"In the Workplace Business Related Thesis Topic"
DOCTORATE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (DBA) Supervision and Examination Criteria Presented by: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nik Maheran Nik Muhammad Faculty of Business Management UiTM Kelantan. DBA and PhD supervision and examination criteria: 1. What are the issues? 2. What are the differences between DBA and PhD • DBA vs PhD 3. DBA program structure in Malaysian University 4. Supervision and Examination criteria • Issues of ‗Contribution‘ • Content/report presentation • Supervisors expectation 5. Proposed framework. ISSUES / PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION • Given that the DBA dissertation could be different from a PhD thesis, how should it be supervised and examined? • In many circumstances, the criteria used to examine DBA dissertation and PhD thesis are the same although focus of both program are different • the criteria used by examiners for DBA dissertation are not standardized and there is no clear, agreed definition of that which constitutes a ‗contribution‘—a major criterion for some research theses ISSUES • Lack of consistency across institutions regarding the nature of examining and qualifying DBA program particularly on the dissertation reports. DBA vs. PhD GENERAL DIFFERENCE: • DBA (Professional doctorate program) requires a portfolio of course work, seminar presentations, and industry-relevant research reports. Encourages the candidate for more applied outcomes. • PhD (Traditional doctorate) focus on single PhD thesis. Expected to contribute to new body of knowledge. • DBA is a professional doctorate for managers and the PhD is a professional doctorate for academics. DBA vs. PhD MAJOR DIFFERENCES: 1. Qualifications and knowledge on entry into the program; 2. Focus of the program (learning outcome); and 3. The nature of the doctoral report 1. DBA dissertation is only partial requirement and the PhD is full. 2. Duration to do research for DBA is shorter and the PhD is over a longer time period of time. 3. the thesis requirement is heavier for PhD than DBA (Association of Business Schools, 1997; Bourner, Bowden & Laing 2001 ;Perry and Cavage, 2002). (1) Qualifications and knowledge on entry into the program DBA PhD 1. DBA usually requires an MBA degree PhD program requires at least a or the equivalent, two-semester masters/honours award 2. significant executive or management/professional experience in the public or private sector (Bourner, Bowden & Laing 2001; USM, 2008) (2) The focus of the program (Learning Outcome) DBA PhD 1. Research Capabilities: Research Capabilities: • The DBA is a professional doctorate • focuses on a contribution to for managers or management academic literature and prepares professionals, usually younger students for a • To carry out research project in career in academic research. terms of management practice within organization. • ability to make original • DBA program‘s focus on contribution to knowledge in managerial outcomes and chosen field of study implications 2. Professional Development: • Capacity to plan and manage own learning and continuing professional development 3. Knowledge of Business Management: • Understanding theories and practice in Business and Management. (Bourner et al. 2001, Lockhart & Stablein 2002) (3) DBA and a PhD is the doctoral report DBA PhD 1. • DBA focuses on the management problem – • Research problem with regards to gap in delimited to the context of a particular the literature industry and/or country. • PhD focuses on how to develop • ‗implications for management‘ section of the new body of knowledge final chapter could highlight issues for management practice and so should be a • Emphasize on application of theory and major part of the DBA dissertation further research 2. • Action-related research. • Basic research • Contribution to knowledge of practice, • Contribute to academic theory • DBA candidates are expected to be able to show that their research has had an impact on their professional practice 3. DBA theses/dissertations were required to be at PhD thesis is normally about 60,000 words to least 45,000 words in length and maximum of 100,000 word (Phillips & Pugh, 1994). 60,000 words 4. the literature and methodology chapters in a Rigor and extensive DBA dissertation may be less extensive than the equivalent chapters in a PhD thesis (Association of Business Schools 1997, Bourner et al. 2001). DBA PROGRAMS IN MALAYSIA Table 1 DBA program structure at different university. Compre- Institution Consultation/ Total Duration Course work Dissertation hensive training Units (years) exam Units % Units % Units % Units Group 1 – Malaysia Public University (Mode 2) UKM 38 60% - - Partial 40% 2 3½-5 UiTM 36 70% - - Partial 30% 1 48 3½-5 Group 2 – Malaysia Public University (Mixed mode) USM 18 22% 21 26% 42 52% none 81 3½-5 UUM 33 50% 6 10% 27 40% none 66 3 ½ -5 Group 3- Malaysian Private University MMU 42 56% - - 32 43% none 74 3-7 Group 4 – Australian Affiliated SEGI 80 40% - - 20 60% none 240** 3-9 (UoN) MIM 34% 66% none (RMIT) ITD 34% 66% none (UNISA) * Training in Research methodology capabilities. * *MBA + DBA ( 80 units + 160) SUPERVISION THE DBA dissertation 1. CONTRIBUTION 2. CONTENT / REPORT PRESENTATION 3. EXPECTATION OUTCOME SUPERVISION THE DBA dissertation 1. Issues of ―Contribution‖ “ something nobody has said before and/or carrying out empirical work that has not been done before” • DBA award is aimed at making a contribution to practice… • PhD ‗‗is principally intended to develop academic..