"Clerk of Courts for Pueblo Colorado Birth Certificate"
THE AMERCIAN LEGION AUXILIARY Department of Colorado presents COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE firstname.lastname@example.org www.ColoradoColumbineGirlsState.com COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE DELEGATE MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS – SORTED BY PAGE NUMBER HISTORY OF GIRLS STATE ........................................................................................................ 3 WHAT IS THE AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY? ................................................................. 5 AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY PROGRAMS ...................................................................... 6 SCHOLARSHIPS AND EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES ..................................................... 7 CONSTITUTION ........................................................................................................................... 8 BYLAWS ...................................................................................................................................... 10 FLAG CEREMONIES.................................................................................................................. 12 CENTENNIAL STATE ................................................................................................................. 13 GIRLS STATE GUIDE TO PUBLIC SPEAKING ....................................................................... 14 COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE GOVERNMENT ................................................. 16 PARLIAMENTARY LAW............................................................................................................ 17 MOTIONS .................................................................................................................................... 18 CITY GOVERNMENT ................................................................................................................ 23 CITY ELECTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS ............................................................................. 27 ELECTION PROCESS IN THE STATE OF COLORADO ......................................................... 28 ELECTION PROCESS AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE .................................. 29 PRECINCT CAUCUS .................................................................................................................. 30 PRECINCT CAUCUS AT GIRLS STATE ................................................................................... 31 RUNNING FOR OFFICE IN THE STATE OF COLORADO ..................................................... 32 RUNNING FOR OFFICE AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE .............................. 32 COUNTY ASSEMBLY AT COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE ......................................................... 33 DESIGNATED CANDIDATES FROM COUNTY ASSEMBLY ................................................ 35 JUDICIAL, CONGRESSIONAL AND STATE ASSEMBLIES .................................................. 36 DESIGNATED CANDIDATES FROM STATE ASSEMBLY ..................................................... 37 VOTING IN THE STATE OF COLORADO ............................................................................... 38 VOTING PROCEDURE FOR ...................................................................................................... 39 PRIMARY ELECTION RESULTS .............................................................................................. 40 GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS ............................................................................................. 41 COLORADO PUBLIC OFFICIALS ............................................................................................ 42 U.S. CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS ........................................................................................ 43 NATIONAL PUBLIC OFFICIALS .............................................................................................. 44 JUDICIAL BRANCH IN COLORADO....................................................................................... 45 JURY SERVICE IN COLORADO ............................................................................................... 47 HOW A BILL BECOMES COLORADO LAW ........................................................................... 48 LEGISLATIVE PROCESS ........................................................................................................... 49 LEGISLATIVE BRANCH IN COLORADO ............................................................................... 52 BILLS ........................................................................................................................................... 55 WRITE EFFECTIVE RESOLUTIONS ....................................................................................... 58 SELECTION OF GIRLS NATION DELEGATES....................................................................... 59 GIRLS STATE REPORT .............................................................................................................. 61 PATRIOTIC SONGS .................................................................................................................... 62 GIRLS STATE EVALUATION FORM ........................................................................................ 67 WESTERN STATE COLLEGE .................................................................................................... 69 Colorado Columbine Girls State 1 COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE DELEGATE MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS – SORTED BY ALPHABETICALLY AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY PROGRAMS………………...………………………………… 6 BILLS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55 BYLAWS…………………………..…………………………………………………………………… 10 CENTENNIAL STATE………………………………………………………………………………… 13 CITY ELECTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS………………….……………………………………… 27 CITY GOVERNMENT………………………………………………………………………………… 23 COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE GOVERNMENT…………….………………………… 16 COLORADO PUBLIC OFFICIALS…………………………………………………………………… 42 CONSTITUTION…………………………………………….………………………………………… 8 COUNTY ASSEMBLY AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE…………...……..………… 33 DESIGNATED CANDIDATES FROM COUNTY ASSEMBLY……………………………………… 35 DESIGNATED CANDIDATES FROM STATE ASSEMBLY………………….…………...………… 37 ELECTION PROCESS AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE…….……………………… 29 ELECTION PROCESS IN THE STATE OF COLORADO…………………………………………… 28 FLAG CEREMONIES………………..………………………………………………………………… 12 GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS……………………………………….…………………………… 41 GIRLS STATE EVALUATION FORM………………………………….…………………………….. 67 GIRLS STATE GUIDE TO PUBLIC SPEAKING…………………..………………………………… 14 GIRLS STATE REPORT………………………………………………………………………………. 61 HISTORY OF GIRLS STATE ………………………………………………………………………… 3 HOW A BILL BECOMES COLORADO LAW…..…………………………………………………… 48 JUDICIAL BRANCH IN COLORADO…………..…………………………………………………… 45 JUDICIAL, CONGRESSIONAL AND STATE ASSEMBLIES………………………….…………… 36 JURY SERVICE IN COLORADO…………..………………………………………………………… 47 LEGISLATIVE BRANCH IN COLORADO…………………………………………………………... 52 LEGISLATIVE PRCOESS……………………………………………………………………………... 49 MOTIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 NATIONAL PUBLIC OFFICIALS…………….…………………………………………….………… 44 PARLIAMENTARY LAW……………………..…………………………………………….………… 17 PATRIOTIC SONGS…………………………………………………………………………………… 62 PRECINCT CAUCUS AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE……………..…….………… 31 PRECINCT CAUCUS……………………………..…………………………………………………… 30 PRIMARY ELECTION RESULTS…………………………………………..………………………… 40 RUNNING FOR OFFICE AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE…….…………………… 32 RUNNING FOR OFFICE IN THE STATE OF COLORADO………………………………………… 32 SCHOLARSHPS AND EDUCTIONAL OPPORTUNITIES…………………..……………………… 7 SELECTION OF GIRLS NATION DELEGATES…………………………………………………….. 59 U.S. CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS………………………………………………………………… 43 VOTING IN THE STATE OF COLORADO…………………………………………………...……… 38 VOTING PROCEDURES FOR COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE……………..………… 39 WESTERN STATE COLLEGE………………………………………………………………………... 70 WHAT IS THE AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY? ……….…………………………….………… 5 WRITE EFFECTIVE RESOLUTIONS………………………………………………………………… 58 Colorado Columbine Girls State 2 HISTORY OF GIRLS STATE In the depression-ridden days of the early 1930s, the American Legion grew concerned over the public statements to the effect that democracy was on the skids. How could America train its young people in the process of self-government as effectively as fascist Italy and Nazi Germany seemed to be training their youth groups in the promulgation of totalitarian forms of government? Deciding that the best way to learn something was by practicing it, the American Legion began in 1935 to gather high school boys together for a few days each summer in a citizenship training program on the processes of city and state government. They called it Boys State. As the Boys State program succeeded and spread throughout the United States, the American Legion Auxiliary began to provide similar opportunities for high school girls. The first Girls State was conducted in 1937 and since 1948 has been a regular part of the Auxiliary's Children and Youth and Americanism programs. Girls State has been held in all 50 states. Girls State is a nonpartisan program staffed by American Legion Auxiliary members and/or former Girls State citizens who volunteer their time and effort to this program. Administrative costs are defrayed by the Department organizations. Delegates to Girls State are selected with the help of their high school principals, counselors, and teachers on the basis of leadership qualities and academic achievement and must be between their junior and senior years in high school to qualify. Since the early days of Girls State, nearly one million young women have had the opportunity to participate in Girls State programs throughout the country. Girls Nation, the youth citizenship program in the process of federal government to which Girls State sends two Senators each year, is an annual climax to the Girls State program and has been held in the nation's capital for one week each summer since 1947. All costs for Girls Nation, including transportation, are financed by the American Legion Auxiliary's national organization. The American Legion Auxiliary is recognized by Freedoms Foundation, at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, for the Girls State and Girls Nation programs. These programs are gifts from the American Legion Auxiliary to the nation and to our young people...our future. Colorado Columbine Girls State has the approval and support of the Colorado High School Activities Association. GIRLS STATE PAST DIRECTORS AND GOVERNORS YEAR DIRECTOR GOVERNOR 1948 Mrs. Josephine Bettinger, Denver Billie Burnham, Greeley 1949 Mrs. Eve Jensen, Fort Lupton Betty Jo Redburn, Grand Lake 1950 Mrs. Ruby Naffziger, Greeley Paula Zimmerman, Wheat Ridge 1951 Mrs. Grace Evans, Denver Pat Tewksbury, Greeley 1952 Mrs. Ilene Cox, Denver Judy Doubenmier, Greeley 1953 Mrs. Edna Swanson, Denver Sandra Crider, Wray 1954 Mrs. Guidotta Bates, Brush Luann Gottier, Denver West 1955 Mrs. Allegra Saunders, Denver Rosalie Kurtz, Greeley 1956 Mrs. Lucille Hayes, Denver Valerie Butler, Denver East 1957 Mrs. Jesse Falkenhagen, Denver Sandra Clemens, Sterling 1958 Mrs. Berda Cardinal, Littleton Diane Graham, Denver East 1959 Mrs. Gladys D. Chase Jennie Lou Weihing, LaJunta 1960 Mrs. Gladys D. Chase Gail Heitler, Denver East 1961 Mrs. Guidotta Bates, Brush Virginia Douglas, Greeley 1962 Mrs. Wilma Grauberger-Yost, Sterling Linda Etter, Lamar 1963 Mrs. Bonnie B. Morgan, Johnstown Jean Hail, Colorado Springs Colorado Columbine Girls State 3 YEAR DIRECTOR GOVERNOR 1964 Mrs. Eleise Bloom, Brush Jan Forman, Greeley 1965 Mrs. Wilma Grauberger-Yost, Sterling Mary Barnard, Colorado Springs 1966 Mrs. Betty Jean Fritts, Allenspark Sally Lynn Keller, Longmont 1967 Mrs. Janice Franklin, Sterling Laura Harman, Colorado Springs 1968 Mrs. Janice Franklin, Sterling Barbara Rothgeb, Denver North 1969 Mrs. Joyce Sager, Estes Park Jill Franklin, Aurora 1970 Mrs. Joyce Sager, Estes Park Polly Ann Bruce, Denver 1971 Mrs. Betty Jean Fritts, Allenspark Patricia Ballard, Pueblo 1972 Mrs. Betty McConnell, Haxtun Kathy Pulley, Denver 1973 Mrs. Betty McConnell, Haxtun Tricia Nottingham, Greeley 1974 Mrs. Marjorie Anderson, Greeley Tamice Gordon, Colorado Springs 1975 Mrs. Marjorie Anderson, Greeley Beth Aspedon, Colorado Springs 1976 Mrs. Betty Janata, Lakewood Judy Nott, Colorado Springs 1977 Mrs. Betty Janata, Lakewood Kathy Dobler, Fort Collins 1978 Mrs. Carolyn Gavell, Estes Park Jacqueline Barrett, Carbondale 1979 Mrs. Carolyn Gavell, Estes Park Suzanne Windle, Lakewood 1980 Mrs. June Kinney, Henderson and Mrs. Georgia Nold, Melissa Pejsa, Greeley ArvadaMrs. Patricia Hart-Ludeman, Cortez 1981 Regina Ridgeway, Colorado 1982 Mrs. Patricia Hart-Ludeman, Cortez Springs Jerra Holford, Elizabeth 1983 Mrs. Jane Sandhouse, Sterling Deborah Ross, Lakewood 1984 Mrs. Jane Sandhouse, Sterling Michelle Chalmers, Boulder 1985 Miss Terry Porter, Grand Junction Kari Larson, Boulder 1986 Miss Terry Porter, Grand Junction Clara Ficco, Lakewood 1987 Mrs. Linda Unzicker, Fort Collins Joycelyn Keaveney, Littleton 1988 Ms. Joanie Shoemaker, Parker Sara Murphy, Aurora 1989 Ms. Joanie Shoemaker, Parker Patricia Dwyer, Greeley 1990 Mrs. Ginny Lagergren, LaJunta Ki Mun, Arvada 1991 Mrs. Ginny Lagergren, LaJunta Carrie Genova, Pueblo 1992 Ms. Mary A. Andersen, Arvada Beth Ross, Pueblo 1993 Ms. Mary A. Andersen, Arvada Rachel Fehringer, Peetz 1994 Ms. Debbie Shissler-McBride, Denver Melody Niwot, Colorado Springs 1995 Ms. Debbie Shissler-McBride, Denver Cassandra Crites, Castle Rock 1996 Ms. Donna Thompson, Centennial Stacey Stark, Pueblo 1997 Ms. Donna Thompson, Centennial Laurel McKeel, Colorado Springs 1998 Mrs. Molly Brandt, Brighton Aquila Graham, Denver 1999 Mrs. Molly Brandt, Brighton Kate Kerchenstein, Lakewood 2000 Mrs. Millie Roesch, Del Norte Jamie Campbell, Yuma 2001 Mrs. Roberta Rogers, Arvada Christy Fisher, Canon City 2002 Mrs. Roberta Rogers, Arvada Ebony Ramsey, La Junta 2003 Mrs. Alma (Smitty) Smith, Longmont Brenda Fairfax, Aurora 2004 Mrs. Alma (Smitty) Smith, Longmont Akia Calhoun, Colorado Springs 2005 Mrs. Cindy Dreher, Westminster Madison Burgess, Gunnison 2006 Mrs. Cindy Dreher, Westminster Caitie Hlushak, Loveland 2007 Ms. Faith Mills, Yuma Samantha Swerdfeger, Pueblo 2008 Ms. Faith Mills, Yuma Tykwa Goshay, Pueblo Colorado Columbine Girls State 4 WHAT IS THE AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY? Eighteen million dollars...eight million hours of service...that's what American Legion Auxiliary volunteers in just one year! Since this organization was founded in 1919 to support the work of the American Legion, the Auxiliary has earned its place in the community. When reading statistics such as that above, what does eighteen million dollars mean? Mathematically, eighteen million dollars would stretch from Denver, Colorado to Washington DC, placing one dollar bills end to end. The impact of the dollars and hours of service on our communities across the United States is priceless. Membership in the American Legion Auxiliary falls into one of the following categories: 1) the mother, wife, sister, daughter, granddaughter, great-granddaughter, or grandmother of an American Legion member or a deceased veteran who would have been eligible for Legion membership, or 2) a female veteran on her own military service. Eligibility for American Legion membership is based on service in the Armed Forces during World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, Panama, Grenada, Lebanon, and/or the Persian Gulf. Initially, the Auxiliary was organized by concerned women who took on the day-to-day responsibilities of life when their male family members went overseas during World War I. Aware of the many fatherless families and the needs of returning veterans, Auxiliary women vowed to continue their supportive roles when the veterans of World War I founded the American Legion. The commitment of ―Service, not Self‖ has carried through the generations to develop a strong spirit of volunteerism. The Mission of the American Legion Auxiliary is: To support the American Legion and its programs for veterans, young people, and community To provide for today's needs while being advocates for a brighter future To advance the understanding of patriotism and responsibility of citizenship To promote individual integrity and family values To ensure as volunteers, that Auxiliary members continue to be the leaders in all that is good in the nation today, tomorrow and for generations to come through serving others first and not self. Colorado Columbine Girls State 5 AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY PROGRAMS Americanism – Promotes patriotism and responsible citizenship and strives to uphold and promote American ideals and the principles of democracy. Auxiliary Emergency Fund – Provides emergency financial assistance to an Auxiliary member for a limited length of time. Cavalcade of Memories – Preserves the memorabilia of the 80 plus year of history of the American Legion Auxiliary. Children and Youth – Assures care and protection for children of veterans. This committee also strives to improve and protect the conditions for all children. Community Service – The Unit members engage in activities for the improvement and betterment of the life of the community where the Unit is located. Education – Promotes quality education for every child and supports students in their desire to continue their education beyond high school. Girls State – A nonpartisan program that teaches young women responsible citizenship and how to participate in the functioning of their State's Government. The Girls State program encompasses portions of these Auxiliary programs: Americanism, Education, and Children and Youth. Junior Activities – Serves as a training ground for active and effective membership for Auxiliary members between birth and 18 years of age. Leadership – Serves to develop present and future leadership within the American Legion Auxiliary. Courses focus on fundamental management and communication skills and outline the basic responsibilities and leadership opportunities which are available within the many programs of the Auxiliary. Legislative – Encourages Auxiliary members to get involved and stay informed on local and national issues of special interest to the organization. Membership – Conducts ongoing recruitment to ensure the future growth and prosperity of the organization. National Security – To provide a national defense strong enough to guarantee the security of America. Poppy – A fund-raising project for the Veteran's Affairs and Rehabilitation and Children and Youth. Also a visible reminder of the sacrifices made by all United States veterans. Public Relations – Furnishes information to the public about the American Legion and Auxiliary programs. Exposes the public to the needs of the veteran and the veteran's family members. For more