Better Business Bureau of Kansas City Missouri - PowerPoint

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					The Brookings Institution
Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy

          December 2002
                          Purpose
• Synthesize new data and existing research to provide a
  comprehensive view of the state’s growth and
  development trends
      2 large metros (Kansas City & St. Louis)
      4 smaller metros (Springfield, Columbia, Joplin, St. Joseph)
      Rural areas


• Recommend ways in which Missouri can grow in
  efficient and fiscally responsible ways
                  Major Findings

• Missouri grew in the 1990s, but growth has slowed in the
  last year.

• While communities grew, they also spread out
  geographically.

• Decentralized development is undercutting some of the
  benefits of economic growth.

• A softening economy and fiscal pressures require
  Missouri to make wise decisions as it grows.
I. Missouri grew in the 1990s, but growth has
slowed in the last year.
                                                                                               Missouri is Growing

The state grew from 5.1 million residents in 1990 to 5.6 million in 2000.
                                       1980-2000 Population By State
    14,000,000


    12,000,000


    10,000,000


     8,000,000
                                                                                                                  1980
                                                                                                                  1990
                                                                                                                  2000
     6,000,000


     4,000,000


     2,000,000


            0
                            Arkansas
                 Nebraska




                                          Kansas




                                                          Oklahoma




                                                                                           Tennessee
                                                                     Kentucky



                                                                                Missouri
                                                   Iowa




                                                                                                       Illinois
                                                        Missouri is Growing

       Population and job growth was well distributed around the state.
       Many rural areas bounced back in the 1990s.

           Percentage Change in Population   Percentage Change in Population
                      1980-1990                         1990-2000




Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                  Missouri is Growing
  The rural areas' share of the state's population growth doubled
  between the 1980s and 1990s while the two major metro areas’ share
  dropped dramatically.

                                  1980-1990                      1990-2000




                         Rural Areas
                           18.9%
                                                                               Kansas City
                                                        Rural Areas            & St. Louis
                                                          36.4%                  40.2%
                                        Kansas City &
                   4 Small                St. Louis
                 Metropolitan              57.5%
                    Areas
                    23.6%
                                                                  4 Small
                                                                Metropolitan
                                                                   Areas
                                                                   23.3%




Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                                            Missouri is Growing

  Missouri's small metro areas and rural areas outpaced the rest of the
  state in population growth during the 1990s.
                                                 20%

                                                                                                            18.3%
                                                 18%



                                                 16%
                  Percent Change in Population




                                                 14%



                                                 12%
                                                                                                                                     10.7%
                                                              9.3%                                   9.2%                                    1980-1990
                                                 10%
                                                                                                                                             1990-2000


                                                 8%
                                                                                   6.7%

                                                 6%

                                                       4.5%                4.6%

                                                 4%
                                                                                                                              2.6%

                                                 2%



                                                 0%
                                                        Missouri     Kansas City & St. Louis   4 Small Metropolitan Areas     Rural Areas
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                      Missouri is Growing

  A majority of the state's population lived in Missouri's two largest
  metropolitan areas in 2000.




                             Rural Areas
                               32.2%




                                                            Kansas City &
                                                            St. Louis Metro
                                                                Areas
                                                                54.9%




             4 Small Metropolitan Areas
                      12.9%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
II. Missouri is decentralizing.
                                                                                 Missouri is Decentralizing

Missouri developed more land in the five years 1992-1997 than in the
ten years prior.
                   250,000

                                                                                    219,600


                   200,000




                   150,000
           Acres




                                                                       111,400
                                                 104,400
                   100,000




                    50,000




                           0
                                                 1982-87               1987-92      1992-97
 Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Inventory
                                                                       Missouri is Decentralizing

The most intense development activity swept across the middle of the
state between Kansas City and St. Louis and through the Ozarks.




 Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Inventory
Missouri’s rural areas are decentralizing
                                                   Missouri is Decentralizing

  In the 1990s, 76 out of 93 rural counties grew. In the 1980s, only 42
  did.




Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                Missouri is Decentralizing

Unincorporated rural Missouri added almost three times as many new
residents as did rural towns.
                            140,000

                                                                 123,663
                            120,000
        Population Growth




                            100,000



                            80,000



                            60,000
                                          50,545

                            40,000



                            20,000



                                -
                                      Incorporated Areas   Unincorporated Areas
Data Source: OSEDA
Missouri’s 4 small metropolitan areas are decentralizing
                                                                                             Missouri is Decentralizing

    Overall, Missouri's smaller metro areas led the state in population
    growth in the 1990s.
                                       25%
                                                                                                          23.2%



                                                                                              20.5%
                                       20%
        Percent Change in Population




                                                                                    16.6%


                                       15%

                                                                         12.2%



                                       10%




                                                            4.9%
                                       5%      4.5%




                                       0%
                                             St. Louis   St. Joseph   Kansas City   Joplin   Columbia   Springfield
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                         Missouri is Decentralizing

    All of the small cities grew, but their metro areas grew faster.
    Columbia was an exception.

                                     25%
                                                                                             23.2%
                                                                                 22.3%

                                                                         20.5%
                                     20%
      Percent Change in Population




                                                         16.6%

                                     15%

                                                                                                            Metro
                                                                                                            Central City
                                                                 11.1%
                                     10%

                                                                                                     7.9%


                                           4.9%
                                     5%

                                                  3.0%



                                     0%
                                           St. Joseph      Joplin         Columbia            Springfield
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                 Missouri is Decentralizing

 Most population growth in the 4 smaller metro areas took place more
 than 3 miles away from the city center.
                           50,000


                           45,000


                           40,000


                           35,000
       Population Change




                           30,000


                           25,000                                                            Central Business District
                                                                                            Within 3 Miles
                                                                                            Between 3-6 miles
                           20,000                                                           Outside 6 miles



                           15,000


                           10,000


                            5,000


                                0
                                           Columbia     St. Joseph   Joplin   Springfield
                           -5,000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau data provided by GeoLytics
                                                                                            Missouri is Decentralizing

    The Joplin and Springfield areas demonstrate how residential growth
      is occurring mostly beyond the 3-- and 6--mile rings of the CBD

                                      Joplin                                            Springfield




                                                                      6 Mile Ring
                                                        3 Mile Ring    From CBD
                                                         From CBD                   3 Mile Ring
                                         6 Mile Ring                                 From CBD
                                          From CBD

Source: U.S. Census Bureau data provided by GeoLytics
                                                        Missouri is Decentralizing

  Housing in the Springfield area has dispersed far beyond the city
  limits over the years.
                             Housing Units Built Before 1939




     • 20 Housing Units
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                            Missouri is Decentralizing

  Housing in the Springfield area has dispersed far beyond the city
  limits over the years.
                             Housing Units Built Between 1940-1959




     • 20 Housing Units
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                            Missouri is Decentralizing

  Housing in the Springfield area has dispersed far beyond the city
  limits over the years.
                             Housing Units Built Between 1960-1979




     • 20 Housing Units
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                            Missouri is Decentralizing

  Housing in the Springfield area has dispersed far beyond the city
  limits over the years.
                             Housing Units Built Between 1980-2000




     • 20 Housing Units
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Kansas City metropolitan area is decentralizing
                                               Missouri is Decentralizing

Kansas City, Missouri grew during the 1990s, but the overwhelming
growth took place in the suburbs.




Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                   Missouri is Decentralizing

Private sector employment also decentralized during the 1990s.


          Private Sector Employment Change, 1994-1999




Source:U.S. Census Bureau Zip Code Business Patterns 1994, 1999.
                                                                                                                                 Missouri is Decentralizing

An unusually large share of the Kansas City region's jobs are located
more than 10 miles away from the city center.

                   50%
                                                                                                                         45.1%
                   45%


                   40%

                                     35.0%                                     34.8%
                   35%                                                                                                                      32.9%
 Percent of Jobs




                   30%


                   25%
                         22.0%                                                                                                                      Within 3 Miles
                                                                   20.1%                                                                            Beyond 10 Miles
                   20%                                                                                                              18.3%


                   15%
                                                                                                             12.3%

                   10%


                   5%


                   0%
                                U.S.                                     West                                Kansas City              Denver
Source: Ed Glaeser, “Job Sprawl: Employment Location in U.S. Metropolitan Areas” Washington, D.C. Brookings Institution, 2001
                                                                                                                                     Missouri is Decentralizing

The Kansas City metropolitan area urbanized land at twice the rate of
population growth over the last two decades--significantly more
inefficiently than its peers.

