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					Attraction and Retention Series
A focus on people and business




  Workforce planning toolkit: Models,
     frameworks and processes
        Resource document 2




                Issue 3
             November 2008
Table of contents

Introduction .................................................................................................... 3

Description of workforce planning .................................................................. 3

Benefits of workforce planning ....................................................................... 3

Workforce planning framework ...................................................................... 4

A strategic framework for workforce management ......................................... 6

Australian Public Service Model :
Building business capability through workforce planning ............................... 7

Framework for workforce planning ................................................................. 8

Workforce planning models ........................................................................... 9
  Department of Main Roads ............................................................................................ 9
  Department of Public Works........................................................................................ 10
  Department of Natural Resources and Water ............................................................ 11
  Office of Public Employment, South Australia .......................................................... 12

The synergies of planning ............................................................................ 13




Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                                             2
Introduction

The following resources include models, frameworks and processes for workforce planning. These
resources provide many varieties of approaches which have been tested and are in operation in
various agencies.



Description of workforce planning

Workforce planning is about developing an understanding of the make-up of the current workforce,
the environment in which it works and will work in the future, and necessary skills, capabilities and
aptitudes that will be required to achieve business outcomes in an ever changing environment.


It provides managers with a framework for making informed staffing decisions in line with an
organisation’s mission, strategic plan and budgetary resources. Workforce planning is a means of
integrating and giving meaning to many areas of human resource management that are often
considered in isolation, such as attraction and retention, flexible work practices, succession
planning, staff development, etc.



Benefits of workforce planning

The process of planning allows an organisation to:


       understand the present in order to confront the future
       stand back and provide an overview
       ensure long term thinking is not clouded by short term focus; challenge
        assumptions/liberate thinking
       make explicit decisions which would allow later challenge
       integrate organisational decision making and actions
       link HR plans to business/corporate plans so as to influence them
       communicate plans relevant to the workforce in order to gain support
       optimise use of resources/make them more flexible
       acquire and grow skills which take time to develop
       identify potential problems
       reduce risks by minimising the chances of making bad decisions, and
       provide managers with a strategic basis for making human resource decisions.


    (Strategic People and Planning: an overview of workforce planning. Public Sector
    Management Division, Department of the Premier and Cabinet, WA, 2000)


    In reality, the choice is whether to be systematic in planning or to be swept along by events.
    Therefore, rather than leave it to chance, arguably it is better to develop a clear understanding
    of the present situation, consider key future issues and manage the interplay between the two.
    (Department of the Premier and Cabinet, WA, 2000,2)

Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                              3
Workforce planning framework

    Process             Context                                                                                                 Synergies                                                         Outcomes
    What internal       Identify the key internal factors that are driving the need to be pro-active in developing a            Core business of the agency/work unit. Current agency
    factors are         workforce management plan. This information should be available from current agency                     documents:
    influencing our     documents and an evaluation of the current workforce plan.
    workforce                                                                                                                    Corporate Plan/ Operational               Workforce Plan
    capability?                                                                                                                   Plan                                      Diversity Plan
                                                                                                                                 EEO Plan
                                                                                                                                 Budget


    What external       Identify the external factors that are influencing, and will, influence the agency’s priorities,         Government policy                         Government
    factors are         outcomes and workforce requirements. These might include:                                                 documents                                  commitments
    influencing our                                                                                                              National government agendas               Academic research
    workforce
                                                                                                                                 Professional associations                 Customer surveys
    capability?
                           Whole of government initiatives                          Global and national influences             Change agendas in other                    and feedback
                           Sociological changes                                     Economic changes                            agencies
                           Government changes                                       Technological changes
                           Changing community expectations