information about the American Legion Auxiliary and membership, please contact: American Legion Auxiliary Department of Colorado 7465 East 1st Avenue, Suite D Denver CO 80230 303-367-5388 email@example.com www.coloradoauxiliary.com or www.legion-aux.org www.coloradojuniorauxiliary.com The American Legion: www.coloradolegion.org or www.legion.org Colorado Columbine Girls State 6 AMERICAN LEGION AND AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY SUPPORTS SCHOLARSHIPS AND EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR OUR YOUTH (Hundreds of scholarship opportunities are available and go unclaimed each year.) National President's Scholarship – Five $2500, five $2,000 and five $1,000 scholarships nationally awarded to sons or daughters of wartime veterans. Deadline is March 10. High school seniors. Spirit of Youth Scholarship for Junior Members – Five four-year scholarships in the amount of $1,000 per year awarded to Junior members of the American Legion Auxiliary. Deadline is March 10. High school seniors. Girl Scout Achievement Award – A $1,000 scholarship is awarded to a Girl Scout who has received the Gold Award and is actively involved in her school, church, and community. Deadline is February 11. High school seniors. Girls State and Girls Nation – Young women are selected by local Auxiliary Units to attend this outstanding mock government program in 49 states. High school juniors only. Deadlines vary. Two girls from each Girls State program are chosen to attend Girls Nation in Washington DC each July. Samsung Scholarships – Girls State and Boys State citizens who are direct descendants of wartime veterans have the opportunity to apply. Over $230,000 is awarded annually to Girls and Boys State citizens nationally. Department and Local Scholarships – There are additional scholarships offered in each Department and through many local Units and Posts. Approximately $1.4 million is awarded every year. The amount, deadlines, and qualifications vary. James H. Parke Memorial Youth Scholarship – This is a $10,000 scholarship to a deserving student who has volunteered at least 100 hours in the VA health care system during the last year. At least a high school sophomore. Americanism Conference at Freedoms Foundation – One scholarship per Department is awarded to attend this history workshop at Valley Forge. Any 10th to 12th grade student may also attend at his or her own cost. Deadline is January 16. Americanism Essay Contests – Students in grades 3-12 compete in five age classes. The essay title changes annually. Local awards may vary. Divisional winners in each class receive $100, and the national winner is awarded $500 in each class. Deadlines vary. Poppy Poster Contests – Students in grades 3-12 compete in five age classes. Local awards may vary. National winners may be published. Deadlines vary. American Legacy Scholarships – Aid for children of active duty military, Guard, and Reserve personnel who were federalized and died on active duty on or after September 11, 2001. Deadline April 1. High school seniors or graduates. Eagle Scout of the Year Award – One $10,000 and three $2500 scholarships are awarded to outstanding Eagle Scouts. Legion Baseball Scholarship – Scholarships based on leadership and sportsmanship are awarded to selected participants in the American Legion Baseball program. Oratorical Contest – $1500 is awarded to Department winners and up to $18,000 scholarships for national winners. Open to all high school students. Local deadlines vary. Jr. Shooting Contest – Scholarships are awarded to top marksmen. Flag Education – Local members may be available to provide flag etiquette instruction, and there are teaching resources available. Need a Lift Handbook – The American Legion publishes this handbook to assist students and parents in acquiring financial aid for post high school education. The handbook is available online or through the American Legion. Colorado Columbine Girls State 7 CONSTITUTION OF AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY'S COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE PREAMBLE We, the citizens of Colorado Columbine Girls State – grateful for the civil and religious liberty we enjoy, and looking to Almighty God for His blessing upon our endeavor to continue to transmit the same to succeeding generations, in order to promote better citizenship, to develop the spirit of democratic government, to encourage women to intelligent participation in government, and to develop within the individual the love of God, home, and country – do ordain and establish this Constitution of Colorado Columbine Girls State. ARTICLE I Section 1. The boundaries and jurisdiction of the State shall be that part of the campus that is set aside for the uses and purposes of Colorado Columbine Girls State, or such other locations as may be decided from time to time by the Director(s) of Colorado Columbine Girls State. Section 2. (a) Colorado Columbine Girls State shall be composed of outstanding girls representing various high schools in Colorado, meeting annually on a campus in Colorado, or such other location as may be decided as heretofore mentioned, under the sponsorship of the American Legion Auxiliary. (b) Citizens of Colorado Columbine Girls State shall be chosen on the basis of leadership, character, courage, honesty, scholarship, cooperativeness, emotional stability, physical fitness, and interest in government and politics. Section 3. The Girls State insignia shall be a composition of the American Legion Auxiliary seal and the columbine (the Colorado state flower), on a white background edged in gold, and bearing the words ―Columbine Girls State.‖ Section 4. The Girls State oath shall be: I, a citizen of Colorado Columbine Girls State, do promise to defend the Girls State insignia and all the things it represents. Therefore, it will be my duty to constantly endeavor to promote and perpetuate true fellowship and democracy to which all humanity is entitled. With God as my judge and justice as my motto, this is my promise from this day forward.‖ Section 5. Blue, gold, and white shall be the colors of Colorado Columbine Girls State. ARTICLE II Section 1. Organization and procedures of Colorado Columbine Girls State shall be patterned after the actual government of Colorado, and every effort shall be made to follow processes and procedures, varying only, when in the opinion of the Girls State Committee, the time and number of citizens make following them impractical. Section 2. (a) Citizens of Girls State shall be divided in cities, the number in each to be determined by enrollment in the session. (b) Cities shall be organized as second-class cities, according to the laws of the State of Colorado. (c) The number of cities in Colorado Columbine Girls State shall be fixed annually by the Director(s) and Committee. Colorado Columbine Girls State 8 (d) The Commission type of city government shall be used in all cities. A Mayor and two Councilwomen shall be elected. (e) It shall be the duty of the City officials to enforce law and order and do the utmost to keep the City government effective at all times. Section 3. (a) The number of counties in Colorado Columbine Girls State shall be fixed annually by the Director(s) and Committee. (b) County government shall be based upon county government in Colorado and function accordingly. Section 4. The entire group shall organize a State government according to the Constitution and laws of the State of Colorado. ARTICLE III It shall be the duty of each citizen of Colorado Columbine Girls State to: (a) Give a report of her week to her Auxiliary Unit and other financial contributors at the request of the sponsoring organization. (b) Carry the ideals and the spirit of Girls State back into her high school and community in every way possible. ARTICLE IV Responsibility and authority for Colorado Columbine Girls State rests with the American Legion Auxiliary, Department of Colorado. ARTICLE V This Constitution shall be effective immediately upon the opening session of Girls State. Colorado Columbine Girls State 9 BYLAWS OF AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY'S COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE ARTICLE I The purpose of the Bylaws of Colorado Columbine Girls State shall be to aid in furthering the purposes of the organization and expedite its functioning. ARTICLE II Section 1. All citizens of Girls State shall attend and actively participate in all meetings, lectures, and flag ceremonies unless excused by the Girls State Director(s) or Nurse. Section 2. All delegates are expected to adhere to the Girls State dress code. ARTICLE III Section 1. Cell phones, personal listening devices and similar items may not be brought to meetings or other scheduled events for either verbal or texting purposes. If any session disruptions occur due to the use of these items, they will be confiscated and returned at a later time. Girls State will not accept responsibility of any damage or theft of these items. Section 2. Citizens shall make limited telephone calls only during free time. Columbine Girls State will not be responsible for bills of any kind contracted by Citizens of Girls State. ARTICLE IV CITIZENS SHALL AT NO TIME LEAVE THE AREA DESINGATED AS GIRLS STATE BOUNDARIES WITHOUT THE PERMISSION OF THE GIRLS STATE DIRECTOR(S). ARTICLE V Section 1. Each girl shall be responsible for the appearance of her city quarters and for keeping the Girls State area orderly and attractive. Section 2. As guests of the college, citizens will observe all campus rules, and will take good care of all equipment and property. No articles of any kind shall be removed or changed from one room to another. Section 3. THERE SHALL BE NO SMOKING ON THE CAMPUS. ARTICLE VI Section 1. Each Girls State citizens shall observe the hours of rising and retiring respecting the needs of other delegates. Section 2. There shall be no visiting from one city to another after the night curfew without permission from the citizen's City Counselor. Section 3. Citizens are to return to the dorm immediately following the evening session and remain there. Use sidewalks when going to meetings and dormitories. Section 4. Girls State citizens shall have no guests on campus, unless authorized by Director(s). Colorado Columbine Girls State 10 ARTICLE VII Section 1. It shall be illegal for a citizen elected as a City Mayor or Councilwoman or designated for a County or State office to resign in order to pursue another office. Section 2. The State Party Chairman may not have been elected City Mayor or Councilwoman, nor designated for any County or State office. ARTICLE VIII Section 1. Authorized campaign materials including paper, markers, scissors and tape will be furnished for citizens through the City Counselor. Additional markers, scissors, or scotch and masking tape may be brought from home. Section 2. Citizens may not use food, stickers, magazine clippings or other similar unauthorized items for campaigning so as to keep opportunities equal for all citizens. Section 3. Do not bring prepared or printed campaign materials of any kind. This will disqualify citizens from office. Section 4. Campaign materials shall only be posted inside the Girls State dormitories. Preparation of campaign materials shall be limited to recreation and free time. Section 5. There will be no campaigning for any County office until after the first County Assembly. There will be no campaigning for any State office until after the first State Assembly. Section 6. It shall be the responsibility of the candidate to see that all her campaign material is removed within three (3) hours after the election results have been announced. ARTICLE IX Any girl who violates any rule of Columbine Girls State can be dismissed without refund of fees. A letter written by the Girls State citizen telling why she is being dismissed will be required before she leaves the campus. Parents will be notified and a copy of this letter will be spent to the sponsoring Unit and to the delegates high school. Colorado Columbine Girls State 11 FLAG CEREMONIES Observers will follow these flag etiquette rules during flag ceremonies. During the flag ceremonies everyone, including leaders, should stand with hands empty, remain quiet, and salute the flag appropriately. During the flag raising, everyone will stand and remain quiet while the color guard begins to approach the flagpole. The salute of the right hand over the heart begins when the flag begins to ascend the flagpole and is held in that position until the flag reaches the top of the pole. During the ―Pledge of Allegiance‖ and ―The Star Spangled Banner‖ (National Anthem), everyone will stand quietly, facing the flag, with hands empty, and salute the flag with their right hand over their heart. It is not necessary to cover the heart during other patriotic songs. During the flag lowering, everyone starts to salute when the flag begins to descend the flagpole. The salute to the flag is maintained until the flag is unhooked from the rope. Everyone will stand quietly facing the flag until it has been folded and the Color Guard has been dismissed. There are a few rules of flag etiquette that, if remembered, will answer most questions: The American flag should assume a position of prominence – a little higher or furthest right, as it looks out. In the order of proceedings it is ―God before Country,‖ that is, prayer is offered before the Pledge of Allegiance is recited. Out of an appreciation for those who have given their lives on behalf of our freedom, we should respect and revere the flag, not worship it. DIALOGUE TO BE USED BY THE COLOR GUARD RAISING OF THE FLAG ―Please stand for the presentation of the Colors‖ ―Color Guard advance‖ ―Color Guard post the Colors‖ ―Please join us in reciting the Pledge of Allegiance and the singing of (a patriotic song*)‖ ―Color Guard dismissed‖ RETIRING OF THE FLAG ―Please stand for the Presentation of the Colors‖ ―Color Guard advance‖ ―Please join us in reciting the Pledge of Allegiance and the singing of (a patriotic song*)‖ ―Color Guard retire the Colors‖ * Select a patriotic song from pages at the back of the manual. PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE TO THE FLAG ―I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.‖ NOTE: When the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag is recited, stand at attention, face the flag, and salute the flag. Colorado Columbine Girls State 12 COLORADO CENTENNIAL STATE COLORADO – Joined the Union as the 38th state on August 1, 1876, 100 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The state is named for the Colorado River; river so named because of its brownish-red color. In Spanish, Colorado means colored ruddy or red. The river must have been at flood stage, since the water is clear at other seasons. MOTTO – ―Nil Sine Numine‖ -- Nothing Without Providence or Deity. Adopted in 1861 for the territorial seal. NICKNAME – Centennial State or Silver State; Colorful Colorado. GREAT SEAL – Heraldic shield with snow-capped peaks and miner's device; fascias bear words, ―Union and Constitution‖; crest holds eye of God. Adopted in 1877. FLOWER – The white and sky-blue Rocky Mountain Columbine. The flower is protected by law in Colorado on all public lands. Adopted in 1899. BIRD – Lark Bunting, a native of western United States east of Rockies; averages seven inches long and winters in Mexico. The bird sings in flight. Adopted in 1931. SONG – ―Where the Columbines Grown‖ with words and music by Arthur J. Flynn of Denver. Adopted in 1915. ―Rocky Mountain High‖ with words and music by John Denver of Aspen. Adopted in 2007. TREE – Colorado Blue Spruce, grows below 9,000 feet and grows to a height of 100 feet and up to two feet in diameter. Adopted in 1939. INSECT – Colorado Hairstreak Butterfly, native to Colorado. Adopted 1996. ROCK – Yule Marble, quarried in Colorado, used in many monuments in Washington DC, including the Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers. Adopted 1971. THE COLORADO STATE FLAG Originated by Denver Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. Adopted by the Eighteenth General Assembly on May 6, 1911. Bill introduced by Senator W.H. Sharpley. The design by A.C. Carson, President, Ohio Society of Colorado. LETTER ―C‖ GOLD Capital for Colorado Greatest Gold State Centennial State All the Year – Sunshine Columbine State One Columbine color One color more than the US Flag RED Color ―Colorado‖ in YALE BLUE Spanish All the Year – Blue Sky WHITE One Columbine Color Greatest Silver State Eternal Mountain Snow Colorado Columbine Girls State 13 GIRLS STATE GUIDE TO PUBLIC SPEAKING By Shawnalee A. Whitney, Assoc. Professor of Communication at the University of Alaska Anchorage & alum of Colorado Columbine Girls State MANAGING STAGE FRIGHT What is stage fright? You may be one of the lucky few who claim they have never the lives of others and the world around you. Why would you want to experienced stage fright, never been afraid of addressing an audience. miss out on such an opportunity? Reset and reframe your self-talk Then again, it‘s more likely that you‘re one of the vast majority of from ―I HAVE TO give a speech‖ to ―I GET TO give a speech.‖ people who acknowledge a sense of nervousness when addressing an REMEMBER THAT NERVOUSNESS IS A NATURAL audience. Communication scholars use the term ―communication Sensations of fear or nervousness are signs that your mind and body apprehension‖ to refer to feelings of dread, anxiety and nervousness are gearing up for a challenge. Others experience the same types of associated with various communication behaviors. Occasionally this physical and psychological sensations associated with nervousness sense of apprehension may be so significant it keeps people from about public speaking. Remember, your speech is important! It may communicating with others in a wide range of settings. Most people, provide information to others, help others, or convince the audience however, suffer from a type of communication apprehension to support you. Think positively about the good that can come for associated with a particular context, like public speaking. That type you and/or for others as a result of your speech. of communication apprehension is better known as ―stage fright.