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					Juvenile Delinquency



 By: Alex Del Bosque, Andrea
Saiz, Judy Smith, Kasey Stokes,
        & Michael Wiger
 Defining Juvenile Delinquency
• Refers to
  antisocial or
  criminal acts
  performed by
  juveniles

• Persons who
  are under the
  age of 18 1

                                 1
 Status
 Crimes
• Underage
  Drinking

• Violating
  Curfew

• Truancy 1,5
                       Juvenile:Percent of Arrests

Property Crime
    Index

 Violent Crime
     Index


    All Arrests


                  0%   5%   10%   15%   20%   25%    30%   35%
                                  Percent
   Gender/
    Race
• Boys—75%
• Girls—25 %

• African American
  youths are 5 Xs
  more likely to
  commit murder
  than Caucasian
  youths 1
         Juvenile Delinquecy 2005
                        1
50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
      Anglo     Black       Hispanic   Other
                        Race                   1
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
• Environmental

• Interpersonal

• Personal


 www.tyc.state.tx.us/research/profile.htm
 l
      Causes
•    Environmental
    Factors

1. Poverty
2. School
3. Media
   Violence
                   Factors
• Poverty – Adolescents from lower SES families
  commonly commit more crimes than those from
  a higher SES family.
  *However, SES has been found to be less of a
  factor.*

• School – Schools known as disorganized
  schools – rules are only sporadically enforced.

• Media Violence – Television, Video Games,
  Movies, Music.
Causes cont..
•   Interpersonal
    Influences

1. Parents

2. Peers
         Interpersonal Influences
Family: Disrupted homes and strained family
  relationships can be linked with delinquent adolescents.

       Fatherless adolescents is a major factor in the contribution the
       child’s delinquency.


  Other connections to delinquency include a lack of
  cohesion among the family and troubled relationships.

       Abuse and neglect in fully intact families lead to a cycle of
        delinquency.
 Interpersonal Influences cont.
• Peers: When adolescents become delinquent
 it is because they are socialized into it, mainly by
 their peers.

 An adolescents close relationship with a
 peer, who is already delinquent, usually
 occurs after negative family interactions
 and continued rejection by mainstream
 peers takes place.
    Causes cont..
•    Personal
     Influences

1. Personality
2. Self-Esteem
3. Psychological
   Disorder
4. Biological
   Factors
5. Substance
   Abuse
                Important Factors:
• Personality - Social assertiveness, defiance, ambivalent to
  authority, and have a lack of self control are all traits associated with
  the personality.
    Measured personality traits of distress (anxiety, depression,       low
     sense of well-being, and low self-esteem) and restraint (impulse
     control, suppression of aggression, responsibility, and consideration)
     (Weinberger,1997). They found that 88.9% of adolescents with low
     levels of restraint and high levels of distress were rearrested during the
     follow-up. The delinquent with high restraint and high levels of distress
     committed fewer but more serious crimes. 1.

• Self-esteem – Delinquents consistently show signs of low self-
  esteem while others can sustain high self-esteem through denial,
  these become proficient at denial.

• Psychological Disorders – ODD, Conduct disorder, ADHD 2.
                 Factors cont.
• Organic and Biological influences
   Genetics is thought to play a key role.
     Temperament can be genetically predisposed.
     Levels of Testosterone of Serotonin.


• Substance Abuse
   It has been shown that drinking is strongly
    associated with delinquency.
   Concurrently there is a strong relationship with drug
    usage and criminal activity.
Juvenile Justice
    System
• Police

1. First contact

2. Take action
-ignore offense
-warn juvenile
-report problem
   to parents
         Police Actions cont..
3. Report the problem to parents

4.Refer cases to schools, welfare agencies,
  clinics, counseling centers or family society

5. Take the juvenile into custody for
  questioning

6. Arrest juveniles and turn the matter over to
  juvenile courts
     Critique of Police Actions
• One of the biggest problems with the
  juvenile justice system is in the beginning
  the cases are left entirely to the police
  discretion
                 Profiling
1. Residential Districts

2. Ethnicity
• One reason why adolescents may
   become bitter toward police officers
  Early Reforms in Juvenile Court
              Cases
• 1900’s
-legal system treated juveniles as adults

• Reformers—worked to change this policy
  -Argued that juveniles should be
  rehabilitated rather than punished
  -Strove to enact parens patriae
a. The philosophy that juvenile court is to act
  in the best interest of the child
Highlight: The Case That Changed
           Juvenile Court
• Gerald Gault (15 year old boy)
--arrested for allegedly making obscene
  calls to a neighbor
--was sentenced to live in a detention center
  until the age of 21
--at the time the maximum sentence for an
  adult was a two month jail stay and a
  $50.00 fine
            Highlight cont.
--the Supreme Court was presented with the
   case in 1967, and the verdict was found in
   Gerald’s favor (5 to 4 ruling)