                                                                                  17.5%
    Kansas City, MO-KS MSA
                                                                                                            36.8%

                                                             Rate of land consumption = 2.1x rate of population growth




                                                                                                                                                             80.3%
                     Austin, TX MSA
                                                                                                                                   55.4%
                                                             Rate of land consumption = 0.7x rate of population growth




                                                                                                    29.9%
         Salt Lake City-Ogden,
                UT MSA                                                                                                       50.4%
                                                            Rate of land consumption = 1.7x rate of population growth




                                                                                                    30.1%
 Denver-Boulder, CO CMSA
                                                                                                                    42.9%
                                                             Rate of land consumption = 1.4x rate of population growth


                                                 0%              10%              20%             30%       40%           50%        60%        70%        80%       90%

                                                                 % Change in Urbanized Land, 1982-97                     % Change in Population, 1982-97
Source: William Fulton et al., “Who Sprawls Most?” Washington, D.C. Brookings Institution, 2001
St. Louis metropolitan area is also decentralizing
                                                  Missouri is Decentralizing

  The core of the St. Louis area is losing population while growth is
  shifting outwards.




Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                               Missouri is Decentralizing

Numerous older suburbs in the region lost population in the 1990s.
                                                                   Missouri is Decentralizing

Private sector employment also followed this pattern.


          Private Sector Employment Change, 1994-1999




Source:U.S. Census Bureau Zip Code Business Patterns 1994, 1999.
                                                                                                                                  Missouri is Decentralizing

  An extraordinary portion of jobs in the St. Louis region are located
  more than 10 miles from the city center.

                  70%


                                                                                                                          58.0%
                  60%


                  50%
Percent of Jobs




                  40%                                                                                                                        36.6%
                                       35.0%
                                                                                 33.9%
                                                                                                                                                     Within 3 Miles
                  30%                                                                                                                                Beyond 10 Miles

                           22.0%                                     21.1%
                  20%
                                                                                                                                     12.6%

                  10%                                                                                          8.1%




                  0%
                              National                                 Midwest                                   St. Louis          Minneapolis
 Source: Ed Glaeser, “Job Sprawl: Employment Location in U.S. Metropolitan Areas” Washington, D.C. Brookings Institution, 2001
                                                                                                                                  Missouri is Decentralizing

The St. Louis metropolitan area urbanized land at four times the rate of
population growth over the last two decades--significantly more
inefficiently than its peers.

                                                                6.0%
         St. Louis, MO-IL MSA
                                                                                                          25.1%
                                                                Rate of land consumption = 4.2x rate of population growth




                                                                              12.7%
             Baltimore, MD MSA
                                                                                                                   32.3%
                                                                Rate of land consumption = 2.5x rate of population growth




                                                                                                          25.1%
         Minneapolis-St. Paul,
             MN-WI MSA                                                                                                                                         61.1%
                                                                Rate of land consumption = 2.4x rate of population growth




                                                                                                  20.5%
           Columbus, OH MSA
                                                                                                                        36.0%
                                                                Rate of land consumption = 1.8x rate of population growth


                                                0%                  10%                   20%                30%            40%         50%              60%           70%

                                                               % Change in Urbanized Land, 1982-97                     % Change in Population, 1982-97
Source: William Fulton et al., “Who Sprawls Most?” Washington, D.C. Brookings Institution, 2001
III. Decentralized development is undercutting
some of the benefits of economic growth.
  Decentralization is Costly

  Increases Costs on
Communities & Taxpayers
                                            Decentralization is Costly

Low density development imposes greater costs on state and
localities.

Low density development increases demand for:
    • New schools
    • New roads
    • New public facilities
    • Sewer and water extensions



Low density development increases the costs of key
services:
    • Police
    • Fire
    • Emergency medical
                                                                                                                               Decentralization is Costly

      Dispersed development costs localities and taxpayers more.

                                      Dollar Costs of New Services* Per 1000 New
                                              Residents for a Family of 4

  Central City Counties                                                     Development Pattern                                                Cost
    Fayette                                                                 (more concentrated)                                                $-0.62
    Jefferson County                                                        (more spread out)                                                  $37.55
  Suburban Counties
    Shelby                                                                    (more concentrated)                                              $88.27
    Pendleton                                                                  (more spread out)                                               $1222.39

  Counties With Small Towns
   Warren                (more concentrated)                                                                                                   $53.89
   Pulaski               (more spread out)                                                                                                     $239.93
  Outer Ring and Rural
   Garrard                                                                (more concentrated)                                                 $454.51
   McCracken                                                               (more spread out)                                                  $618.90
   *Services includes Police, Fire, Highway, Schools, Sewer, and Solid Waste
Source: Mark Berger, “Smart Growth and The Cost of Sprawl in Kentucky: Intra-County Analysis.” University of Kentucky, 2001.
                                                                  Decentralization is Costly


   Since 1990, many school districts have built new facilities at a high
   cost to the community.