‖ DEVELOP THE PRESENTATION What causes stage fright? As soon as you know you‘ll be giving a presentation, begin thinking Stage fright is common experience for people who make about it. Carefully analyze your audience, then frame or focus the presentations. In fact, The Book of Lists reports the fear of public presentation. Do what is necessary to offer a well-developed, well- speaking ranks higher than a fear of heights and the fear of death. So, supported presentation. Consider whether or not your presentation if you experience nervousness before speaking in front of an would benefit from campaign materials or audio-visual aids. Give audience, you are not alone! Even experienced speakers and yourself adequate time to prepare them so they appear well- performers often feel anxiety in front of an audience. Early in his constructed and will have the desired effect. career, rock star Rod Stewart was so fearful about performing for audiences sometimes he refused to come out from behind the PRACTICE THE PRESENTATION speakers during concerts! President Ronald Reagan, singer Barbara Once the speech is formulated, begin practicing. You may practice Streisand, and actress Meryl Streep have all acknowledged a sense of the speech silently, running through it in your head, but there is no nervousness when speaking before a group. Sir Lawrence Olivier, substitute for practicing the speech out loud. Give it in front of a one of the most gifted actors of the twentieth century, noted that one mirror, to your roommate, to a junior counselor, or to your counselor. of the worst performances of his life was one where he did not experience stage fright. Olivier realized that the sensations of fear or STAGE II – SHORTLY BEFORE THE SPEECH anxiety that often accompany standing in front of an audience are RELAX YOURSELF natural, normal and to be expected. Those sensations stem from a Mental and physical relaxation before a speech is important. combination of physiological and psychological responses to a Mentally, remind yourself that you‘ve done significant preparation challenging situation; they are there to help you meet that challenge. and that people are (or will be) interested in what you have to say. Just as animals experience a classic ―fight or flight‖ response when Physically, it never hurts to take a few deep breaths while you‘re they facing a threat, the human being‘s mind and body gear up for the going to the location, walking down the hall, or being introduced. challenges inherent in performing for others. The physical and REMIND YOURSELF OF THE SPEECH’S IMPORTANCE psychological symptoms of stage fright come from an increased flow Franklin D. Roosevelt said, ―we have nothing to fear but fear itself.‖ of adrenaline. If you have experienced ―butterflies in your stomach‖ Remember, what you have to say is important and you‘re the only or ―cotton mouth‖ before a speech, you‘ve experienced stage fright. one who can do it at this point in time, at this moment. The audience Other common symptoms of stage fright include feeling shaky, is counting on you and you are counting on yourself. Rise to the perspiration, increased heart rate, forgetfulness, and mannerisms that occasion! suggest nervousness such as playing with your notes, wringing your hands, jingling change in your pocket, and so on. ENGAGE IN CONSTRUCTIVE SELF-TALK Tell yourself that you can do it, and you will! Never underestimate What can I do about stage fright? the power of positive thought. Odd as it may sound, you do not want stage fright to go away entirely. Those sensations are there for a reason; they indicate that TAKE YOUR MIND OFF THE SPEECH your mind and body are gearing up to meet the challenge of Think of other things or listen to other speakers while you are waiting addressing an audience. The way to combat stage fright is to find for your turn to address the audience. ways to harness that extra adrenaline, put that extra energy to work for you, and not allow the sensations associated with a fear of public STAGE III – DURING THE PRESENTATION speaking to get the best of you. In other words, the key is getting your GET OFF TO A GOOD START butterflies to fly in formation! MOVE OCCASIONALLY, BUT DON’T PACE Developing and maintaining a sense of control over the sensations FOCUS ON SUPPORTIVE AUDIENCE MEMBERS associated with stage fright occurs at four stages in the process of USE CAMPAIGN MATERIALS WHERE NEEDED constructing and giving a speech. Review the four stages provided KNOW HOW YOU’LL CONCLUDE here, as well as the specific actions you may take along the way to help you feel a greater sense of control in public speaking. STAGE IV – AFTER THE PRESENTATION STAGE I – LONG BEFORE YOU GIVE A SPEECH REVIEW THE EXPERIENCE What went well? What will you change the next time you speak? REFRAME THE WAY YOU THINK ABOUT SPEAKING Review the positive and not-so-positive dimensions of the Public speaking often affords you a precious opportunity to change experience. Learn from your successes as well as from the speeches you‘d rather forget. Colorado Columbine Girls State 14 DELIVERING THE SPEECH certain way or speeches for/against legislation. Knowing that persuasion is the purpose of your speech, you should develop a clear Select a method of delivery thesis that focuses the purpose of the speech (i.e. ‗Vote Kelly Smith There are four methods of delivery: Memorized, Manuscript, for CU Regent!‖ or ―I urge you to support this bill.‖) Impromptu, and Extemporaneous. With the exception of the introduction and conclusion, do not memorize speeches for Girls Develop your main points and subpoints State. Memorized speeches are tricky because stage fright may cause Developing the concept of your speech is very important. Your job your mind to go completely blank, completely derailing your train of will be easier if you always begin by constructing the body or main thought! Speeches delivered from a full manuscript are equally points of the speech first. You may jot down ideas about the problematic; they limit eye contact with the audience and may make introduction and conclusion as you prepare the body, but once you‘ve you seem tense rather than friendly, relaxed and confident. The only constructed the body, the introduction and conclusion will virtually exception to the manuscript rule might be a speech where the speaker write themselves! Most Girls State speeches are fairly brief, so you wants to get every word out exactly as it has been written, such as probably have time to address only 2-3 main points. Those points with an inaugural address from the Girls State Governor. might be reasons for your position, campaign themes or issues, or your unique qualifications for a position. If you choose to highlight Most Girls State speeches should be extemporaneous in nature. In your qualifications when running for office, remember that many other words, prepare for the speech, develop your ideas, and practice, Girls State delegates have served in student government, been club but deliver the speech from a small note card - a 3‖ x 5‖ card works officers, and so on. Look for ways to emphasize what is unique about well. The note card should be easy for you to read and should include you. Once you know the main points, flesh out your ideas with key words to keep your thoughts on track. Don‘t write the speech out subpoints that illustrate and support your main points. word for word on the card; it may confuse you and you may end up reading the card to the audience rather than speaking with them. Use Organize the main points only one side of the card, so the audience is not distracted by what is Once you know your main points, determine the most effective order on the back. In extemporaneous speaking, the words you say might or organizational pattern. Employing ―signposts‖ and ―transitions‖ vary slightly each time you give the speech, but the ideas will be will help the audience follow your train of thought. Signposts are there. With this approach you‘ll seem relaxed, and will have better words that indicate where you are in the speech, such as ―first, next, eye contact with the audience. finally,‖ or ―first, second, third.‖ Transitions are phrases that link main points: ―now that I‘ve explained X, let me turn to Y.‖ Memorize the introduction and conclusion The first minute or so of the speech is usually the worst in terms of Develop the introduction and conclusion stage fright. The last minute of the speech is the most important for In general, the introduction and the conclusion should each comprise leaving a strong impression with the audience. Consequently, I no more than 10-20% of your total speaking time. For a 5 minute recommend memorizing the introduction and the conclusion. While speech, limit yourself to 30-45 seconds for the introduction and the this may seem like it contradicts the information above, it is helpful same for the conclusion, saving the remaining 3+ minutes for the to memorize these parts of your speech. With a memorized body of the speech where you‘ll develop your main points. The introduction, you can just take a deep breath, put your mind on introduction should include: (1) an attention getter (a story, ―autopilot‖ and go for it. With a memorized conclusion, you will not quotation, or rhetorical question that draws the audience into the face the awkward silence of an audience that doesn‘t realize you‘re speech), (2) a thesis statement (one sentence that summarizes what finished. Find a solid last line (―Remember, a vote for Kelly is a vote you want the audience to know or do), (3) a brief preview of the main for education - Kelly Smith for CU Regent!‖) that will stay with your points (―There are three reasons you should vote - first, second, third audience after the speech and make sure your tone of voice indicates ...‖). The conclusion should include: (1) a brief review of the main that you‘ve finished. points, (2) a reminder of the thesis, calling the audience to action, (3) an attention getter. Occasionally, you may combine the thesis and the Relax and behave confidently preview or review. For example, in the phrase ―I urge you to defeat Even if you are trembling on the inside, smile, look your audience in this legislation because it is discriminatory and harms children,‖ you the eye and give the best speech you know how to give. The audience are stating your position (defeat the measure) while giving reasons may not even sense your nervousness. Reduce stage fright by for your position (1-discrimination, 2-harms children). focusing eye contact on supportive listeners such as women from your city. Slowly move/shift your eye contact throughout the room. QUESTION AND ANSWER SESSIONS Ask women from your city to sit in different parts of the room so you have familiar faces throughout the audience. Don‘t look over their While a question and answer session may be challenging, the key is heads or at the back wall! People know when you‘re not looking to relax, be yourself, and think before you respond. You may start a them in the eye and it makes you appear less confident, less response by saying, ―That‘s a great question.‖ or ―I‘m glad you asked connected to your audience. Use natural gestures and occasional me that,‖ showing the audience how you feel about the question and movement to help you relax and emphasize your ideas. Movement buying a bit of time to collect your thoughts. If necessary, restate the should be purposeful; don‘t pace like a caged lion. If you feel a bit question in your own words (―she wants to know if…‖); this ensures shaky, stand with your dominant foot slightly forward and your feet the entire audience has heard the question and keeps the same about shoulder-width apart to help you feel more ―grounded.‖ Keep questions from being asked again. If you get a question from your knees relaxed - locking them can lead to blackout. Finally, don‘t someone who seems ―hostile‖ to you or your position, answer as forget to breathe. Take a few deep breaths before you begin as well as politely as you can and then move on. If they continue, suggest that a good breath between points and you‘ll feel less light-headed, more you might be able to talk in more detail with them later. Don‘t be sure of yourself. Above all, remember to be yourself, be sincere, and afraid to admit that you don‘t know the answer to a question. Rather speak with conviction. In other words, say what you mean, and mean than fumbling through a response, be honest and explain that the what you say. issue is not something you‘ve considered. No one has every answer all the time and it‘s better to admit it when you don‘t know. Finally, PREPARING THE SPEECH use verbal and nonverbal cues to follow up with the person who asked the question to ensure you‘ve answered the question. Determine the purpose and thesis of your speech In general, a speech may inform, persuade, or entertain; sometimes it will do all three! At Girls State, most speeches are persuasive, as they are frequently campaign speeches that call for the audience to vote a Colorado Columbine Girls State 15 COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE GOVERNMENT The college campus is your residence for this week, and Colorado Columbine Girls State is yours to govern. We know your stay will be a worthwhile learning experience. The government and laws of this simulated state will operate as you wish and will be as idealistic as you, the individual citizen, make it. Remember that as long as the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights is our basic law, you, as a citizen have power. The ballot is your protection and your power for good representative government. CITY, COUNTY AND STATE GOVERNMENT At Colorado Columbine Girls State we will give you a small sample of City, County and State government based on Colorado laws. All citizens take part in the three levels of government. When registered, each delegate is assigned to a City and County based on location in the dorms. Residents of each City nominate and elect a Mayor and two City Councilwomen. The remainder of the city offices are appointed by the Mayor and City Councilwomen. The cities of Colorado Columbine Girls State are organized in accordance with the council form of government. Each city serves as its own precinct. Every girl will attend her County and State Assemblies as a delegate. Candidates will be designated at the Assemblies to be placed on their party's ballot. To be designated as a candidate on the ballot, a candidate must receive at least 20 percent of the vote of the assembled delegates. CAMPAIGNING Be enthusiastic about your campaign, but do not use crayon, chalk or paint of any kind to deface the building or property of the campus. Use paper and cardboard to make your signs and put up campaign materials with masking tape so all materials can be removed easily, leaving no defacing marks on walls or doors. Keep campaign signs within the confines of the dorms. Do not post signs outside the dorm area. POLITICAL PARTIES The two political parties at Colorado Columbine Girls State are Federalists and Nationalists. There is no provision at Colorado Columbine Girls State for unaffiliated voters. LEGISLATURE Each citizen is assigned to either the Senate or the House of Representatives at the time of registration. There will be a majority party in each body. The letters S or H on the name badge indicate a Senator or member of the House of Representatives. (If there is an S1 or S2 this indicates Senate 1 or 2. If there is an H1 or H2 this indicates House 1 or 2.) Senate and House committee assignments are noted on the name badge by number. Colorado Columbine Girls State 16 PARLIAMENTARY LAW Compiled by Joanie Shoemaker and Loretta Simonson, Members of the National Association of Parliamentarians “The application of parliamentary law is the best method yet devised to enable assemblies of any size, with due regard for every member’s opinion, to arrive at the general will on a maximum number of questions of varying complexity in a minimum time and under all kinds of internal climate ranging from total harmony to hardened or impassioned division of opinion.” ~ Henry M. Robert The rules comprising parliamentary law were developed in England around the fourteenth century. The rules were brought to this country by the American colonists, who adapted them for use in town meetings, colonial legislatures and other public and private assemblies. These rules, modified for use in various settings, have remained essentially the same throughout the centuries. General Henry M. Robert (1837-1923), an Army engineer who graduated from West Point in 1857, refined the rules into the form used today in deliberative assemblies. Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR) is the most widely recognized work on parliamentary procedure. Parliamentary law is founded on the following principles: · Justice and courtesy for all · Right of the majority to rule · Right of the minority to be heard The objectives of parliamentary law are to: · Expedite business · Maintain order · Insure equality for all members · Accomplish the purpose for which a group is organized Individuals who look forward to full participation in the organizations to which they belong can greatly increase their effectiveness by having an understanding of parliamentary law. Membership in an organization generally includes the right to full participation in its proceedings including making motions, taking part in debate, voting, serving on committees and the right to hold office. Committees often perform much of the work of an organization. A committee is a body of one or more persons elected or appointed to consider, investigate or take action on specified matters. Committees are of two types: Standing and Special. Standing committees perform ongoing duties and serve for a time coinciding with the terms of the officers. Special committees are appointed to undertake specific tasks. They cease to exist when their work is completed and they have made their final report to the assembly. Committee meetings are informal. The committee chair may make motions and vote: motions do not require a second; and there are no limits on debate. Informal discussion is permitted while no motion is pending. When a motion comes out of committee it does not require a second because the motion was created by the committee (i.e. more than one person thinks this motion is appropriate). A motion coming out of a committee is understood to be automatically seconded. An organization may adopt an order of business tailored specifically to its own needs. The agenda is a predetermined sequence of items of business to be covered at a specific meeting. An agenda is a list of items of business to come before the assembly. The following is an example of an agenda: 1. Reading and Approval of Minutes 2. Reports of Officers, Boards and Standing Committees 3. Reports of Special Committees 4. Special Orders (matters which have been previously assigned a type of special priority) 5. Unfinished Business and General Orders (matters previously introduced which have come over from the preceding meeting) 6. New Business Colorado Columbine Girls State 17 Content of minutes: 1. The kind of meeting: regular, special, adjourned regular or adjourned special; 2. The name of the society or assembly; 3. The date and time of the meeting, and the place if it is not always the same; 4. The fact that the regular chair and secretary were present or, in their absence, the names of the persons who substituted for them; 5. Whether the minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved — as read, or as corrected — the date of that meeting being given if it was other than a regular business meeting; 6. All main motions; 7. All points of order and appeals; and 8. The hour of adjournment. A typical financial statement: Balance on Hand June 1, 2009 $539.40 Receipts Dues $250.00 Proceeds from Fundraiser $ 94.52 Total Receipts $344.52 Total $883.92 Disbursements Stationery and Printing $ 84.67 Postage $ 32.60 Total Disbursements $117.27 Balance on Hand July 4, 2009 $766.65 MOTIONS The following five classes of motions are used to conduct business: Main, Subsidiary, Privileged, Incidental, and Motions That Bring a Question Again Before the Assembly. Business is introduced through the making of main motions. While a main motion is pending, many other motions are in order. The regular method of voting is by voice. The presiding officer first calls for the affirmative vote and then for the negative vote. A voice vote that is not conclusive can be retaken by rising. If the rising vote is still inconclusive, a rising counted vote can be taken either on the initiative of the chair or by vote of the assembly. To insure accuracy on a close vote, or to provide secrecy, a ballot vote can be taken. A majority is ―more than half.