• Today, the juvenile and adult systems are
  separate; and minors are now guaranteed
  judicial rights
  Juvenile
   Court
  System
•Judge
Qualifications

--understands
the law and child
psychology and
social problems
behind it
       Court Systems cont…
• Probation Staff Under State Supervision
--have a limited case load

• Record System
--is maintained and safeguarded against
   indiscriminate public inspection
  Correctional
   Systems
Juvenile Offenders
--probation
--suspended
  sentences
--ordered to get
  medical or
  psychological aide
    Correctional Systems cont.
Probation System
• Backbone of the correctional system
--stage where juveniles are placed under the care
   of probation officers
Detention Centers
--approx. 1/3 of adolescents in detention centers
   are not juvenile delinquents
--they are either abused or neglected and have
   fallen under the care of the court system
           Token Economy
• The 24 hour positive learning environment
--A reward system
  Students earn points for good behavior
  which can be converted into money

--the worst rehab for juveniles is sending
   them to adult prisons
      Preventing Juvenile Delinquency
• Research Results

--children are at risk of
   becoming
   delinquent even
   before age 6

--early prevention can
   reduce the rate of
   delinquency
http://www.gcc.state.nc.us/pubs/annrpt/part1.htm
http://www.gcc.state.nc.us/pubs/annrpt/part1.htm
                                  Prevention cont.
•         Family

1. Structure

2. Role Models

3. Parent
   Responsibility

www.notmykid.org/parentarticles/delinquency
   Religion—What the Research
             Says!
Mixed Results:

--Overall, religion does seem to help, when
  combined with other factors such as family
  environment
                            Prevention Programs
• INSIDERS—Involving Neighborhood
  Schools in the Delivery of Existing
  Resources to Students


• PIE--Positive Involvement Enterprise
  Program

• Specialized Programs—Boys and Girls
  Club
http://www.gcc.state.nc.us/pubs/annrpt/part1.htm
http://www.gcc.state.nc.us/pubs/annrpt/part1.htm
www.bgca.org
Effects of Juvenile Delinquency
Family
• Disruption of family
  routine

• Possible Divorce for
  Parents 1,12
               Family cont.
Siblings

• Resentment
  --other siblings can start acting out in order
  to get attention
  --or other siblings go virtually unnoticed by
  parents
Families cont.
• Recent studies
  show sibling
  influences are
  independent of other
  factors.

--role model status
--focused more on
   brothers due to
   aggression levels
    Family cont.
•   Financially

--lawyers

--court fees

--psychological counseling
    costs

    Usually free or low cost

    Cost of incarceration per
    child—$35,000 to $64,000
    per year

    http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug03/youth.html
  Effects on the
  Adolescents
   Themselves
• Feeling of
   Belonging
--gang activity
--may give them a
   way to act out their
   aggressions
--sense of control
• Drug use as a
   means of escape12
                                   Effects on Society
• Tax Hikes
--vandalism (can cause rise in property taxes)
--court costs and fees
--prevention programs
   in some cases have been found to be more cost
   effective
   early intention programs can prevent as many
   as 250 crimes per $1 million spent while the
   same amount spent in prisons would prevent
   only 60 such crimes a year.
http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2000/2/00.02.01.x.html
                                   Resources
1 The   Adolescent Development, Relationships, and Culture. F. Phillip Rice, Kim Gale Dolgin
2 Benda, Brent & Corwyn, Robert F. (1997). Religion and Delinquency: The Relationship After
        Considering Family and Peer Influences. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 81.
3 Cohn, Alvin W., 2004, Juvenile Focus, Federal Probation, 68, 64-67. (Journal Article)
4 Feld, Barry C.; 5 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology; September 22, 1997;
5 http://en.wikipedia.org (encyclopedia)
6 Jenson, Jeffrey M. Howard, Matthew O.; July 1, 1998;
7 Parker, Jennifer S. Morton, Todd L. Lingefelt, Megan E. Johnson, Katie S. (2005). Predictors of

        Serious and Violent Offending by Adjudicated Male Adolescents. North American
Journal of Psychology; 2005, Vol. 7 Issue 3, p407-417, 11p, 2 charts
8 Pearce, Lisa D. & Haynie, Dana L. (2004) Intergenerational Religious Dynamics and Adolescent

        Delinquency. Social Forces, 24, 1553-1572.
9 Regnerus, Mark 2003. Linked Lives, Faith, and Behavior. Journal for the Scientific Study of

        Religion, 42, p.189-203.
10 Regoli, Robert M., and John D. Hewitt. Delinquency in Society (3rd edition). The McGraw Hills

        Companies Inc., 1991.
11 Sloane, Douglas M. & Potvin, Raymond H. 1986. Religion and Delinquency: Cutting Through

        the Maze. Social Forces, 65, p.212-213.
12 Slomkowski, Cheryl, Richard Rende, Katherine J. Conger, Ronald L. Simons, Rand D. Conger.

        Child Development. January/February 2001, Volume 72, Number 1, Pages 271-283

				
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