         School District           County          New Buildings        Cost of New/
                                                   since 1990           Expanded Facilities
        Francis Howell R-III       St. Charles         12                  $126,100,000
        Blue Springs R-IV          Jackson             10                  $81,300,000
        Ft. Zumwalt R-II           St. Charles         9                   N.A.
        Lee’s Summit R-VII         Jackson             8                   $149,640,000
        Columbia 93                Boone               7                   $55,620,410
        Springfield                Greene              7                   $24,800,000




                                Francis Howell School District
                                1985 Enrollment=4,000
                                2001 Enrollment=18,513
                                Cost of Buildings= $126 million



Source: Local School Districs
                                                     Decentralization is Costly

Despite past spending, local demand for more classrooms and
schools continues.

  A 2000 survey of school districts in Missouri found:
  • New construction needs for classrooms and facilities totaled
    almost $2 billion.
  • 59,016 students attend class in 1,472 portable classrooms.
               Change in Enrollment by School District, 1996-2001
       Kansas City                                     St. Louis
                                                 Decentralization is Costly

  There are significant costs associated with water and sewer
  improvements




Source: Springfield News Leader
Decentralization is Costly

Erodes Missouri’s
  Rural Heritage
                                        Decentralization is Costly

Missouri’s current pattern of growth is eroding the
state’s rural heritage.

 • Farmland is being lost.

 • Hunting and fishing spots are disappearing.

 • The ambiance of old battlefields is waning.

 • Country roads are getting crowded.
                                                   Decentralization is Costly

The percent of land in each county dedicated to farming has
generally declined throughout Missouri over the last 50 years.

          Percent of Total County Acreage as Farmland, 1950-1997
                                  1950




                                  1997
                                                  Decentralization is Costly

12 of Missouri’s 29 battlefields are considered threatened or highly
threatened.

 The Civil War Preservation Trust has cited local growth patterns
 as the factor in naming the Newtonia Civil War Battlefield as one
 of the Civil War’s 25 most endangered battlefields.




                       Newtonia Battlefield
   Decentralization is Costly

Threatens the Environment
     & Natural Areas
                                          Decentralization is Costly

Missouri’s current pattern of growth is threatening the
environment and natural areas.

  • Vast tracts of forest, stream, and grassland have
    been developed.

  • The state is fouling its waters.

  • Air pollution - particularly in St. Louis - continues to
    place many Missourians at risk.
                                               Decentralization is Costly
Water quality in the Ozarks is being eroded by leaking septic
systems, fertilizer run-off, and silt.
                                                                                               Decentralization is Costly

   Missouri’s fastest growth is often occurring in counties with the most
   natural amenities.


      Percentage Change in Population                                                   Missouri’s Natural Amenities
                 1990-2000                                                                          1999
                                                                     -13.77 - - 7.5%
                                                                     -7.5 - 0
                                                                     0 - 7.5%
                                                                     7.5 - 15%
                                                                     15 - 66.29%




Source: Missouri Association of Counties, Missouri Department of Economic Development   Source: Missouri Department of Economic Development
 Decentralization is Costly
Diminishes Economic
 Competitiveness &
   Quality of Life
                                         Decentralization is Costly

Missouri’s current pattern of growth is hurting Missouri’s
competitiveness by eroding its quality of life

  Decentralization:

  • Is weakening the downtown cores that attract and
    retain young workers and employers.

  • Is reducing choice for different types of
    communities

  • Threatens the state’s best natural amenities and the
    $1.5 billion-a-year Ozarks tourism industry.
                                                Decentralization is Costly

With their weak downtowns, Missouri's cities lag on key
indicators of competitiveness such as creativity, talent, and jobs

                                             1990s           2000
                         Creativity     Downtown      Pop. Share
                             Rank     Pop. Change       with B.A.
  San Francisco                   1           22%          45.0%
  Boston                          3           30%          35.6%
  San Deigo                       3           20%          35.0%
  Seattle                         5           44%          47.2%
  Raleigh-Durham                  6           27%          43.6%
  Minneapolis-St. Paul          11            20%          35.2%
  Atlanta                       14           111%          34.6%
  Denver                        14            51%          34.5%

  Kansas City                   35         -13.1%           22.4%
  St. Louis                     45           4.2%           19.1%
  Decentralization is Costly

Strains the Transportation
   System & Increases
       Travel Costs
                                         Decentralization is Costly

Missouri’s current pattern of growth is straining the
state’s transportation system and increasing travel costs.