‖ A two-thirds vote is ―at least two-thirds.‖ One quick way to determine 2/3 is to take the number of no votes times two, the result is the number of yes votes required for the motion to pass. Votes are computed based on the number of votes cast, not on the number of members present. Unless an organization has its own rules which differ from the norm, a majority vote is required to take action, with a two-thirds vote required to undo or change previous action or to limit members‘ rights, such as debate or the making of nominations. In routine matters, the technique of unanimous consent, or general consent as it is also known, can be used by the presiding office to expedite business. Example: ―If there is no objection, this meeting will be tape recorded for the convenience of the secretary (pause). Since there is no objection, the meeting will be tape recorded.‖ A member who objects to the action being proposed can call out ―I object!‖ If there is even one objection, the matter must be opened to discussion and a vote taken. Colorado Columbine Girls State 18 A resolution is a main motion which is presented in writing because of its length, importance, or complexity. It should deal with only one subject. A preamble consisting of one or more ―whereas‖ clauses may be used followed by one or more ―resolving‖ clauses. The following is an example of a properly worded and punctuated resolution: Whereas, Attendance at Girls State is a unique privilege; and Whereas, the Girls State pin is an important symbol of this educational experience; therefore be it Resolved, That Girls State attendees be encouraged to wear their Girls State pins at all times to indicate that they have participated in the Girls State program. EIGHT STEPS OF A MOTION: 1. Member rises and addresses chair. 2. Member is recognized by chair. 3. Member proposes motion (―I move...‖). 4. Another member seconds the motion. 5. Chair states motion. 6. Chair calls for discussion. 7. Chair takes the vote. 8. Chair announces result. THE THREE PROCESSES OF AMENDING: 1. Inserting or adding 2. Striking out 3. Striking out and inserting (combination of first two processes), or, Substituting, which applies only to paragraphs ―I move to amend the motion by....‖ ―I move to amend the amendment by....‖ Colorado Columbine Girls State 19 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Colorado Columbine Girls State 20 INDIVIDUAL MOTIONS PURPOSE Bold are the most commonly used motions at Girls State FIVE privileged motions To fix a time to which to adjourn Sets the time for a continued meeting To adjourn Closes the meeting To take a recess Establishes a brief break Raise a question of privilege Asks urgent question regarding rights Call for orders of the day Requires that the meeting follow the agenda SEVEN subsidiary Motions To lay on the table Puts the motion aside for later consideration Previous question Ends debate and moves directly to the vote To limit or extend debate Changes the debate limits To postpone definitely Puts off the motion to a specific time To commit or refer Refers the motion to a committee To amend Proposes a change to the main motion To postpone indefinitely (kill) Kills the motion MAIN MOTION SOME INCIDENTAL MOTIONS – non ranking Appeal Challenges the ruling of the chair Suspend the rules Allows the group to violate the rules Requests that the rules be followed; requires the chair to Point of order rule Object to consideration of the question Keeps the motion from being considered Division of assembly (rising vote) Requires a standing vote Point of information or parliamentary inquiry Allows a member to ask a question about business at hand Requests - read a paper Withdraw a motion Removes a motion from consideration Division of a question Consider by paragraph or seriatim Close nomination or polls MOTIONS THAT BRING A QUESTION BEFORE THE ASSEMBLY AGAIN Reconsider Considers a motion again Take from the table Resumes considering a motion that was laid on the table Repeals a previously adopted motion or amends it after it Discharge a committee was adopted Repeals a previously adopted motion or amends it after it Rescind: amend something previously adopted was adopted Colorado Columbine Girls State 21 HOW TO STATE THE MOTION DESCRIPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS In order when Needs a Vote Can be Debatable Amendable another has second Required reconsidered the floor I move that when we adjourn, we adjourn to meet No Yes No Yes Maj. Yes I move that we adjourn No Yes No No Maj. No I move that we take a … recess No Yes No Yes Maj. No I rise to a question of privilege Yes No No No Chair No I call for orders of the day Yes No No No Chair No I move to lay the question on the table No Yes No No 2/3 No I move the previous question No Yes No No 2/3 Yes I move to limit (or extend) debate to… No Yes No Yes 2/3 Yes I move to postpone the question until… No Yes Yes Yes Maj. Yes I move to refer the question to a committee No Yes Yes Yes Maj. Yes I move to amend by… No Yes Yes Yes Maj. Yes I move to postpone the question indefinitely No Yes Yes No Maj. Affirm I move that…. No Yes Yes Yes Maj. Yes I appeal the decision of the chair Yes Yes Yes* No Maj.* Yes I move to suspend the rule that states… No Yes No No 2/3 No I rise to a point of order Yes No No No Chair No I object to the consideration of the question Yes No No No 2/3 Neg. Division or I call for division Yes No No No None No I rise to a point of information or Parliamentary Inquiry Yes No No No Chair No I request permission to read a paper Yes* Yes No* No Maj. Yes I request permission to withdraw the… Yes* No No* No Maj. Neg. I move to divide the question No Yes No Yes Maj. No I move to consider by paragraph No Yes No Yes Maj. No I move to close nominations (or polls) No Yes No Yes 2/3 No I move to reconsider the vote on…. Yes Yes Yes* No Maj. No I move to take the question from the table No Yes No No Maj. No I move that the committee be discharged No Yes Yes Yes 2/3 Neg. I move to rescind the action taken… No Yes Yes Yes 2/3 Neg. Colorado Columbine Girls State 22 CITY GOVERNMENT The State of Colorado is divided into 64 smaller units called counties, in which are located various municipalities known as cities or towns. A municipality may have boundaries identical with those of a county (Denver), it may be located in more than one county (Aurora), or it may be entirely within the boundaries of a single county, as are most the towns and cities in Colorado. A city is a ―municipal corporation‖ occupying a definite locality and possessed of certain powers derived from the State. Those powers are derived from (1) special acts of the legislature granting a charter to the particular city, (2) from the general laws of the state, passed or enacted by the legislature, pursuant to which the inhabitants of a particular locality not within the limits of a city or incorporated town may become such a city or incorporated town, or (3) from the terms of Article 20 of the Constitution or (3) from the terms of Article 20 (Home Rule Cities and Towns) of the Constitution of the State of Colorado. Denver and numerous other cities of Colorado that have chosen to adopt a charter under Article 20 are popularly known as ―Home Rule‖ cities. These cities have exclusive authority over matters of municipal concern. They must work with state and county government, but they can determine their own powers. A home rule charter is equal to the State Constitution and in cases of conflict, the charter supersedes the State Constitution in local matters. Municipal corporations existing under the general laws are divided into three classes: first class cities, second class cities, and incorporated towns. These cities and towns have only those powers conferred by general state laws, while a city operating under a legislative charter has only those powers specified in its charter and such other powers as the legislature has designated applicable under such a charter. City of the first class not existing under a special charter is governed by a Mayor who is its chief executive officer and head of its fire and police departments, and by a City Council who are elected from the residents of divisions of the city known as ―Wards‖. Other elected city officials include a City Treasurer, City Attorney, City Auditor, City Clerk, and City Engineer. City of the second class not existing under a special charter is governed by a Mayor and a City Council of not more than twelve members, two elected from each of not more than six Wards. Mayor is the presiding officer of the City Council, and has a vote when there is a tie vote (except on the passage of an ordinance). Other elected officials include a City Clerk and City Treasurer. The Mayor and Council appoint the officers deemed necessary for the efficient administration of the city. An incorporated town is governed by a Board of Trustees, consisting of one Mayor and six Trustees, who must be qualified electors residing within the town limits. The Mayor has no vote, except in case of a tie vote. The Board of Trustees appoints a Recorder (who also acts as Town Clerk), a Treasurer, a Town Attorney, or they may provide for the election of such officers, and may also appoint any officers they deem necessary for good government. Territorial charter cities in Colorado operate under charters granted by the Territorial Legislature prior to statehood in 1876, (Blackhawk, Central City, and Georgetown). These cities assume that their charters, granted prior to statehood, supersede the powers of the legislature. They have attempted to operate independently. However, the State Supreme Court, in specific rulings, have upheld laws of Colorado over the territorial charter. FORMS OF CITY GOVERNMENT IN COMMON USE IN COLORADO 1. Weak Mayor Form 2. Strong Mayor Form 3. Commission Form 4. City Manager Form Colorado Columbine Girls State 23 WEAK MAYOR FORM 1. The weak Mayor form generally has the following characteristics: 2. A large council is elected by wards or precincts or at-large, or both. 3. An elected Mayor 4. Most administrative heads are elected, including Treasurer, City Attorney, and some or all department heads. 5. Elected administrative boards. This form is undesirable as it lends itself to political machines and does not provide successfully for competent departments. STRONG MAYOR FORM 1. The strong Mayor form generally has the following characteristics: 2. A city council elected by wards or precincts, or at-large, or both. 3. A Mayor elected at large. 4. The Mayor has the power to hire and fire most of or all department heads. 5. The Mayor prepares the budget for council consideration. Chief weaknesses of this plan are: 1. Difficulty of electing Mayors who have real executive ability and knowledge of the job. 2. Opportunity for the Mayor to build up a powerful personal political machine. This form places the responsibility for efficient government on one official. However, only occasionally is a Mayor elected who is competent to direct the complicated business of a city. When this happens, this form of government is at its best. There are few people who are capable enough to run a large city organization and also are good enough politicians to be elected. Another danger in the strong Mayor form is the possibility of a deadlock between the Mayor and Council. The Council controls the purse strings, and it may stop the Mayor at any point. Political differences between the Mayor and Council sometimes seriously impede day to day functions, which are so essential to the ordinary progress of city life. COMMISSION PLAN The commission plan is the least used form of city government. Under this form, the city is more like a business organization under the control of five commissioners elected by the people. Each commissioner heads a department. The commissioners constitute a board of trustees, with the chair selected by the commissioners to serve as Mayor. This is a simple plan that citizens can understand. No public official can shift responsibility to another, and city government is carried out according to business methods. Fewer candidates on the ballot let the voters know for whom they are voting. Faults in the commission plan include the fact there is no executive head of the government, with no brake on activities of each department. There is no one to make quick decisions in case of emergency. There is not one government, but five little governments, all of which may be off in different directions. This plan elects people who are popular among the citizens, not because they are able to govern well in the various city departments. There is no check on spending; therefore each commissioner may be nearsighted in estimating the needs of his or her department. Frequently one commissioner succeeds in building up a personal political machine so powerful that all other commissioners can be dominated. Colorado Columbine Girls State 24 CITY MANAGER PLAN This form of government may be organized under a city of the second class. No Mayor is elected by popular vote, but a council is elected consisting of two members from each ward and one from the city at large. The council chooses one of its members as chair, who is given the title of Mayor. The Mayor is recognized as the head of the City government for ceremonial and certain other purposes. The council also elects a City Attorney and police magistrate. The Council appoints a chief administrative officer known as ―City Manager,‖ who is usually a businessman or engineer known to the public. The City Manager appoints and removes all officers and employees in the administrative service of the City, except the City Attorney and police magistrate. Council members may not request the appointment or dismissal of any officer or employee by the City Manager, but the Council may remove the City Manager for cause. It is the duty of the City Manager to propose to the Council a plan of administrative organization of the City and appointment of officers necessary for efficient city administration so proper ordinances may be enacted. Choice of a City Manager does not depend on politics. S/he must be an able person to hold the job. S/he holds the responsibilities of government so the people know who must answer to them. This plan makes governing a profession, although the people are often unwilling to pay a high salary to secure a manager of high-grade ability and experience. DUTIES OF CITY OFFICIALS The cities at Colorado Columbine Girls State are organized in accordance with the Mayor and Council (Strong Mayor) form of government. A Mayor and two Councilwomen are elected from each city and comprise the elected city officials of the Girls State cities. All newly elected officials will be given the oath of office immediately after the election results have been announced. All local authority will rest in the hands of these city officials. OATH OF OFFICE: (to be administered by the City Counselor) ―I, (name) DO SOLEMNLY SWEAR (OR AFFIRM) THAT I WILL SUPPORT THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF COLORADO, AND THE CONSTITUTION OF COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE, AND WILL FAITHFULLY DISCHARGE THE DUTIES OF (office) OF (city) TO THE BEST OF MY ABILITY.‖ NOTE: After the installation of the city officials, the Mayor and Councilwomen will meet with their City Counselor who will assist them in developing a city agenda and will advise them about their duties while at Girls State. As Chief Executive of the city, the Mayor shall: 1. Preside at all City Council Meetings 2. Appoint the following positions with the assistance of the Councilwomen ATTORNEY: Gives legal advice to the Mayor and other City officers. Defends the City against lawsuits and represents the City when it is a Plaintiff before any Court. Prosecutes any citizen charged with a city ordinance violation. BANNER BEARER: Responsible for the care of the City Banner. The City Banner is to be taken to all functions outside of the city and made visible to enable all city citizens to locate their fellow city citizens and specific city gatherings. CLERK: Official record keeper of the city. Attends all meetings of the City Council. Keeps a record of its proceedings and submits a list to the City Counselors, giving the name of all elected and appointed officers in the city. Assists in securing election supplies. Reads correspondence at Council meetings. COLOR GUARD: Responsible for acting as the Color Guard for all assigned flag ceremonies (generally each county is assigned to one day during the week of Girls State). EDITOR(S) FOR COLUMBINE LEAF: Responsible for submitting articles to the official Girls State Newspaper, The Columbine Leaf, which includes information pertaining to her city. The contents of her articles are to be pre-approved by the Counselors in charge of The Columbine Leaf. The names of elected and appointed city officials as well as various city ordinances are suggested topics for articles. Colorado Columbine Girls State 25 ENGINEER: Investigates the advisability of ordinances and assists the City Attorney in writing city ordinances. FIRE CHIEF: Appoints the city fire fighters. Inspects for fire hazards in the city, checks fire escapes and fire-fighting equipment, and sees that the citizens are informed of such. Submits an ordinance as to city fire regulations. NEVER USE THE WORD “FIRE” IN YOUR FIRE DRILLS! HEALTH OFFICER: Alert at all times to detect sickness or accidents among her citizens, and to report findings to City Counselor or the Nurse. Make daily sanitary inspections in her city, including conditions of washrooms, toilets, showers, etc. Cooperate with Street Commissioner in morning inspection. She may file a complaint before the Police Chief and may cause the arrest of any citizen who fails to cooperate with sanitary regulations. HOMELAND SECURITY COORDINATOR: Responsible for developing the City Emergency Response Plan so that the city is ready to respond to any event, natural (like a tornado, flood, flu) or man made (chemical, biological). May appoint assistants as needed. POLICE CHIEF: Enforces city ordinances and sees that order is maintained. Appoints patrol officers. Submits ordinances with regard to city regulations. POSTAL CARRIER: Responsible for all mail within the city and assuring that it is delivered to the right person in a timely manner. Mail may include US Mail that comes from the Director‘s Office and mail created by the citizens of Girls State. SPIRIT LEADER: Responsible for developing cheers, posters and activities that help build city unity and help make the city stand out amongst other Girls State cities. STREET COMMISSIONER: Sees that campus, halls (city streets), and rooms are in orderly condition at all times. Appoints assistants as needed. TREASURER: Receives all funds from the City Clerk and other sources. Pays all City bills, upon order of the Council. SAMPLE ORDINANCES WHEREAS, All citizens in the City of _________________ must arise upon first calling at six o‘clock am, SHARP, now, THEREFORE BE IT ENACTED, That if a citizen does not arise on the first calling, she will be required to take a cold shower and later explain at a city meeting why she required extra sleep. ********** BE IT ENACTED, That individuals tried and found guilty of breaking a law or ordinance and subsequently sentenced to a jail term, will be placed in jail under the care and supervision of the Warden, and further, BE IT ENACTED, That a city jail will be constructed by the City Engineer inside the city limits. The jail will employ invisible force beams which will