efficient
         – Conventions were called to discuss the action of the
           south in reaction to Lincolns winning
     • 1860-1861 S. Carolina called a convention
         – Cooperation for secession
         – Many states gave early approval for secession – others
           chose not to secede
         – With-in weeks of Lincoln's inauguration – S. Carolina
           drew up “declaration of the immediate causes which
           induce and justify the secession of S. C.”
              » Unanimously passed ordinances declaring
                secession from union
              » Believed they were the vanguards of the new
                revolution
              » Constitution was a compact between
                states…charged federal gov. of corruption
              » “we must start our Government free from the vulgar
                influences that have debauched and demoralized
                the Government of Washington”
         – Other states followed same process
              » Calling special conventions; declaring secession
                from union
                         Union in Crisis
• President Buchanan
     • Chose to do nothing – feared reprisal – action = further
       tensions
         – Wanted the issue to go away
     • Cabinet became corrupt –
         – Secretary of interior – gave land, fort, guns to southerners
         – Money was transferred from union to Confederacy
         – Federal forts issue not solved
• Washington Peace Conference - 1860
     • Attempt to stop secession & compromise
         – Conference came to late – once secession started it
           continued to attract new states
     • Crittenden Compromise – 7 amendments
         – Missouri line extended, Slavery protected in territories,
           Congress not to have control over slavery, Slave owners
           compensated for loss of property (slaves).
     • Outcome of Conference
         – Kept border states from secession until Lincoln’ inauguration
     • Both sides happy the convention failed
         – North – “With-out blood-letting this Union will not…be worth a
           rush”
         – South – “[we} would prefer to see the whole South [be] on
           one charnel house of destruction [than submit one single day
           to Lincoln’s administration”
            C.S.A.
• Montgomery Convention 1860-1861
     • Organize a government
        – Had limited representation through out south
        – A time of excitement
            » Drew up a constitution
            » It was their right to protect themselves and
               states rights
        – Justify secession – power derives from people – not
          gov
            » People took back power – reorganized
            » Constitution was a compact between people –
               could be broken
        – Two other objectives
            » Choose Pres & V.P.
            » Create legislature – organize & run the new
               confederation
• Big problems for Confederacy
     • Structure – none existed
        – Create post office; courts; laws; policies; etc..
        – Mobilization of forces – just in case - defense
                            Federal
• Lincoln’s Inauguration 1861
    • Masterful speech of logic & reason
       – “The power confided to me, will be used
         to hold, occupy, and posses the property
         and places belonging to the government.”
       – “No purpose, directly or indirectly, to
         interfere with the institution of slavery in
         the states where it exists”
       – Radical tendencies – Lincoln would fall to
         these – was the fear of the south

				
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