… SUPERVISION THE DBA dissertation……cont. 2. CONTENT – emphasize • research-coursework for DBAs should be more flexible than research-only PhDs. • Less rigorous • Less exhaustive - literature reviews • Less extensive - methodology • Focus on managerial problem (instead of bridging the gap of the literature/theory) example • Emphasized on managerial/practical implication (theoretical implication) Table 4: Structure of DBA – Research Portfolio (Australian University) Research Words Component Content (Approx.) Research or a review of the literature on a topic of interest to candidates, that contribute to background of the study; motivation of 10,000 words Stage 1 the study (problem statement); objectives; research questions; significant of the study. Research or a review of the literature on a topic of interest to candidates, and which may not necessarily be related to the key research 10,000 words topic in Stage 3. Stage 2 AND Research methodology OR An exploratory case study Discrete Research Report - Findings and data analysis (including tables 40,000 and figures but excluding references and appendices) words and no AND Building on research from stages 1 & 2, to provided discussion and more than Stage 3 conclusion but not a overlap work in work completed in stages 1 & 2 50,000 Examiners are reminded that a professional doctorate such as the DBA is both theoretically -and practically-focused, and should include implications for practice for both the profession generally and the workplace specifically. Therefore, examiners should expect to see considerable discussion of the practical implications of the study findings in the final chapter. SUPERVISION THE DBA dissertation……cont. 3. The question remains as to the level of specialization of a DBA supervisor, or differences in supervising DBA versus PhD candidates – supervisor’s expectation: • In many cases these supervisors of DBAs have graduated from research-based PhDs and are often skeptical about the DBA program. – Unless if they were part of the design-, accreditation- or program advisory teams (Kemp 2002). – Therefore, the supervisors need to have a good understanding of the objectives of DBAs (researching professional vs. researching academicians) EXAMINING THE DBA dissertation AND PhD Theses IMPORTA CRITERIA NT DBA PHD RANK Research apprenticeship 1 capacity to conceive, plan and conduct research; capable of working independently. Aims to develop academic aims to develop researching professionals researchers Report Presentation: 2 1. Length 1. 40,000 – 60,000 words 1. 60,000 to 100,000 2. Rigorousness words 2. Moderate and flexible 2. Exhaustive 3. Focus literature/methodolo 4. Theory 3. the applied nature of the DBA research gy report(s) in terms of strategic implications and outcomes- focused than 3. Basic/Fundamental methodology research 4. application of appropriate theories and 4. a gap in the literature research to professional practice EXAMINING THE DBA dissertation AND PhD Theses…Cont. IMPORTA CRITERIA NT DBA PHD RANK Contribution: 3 implication to managerial practice. new theory and carried out greater emphasis should be tied to new body of original/significant the implications for managers and knowledge research in the field; major professional practice Academic advancement; contribution contribution to knowledge in the field Literature: 4 less extensive Very extensive relevant to thesis, showing gap of the theory understanding of the field of research Analysis of 5 Less extensive Extensive information/data Research question: 6 justification and delimitation to Highly focus on managerial objective achieving theoretical objective EXAMINING THE DBA dissertation AND PhD Theses…Cont IMPORTA CRITERIA NT DBA PHD RANK Methodology: 7 appropriate choice Required extensive DBA is targeted at individuals who wish to methodology study their field in depth in order to improve their professional practice, but who do not wish to do this using the methodology of a single research topic as required for a PhD Research output: 8 1. suitable for publication 1. Must be publishable 1. Publishable 2. Applicable to business/managerial (original and new 2. Practical application context. contribution) Conclusions: soundly 9 Research has had an impact on their a PhD thesis focuses much based, showing professional practice. more on implications for implications ‘implications for management’ section theory and for further of the final chapter could highlight issues research for management practice and so should be a major part of the DBA dissertation. PROPOSED FRAMEWORK for supervising and examining DBA dissertation Theoretical and Practical - focused CONTRIBUTION New knowledge for managerial/professional practice Impact to managerial practice Length – 40,000 to 60,000 words Problem statement REPORT - practically-focused - PRESENTATION Literature review and Methodology - Less extensive - Discussion - implication for management - Capacity to conceive, plan and conduct research independently EXPECTATION Practical application and suitable for journal publication CONCLUSION • The DBA is designed to make a significant contribution to the enhancement of professional practice in business administration (public and private sectors, education, hospital, professional, and general management) through the application and development of theoretical frameworks. • In comparison, the PhD places more emphasis on the development of new knowledge and innovative theoretical perspectives • the DBA has different goals from a PhD, for the DBA is a professional doctorate for managers rather than for academics. • Research for DBA is partial requirement but full for PhD; duration to take the research for DBA is shorter than PhD; requirements for DBA and Phd are different… • Criteria to examine DBA dissertation and PhD thesis should be different. 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