be transmitted from a device built into the ceiling and which will be strong enough to keep the prisoner inside her cell. The beams will not cause physical or mental pain to the prisoners. ********** WHEREAS, Everyone is expected to be free of germs (at least a few of them), now THEREFORE, BE IT ENACTED, That every citizen shall be obliged to take a shower at least three (3) times before the week of Girls State is over, (from Registration to Commencement), and further, BE IT ENACTED, That violator of this ordinance will be subject to a penalty which shall include taking a very hot, steamy shower for at least ten minutes, followed by a five minute cold shower to ―freeze dry‖ her from any invading germs, and further, BE IT ENACTED, That a list will be posted near the Showers where everyone will check in at least three (3) times during the week of Girls State. Colorado Columbine Girls State 26 CITY ELECTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE CITY OFFICIALS Counselor presiding: City of: County of: The following duly elected and appointed city officials will administer government at Girls State, each having her own duties. MAYOR AND COUNCILWOMEN MAY NOT RUN FOR ANOTHER ELECTED OFFICE. OFFICES TO BE FILLED BY ELECTION OFFICE NAME HOMETOWN Mayor Councilwomen Councilwomen OFFICES TO BE FILLED BY APPOINTMENT Appointed by the Mayor and approved by the Council (may run for elected office at County or State level) ATTORNEY BANNER BEARER CLERK COLOR GUARD EDITOR FOR COLUMBINE LEAF ENGINEER FIRE CHIEF HEALTH OFFICER HOMELAND SECURITY COORDINATOR POLICE CHIEF POSTAL CARRIER SPIRIT LEADER STREET COMMISSIONER TREASURER Colorado Columbine Girls State 27 ELECTION PROCESS IN THE STATE OF COLORADO Precinct Caucus: Precincts are the smallest political unit in the state and are based in neighborhoods. Caucuses are held the third Tuesday of March of every even-numbered year and are coordinated by each political party. The meetings are held in private homes, in schools, or other public facilities such as churches. The locations are posted on the buildings and in the newspapers at least two weeks prior to caucus night. Anyone can attend a Precinct Caucus. To be eligible to participate in the caucus, it is required you be a registered voter, registered with a party for 60 days, and a resident of the precinct for 30 days prior to the meeting. The Precinct is the starting point for anyone seeking elective public or party offices. It also is the starting place for anyone seeking to become actively involved in the political process. The meetings are informal and brief. Resolutions to be included in the party platform are brought to the caucus, Precinct Committee People are chosen and delegates to the County Assembly are elected. The number of delegates for the County Assembly each precinct can elect is determined by the voter turnout in the last presidential election. The higher the turnout, the higher number of delegates the Precinct can elect to attend the County Assembly. By attending your Precinct Caucus, you can have an impact on determining the political future of your community. Committee people, usually two per precinct, help to coordinate party activities and are members of the County Central Committee. They recommend names for party workers for appointment as Election Judges. There are from three to six judges representing each political party at each polling place on Election Day. Both parties are equally represented at the polls. Committee people are responsible for helping to ―get out the vote‖ on Election Day. Candidates often will call on committee people to help coordinate phone calls, deliver campaign materials, and other activities involved in campaigning for office. The committee people serve for two years and are responsible for the next caucus. Delegates are elected to attend the State, Judicial and Congressional Assemblies. Unaffiliated voters cannot participate in the Precinct Caucus, but can vote in the Primary and General Elections. County Assembly: Delegates to the County Assembly are elected at the Precinct Caucus. At the County Assembly, delegates nominate candidates for county offices and choose delegates to other assemblies. A candidate must receive at least 30% of the assembly vote to be placed on the party‘s primary ballot. Resolutions for the Party Platform are presented to the delegates at the County Assembly and approved for passage for consideration for the State Party Platform. State Assembly: At the State Assembly candidates are nominated for statewide office, delegates to the National Convention are elected, and planks for the State Party Platform are considered. Congressional District Assembly: At the Congressional District Assembly, candidates for Congress and the State Board of education are nominated. Judicial Assembly: At the Judicial assembly, District Attorney is nominated. If a state legislative district is entirely within the county, the delegates will usually nominate candidates for the legislative district at the County Assembly. Usually the Congressional District Assembly is held the night before the State Assembly and all the rest of the assemblies are held the next day at the location of the State Assembly. ELECTION PROCESS AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE At Girls State this process is streamlined. Everyone participates at each level. • Each city is a Precinct • Each citizen is assigned to either the Nationalist or Federalist Party • Everyone is elected to be a delegate to their party‘s County, State, Congressional, and Judicial Assemblies • Each County has an assembly for each Political Party • State, Congressional, and Judicial Assemblies are held at the same time; Nationalist in one room, Federalist in one room. • 20% of the vote is required to be designated to the ballot Colorado Columbine Girls State 28 ELECTION PROCESS AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE FEDERALIST NATIONALIST Each Precinct Each Precinct Holds a Holds a PRECINCT CAUCAUS PRECINCT CAUCAUS To select Delegates to To select Delegates to COUNTY ASSEMBLY COUNTY ASSEMBLY FEDERALIST NATIONALIST COUNTY ASSEMBLY COUNTY ASSEMBLY Designates candidates Designates candidates For County Offices for For County Offices for The Primary Ballot The Primary Ballot FEDERALIST NATIONALIST COUNTY ASSEMBLY COUNTY ASSEMBLY Designates candidates Designates candidates For County Offices for For County Offices for The Primary Ballot The Primary Ballot PRIMARY ELECTION FEDERALIST vs. FEDERALIST NATIONALIST vs. NATIONALIST winner winner GENERAL ELECTION FEDERALIST vs. NATIONALIST Colorado Columbine Girls State 29 PRECINCT CAUCUS The precinct is an area within a city, which is drawn with legal boundaries for voting purposes. Some towns consist of only one or two precincts, whereas the larger cities have many, precincts, sometimes known as districts or wards. At Girls State each city will have one precinct for each party. A precinct caucus is an informal meeting of people within your party, in your own neighborhood, to discuss issues, candidates, and philosophies. At these meetings, delegates to the County Assembly are elected. While precinct caucuses are often misunderstood and poorly attended, they are the level at which eventual candidate selection begins. Democracy starts at this precinct level and allows voters there to select delegates who have common goals and who will select their party‘s primary candidates. This is the beginning of the two-party system. Any person who has been registered for at least three months in a political party may attend and vote. Others may attend but have no vote at the caucus. Precinct caucuses are held all over the state on the first Monday in April of each even numbered year. The caucus is usually held in private homes or small meeting rooms. Newspapers will carry the exact location prior to the caucus. Members of the caucus will proceed to nominate and elect two precinct committee people. These people work directly with the voters in their precinct and are responsible for getting votes for their political party on Election Day. They serve as the leader of their party on the precinct level and are responsible for the next caucus. Their term of office is for two years, but of course at Girls State their term will end after the General Election. In real life committee people recommend supporters of the party to work as election judges. In reality they have about three months to select these judges. At Girls State we must do it at the caucus. Committee people and city officials may also serve, however, the committee people should be busy ―getting out the vote‖ to make sure all their party members cast their ballots. Unaffiliated votes (Independents) are not able to be included in any of this selection process. They may vote in a Primary Election if they appear at the polls and declare a party affiliation at that time. They may also vote in the General Election. No provisions have been made for an Independent political party at Girls State. We are either Nationalists or Federalists. Colorado Columbine Girls State 30 PRECINCT CAUCUS AT GIRLS STATE Each city will hold a Federalist Precinct Caucus and a Nationalist Precinct Caucus. At Girls State every Girls State Citizen will attend her Precinct Caucus. PARTY_______________________ CITY______________________ COUNTY_____________________ The City Counselor will serve as Chairperson for the meeting _____________________________________ 1. Elect a Caucus Secretary to keep minutes of the meeting _______________________________________ 2. At this caucus, each party will elect two people to serve as the Committeewomen. Committeewomen may run for another elected office. Committeewomen help with speeches and posters and act as the party spirit organizers to make sure their party is active on County and State levels. Elect: Committeewoman _____________________________________________________________ Committeewoman _____________________________________________________________ The Committeewomen will select or ask for volunteers for the Election Board. Any person appointed to serve on the Election Board and whose name later appears on the ballot for any County or State office must resign from the Election Board and the vacancy created shall be ﬁlled by appointment of the Committeewomen. 3. Fill the Election Board: Receiving Judges Counting Judges 1. ________________________Rm# ________ 1. _______________________ Rm# _______ 2. ________________________Rm# ________ 2. _______________________ Rm# _______ 3. ________________________Rm# ________ 3. _______________________ Rm# _______ 4. ________________________Rm# ________ 4. _______________________ Rm# _______ 5. ________________________Rm# ________ 5. _______________________ Rm# _______ During even numbered years, the Federalist Party shall During odd numbered years, the Federalist Party shall have: have: 3 Judges on the Receiving Board 2 Judges on the Receiving Board 2 Judges on the Counting Board 3 Judges on the Counting Board and the Nationalist Party shall have: and the Nationalist Party shall have: 2 Judges on the Receiving Board 3 Judges on the Receiving Board 3 Judges on the Counting Board 2 Judges on the Counting Board 4. Election of delegates to the Nationalist or Federalist County Assembly: The Chairperson will entertain a motion to elect Girls State Delegates in the Precinct Caucus to be the Delegates to their County Assembly. Colorado Columbine Girls State 31 RUNNING FOR OFFICE IN THE STATE OF COLORADO There are four ways a candidate can get their name on the ballot in Colorado: (1) Political Party Candidate Nomination (Primary Election), (2) Political Party Candidate Petition (Primary Election), (3) Unaffiliated Candidate Petition (General Election), and (4) Write-in. To be nominated by a political party you must be registered with the party a minimum of twelve months prior to the assembly. Candidates are designated to the ballot by receiving at lest 30% of the vote of the assembly. To gain ballot access by petition, the candidate must be registered with the party for a minimum of twelve months prior to the date of filing the petition. Petitions for US Senator, Governor, Secretary of State and Attorney General require 1,500 signatures per Congressional District. US Representative, State Senator, State Representative, State Board of Education, CU Regent and District Attorney require 1,000 signatures or signatures equaling 30% of the votes cast in the previous primary election for that office. Petition requirements for county offices are determined in each county. An unaffiliated candidate must be registered at least twelve months prior to the date of filing the petition. Number of signatures required for statewide office, 1,000; any Congressional District office, 800; State Senator, 600; State Representative, 400; District Attorney, 650; any County Office, 750. Any person intending to be a write-in candidate for any office above the county level must file an Affidavit of Intent with the Secretary of State. A Primary Election is held in August where each party selects their strongest candidate to run in the General Election in November. Office Age Residence Citizen Term # of Terms US Senator 30 Yes 9 years 6 Voluntary US Representative 25 Yes 7 years 2 Voluntary Governor 30 2 years Yes 4 2 Lt Governor 30 2 years Yes 4 2 Secretary of State 25 2 years Yes 4 2 1 Attorney General 25 2 years Yes 4 2 State Senator 25 1 year Yes 4 2 State Representative 25 1 year Yes 2 4 State Board of Education 18 Yes Yes 6 2 C.U. Regent 18 Yes Yes 6 2 2 District Attorney 18 Yes Yes 4 2 RTD Board of Directors 18 Yes Yes 4 2 1 Shall be a licensed attorney of the Supreme Court of the state in good standing. 2 Shall have been licensed to practice law in the state for the last five years. RUNNING FOR OFFICE AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE At Girls State all candidates are designated to the ballot through the Political Party Candidate Nomination. At each assembly 20% of the vote will be required to be designated to the ballot. Colorado Columbine Girls State 32 COUNTY ASSEMBLY AT COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE At Columbine Girls State, we exemplify the type of governmental activities that are assigned to the County Unit of government in real life. If you are planning to become a candidate for any of the County offices, learn the duties of that office. At Girls State, these offices are used as learning experience, especially in the campaigning process. Please ask the presiding counselor any questions that you may have about this process before the Party Chairman is elected. PROCEDURES FOR COUNTY ASSEMBLY 1. After introductions, roll call will be taken to determine the required number of votes for DESIGNATION to the ballot. To DESIGNATE means to be chosen by the assembly to represent that party on the primary ballot for an elected office. If you are designated for a County office on the Primary ballot, you are not eligible to try for a designation for a State office. If you are a Mayor or City Councilwoman, you are not eligible for designation for a County or State office. 2. Elect a County Party Chairman who will preside over the meeting. She appoints a County Party Secretary and an Assistant Secretary. The County Party Chairman should have a very good understanding of how to use Parliamentary Procedure. County Chairmen and Secretaries MAY RUN for other elected State offices, but if they are designated to appear on the ballot, they must resign as County party officers. The Secretaries must keep an accurate record of votes for each candidate to determine how the names will appear on the Primary ballot. Secretaries must also keep an accurate record of spelling of candidate names. Be sure the chairman and secretaries cast their votes. 3. Designate candidates to appear on Primary ballot for the County offices listed and described. To be DESIGNATED as a candidate on the Primary ballot, you must receive at least 20% of the assembly vote. The assembly will not be allowed to vote again if no candidate receives 20%. In that case, there will be no candidate listed on the ballot for that office for your party. If there is an office you are interested in, you can ask your Precinct Committeewomen or other members of your Precinct to nominate you. The counselor will show you a procedure for voting. Every eligible delegate is encouraged to select and run for the County or State office that best suits her. COUNTY OFFICIALS COUNTY COMMISSIONER(three will be elected per County): (a) County Commissioners are the executive and legislative branch of County government; (b) To a large extent they make laws and regulations and execute the laws and regulations that govern the county; (c) They set the county mill levy, which becomes the basis for the assessment of all county taxes; (d) They appoint the County Attorney, whose duty is to advise the Commissioners in the conduct of their office, and to represent the County in legal matters. COUNTY TREASURER: Primarily responsible for the receipt, care, and disbursement of county funds. Performs tax collecting duties for the State and the County and other units of local government and special districts. COUNTY CLERK AND RECORDER: Primary administrative officer of the county. Records deeds and other legal documents. Serves as Clerk of the Board of County Commissioners. Chief election official for the County. Responsible for many licensing functions. COUNTY SHERIFF: Chief law enforcement official of the county. Appoints Deputy Sheriffs. Arrests violators of all laws. In charge of keeping the peace and enforcing State and County laws within unincorporated areas of the county. COUNTY ASSESSOR: Assesses all property for taxation purposes, except on corporations which are assessed by the State Tax Commission. Colorado Columbine Girls State 33 COUNTY CORONER: Investigates the cause(s) of death where the reason(s) of death are unknown or need further investigation. May hold an inquest, in the presence of a jury, for such investigation. May act as Sheriff in the absence, death, or resignation of the elected Sheriff. COUNTY SURVEYOR: Surveys within the county to settle boundary disputes. Makes preparations for construction of bridges, streets, highways, etc. STATE SENATOR(one will be elected per county): Represents the people of her Senatorial District in the State General Assembly (Legislature) in matters of State Government. Elected for a 2-year term; limited to four terms. STATE REPRESENTATIVE(two will be elected per county): Represents the people of her House District in the State General Assembly (Legislature) in matters of State Government. Elected for a 2-year term; limited to four terms. Colorado Columbine Girls State 34 DESIGNATED CANDIDATES FROM COUNTY ASSEMBLY COUNTY PARTY PARTY CHAIRMAN PARTY SECRETARIES Office Candidate Girls State City Board of County Commissioners (3) Treasurer Clerk & Recorder Sheriff Assessor Coroner Surveyor State Senator (1) State Representatives (2) Colorado Columbine Girls State 35 JUDICIAL, CONGRESSIONAL AND STATE ASSEMBLIES AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE Judicial, Congressional and State Assemblies at Colorado Columbine Girls State are held at the same time. The procedure is similar to the County Assembly. The County Party Chairman may also serve as the State Party Chairman. See County Assembly page for the procedures. The Party Chairman opens the Judicial District Assembly first to designate candidates for District Attorney. The Party Chairman closes the Judicial Assembly and then opens the Congressional Assembly. The Congressional Assembly designates candidates for US Representative and State Board of Education. The Party Chairman closes the Congressional Assembly and opens the State Assembly. The State Assembly designates candidates for statewide offices. DUTIES OF JUDICIAL, CONGRESSIONAL AND STATE OFFICIALS DISTRICT ATTORNEY: Represents the People's interests in prosecuting criminal cases, seeking justice for victims, and advocating measures to reduce criminal behavior in their communities. US REPRESENTATIVE (from Congressional District): Represents the people from her Congressional District in the US House of Representatives. The House presents charges in the matter of impeachment. Representatives make appointments to military academies. Elected for a two-year term; no mandatory term limits. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION (one from each Congressional District): Sets the educational policies of the state. Issues teaching certificates, administers state aid and special education programs. Supervises programs in state institutions, such as the school for the blind. Elected for six years in staggered terms; two term limit. US SENATOR: Represents the State of Colorado in the United States Congress. Advises and consents to treaties and to nominations by the President. Senators make appointments to military academies. Senate acts as a court in the matter of impeachment. Elected for a six-year term; no mandatory term limits. GOVERNOR: Chief Executive Officer of the State; presides at all executive meetings. Approves Bills or exercises power of Veto; makes appointments to boards and commissions. Elected for a four-year term; two term limit. LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR: In Colorado, elected with the Governor on the same party ticket. At Girls State, may be elected from separate parties. Acts for the Governor in her absence; presides over the State Senate, and votes only in case of a tie, but not on passage of Bills. Elected for a four-year term; two term limit. SECRETARY OF STATE: Responsible for the official records of the State. Custodian of the State Seal. Supervises state elections and licensing of games of chance. Registers trademarks and handles incorporation of businesses in the state. Elected for a four-year term; two term limit. STATE TREASURER: Custodian of all monies, investments and securities of the State. Disburses public monies and keeps records of expenditures and receipts; may invest State monies for short-term investments. Elected for a four-year term; two term limit. ATTORNEY GENERAL: Chief law officer of the State; legal advisor for all departments and institutions of state government. Represents the State in legal actions and submits legal advice to State agencies and officials. Elected for a four-year term; two term limit. REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO: Govern the operations of the University of Colorado and its affiliated medical facilities. Responsible for the branches of the University in all parts of the state. Elected for six-year staggered term. JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT (appointed by the Governor): Final judicial powers of the state are vested in the Supreme Court. It has appellate and original jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. Chief Justice supervises the other courts in the State. Colorado Columbine Girls State 36 DESIGNATED CANDIDATES FROM STATE ASSEMBLY COUNTY PARTY PARTY CHAIRMAN PARTY SECRETARIES Office Candidate Girls State City District Attorney (from Judicial District Assembly) United States Representative (from Congressional District) State Board of Education (2) (from Congressional Assembly) United States Senator Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State State Treasurer Attorney General Regents of the University of Colorado (3) Colorado Columbine Girls State 37 VOTING IN THE STATE OF COLORADO Voter Registration – To register to vote you must: Be a United States citizen, Be 18 years of age on or before the date of the election in which you want to vote, Register to vote not later than 29 days before the election, Reside in Colorado and at your present address at least 30 days before the election. How to Register – There are many ways to register including: At your County Clerk's office, Online at the Secretary of State's webpage, Mailing a registration form with appropriate ID to County Clerk. The form can be downloaded from County Clerk or Secretary of State's webpages, At Motor Vehicle offices, From time to time voter registration drives are held in the community at malls, grocery stores and other public locations. Voting: To accommodate today's busy lifestyles, there are many places and ways you can cast your vote. Absentee Ballot: Anyone can apply for an absentee ballot through their County Clerk and Recorder's Office. Ballots are mailed approximately 30 days before the election and must be returned before the close of polls on Election Day. See the application form for dates. The form can be downloaded from County Clerk and Recorder's webpage. Early Voting: Each County Clerk and Recorder provides one or more locations for early voting for 10 days before a Primary Election and for 15 days before a November Election. Check your County Clerk and Recorder's website for dates and locations. Election Day: You can vote at your local polling place in your precinct. Some counties have voting centers which are centers that are set up throughout the county. Voters can vote at any center in the county. Provisional Ballot: If you go to your appropriate polling place on Election Day and your voter registration in that precinct cannot be verified by the Election Judges, you may vote a provisional ballot. You must complete and sign the provisional ballot affidavit contained on the provisional ballot envelope. Your voted ballot should then be inserted in that envelope and sealed, and then deposited in the ballot box for that precinct. After eligibility is verified, the vote is counted. Election Dates: Primary Election is held on the second Tuesday of August in each even-numbered year. November Election is held on Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November in each even-numbered year (General Election) and held on the first Tuesday of November in each odd-numbered year (Coordinated Election). Student Election Judges: You can volunteer and be a vital part of the election process. See your County Clerk and Recorder or the Secretary of State webpage for forms. Student Election Judges must: Be at least 16 years old and a Junior or Senior ―in good standing‖ at public or private high school at the time of the election at which they plan to work; Submit an application; Have the written consent of a parent or legal guardian; Have the approval of their school's Principal or designated administrator; Be US citizens by the date of the election at which they are scheduled to work; Be willing to serve knowing that Election Day runs from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM; Be physically and mentally able to perform the duties of an Election Judge; Attend a mandatory Election Judge class prior to each election at which they work; Never have been convicted of election fraud, other election offenses or fraud; Not be related to any candidate on the ballot in the precinct where they are working. Inactive Voters: If you do not vote in a General Election, you will be identified as an inactive voter. If you do not vote in two consecutive Presidential Elections, you will be purged from voter registration files and will have to re-register. Visit these websites for more information: www.sos.state.co.us and www.GoVoteColorado.gov Colorado Columbine Girls State 38 VOTING PROCEDURE FOR COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE Citizens of Colorado Columbine Girls State follow a simplified election procedure. We use a paper balloting system. Most counties in Colorado now have mechanized voting of some type. The controversy surrounding the 2000 Presidential election has led to many changes in monitoring electronic voting. It is now a requirement that all electronic voting machines have a paper trail. Citizens of each city will vote in their City Hall which will be designated a polling place during elections. Supplies furnished include: a United States flag, a poll record book, a list of eligible voters, a supply of official ballots and a ballot box. At Precinct Caucus each party selected volunteers for the election board. One person from each party will serve as a Receiving Judge and will check credentials of voters as they enter the polling place. The Counting Judges will count the votes after the ballots have been cast. The judges will vote before opening the polls. If a judge has been designated for the County or State ballot, she must resign. The Mayor, Councilwomen, Counselors and/or Junior Counselors can fill these spots if there are not enough citizens available. The City Counselor will administer the oath to all election officials. Counting of Votes: Colorado Columbine Girls State permits the counting of ballots to begin after ten (10) ballots have been cast. Members of the Counting Board will designate two judges of opposite parties to tally votes, and two judges of opposite parties to read ballots. The judge reads the name of each candidate receiving a vote, and each tally judge enters a tally mark for that candidate. As a fifth tally mark is entered for any candidate, each tally judge will say ―tally‖. If they do not agree, the error can usually be found quickly without a recount of ballots. When all ballots have been counted, the final figure for each candidate must correspond with the number of tally marks entered for that candidate, and both tally lists must agree. An Official Return ballot will be filled in listing the number of votes each candidate received. Be sure to write the names of your City at the top of the Official Return ballot. Give your results and ALL ballots to your Counselors to move along the Ballot Trail to tabulate the election results. ALL BALLOTS RECEIVED MUST BE ACCOUNTED FOR AND RETURNED. As an Election Judge, strictest confidentiality MUST be followed. Do not share the results with anyone. After the General Election, all election supplies will be returned to the Director's Office. Primary Election The Primary Election determines who will be running from each party for the General Election. Your ballot will have candidates from your party only. The order the candidates appear on the ballot is determined by the number of votes received at County or State Assemblies. In case of a tie vote, the order of the names listed on the primary ballot will be chosen by flipping a coin. The person with the highest number of votes for each office in each party becomes the party candidate for that office. General Election The General Election ballots have the names of the winners of each political party from the Primary Election. The order of parties listed on the ballot is determined by a coin toss by the Party Chairman with the Counselor Political Leaders. You may vote across party lines in the General Election. Colorado Columbine Girls State 39 PRIMARY ELECTION RESULTS COUNTY STATE COUNTY COMMISSIONERS (3) DISTRICT ATTORNEY F F F N F UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE N F N N N STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION (2) COUNTY TREASURER F F F N N COUNTY CLERK & RECORDER N F UNITED STATES SENATOR N F COUNTY SHERIFF N F GOVERNOR N F COUNTY ASSESSOR N F LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR N F COUNTY CORONER N F SECRETARY OF STATE N F COUNTY SURVEYOR N F STATE TREASURER N F STATE SENATOR N F ATTORNEY GENERAL N F STATE REPRESENTATIVES (2) N F REGENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO (3) F F N F N F N N N Colorado Columbine Girls State 40 GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS COUNTY STATE COUNTY COMMISSIONERS (3) DISTRICT ATTORNEY US REPRESENTATIVE COUNTY CLERK & RECORDER STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION (2) COUNTY SHERIFF UNITED STATES SENATOR COUNTY ASSESSOR GOVERNOR COUNTY CORONER LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR COUNTY SURVEYOR SECRETARY OF STATE STATE SENATOR STATE TREASURER STATE REPRESENTATIVES (2) ATTORNEY GENERAL REGENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO (3) Note: Following the announcement of the General Election results, the Governor shall appoint the Justice of the Supreme Court and an Inaugural Chaplain. She may consider recommendations from the Lt. Governor, the Attorney General, and the two State Party Chairs. JUSTICE OF SUPREME COURT_______________________CHAPLAIN_____________________________ Colorado Columbine Girls State 41 COLORADO PUBLIC OFFICIALS Updated 03/01/2009 UNITED STATES SENATORS LEGISLATIVE BRANCH Mark Udall Speaker of the House – Terrance Carroll Michael Bennet President of the Senate - Peter Groff www.senate.gov Colorado State Senatorial Districts: Thirty-five state U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES senators are elected to serve as state senators in the Cong. Dist. 1 - Diana DeGette Colorado General Assembly. This district is set up by Cong. Dist. 2 – Jared Polis population. Cong. Dist. 3 - John Salazar Cong. Dist. 4 – Betsy Markey Colorado State Representative Districts: Sixty-five Cong. Dist. 5 - Doug Lamborn representatives are elected to serve as representatives Cong. Dist. 6 – Mike Coffman in the Colorado General Assembly. These districts are Cong. Dist. 7 - Ed Purlmutter set up by population. www.house.gov For information on the Colorado General Assembly U.S. DISTRICT OF COLORADO CHIEF JUDGE visit www.leg.state.co.us Vacant as of 3/1/2009 www.cod.us.courts.gov STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION Cong. Dist. 1 - Elaine Gantz Berman EXECUTIVE BRANCH Cong. Dist. 2 – Angelika Schroeder Governor - Bill Ritter Cong. Dist. 3 – Marcia Neal Lt. Governor - Barbara O‘Brien Cong. Dist. 4 - Bob Schaffer, Chairman Chief of Staff – Jim Carpenter Cong. Dist. 5 - Peggy Littleton Secretary of State – Bernie Beuscher Cong. Dist. 6 - Randy DeHoff, Vice Chairman State Treasurer - Cary Kennedy Cong. Dist. 7 - Jane Goff Attorney General - John Suthers Commissioner and Secretary to State Board of www.colorado.gov/colorado-government/executive- Education - Dwight D. Jones branch www.cde.state.co.us/index_sbe.htm JUDICIAL BRANCH – COLORADO SUPREME REGENTS – UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO COURT Cong. Dist. 1 - Michael Carrigan Chief Justice - Mary Mullarkey Cong. Dist. 2 – Joseph Negue Justice - Allison Eid Cong. Dist. 3 - Tilman Bishop, Vice Chair Justice - Michael L. Bender Cong. Dist. 4 - Tom Lucero Justice - Gregory J. Hobbs, Jr. Cong. Dist. 5 - Kyle Hybl Justice - Nancy E. Rice Cong. Dist. 6 – James Geddes Justice - Alex J. Martinez Cong. Dist. 7 – Monisha Merchent Justice - Nathan B. Coats At-Large - Steve Bosley, Chair www.courts.state.co.us At-Large - Stephen Ludwig www.cu.edu/regents/ For more information about state government see: www.colorado.gov/colorado-government/ Colorado Columbine Girls State 42 U.S. CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS There are seven U.S. Congressional Districts based on population. From each district, one representative is elected to serve in the House of Representatives in Washing, D.C. www.cde.state.co.us/cdeboard/bdmap.htm JUDICIAL DISTRICTS: There are twenty-two Judicial Districts with from one to fourteen district judges. These judges are state officials and are responsible to the State Supreme Court. A District Attorney is elected in each District who is the prosecuting attorney. www.courts.state.co.us/distmap.htm Colorado Columbine Girls State 43 NATIONAL PUBLIC OFFICIALS Updated 03/01/2009 THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH President: Barrack Obama Vice President: Joe Biden President‟s Chief of Staff: Jim Messina Environmental Protection Agency: Lisa Jackson Office of Management and Budget: Peter Orzag Office of National Drug Control Policy: Ed Jurith, Acting Director United States Trade Representative: Ambassador Peter Allgeier, Acting THE CABINET Secretary of Agriculture: Thomas Vilsack Secretary of Commerce: Gary F. Locke Secretary of Defense: Robert Gates Secretary of Education: Arne Duncan Secretary of Energy: Steven Chu Secretary of Health & Human Services: Kathleen Sebelius Department of Homeland Security: Janet Napolitano Secretary of Housing & Urban Development: Shaun Donovan Secretary of Interior: Kenneth Salazar Department of Justice: General Eric Holder Secretary of Labor: Hilda Solis Secretary of State: Hillary Rodham Clinton Secretary of Transportation: Raymond LaHood Secretary of Treasury: Timothy Geithner. Secretary of Veterans Affairs: Eric Shinseki www.whitehouse.gov/government/ JUDICIAL BRANCH U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice: John G. Roberts Jr. Associate Judges: Justice David Souter (retirement announced) Justice Anthony M. Kennedy Justice Samuel Alito Justice Clarence Thomas Justice Antonin Scalia Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg Justice John P. Stevens Justice Stephen G. Breyer www.supremecourt.us.gov LEGISLATIVE BRANCH President Pro Tempore of the Senate: Robert Byrd (WV) Speaker of the House of Representatives: Nancy Pelosi (CA) www.senate.gov www.house.gov Federal Web Sites - Search government web sites through www.FirstGov.gov Colorado Columbine Girls State 44 JUDICIAL BRANCH IN COLORADO There are several kinds of court in Colorado that handle different types of cases. MUNICIPAL COURTS: Municipal (city) Courts deal with violations of City laws committed within the city limits. Generally, these laws involve traffic, shoplifting, and offenses such as dog leash laws and disturbances. For some cases, you may have the right to a jury trial and to tell your side of the story in Municipal Court. Municipal Courts are not State Courts; however, you may appeal a Municipal Court decision to a State Court. COUNTY COURTS: Every county in the state as a County Court, with one or more County Judges. These courts handle traffic cases and minor criminal matters, as well as civil actions involving no more than $10,000. You may have a jury trial in many types of County Court cases. An appeal from a County Court decision may be made to the district court. Denver‘s court system differs from the courts in other counties. SMALL CLAIMS COURTS: Small Claims Courts are divisions of County Court. Individuals are allowed to argue their own cases and to have speedy decisions on civil matters involving no more than $5,000. Court sessions are held during the day or evening to accommodate the public. There are no jury trials in Small Claims Courts, and sometimes a magistrate hears the cases instead of a judge. Normally, neither side can be represented by an attorney. No Plaintiff may file more than two claims per month or 18 claims per year in Small Claims Court. DISTRICT COURTS: Each county in the state has a District Court. Both District and County Courts are organized into judicial districts. However, unlike County Courts where there is a least one judge per County Court. District Judges are assigned to the judicial district and may serve more than one District court within that judicial district, particularly in rural areas of the state. District Courts have authority to handle many types of cases, including divorces, civil claims in any amount, juvenile matters, probate (estates), mental health, and criminal