  Decentralization:

  • Widens the area that needs to be served by roads -
    and increases road building costs.

  • Generates more driving miles adding to congestion.

  • Adds to household costs.

  • Deepens the state’s road-maintenance crisis.
                                                                                                        Decentralization is Costly
     Missouri residents are driving more today than they did 10 years
     ago. Annual vehicle miles traveled grew by 34.1%, registered
     vehicles by 17.2% while population grew by 9.3%.
                              Annual Vehicle Miles Traveled & Registered Vehicles, 1990-2000
                 80,000                                                                                               4,800,000



                 70,000
                                                                                                                      4,600,000


                 60,000
                                                                                                                      4,400,000


                 50,000
                                                                                                                      4,200,000

                 40,000

                                                                                                                      4,000,000
                 30,000


                                                                                                                      3,800,000
                 20,000


                                                                                                                      3,600,000
                 10,000
                                                                                            VMT
                In Billions
                                                                                            Registered Vehicles
                            0                                                                                         3,400,000
                                    1990        1991   1992   1993   1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000
Source: Missouri Department of Transportation
                                                                                       Decentralization is Costly

   Transportation is the largest household expenditure for residents in
   the St. Louis and Kansas City regions. Transportation costs grew
   during the 1990s from 17% of household expenditures to 20%.

                             St. Louis                                                  Kansas City
              Apparel & Services                                      Apparel & Services
                                                                              4.6%       Education
                    5.0%      Education
      Entertainment                                                                        1.5%
                                1.8%                                 Entertainment
          4.8%                                Transportation             5.0%                                Transportation
                                                  20.4%                                                          21.0%
         Health Care                                             Health Care
           5.5%                                                     5.1%
                                                         Other Household
Other Household                                                6.0%
     6.4%

                                                                   Utilities
         Utilities                                                  7.0%
          6.9%                                       Shelter
                                                                                                                    Shelter
                                                     16.5%
                                                                                                                    17.5%
                                                               Miscellaneous
      Miscellaneous                                                7.9%
          9.2%
                                                                               Insurance &
                     Insurance &           Food                                                       Food
                                                                                 Pensions
                       Pensions           14.4%                                                      14.1%
                                                                                  10.3%
                        9.2%

Source: BLS Consumer Expenditure Survey
                                                                               Decentralization is Costly

             The share of MoDOTs roads in very good condition dropped in the
             1990s while those in poor and very poor condition increased.

                                                       Pavement Condition
             40

             35


             30

                                                                                                     1994
             25
Percentage




                                                                                                     1995

             20                                                                                      1996
                                                                                                     1997
             15                                                                                      1998
                                                                                                     1999
             10


              5


              0
                            Very Good           Good           Fair         Poor        Very Poor

                                                              Ranking
       Source:Missouri State Auditor’s Office
 Decentralization is Costly

 Isolates Low-income
Residents & Minorities
  From Opportunities
                                      Decentralization is Costly

Missouri’s current pattern of growth is isolating low-
 income residents & minorities from opportunities.

Decentralization:

• Exacerbates social isolation in the core.

• Reduces educational opportunities in cities and
  older suburbs.

• Distances poor people from job opportunities.
                                              Missouri is Decentralizing

Low-income and working poor families are concentrated in the core
and inner suburbs of Kansas City.




Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                               Missouri is Decentralizing

…and in the core and inner suburbs of St. Louis.




Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                               Decentralization is Costly

Kansas City’s nonwhite residents are separated from new job
opportunities.

     Kansas City Private Sector Job Growth                             Kansas City Percentage of Nonwhite Residents
                                   1994-1999                                                        1994-1998




Source:U.S. Census Bureau Zip Code Business Patterns 1994, 1999.   Source:U.S. Census Bureau
IV. A softening economy and fiscal
pressures require Missouri to make wise
decisions as it grows.
                                 Missouri’s
    Rethink          Review
Transportation         the          Policy
& Infrastructure   State-Local
      Policy       Tax System        Agenda
             Know
           The Context



  Protect Rural           Encourage
   Missouri &              Regional
  Craft Livable          Collaboration
    Regions
KNOW THE CONTEXT
                         Know The Context


The Goal: Establish the information and analytic
base to support better growth policies

1. Create a Research Missouri network to compile and seed
   research on growth and development patterns.

2. Disclose the spatial impact of state programs.
                         Know The Context



                      Ohio Urban University Program

The UUP Program is Funded by the State to Network the 8
 Universities Urban Centers Together.