    Where do we want    It may be appropriate to do short-term planning, looking forward 1-3 years.                             Global, national and local information on:                        A clear picture of the nature
    to be?                                                                                                                                                                                        of the future business of the
                        It may be appropriate to do longer-term planning looking forward at least 3-5 years.                       Changes to technology              Government issues         agency/work unit, the
                                                                                                                                   Sociological issues                Regional matters          profile of the workforce
                        In either case, develop a picture of what the world will look like, what effect this will have on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  required to deliver future
                        services the agency offers and how the agency or work unit might need to re-align itself in order          Environmental issues               Employment matters
                                                                                                                                                                                                  services and the most
                        to respond to the new environment.                                                                         Skill/occupational                 Agency/regional           appropriate workforce
                                                                                                                                    requirements                           consultation           practices to deliver future
                        Scenario Planning is a very effective process to identify possible futures. Information on
                        scenario planning can be gained by reading the relevant texts recommended in Resource                                                                                     services.
                        Document 4 – List of References.

                        The questions that need to be asked are:

                           “What people, skills, and attributes will we need and how will we need to utilise them in the
                            future?”
                           How can we ensure best practice in service delivery?


    Where are we now?   The questions that need to be asked are:                                                                Detail on the current status of the agency/work unit, available   A clear picture of the
                                                                                                                                from the following sources:                                       current nature of the
                           What are the services we currently deliver?                                                                                                                           business of the
                           What is our core business?                                                                           MOHRI data                           Agency/regional           agency/work unit, a profile
                           What systems do we have in place to manage the service delivery and are they effective?              Statistical surveys                       consultation          of the current workforce
                                                                                                                                                                       Skills audit              and current workforce
                           What people, skills, attributes do we have and how do we utilise them?                               Staff satisfaction surveys
                                                                                                                                                                                                  practices.
                           What trends and patterns are evident in the data collected?                                          Trend data                           Client surveys




Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                                                                                                                                              4
    Process              Context                                                                                              Synergies                                                        Outcomes
    What are the gaps?   The information gathered by researching the future needs of the agency/work unit and by                                                                               A clear understanding of
                         identifying the current status of the agency/work unit should be analysed to map the “fit” between                                                                    the current capability of the
                         the needs of the future and the capability of the present. The questions that need to be asked                                                                        workforce to deliver current
                         are:                                                                                                                                                                  services and the workforce
                                                                                                                                                                                               capability and practices
                            What are the skills we will need that we don’t have now?                                                                                                          required to deliver future
                            What skills do we have now that we will no longer need?                                                                                                           services.
                            Are our people in the right places for the type and volume of work that will need to be done?
                            Will we have the right workforce mix; eg age, gender, etc that will give us an appropriately
                             diverse workforce
                            Do we need to alter our workforce practices in order to achieve the future we have
                             identified?
                            What other gaps can we identify?
    What strategies      This section of the process incorporates the final recommendations on what changes need to            Change management plan             Organisational learning    A Workforce Management
    should be use?       occur to the agency/work u nit’s current workforce and workforce practices to meet its business       Attraction and retention               plans                   Plan which is consistent
                         planning requirements. Recommended strategies might include a variety of initiatives targeted          strategies                         Flexible work practices    with the goals, objectives
                         for specific groups of employees or work requirements.                                                                                                                and outcomes of other
                                                                                                                               Rewards and recognition            Work and Family policy
                                                                                                                                                                                               plans such as the
                         Strategies should be set out as an action plan with nominated responsible officers and                Succession planning                    and practices
                                                                                                                                                                                               Corporate Plan.
                         timeframes.                                                                                           Mentoring                          Career planning and
                                                                                                                                                                       development
                         The question that should be asked is:

                          What strategies or actions could be put in place to address the identified gaps?
    How should we        The strategies should be evaluated against other government and organisational imperatives to        Current government commitments.                                  Renewed workplace
    implement the        test the validity of their implementation.                                                                                                                            culture. A Workforce
    strategies?                                                                                                               Core business of the agency/work unit                            Management Plan which is
                         The questions that need to be asked are:                                                                                                                              able to be implemented
                                                                                                                              Current agency documents:
                                                                                                                                                                                               because it is consistent
                            Is this possible?
                                                                                                                                                                                               with the objectives and
                            Does this strategy fit within budget requirements?                                                Corporate Plan/ Operational        Workforce Plan
                                                                                                                                                                                               outcomes of other plans
                                                                                                                                Plan                               Diversity Plan
                            Does this strategy sit comfortably with other organisational strategies and imperatives; such                                                                     and government and
                             as government commitments, diversity strategies, etc?                                             EEO Plan                                                       agency priorities.
                                                                                                                               Budget                                                         Beginning of a new, better-
                                                                                                                                                                                               informed workforce
                                                                                                                                                                                               planning cycle.