matters. You may appeal a District Court decision to the Colorado Court of Appeals and/or to the Colorado Supreme Court. WATER COURTS: Colorado has seven Water Courts, one in each of the major river basins (South Platte, Arkansas, Rio Grande, Gunnison, Colorado, White and San Juan Rivers). Water Court is a division of District Court, and the Supreme Court appoints a District Court Judge from within the water division to act as water judge. Other personnel include the Clerk of Water Court and a Water Referee. Water Court has exclusive jurisdiction over water rights, their adjudication, and litigation concerning such rights. Thus, cases relating to the determination of water rights and the uses and administration of water resources are determined by Water Judges. There are no jury trials in Water Courts, and all appeals from Water Judges‘ decisions are filed directly with the Colorado Supreme Court. DENVER COURTS: Denver‘s court system differs from those in the rest of the state. In part because Denver is both City and a County. The Denver County Court functions as a Municipal as well as a County Court and is paid for entirely by Denver taxes rather than by State taxes. Denver County Court Judges re appointed by the Mayor of the City of Denver. Denver has the only separate juvenile court and separate probate court in the state. In other parts of Colorado, District Courts handle juvenile and probate matters. The Denver Juvenile and Probate Courts are State courts, along with the Denver District Court. COURT OF APPEALS: The Colorado Court of Appeals, located in Denver, has 16 judges. One is a Chief Judge. The Court sits in divisions, each consisting of three judges. Divisions of the Court sometimes go to various parts of the state to hear oral arguments in cases that have been appealed from the State Trial Courts. Unlike the other Courts discussed above, the Court of Appeals in not a trial court. The Court of Appeals usually is the first court to hear appeals of decisions made by Colorado District Courts and Denver‘s Probate and Juvenile courts. In addition, it is responsible for reviewing the decisions of several state administrative agencies. Its determination of an appeal is final unless the Colorado Supreme Court agrees to review the matter. Colorado Columbine Girls State 45 SUPREME COURT: The Colorado Supreme Court has seven Justices. A Chief Justice is elected by the Court from its membership. The Chief Justice is the executive officer of the state judicial branch of government. The Supreme Court is the court of last resort o the final court in the Colorado court system. An individual who has appealed to the Court of Appeals and is still dissatisfied may ask the Supreme Court to review the case. In most situations, the Supreme Court has a right to refuse to do so. In some instances, individuals can petition the Supreme Court directly regarding a lower Court‘s decision. In addition to its legal duties, the Supreme Court has supervisory and administrative responsibilities. The Supreme Court has supervisory power over all other State Courts and over all attorneys practicing law in Colorado. TYPES OF JUDICIAL CASES CIVIL CASE: The part of the law that encompasses business, contracts, estates, domestic (family) relations, accidents, negligence and everything related to legal issues, statutes and lawsuits, that is not criminal law. In a few areas civil and criminal law may overlap or coincide. For example, a person may be liable under a civil lawsuit for negligently killing a pedestrian with his auto by running over the person and be charged with the crime of vehicular homicide due to his/her reckless driving. Assault may bring about arrest by the police under criminal law and a lawsuit by the party attached under civil law. CRIMINAL CASE: Those statutes dealing with crimes against the public and members of the public, with penalties and all the procedures connected with charging, trying, sentencing and imprisoning defendants convicted of crimes. The State of Colorado is the Prosecutor and the person charged with the crime is the Defendant. MISDEMEANOR: A lesser crime punishable by fine and/or county jail time for up to one year. Misdemeanors are distinguished from felonies, which can be punished by a state prison term. They re tried in the lowest local court such as municipal, police or justice courts. Typical misdemeanors include: petty theft, disturbing the peace, simple assault and battery, drunk driving without injury to others, drunkenness in public, various traffic violations, public nuisances and some crimes which can be charge either as felony or misdemeanor depending on the circumstances and the discretion of the District Attorney. FELONY: A crime sufficiently serious to be punishable by death or a term in State or Federal prison, as distinguished from a misdemeanor which is only punishable by confinement to county or local jail and/or a fine. A crime carrying a minimum term of one year or more in State prison, since a year or less can be served in county jail. However, a sentence upon conviction for a felony may sometimes be less than one year at the discretion of the judge and within limits set by statute. SENTENCE: The punishment given to a person convicted of a crime. A sentence is ordered by the judge, based on the verdict of the jury (or the judge‘s decision if there is no jury) within the possible punishments set by State law (or Federal law in convictions for a Federal crime). Technically, a sentence includes all fines, community service, restitution or other punishment, or terms of probation. Colorado Columbine Girls State 46 JURY SERVICE IN COLORADO The Sixth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution guarantees all of us a right to trial by a jury of our peers. The jury system is a very important part of the court system in Colorado. Serving on a jury trial provides citizens with an opportunity to become better informed about our courts and laws and evokes a sense or pride and respect in all who serve. In 1990 Colorado instituted the one day/one trial system. In a 12 month period, a person summoned for jury duty will serve only one day or the length of one trial. In Colorado the average length of a trial is three days. Grand jurors serve for 12 months. The legal requirements for jury service are: You must be 18 years of age or older. You must live in the county or municipality that summoned you. You must be a United Sates Citizen. You must read, speak and understand English You must not have served on a jury for five or more days in the past 12 months. You MAY not be solely responsible forDe the daily care of a permanently disabled person living in your home You must not have a physical or mental disability that would prevent your ability to serve as a juror. Jurors are selected by the Judicial Branch. Each year, the Judicial Branch receives lists of all registered voters and all holders of driver‘s licenses and non-driver identification cards through the state. The lists are merged, duplicates and names of deceased citizens are removed, and the resulting list is divided by county location. Throughout the year, each county requests a certain number of names, based on the number of trials scheduled, which are randomly selected from the list. If you have a regular job, your employer must pay your for the first three days of jury service. If you are self employed, you must compensate yourself for the first three days. Unemployed persons may apply for reimbursement of certain expenses during the first three days. After the third day, all jurors receive $50 per day from the state. Check out these court resources: www.courts.state.co.us http://www.courts.state.co.us/Courts/Index.cfm http://www.courts.state.co.us/Probation/Index.cfm http://www.courts.state.co.us/Jury/Index.cfm http://www.cobar.org/ http://www.cwba.org Colorado Columbine Girls State 47 HOW A BILL BECOMES COLORADO LAW Colorado Columbine Girls State 48 LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AT COLORADO COLUMBINE GIRLS STATE It is essential that the citizens of Colorado columbine Girls Sate realize how important our lawmakers are in governmental procedure. Therefore, we organize a Senate and House of Representatives (subject to number of delegates, there may be two Senates and two Houses to assure all delegates get a chance to participate). Bills passed in the Senate will be sent to the House for consideration and Bills passed in the House will be sent to the Senate for consideration. Each delegate has randomly been assigned to one of these legislative bodies to maximize her opportunity to practice in this particular and special part of government. It is not practical to conduct our legislative sessions at the same time as the Colorado General Assembly because thy usually adjourn in May and distance prohibits travel to the Capital building in Denver. You will go through a minimal procedure designed to acquaint you with the intricacies of how the legislature is organized and how an idea can become a Bill and how a Bill may become a law. Parliamentary procedure is kept to a minimum in the interest of time and the necessity of accelerating the business as conduced in the Senate and the House of Representatives. All Members Are responsible for writing and submitting Bills and /or resolutions. Have the right to debate, speaking for and against Bills and amendments. Participate actively in their committee. Show courtesy to fellow legislatures. Have the right to seek clarification regarding procedures and debate. ORGANIZING THE LEGISLATURE The legislature will be organized during the first legislative session. The procedure is the same in all bodies. Each body determines the majority party as the first order of business. After the majority is determined, the leaders of the legislative body will be selected or appointed. The presiding officer of the house is the Speaker of the House and is from the Majority Party. The presiding officer of the Senate is the President Pro-tem who is from the Majority Party. She acts in the absence of the Lt. Governor. The Speaker and President Pro-tem preside during the First and Third Readings of Bills. The Speaker of the House and the President Pro-tem are always allowed to vote on Bills because they are members of the legislature. They vote last during roll call voting. The majority party will select the majority whip and the minority party will select the minority whip. The majority and minority whips will assist the speaker of the House or the President Pro-tem in running the legislature. The majority and minority whips are the party leaders in the legislative body and provide guidance to members of their party on how to vote on Bills. All members of the Senate are addressed as “Senator (last name)” and all members of the House are addressed as “Representative (last name)” at all times when in session. Colorado Columbine Girls State 49 MAJORITY PARTY President Pro-Tem/Speaker Of The House: presiding officer of the legislative body. Responsible for debate during First and Third Reading. Assigns Bills to the committees and takes committee reports. Majority Party Leader: Responsible for advancing the interests of their party. Takes a prominent position within her party and is seated in the front row, left side of the assembly. Should be comfortable making motions to facilitate the flow of the docket. Chairman Of The Committee Of The Whole: Presides during second reading/debate on the Bills. This person and her ability to run debate will set the tone and productivity of the meting. This person will preside over more debate than the President Pro-tem/Speaker of the House. Should have a very high level of confidence and competence with Parliamentary Procedure. Chief Clerk/Senate Secretary: Records all Bills and keeps a record of all proceedings of the legislative body. Good handwriting and a desire to keep accurate records are necessary. Reading Clerk: Responsible for reading of Bills to the assembly. She should have a clear voice that carries well so all can hear. Sergeant-At-Arms: Assists the Docket Clerk in delivering the Bills to committee chairmen. Maintains order to in the assembly and observes the comings and goings of visitors within the assembly. MINORITY PARTY Minority Party Whip: Responsible for advancing the interests of their party. Takes a prominent position within her party and is seated in the front row, right side of the assembly. Should feel comfortable making motions to facilitate the flow of the docket. Docket Clerk: Keeps a numerical record of all Bills and records the committees to which they are assigned. Responsible for the delivery of Bills to the proper committee chairman using the Sergeant-at-Arms. Good handwriting and a desire to keep accurate records are necessary. Messenger: assists the Docket Clerk in delivering the Bills to committee chairmen, delivers messages to the opposite legislative body and sees that order is observed in the assembly. Engrossing Clerk: Responsible for type all Bills of the legislative body. Assist CCGS staff in running the projection of Bills and/or other relevant education materials. Should have strong computer and typing skills. At the beginning of the assembly the majority and minority parties are seated by party. From the perspective of the leadership at the front of the room facing the audience the majority is on the right and the minority party s on the left. Each member is randomly assigned to a specific standing committee. The chairman of each committee is predetermined from the majority party. Legislative Committees Assigned At Girls State 1. Agriculture, Livestock and Natural Resources 2. Business Affairs and Technology 3. Education 4. Health and Human Services 5. Judiciary 6. Local Transportation 7. Transportation and Energy 8. State, Veterans and Military Affairs During the Joint Session on Friday, the Lt. Governor will preside and the Governor will sign Bills into law or veto them. Colorado Columbine Girls State 50 Number of Federalists ______________________ Number of Nationalists ________________________ Majority Party is _____________________________________ SENATE President Pro-Tem And President Pro-Tem Majority Party Selects Minority Party Selects Party Leader Select Appoints Chairman Of The Engrossing Clerk President Pro-Tem Minority Whip Committee Of The Whole (Majority Or Minority) Party Leader Senate Secretary One Sergeant-At-Arms Docket Clerk Reading Clerk One Messenger Leadership is seated at the front of the Senate in this order with their job title in front of them. Chairman Of President Pro- The Committee Docket Clerk Reading Clerk Chief Clerk Messenger Tem Of The Whole HOUSE Speaker, Party Leader, Speaker And Party Majority Party Selects Clerks, Sergeant-at- Minority Party Selects Leader Select Arms Appoints Chairman Of The Speaker of the House Chief Clerk Minority Whip Committee Of The Whole Engrossing Clerk Party Leader Reading Clerk Docket Clerk (Majority or Minority) One Sergeant-At-Arms One Messenger Leadership is seated at the front of the Senate in this order with their job title in front of them. Chairman Of Speaker of the The Committee Docket Clerk Reading Clerk Chief Clerk Messenger House Of The Whole Leadership will receive their materials from the counselor. Colorado Columbine Girls State 51 LEGISLATIVE BRANCH IN COLORADO The Legislature of Colorado is called the General Assembly. It is composed of 100 members, 65 in the House of Representative and 35 in the Senate. Representatives are elected for two-year terms and Senators are elected for four-year terms. ORIGIN OF BILLS All Bills, Resolutions and Memorials must be introduced by a member of the Legislature. Suggestions for Bills may originate in various places and ways, individuals or groups interested in certain legislation or by the Governor. The latter are known as ―Administrative Bills.‖ In any event, the Bill itself must be sponsored by and bear the name of a member or members of the Legislature, when it is presented to the Assembly. All revenue Bills must originate in the House of Representatives. INTRODUCTION OF A BILL The member introducing the Bill brings it to the Secretary of the Senate or Chief Clerk of the House. If they find it in proper form, it is given a number and introduced in session by its number and title. Bills are to be typed or written in legible handwriting and contain no alterations or anything written between the lines. FIRST READING – Committee Assignments/Reports The President Pro-tem or Speaker of the House opens the session by saying “I call for the 2009 Session of the Senate/House to order” then she states “Are there any Bills to be presented at this time?” 1. Bills are received and numbered by the Docket Clerk. 2. The Reading Clerk will read the Bill by number and title. 3. The Speaker of the House of the President of the Senate will assign the Bill to a Standing Committee and will give the Bill to the Committee Chairperson. The Messengers and Sergeant-at-Arms may help with the distribution of Bills to the committees. 4. After all of the Bills on hand have been assigned, recess is called for Standing Committee meetings to discuss the Bills. One of the Senators/Representatives states “I move that we recess to committee for__minutes.” The Bills may be amended in committee by writing the amendment on a separate paper and attaching the amendment to the main Bill. The Bill‘s sponsor may request to speak to the committee. 5. Upon reconvening, the Chair calls for committee reports. The Committee Chairman reads the list of Bills and reports what action has been taken. Actions include: (1) passed with favorable recommendations, (2) passed with out favorable recommendations, or rejected, (3) passed with amendments, (4) postponed action, and (5) still under consideration. When the Bill is reported out of committee, it is being reported to the floor for Second Reading and will appear on the calendar in the order of business under Second Reading in the Senate/House. SECOND READING – Debate The Chairman of the Committee of the Whole has already been chosen and presides during the debate on Second Reading 1. The Chairman makes the motion ―I move the assembly resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole to consider (the name of the Bill to be debated or General Orders if more than one Bill is to be debated).” The motion is seconded and voted on. 2. The assembly now establishes the rules of debate. The Majority Leaders states “I move to limit debate on Bills to the author‟s speech plus two pro speeches and three con speeches”. This must be seconded and voted on. The Minority Whip states “I move that we limit the author‟s speeches to two minutes plus one minute for questions.” This must be seconded and voted on. The Majority Leader states “I move to limit all other speeches to two minutes”. This must be seconded and voted on. 3. The Reading Clerk reads in numerical order the Bills to be considered. Bills are then taken in the order listed on the docket. The entire Bill will be read. Colorado Columbine Girls State 52 4. The Sponsor of any Bill may request any Bill be brought up for a Second Reading out of order, in the form of a motion if she wishes earlier consideration for her Bill. If she desires to do so, she states, “I move to consider Bill ___ out of order and move it to the top of the docket”. The motion must be seconded and voted on. A majority vote will allow her Bill to be taken out of order. 5. The Sponsor comes to the floor, addresses the Chair, and moves passage of her Bill. She speaks in support of her Bill and remains to answer questions. She states “I move the passage of Bill____because…”. This must be seconded. 