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Orange County Florida Divorce Records

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Orange County Florida Divorce  Records Powered By Docstoc
					User as Citizen
18 October 2006
Midterm
   Raw scores are on exams
   Midterm counts max of 20%
       If grades on final are significantly better, I’ll weigh it more heavily
            Formula to follow
   Grade equivalents
       70-75                A+
       67-69                A
       65-66                A-
       61-64                B+
       58-60                B
       55-57                B-
       52-54                C+
       50-51                C
       43-49                C-
       40-42                D
Administrivia
   Look for emails and web announcements
       Grade summary
       Readings
   At end of class today
       10 minutes to fill out status report
EU Rejects SPAM Trademark Bid
"The most evident meaning of the term SPAM for the
   consumers ... will certainly be unsolicited, usually
   commercial e-mail, rather than a designation for
   canned spicy ham."
  -- The European Office of Trade Marks and Designs
   deals Hormel another blow in a losing battle
  (Bonus quote from the company: "Ultimately, we are
   trying to avoid the day when the consuming public
   asks, 'Why would Hormel Foods name its product
   after junk e-mail?' ")
What is e-government?
   Online access to government services
       Information
       Transactions
   Opportunity to increase citizen participation
   How government works
   Question: Does e-government disenfranchise
    people?
Open Government
   What does open government mean?
   What are sunshine laws?
   Why should we care?
Freedom of Information Act
   The Basics
   Never strongly supported
       LBJ signing statement
   Current state
       Openthegovernment.org report
       A propaganda piece
Resources
   Lots of good site
     E-Democracy Web tour: Key resources for
        community participatory decision-making & e-
        democracy
       E-democracy.org: Building online public
        space …(check the Meetup link)
       www.factcheck.org: (non partisan, non profit)
After opening up government, then
what?
   Transactions
   Gathering opinions
Information sought
   What would you like?

   What people get
       Recreation (50%)
       Road closings (25%)
       Health information (25%)
       Voting records (25%)

   Self reported
       Believable?
       Could we do better?
       Why should we care?
Information vs. Transactions
   Requirements differences
       Information needs to be correct
       Processing, not just displaying
   Transactions
       Need to complete processing properly
           Exactly once processing
       Require checking correctness of information entered
       Require security
       Require that user provide information
   In between: availability of forms
Transactions Wanted
   Address Change ONCE
   Respond to jury summons
   Renew driver’s license
   Copies of life event certificates (birth, death, marriage,
    divorce)
   Confirm program eligibility and apply
       Student financial aid, unemployment, Medicare, Medicaid, …
   Passport or visa; marriage license
   Employment opportunities and application
   File taxes
   What’s not on this list?
                                        VOTING!
How To Execute a Transaction
   Save the state so you can return to it
   Update each part conditionally
       E.g., debit and credit
   If all parts succeed, commit
       Otherwise roll back
ATM Example
1.   Verify your account
2.   Subtract amount from your account
3.   Give you cash
4.   Give you receipt

    What happens when machine stops and
     possibly restarts?
        Analyze each possible case
Transaction vs. Printing Forms
   Fundamental principle: A system is only as good as its
    weakest link
   Printing forms
       Posting form
       Printing form
       Filling in form
       Delivering form
       Entering information
       Processing information
   What is the weakest link?
   Examples: electronic transfers
The Federal Government

   Supreme Ct. “Opinion” site (since 2000)



   Public comments online: (since Jan ‘03)
    www.regulations.gov


   Help America Vote Act of 2002
Public documents and searchable databases

       The   Thomas Server

       First Gov (U.S. Government official
        portal)