    How have we          Continual monitoring of the effect of the strategies on workforce capability and business             Strategic and Corporate Plan       Operational Plan
    changed?             outcomes is essential. The external environment will continue to change and strategies will           EEO Plan                           Diversity Plan
                         have to be evaluated for their continuing relevance to meet future needs. The workforce planing
    What more could                                                                                                            Training and Development           Attraction and retention
                         process should be evaluated before embarking on the next cycle of planning.
    we do?                                                                                                                      Plan Budget                          practices




Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                                                                                                                                            5
A strategic framework for workforce management

A FOCUS ON PEOPLE: A Workforce Management Strategy for the Queensland Public Service
(Office of the Public Service, Dec 1998)



                                  Workforce Capability



                                  Having the right people
                                  in the right place at the
                                          right time




    Workforce
                                        Workforce
    Leadership
                                       Performance

                                                                       Business Outcomes
                                        Creating a
Mobilizing people to               performance culture
deal effectively with             centred on continuous
 current and future               improvement and best
    challenges                           practice




                                      Organisational
                                         Climate


                                    Creating a positive
                                     work environment
                                     where people feel
                                   valued and respected




Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                 6
Australian Public Service Model :
Building business capability through workforce planning




Workforce Planning Toolkit                                7
Framework for workforce planning

Strategic People Planning: An overview of workforce planning Ministry of the Premier and Cabinet,
Western Australia (2000) page 11




  ANALYSING                  ORGANISATION DIRECTION       ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS             INTERNAL LABOUR               EXTERNAL LABOUR

                               •   Strategic planning       •   Social                       Demographic Data                 • Replacement
                               •   Budget forecasts         •   Technical                    • Occupation                       Staff
                               •   New equipment            •   Economic                     • Salary, etc                    • Contingent
                               •   Inflows and outflows     •   Public Sector                Trend Data                         Workforce
                               •   Working practices            employment                   • Staff Movement
                               •   Workforce culture                                         • Leave Usage
                               •   Reward system                                             • Salary Profile, etc


                                                                                  ASSUMPTIONS
  FORECASTING


                                                DEMAND                                                               SUPPLY


                                                                                SCENARIO BUILDING

  PLANNING                   HUMAN RESOURCES              STAFF DEVELOPMENT                  FINANCE/BUDGETS                   LOGISTICAL




                                                                                                                                                 EVALUATION
                              • Internal staff              • Training &                      • Budgets                       • Technology
                                movements                     development                     • Remuneration                    upgrades
                              • Recruitment &               • Promotion / transfer            • Workplace/Ent                 • Accommodation
                                selection                   • Succession                        Agreements                    • Fleet vehicles
                              • Working conditions            planning                        • Incentives &
                              • Leave mgt                   • Career planning                   allowances




  IMPLEMENTING

                                                     STRATEGIC, PROCESS & OPERATIONAL CHANGES


                                                                                                             FEEDBACK




Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                                                                          8
Workforce planning models


Department of Main Roads




                                   Set the planning cycle at business unit
                                         and business centre levels


                                                   
                                      Assess the business environment


                                                   
                         Determine human resource needs for the planning cycle


                                                   
                                      Define existing human resources


                                                   
        Determine the gap between human resource needs for the planning cycle against the
                               existing supply of human resources


                                                   
         Develop/assess strategies and develop an action plan to reduce/eliminate the gaps
                                            identified