The Program:
• Focuses on Inter-University Collaborative Projects to Address
  Ohio’s urban problems and opportunities

• Provides research and technical assistance for local governments,
  decision makers, and citizens to help revitalize Ohio's urban
  communities.

• Provides a technical link sharing databases, GIS Systems, and
  other information between the Universities
     RETHINK
 TRANSPORTATION
& INFRASTRUCTURE
      POLICY
       Rethink Transportation & Infrastructure Policy


The Goal: Coordinate transportation and
infrastructure investments to build strong
communities and maximize scarce dollars
 1. Create a Missouri public capital investment board

 2. Use capital to support sensible land-use

 3. Preserve and maintain existing system and communities

 4. Support alternative transportation strategies.
     Rethink Transportation & Infrastructure Policy



      Connecticut’s Transportation Strategy Board

 Designed to better coordinate state’s transportation spending
  and promote a more holistic view of system investments.
 Board is composed of business, state agency, and investment
  area representatives which examine projects and make
  recommendations based on issues including “movement of
  people,” “evaluation,” and “land-use/economic development.”
REVIEW THE
STATE-LOCAL
TAX SYSTEM
                Review State-Local Tax System


The Goal: Reform tax and fiscal structures to
promote more efficient growth.
1. Reform TIF Law


2. Convene commission to review state-local tax system to
  remove incentives to inefficient growth patterns.
                      Review State-Local Tax System
Only 9 of the 39 TIF districts in the St. Louis region are located in
the city and older suburbs. Nearly 60% of all TIF-captured tax
base is in the outer areas.
              Review State-Local Tax System



          Minnesota Subsidy Accountability Law

•   The law mandates an annual reporting procedure for tracking
    economic development grants, loans and Tax Increment
    Financing.

•   Each local, regional, or state agency that provides the
    subsidies must report both the goals and results.
PROTECT RURAL
  MISSOURI &
CRAFT LIVABLE
   REGIONS
      Protect Rural Missouri & Craft Livable Regions


The Goal: Protect the integrity of Missouri’s
signature rural spaces by supporting better
community planning
1. Update the state’s outmoded planning statutes to provide
  localities the tools and guidance they need to manage
  change.
2. Encourage local planning efforts:
   • Broad outreach effort
   • Technical assistance
   • Financial assistance
   • Positive incentives
     Protect Rural Missouri & Craft Livable Regions



          Illinois’ Local Planing Assistance Act (2002)
 2002 legislation updates Illinois’ 1920s era planning statutes.

 Provides guidance on the elements of sound local planning but
  does not mandate content.

 Offers a wide variety of planning-related assistance to boost
  localities capacity
     Model ordinances
     Grants
     Training programs
 ENCOURAGE
  REGIONAL
COLLABORATION
                Encourage Regional Collaboration


The Goal: Seek regional solutions by promoting
cooperation among its many localities.
1. Embrace regional planning councils
2. Support intergovernmental collaboration through a local-
  government assistance center.
3. Encourage collaboration with financial assistance.
4. Reward collaboration by making it a priority.
               Encourage Regional Collaboration


     Pennsylvania Center for Local Government Services

 A statewide clearing house for planning aid:
     Grants
     Education/training
     Technical assistance
     Research

 Works to promote multi-municipal planning while supporting
  flexibility and local control.

 Planning grants prioritized to municipalities that incorporate multi-
  municipal approaches. It has resulted in over 150
  intergovernmental agreements to coordinate planning and service
  delivery.
                                 Missouri’s
    Rethink          Review
Transportation         the          Policy
& Infrastructure   State-Local
      Policy       Tax System        Agenda
              Know
            The Context



  Protect Rural            Encourage
   Missouri &               Regional
  Craft Livable           Collaboration
    Regions
  “Growth in the Heartland: Challenges and
        Opportunities for Missouri”
     can be downloaded at the website below.




www.brookings.edu/urban
      A printed copy can be requested from
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DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Better Business Bureau of Kansas City Missouri document sample