       Official State   of NC Web Portal

       County: www.co.orange.nc.us

       Chapel Hill
What is included in e-voting
   Range of Systems
       Optically scanned paper
       Touch screen systems
       Internet voting
   All Processes (what is the weakest link?)
       Registration
       Ballot design
       Voting
       Counting of votes
       Recounts
Major concerns raised
   Correctness
   Certification process
   Digital divide
   System set up
   Auditing (recounts)
   Accessibility
   Internet vulnerability
Correctness
   Should code be open source?
       Belief that more eyes are valuable
       Easier to hack
   Corruption
       Vulnerability – improved by open source
           Checking for errors that hackers can exploit
       Malicious changes – primarily a concern of which
        version is running
Certification process
   More than 40 states require certification
   But what does it mean?
       Need to guarantee certification of last minute
        fixes or changes – not always possible
   Both California and Indiana found themselves
    using uncertified code
Digital Divide
   More generally an e-government concern
   Intimidation
       Could become a new literacy test
   California recall
       Less than 1% missed (under voted) for yes/no
       But nearly 10% under voted in the candidate selection
System Set Up
   Lack of local technical skills
   Large number of local polling stations
   Short set up time
Auditability vs. Privacy
   Storing the full record means that someone
    could get at the information
   Acceptable in England
       Secret Ballot Act of 1872
       Requires that each ballot be tied to the voter
       Records held as a state secret
Auditing (recounts)
   Voter Verified Audit Trail
       Print a copy
       Voter verifies
       Puts it into a ballot box
   Used for
       Routine audits (random)
       Recounts
   Problems
       Cost: Australia opted out
       Training
Why do an audit?
   If you can only identify a problem, what is the
    remedy?
   If audit can also produce the corrected results,
    more valuable
Broward County, Florida
   special election to fill a state House seat
   victor won by only 12 votes
   137 of the electronic ballots were blank
   Florida law requires a manual recount
       but no paper ballots
       recount isn't possible
Are there other options?
   Code can be verified against manipulating
       Example: encryption within the system
   But, needs to get into the system
       User interface is the vulnerable spot
   Assuming no program errors, can we be sure that
    people will read a screen version correctly if they
    made a voting mistake?
   Depends …
       Primarily on the quality of the ballot design
Partial Solutions
   Turnout: separate track of how many people
    voted
   Number of votes cast should match
       Need to count abstentions
       Need to track people who quit in the middle
   Does not help to determine if the vote went to
    the right person
Accessibility
   Florida ban on plastic templates with holes for use
    by the visually impaired because NOT CERTIFIED
   How do you address this problem without
    compromising privacy?
   How is it done today?
   Generally, advocates for the visually impaired prefer
    electronic voting
       Techniques to support them, primarily audio
   What about the paper audit trail?
New Mexico last year
   Only two voting machines certified by the
    federal government for disabled and non-
    English speaking
   Neither measures up to state law that requires
    voter-verified paper record
       Upgrade would require $1000/machine
What is included in e-voting
   Range of Systems
       Optically scanned paper
       Touch screen systems
       Internet voting
   All Processes (what is the weakest link?)
       Registration
       Ballot design
       Voting
       Counting of votes
       Recounts
Major concerns raised
   Correctness
   Certification process
   Digital divide
   System set up
   Auditing (recounts)
   Accessibility
   Internet vulnerability
Correctness
   Should code be open source?
       Belief that more eyes are valuable
       Easier to hack
   Corruption
       Vulnerability – improved by open source
           Checking for errors that hackers can exploit
       Malicious changes – primarily a concern of which
        version is running
Certification process
   More than 40 states require certification
   But what does it mean?
       Need to guarantee certification of last minute
        fixes or changes – not always possible
   Both California and Indiana found themselves
    using uncertified code
Digital Divide
   More generally an e-government concern
   Intimidation
       Could become a new literacy test
   California recall
       Less than 1% missed (under voted) for yes/no
       But nearly 10% under voted in the candidate selection
System Set Up
   Lack of local technical skills
   Large number of local polling stations
   Short set up time
Auditability vs. Privacy
   Storing the full record means that someone
    could get at the information
   Acceptable in England
       Secret Ballot Act of 1872
       Requires that each ballot be tied to the voter
       Records held as a state secret
Auditing (recounts)
   Voter Verified Audit Trail
       Print a copy
       Voter verifies
       Puts it into a ballot box
   Used for
       Routine audits (random)
       Recounts
   Problems
       Cost: Australia opted out
       Training
Why do an audit?
   If you can only identify a problem, what is the
    remedy?
   If audit can also produce the corrected results,
    more valuable
Broward County, Florida
   special election to fill a state House seat
   victor won by only 12 votes
   137 of the electronic ballots were blank
   Florida law requires a manual recount
       but no paper ballots
       recount isn't possible
Are there other options?
   Code can be verified against manipulating
       Example: encryption within the system
   But, needs to get into the system
       User interface is the vulnerable spot
   Assuming no program errors, can we be sure that
    people will read a screen version correctly if they
    made a voting mistake?
   Depends …
       Primarily on the quality of the ballot design
Partial Solutions
   Turnout: separate track of how many people
    voted
   Number of votes cast should match
       Need to count abstentions
       Need to track people who quit in the middle
   Does not help to determine if the vote went to
    the right person
Accessibility
   Florida ban on plastic templates with holes for use
    by the visually impaired because NOT CERTIFIED
   How do you address this problem without
    compromising privacy?
   How is it done today?
   Generally, advocates for the visually impaired prefer
    electronic voting
       Techniques to support them, primarily audio
   What about the paper audit trail?
New Mexico this past weekend
   Only two voting machines certified by the
    federal government for disabled and non-
    English speaking
   Neither measures up to state law that requires
    voter-verified paper record
       Upgrade would require $1000/machine

				
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