                                                   
                                         Prepare the workforce plan


                                                   
                             Implement, monitor and evaluate the Workforce Plan




Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                   9
Department of Public Works
                                          Stage 1 - Workforce Profile
                     How many employees?
                     What sort of employees? (demographics)
                     How much does it cost to employ them? (direct and indirect costs)
                     What are the comparative exit costs? (natural attrition, expected
                      retirement, cost of VERs)
                     Who else is engaged by the Business Unit? (contractors and
                      consultants)


                                                     
                                           Stage 2 – Benchmarking
                     Within the Department
                     Across the Qld public service
                     Across industry
                     Compared to best-practice organisations


                                                     
                                        Stage 3 – Workforce Reporting
                     Identification of key workforce issues and trends
                     Identification of potential savings areas or areas for change


                                                     
                                         Stage 4 – Business Analysis
                               Correlation of key workforce information against
                             business variable (both current and future) including:
                     Systems technology
                     Political issues
                     Regional matters
                     Functional issues
                     Environmental issues
                     Industrial relations matters
                     Skill/occupational requirements


                                                     
                                           Stage 5 – Workforce Plan
         This incorporates the final recommendations on what changes need to occur to the
           Business Unit’s current workforce to meet its business planning requirements.




Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                  10
Department of Natural Resources and Water




                             Align workforce planning with business planning


                                                  
                                           Scenario Planning


                                                        
                             Supply Forecasting       Demand Forecasting


                                                        
                                Compare Supply and Demand Forecasts


                                                  
                                Identify key workforce challenges (Gaps)


                                                  
         Develop/assess strategies and priorities to build the workforce needed for the future


                                                  
                                       Prepare the workforce plan


                                                  
                   Ongoing monitoring, evaluation and adjustment to workforce plans




Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                       11
Office of Public Employment, South Australia

                  Workforce Information                                             Strategic Planning



               Supply analysis and forecast                                  Demand analysis and forecast


           Such as:                                                      Such as:
            Employee data – skills, occupations, abilities,                Political, social, economic conditions
               age, gender, culture, leave liabilities                      Agency goal/s, objectives
              Employment type, status history                              Workforce trends, issues
              Mobility, separation, recruitment                            Technological factors
              Education, training
              Strengths, weaknesses
              Personal development plan
              Duties and responsibilities




                                                             Gap analysis
                                                     Match supply and demand
                                                         Identify gaps and issues




                                                         Strategy formulation
                                                 Develop workforce management
                                               strategies to address identified gaps



                                             Such as:
                                              Training and development plan; Career
                                                management and succession plan
                                              Recruitment/Selection policy;
                                              Separation options; job design
                                              Performance Management




                                                  Monitoring and evaluation


                                             Such as:
                                              Regular assessment of workforce data
                                              Continual review of supply / demand
                                                analysis
                                              Regular review of agency outcomes,
                                                both qualitative and quantitative




Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                                            12
The synergies of planning
To ensure that policies and programs are not out of step with the overall strategic direction of the
organisation, workforce planning must be integrated with other planning processes, such as strategic
and corporate plans, business plans, budget plans, managing diversity plans and equal employment
opportunity plans.


The main questions that influence all workforce planning activity and can only be answered at a
strategic level include:


    1.   What is our organisation’s overall strategy/mission?
    2.   What are the key workforce segments critical to achieving the strategy/mission?
    3.   What behaviour/skill characteristics do we require in these workforce segments? And
    4.   What workforce practices and flexibilities are required to achieve the strategy/mission?



            Mission and values              Mission and values             Mission and values



                      Diversity                                             Workforce
                         Plan                                                   Plan




                                             Organisational
                                                Strategic
                                                   Plan




                       Financial                                            Business
                             Plan                                              Plan


                Mission and values          Mission and values             Mission and values




            Mission and values              Mission and values             Mission and values
Workforce Planning Toolkit                                                                             13

				
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Description: Workforce Operation Business Plans document sample