# ch7 gp

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```					Genetic Programming:
An Introduction

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The Lunacy of Evolving Computer
Programs
Before we start, consider the general evolutionary algorithm :
Randomly create a population of solutions.
Evaluate each solution, giving each a score.
Pick the best and reproduce, mutate or crossover with other
fit solutions to produce new solutions for the next
generation.

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The Lunacy of Evolving Computer
Programs
Now consider what this means in the context of genetic
programming:
Randomly create a population of programs.
Evaluate each program, giving each a score.
Pick the best and reproduce, mutate or crossover with other
fit programs to produce new programs for the next
generation.

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The Lunacy of Evolving Computer
Programs
A randomly generated C program
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The Lunacy of Evolving Computer
Programs
The argument against evolving programs
Randomly created programs have an infinitesimal chance of
compiling, let alone doing what you want them to do..
Running a randomly created program will most likely give
array out-of bounds errors, data-casting, core-dumps and
division by zero errors, and is ultimately prone to the
halting problem
Mutating and mixing segments of randomly created
programs is as senseless as randomly creating them in
the first place.
(How) does genetic programming get around this?
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What makes GP different

Individual       Individual Size
Representation   (complexity)

GA(conventional)   Coded strings of Fixed-length strings
numbers

GP                 In general by    Variable
LISP S-
expressions

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GP algorithm
Create random population

Evaluate fitness function

Apply evolution genetic operators
probabilistically to obtain
a new computer program
Reproduction/Crossover/Mutation

Insert new computer program
into new population          7
The Genetic Programming
Representation
The trick is to choose an underlying representation for
programs such that:the random creation, mutation and
crossover of programs always yields a syntactically
correct program.
The representation employed in genetic-programming is a
tree: this representation is natural for LISP programs and
leads to elegant algorithms for creation, mutation and
crossover.

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Genetic Structure

Functions: Can be conditional(if, then,etc.), sequentual(+,-
,etc.), iterative (whileDo etc.)
Terminals: No arguments, just return a value

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Evolving Trees

In fact the representation is useful for the evolution of more
than just LISP programs! The tree structures in a genetic
programming population can be used to determine layouts
for analogue electric circuits, create neural networks,
paralellise computer programs and much much more.
It’s a great representation because it can produce solutions
of arbitrary size and complexity, as opposed to, for
example, fixed-length genetic algorithms.
As we’ll be applying an evolutionary algorithm to this
representation, we need to define creation, crossover and
mutation operators.
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Creation, Crossover and Mutation

The following shows how tree structures can be created,
crossed and mutated.
Creation: randomly generate a tree using the functions and
terminals provided
Crossover: pick crossover points in both parents and swap
the subtrees. If the parents are same, the offsprings will
often be different.
Mutation: pick a mutation point in one parent and replace its
sub-tree with a randomly generated tree.

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Crossover

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Mutation

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Population Creation

When creating a population, it’d be nice to begin with many
trees of different shapes sizes. We can generate trees
using the full or the grow method:
full - every path in the tree is the maximum length
grow - path lengths will vary up to the maximum length.
Typically, when a population is created, the “Ramp half-and-
half” technique is used.Trees of varying depths from the
minimum to maximum depth are created, and for each
depth half are created using the full method and the other
half are created using the grow method.

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Preparatory steps for GP

You’ve decided you want to use GP to solve a problem. To
set up your GP runs, you need to do the following:
Determine the set of terminals (the leaves of your trees). In
the programming context, these are usually variables,
input values or action commands
Determine the set of functions (the nodes of your trees).
The fitness measure
The parameters for controlling the run: Population size,
Maximum number of generations, Mutation, Crossover
and Reproduction rates (1%, 90%, 9%)
The method for terminating a run and designating a result.
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Sufficiency & Closure

Function and terminal sets must satisfy the principles of
closure and sufficiency:
Closure: every function f must be capable of accepting the
values of every terminal t from the terminal set and every
function f from the function set.
Sufficiency: A solution to the problem at hand must exist in
the space of programs created from the function set and
terminal set.
One way to get around closure is to use make all terminals
and functions return the same type (for example, integer)
or use strongly typed genetic programming to ensure that
all expressions are type-safe.                            16
Example: Symbolic Regression

Problem: Can GP evolve the function to fit the following data::
x f(x)
0   0
1   4
2   30
3   120
4   340
5   780
6   1554
7   2800
8   4680                                                     17
GP Symbolic Regression

Function Set: +, - *, /
Terminal Set: X
Fitness Measure: use the absolute difference of the error.
Best normalized fitness is 0.
Parameters: Population Size = 500, Max Generations = 10,
Crossover = 90%, Mutation = 1%, Reproduction = 9%.
Selection is by Tournament Selection (size 5), Creation is
performed using RAMP_HALF_AND_HALF.
Termination Condition: Program with fitness 0 found.

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Results

The following zero-fitness individual was found after two
generations
(add (add (mul (mul X X) (mul X X)) (mul (mul X X) (- X)))
(sub X (sub (sub (sub X X) (mul X X)) (mul (add X X)
(mul X X)))))
which correctly captures the function:
f(x) = x4 + x3 + x2 + x

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Santa Fe Trail

In the Santa Fe Trail, an ant must eat all the items of food in
a trail. The ant can only move left, right or forward, and
can only sense what is directly in front of him.

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GP Santa Fe

Terminal Set: TurnLeft, TurnRight, MoveForward
Fitness Measure: count the number of items food eaten after
a fixed number of moves, and subtract from 89. Bad
fitness = 89, Good fitness = 0.
Parameters: Population Size = 500, Max Generations = 50,
Crossover = 90%, Mutation = 1%, Reproduction = 9%.
Selection is by Tournament Selection (size 5), Creation is
performed using RAMP_HALF_AND_HALF.
Termination Condition: Program with fitness 0 found.

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Some programs

Prog2(TurnRight)(TurnLeft)
Prog2(MoveForward)(MoveForward)

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Result

Here’s how one agent fared:

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Agent

(Prog2 MoveForward MoveForward) TurnLeft) TurnLeft))))
MoveForward TurnLeft) TurnRight) MoveForward
TurnRight))
Smaller agents can be found!

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Robot Wall-Following with GP (Koza,
1993)
Given: Odd-shaped room with robot in center.
Find: A control strategy for the robot that makes it move
along the periphery.
GP Primitives:
Terminals: S0, S1..S11 (12 sensor readings, distance to wall),
Functions: IFLTE (if less than or equal), PROGN2, MF, MB
(move forward/back), TL, TR (turn left/right).
Fitness Function: Fitness = peripheral cells visited.
Sample Individual/Strategy:
(IFLTE S3 S7 (MF) (PROG2 MB (IFLTE S4 S9 (TL) (PROG2
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(MB) (TL)))))
Wall-Following Evolution

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Fitness function

The fitness function is based on executing the evolved
programs on one or more prescribed test suites.
The test suites can be devised in the same way as those
used when testing traditional manually produced
programs.
Program size as part of fitness

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Fitness function

Fitness Functions
Error-based
– Fitness inversely proportional to total error on the test data.
– E.g. symbolic regression, classification, image
compression, multiplexer design..
Cost-based
– Fitness inversely proportional to use of resources (e.g. time,
space, money, materials, tree nodes)
– E.g. truck-backing, broom-balancing, energy network
design…
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Fitness function

Benefit-based
– Fitness proportional to accrued resources or other benefits.
– E.g. foraging, investment strategies
Parsimony-base
– Fitness partly proportional to the simplicity of the
phenotypes.
– E.g. sorting algorithms, data compression…
Entropy-based
– Fitness directly or inversely proportional to the statistical
entropy of a set of collections
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– E.g. Random sequence generators, clustering algorithms,
… Designer GP

In recent times, the tree-representation employed by GP has
been used for automatic design of electrical circuits.
The tree is no longer a “program”, but should be considered
a “program that builds circuits”.
The idea of building graph structures using commands
embedded in a tree was developed by Frederic Gruau. He
used it to evolve neural networks: Koza et al now use it to
evolve electric circuits.
Functions of node are Par (P) and Seq (S), that change the
topology of the graph. Other functions and terminals
modify the values at the nodes. Everything begins with
one embryonic cell with a pointer to the head of the tree. 30
Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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Cellular Encoding

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So you want to use GP...

Genetic programming, at its heart, is the evolution of tree
structures that can be interpreted as programs. Use GP to
solve problems where the solutions are naturally expressed
as tree structures.
evolve LISP programs to solve a problem
evolve solutions in an indirect manner, by using the GP
trees to build solutions to problems.
Your approach will be to determine the functions & terminals
that constitute your trees, and how to interpret the
resulting trees as solutions to your problem.

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