6. A Senator or Representative wishing to speak on a Bill is recognized by the Chair, comes to the floor to give comments, and ends with a statement as to whether she recommends that the Bill be passed or postponed indefinitely. Senators/Representatives may also introduce amendments to the Bill from the floor by stating “I move to amend the Bill to read___”. This must be seconded. Debate and a vote on the amendment follow. Debate on the Bill itself resumes. 7. To ask a question, a Senator or Representative asks the Chair if she may do so. If the Chair says ―Yes‖, the one asking the question may remain by her seat to pose the question. 8. A Senator or Representative may ask a question of another Senator or Representative on the floor after obtaining permission from the Chair. 9. To stop debate, a Sponsor renews her motion for passage, or a Senator or Representative may move Previous Question, with a 2/3 vote necessary, to close debate. If other Senators or Representatives wish to continue the debate, they may vote this motion down or they may state “I move to extend debate to allow (4 more speakers or 10 more minutes).” This must be seconded and voted on. Otherwise, a voice vote is taken on the Bill as amended. A majority vote can either pass the Bill into Third Reading or postpone the Bill indefinitely. 10. After the vote is taken on the Bill and there are no further bills to be debated, any Senator or Representative may make a motion to ―Rise and Report‖ its actions to the assembly. To go to Third Reading, a Senator or Representative states, ―I move that we dissolve the Committee of the Whole.” This must be seconded and voted on. The Senate or the House of Representatives may move back and forth through all three readings at will. ENGROSSING After Second Reading, the Bill is given to the Engrossing Room for Engrossment, which means that an exact copy of the Bill as it stands is made, including all amendments. THIRD READING – Passage 1. Second and Third readings cannot occur on the same day (NOTE: at Girls State, turning the room lights off and on acts as the passage of time to enable the Bill to be heard in Third Reading.) 2. The Speaker of the House or the President of the Senate calls the session back to order. 3. The Reading Clerk reads the title of the Bill. 4. The Bill‘s Sponsor comes to the floor again and moves for the passage of the Bill. 5. No discussion or debate is allowed, but recognition may be given to any Senator or Representative who wishes to explain reasons for her vote. 6. A Roll Call vote is taken (at Girls State a standing vote is taken on Third Reading.) 7. If a bill is passed, it is so marked and a Sergeant-at-Arm takes the Bill to the sister legislative body. If the sister body amends this Bill, it may immediately be accepted by the originating legislative body when it comes back from the sister body. If the amendment is unacceptable, a Conference Committee of both bodies may be called to resolve the differences. TREATMENT OF BILLS RECEIVED FROM THE OTHER LEGISLATIVE BODY The legislative body that receives the Bill that has been passed by the other legislative body treats the Bill the same as any new Bill would be treated (see the sections on First and Second Readings for specific details.) Colorado Columbine Girls State 53 CONFERENCE COMMITTEE If the second legislative body passes the Bill with amendments, the Bill returns to the originating body for approval. If the originating body is not in favor of the amendments, a Conference Committee is called. The Conference Committee is comprised of six members, three from each body. Of the three from each body, two are majority members and on is a minority member. If the Sponsor of the Bill is from the majority party, she is the Chairman of this committee. If she is from the minority party of the originating body, then one of the members from the majority party of the originating body is the Chairman. The Sponsor of the Bill becomes the minority member from the originating body. The members debate, mediate and prepare a compromise that is approved by the majority of the members from each legislative body, or two of the three Senate members or two of the three House members. The Bill is then sent back to the originating body to see if that body approves of the compromise. Upon arrival it is returned to the other body for their approval. ENROLLMENT 1. After a bill has passed both legislative bodies, the Bills goes to the Enrollment Room. The Bill is typed up in legal form exactly as it is passed and how it will become law, if approved by the Governor. 2. After the Bill has been Enrolled, the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House announce in session that they are signing the Bill and do so in the presence of the members. AFTER THE BILL PASSES BOTH THE HOUSE AND THE SENATE 1. The bill is sent to the Governor who may sign it into law or may veto the it if she does not approve of the Bill. 2. After the Governor signs the Bill, the Bill becomes law immediately or at a time provided for in the Bill. 3. If the Governor vetoes a Bill, she should state her reasons for the veto on a form and that reads as follows: “I (Governor‟s name) vetoed Bill #_____ because…..” 4. The General Assembly may enact a Bill over the Governor‘s veto by a 2/3 vote in the House and the Senate. 5. A Bill can become a law with out the Governor‘s signature or approve if it has not been signed within 10 days after she receives the Bill while the General Assembly is still in session. After the General Assembly has adjourned, the Governor has 30 days to sign a Bill. Colorado Columbine Girls State 54 BILLS All Girls State Citizens are urged to draw up a Bill(s) of her own prior to coming to Columbine Girls State. These Bills may be introduced at any Senate or House session. Bills will be accepted throughout the legislative sessions to keep the work exciting and informative. Follow the Bill form as shown below. Use the Bill form shown on the next page. You may copy this form or download it from www.coloradocolumbinegirlsstate.com. Write the Bill about something in which you are interested. It may be a serious Bill concerning current events or it may cover a lighthearted topic, Each Senator or Representative who introduces a Bill whether individually or as part of a committee that passes both the House and Senate will receive a certificate at the Joint Session recognizing her efforts. The Governor may sign the Bill into law or veto it. Sample Bill (Senate) Introduced by (Senator or (House) Bill No:_____________________________ Representative):_______________________________ A BILL For an Act 1. CONCERNING THE FLYING OF THE COLORADO STATE FLAG AT ALL PUBLIC SCHOOLS 2. IN THE STATE OF COLORADO. 3. Be It Enacted by the General Assembly of Colorado Columbine Girls State That: 4. SECTION 1. The state of Colorado shall provide each public school in the State 5. with a Colorado State Flag 6. SECTION 2. The general fund of the state will pay for the cost of the flags. 7. SECTION 3. The Colorado Flag will be flown beneath the United State flag and will be 8. treated in the same manner as the United States flag with regard to raising and retiring the flag. 9. SECTION 4. A special flag raising ceremony will be held on the first day of classes each 10. school year. 11. SECTION 5. Each school district will send a report to state committee assigned to handle 12. the distribution of the flags throughout the state. The report will include the type of ceremonies held 13. by the school district for the initial raising of the flag and the support of students in the school. 14. SECTION 6. Safety Clause. The General Assembly hereby finds, determines and 15. declares that this act is necessary for the immediate and future preservation of the public 16. peace, health and safety. Colorado Columbine Girls State 55 (Senate) Introduced by (Senator or (House) Bill No:_____________________________ Representative):_______________________________ A BILL For an Act 1. TITLE: ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. SECTION 1. __________________________________________________________________ 4. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. SECTION 2. __________________________________________________________________ 7. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 9. SECTION 3. __________________________________________________________________ 10. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 11. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 12. SECTION 4. __________________________________________________________________ 13. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 14. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 15. SECTION 5. 16. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 17. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 18. SECTION 6. Safety Clause. The General Assembly hereby finds, determines and 19. Declares that this act is necessary for the immediate and future preservation of the public 20. peace, health and safety. A downloadable version of this is available in MSWord and PDF at http://www.freewebs.com/coloradogirlsstate/2009delegateinformation.htm Colorado Columbine Girls State 56 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Colorado Columbine Girls State 57 WRITE EFFECTIVE RESOLUTIONS Resolutions are utilized in a variety of ways. Here at Girls State we only use courtesy resolutions. A resolution is a statement of certain views or conditions and a proposal of certain action to be taken. A resolution should deal with only one subject. A resolution has two parts. The Preamble comes first and consists of the ―Whereas‖ clause, stating the reasons and facts to support the policy or action to be established. The ―Resolved‖ clause clearly states what policy or action is desired, what organization is adopting the policy, and where and when it is adopted. Prepare the ―Resolved‖ section first. (Although it precedes the resolving section, the Preamble or Whereas clause should be prepared after the resolving section is put into final form.) Once the intent of the resolution has been made clear, it is easier to decide what statement needs to be in the preamble to make clear the reason for the resolution. During debate, a preamble is always amended last, because changes in the resolution may require changes in the ―Whereas‖ clause. Sample Resolution Rationale WHEREAS, Girls State is a unique experience to ―WHEREAS‖ those privileged to attend; and States reasons and factual background. WHEREAS, the delegates have expressed a desire to remember this special association with their peers; now, There is no formula for deciding how many Therefore, be it ―Whereas‖ clauses a resolution should RESOLVED, by the 2009 delegates of Columbine have. In genera, the fewer the better Girls State here assembled, at Western State College that the provided the reasons are adequate for the girls State pin shall be worn by Girls State Alumni each resolution Wednesday of the school year; and be it further RESOLVED, that future Girls State sessions be ―RESOLVED‖ encouraged to introduce an identical resolution for Policy or action, what group adopted, consideration. where, when. Resolutions are introduced into the appropriate legislature. They are assigned to a committee. They will be referred out of committee and then considered in the Second reading. The resolution can be amended in the Second reading. Once passed in the Second reading it will be ratified in the Joint Legislative Session. Resolutions are important business to the Girls State session – vote on each one with the realization that through your actions you are helping to build the effectiveness and the reputation of past, present or future Girls State bodies, and of the entire Girls State program. Colorado Columbine Girls State 58 SELECTION OF GIRLS NATION DELEGATES You will be given the opportunity to choose two (2) outstanding girls from your fellow Colorado Columbine Girls State citizens to represent you at Girls Nation in Washington, DC. Delegates are required to give a report of their Girls Nation experience at the American Legion Auxiliary, Department of Colorado Mid Year meeting in January and at the next Girls State session in June. Any Girls State Citizen is eligible for Girls Nation. She does not need to have been elected to an office. The Girls Nation session is held annually at The National 4-H Center, Chevy Chase, Maryland. The dates are noted in the Session Manual and can also be found at . Expenses for attending the Girls Nation session are paid for by the American Legion Auxiliary, including air fare to and from Colorado. GIRLS NATION DELEGATES SHALL BE SELECTED IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER: 1. Each legislator in each of the House and Senate will nominate two (2) candidates by secret ballot from her branch of the Legislature. 2. The ballots will be counted by the Counselors and the top four (4) candidates from each legislative branch will be placed on a written ballot. 3. The candidates will be introduced to the entire session. Without previous knowledge, the candidates will present a ONE MINUTE speech to the assembly. The delegates will then cast their ballot for Girls Nation delegates, voting for two (2) candidates. 4. The Director and Counselors will meet to make the final selection from the top six (6) candidates. Just as American Legion Auxiliary members make the final selection for participation in Girls State, the Counselors will make the final selection for Girls Nation. 5. There will be two (2) delegates and two (2) alternates selected. WHEN NOMINATING CANDIDATES FOR GIRLS NATION, EACH CITIZEN SHOULD CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING: 1. Leadership 2. Cooperativeness 3. Ability to speak extemporaneously before an audience 4. Good health 5. Good sportsmanship 6. A sincere desire by the candidate to be one of the best participants in every phase of the Girls Nation program. Colorado Columbine Girls State 59 GIRLS NATION CANDIDATES GIRLS STATE CITY NOTES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. GIRLS NATION DELEGATES GIRLS STATE CITY HOMETOWN GIRLS NATION ALTERNATES GIRLS STATE CITY HOMETOWN Colorado Columbine Girls State 60 GIRLS STATE REPORT NAME: __________________________________________________________________ UNIT #: ___________________________CONTACT: _________________________________________ FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTOR: ____________________________________________________________ SUGGESTIONS FOR GIRLS STATE REPORT Each delegate is expected to make a report to the sponsoring American Legion Auxiliary Unit and/or financial contributors when requested after the session. If some time is to elapse, make notes or a written report for later use. ITEMS WHICH MIGHT BE INCLUDED 1. Emphasize the government program: a. Office for which you ran and duties performed b. Activities at your City Council meetings c. Inauguration d. Activities of Senate and House e. How Bills are prepared and enacted into laws 2. Speakers: a. Note contributions made b. Outstanding points of interest 3. Items of General Interest: a. Flag ceremonies and inspirational reflections b. Banquet, commencement c. Talent Show d. Western State College, Gunnison 4. Items of Personal Interest: a. Good times and friendships made…your counselors b. Personal enjoyment and why c. Food and canteen 5. Counselors: All are either members of the American Legion Auxiliary and/or past Girls State Citizens. They serve without remuneration. OTHER HINTS 1. WRITE IT DOWN WHILE IT IS STILL FRESH IN YOUR MIND! 2. Your report should not be just a recap of the daily schedule! 3. It should contain what was outstanding and what it meant to you personally 4. What new things did you learn? 5. What legislative committee did you serve on? 6. Discuss the value of Bills debated. 7. Did this experience give you any challenge for the future? 8. Draw some humorous incidents into your speech – but do not list one funny experience after another! 9. Did the week‘s activities or speakers help you to re-evaluate yourself, your country, your government, freedom, democracy in action? WHAT IMPRESSED YOU? WHAT DID YOU LEARN ABOUT FRIENDSHIP? WHAT DID YOU LEARN ABOUT RESPONSIBILITY? HOW DID GIRLS STATE CHANGE YOU? BE ENTHUSIASTIC AND HONEST IN YOUR REPORT Colorado Columbine Girls State 61 PATRIOTIC SONGS AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL By Katherine Lee Bates 1. O beautiful for spacious skies, 3. O beautiful for heroes proved For amber waves of grain, In liberating strife. For purple mountain majesties Who more than self the country loved Above the fruited plain! And mercy more than life! America! America! America! America! God shed his grace on thee May God thy gold refine And crown thy good with brotherhood Till all success be nobleness From sea to shining sea! And every gain divine! 2. O beautiful for pilgrim feet 4. O beautiful for patriot dream Whose stern, impassioned stress That sees beyond the years A thoroughfare for freedom beat Thine alabaster cities gleam Across the wilderness! Undimmed by human tears! America! America! America! America! God mend thine every aw, God shed his grace on thee Conﬁrm thy soul in self-control, And crown thy good with brotherhood thy liberty in law From sea to shining sea! AMERICA (in a round) America, America Peace, Peace, Peace, Peace. Shall we tell you how we feel? Wars may come and wars may cease. You have given us your blessing. We must learn to live together. We love you so. Peace, Peace, Peace. Love, Love, Love, Love America, America Love is the gospel of the world. Shall we tell you how we feel? Love your neighbor as your brother. You have given us your blessing. Love, Love, Love. We love you so. GOD BLESS AMERICA THIS IS MY COUNTRY by Irving Berlin This is my country! God Bless America. Land of my birth! Land that I love This is my country! Stand beside her, and guide her Grandest on earth! Thru the night with a light from above. I pledge thee my allegiance, From the mountains, to the prairies, America, the bold, To the oceans, white with foam For this is my country God bless America To have and to hold. My home sweet home. Colorado Columbine Girls State 62 AMERICA (MY COUNTRY, „TIS OF THEE) Samuel F. Smith 1. My country,‘ tis of thee, 2. My native country, thee, Sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing; Land of the noble free, Land where my fathers died, Thy name I love; Land of the pilgrims‘ pride, I love thy rocks and rills, From every mountainside Thy woods and templed hills; Let freedom ring! My heart with rapture thrills, Like that above. THIS LAND IS YOUR LAND Words and music by Woody Guthrie Chorus: Words and music by Woody Guthrie I‘ve roamed and rambled and I‘ve followed my footsteps This land is your land, this land is my land To the sparkling sands of her diamond deserts From California, to the New York island And all around me a voice was sounding From the redwood forest, to the Gulf Stream waters This land was made for you and me This land was made for you and me Chorus As I was walking a ribbon of highway The sun comes shining as I was strolling I saw above me an endless skyway The wheat fields waving and the dust clouds rolling I saw below me a Golden Valley The fog was lifting a voice come chanting This land was made for you and me This land was made for you and me Chorus Chorus MM-MM, I WANT TO LINGER Mm-mm I want to linger Mm-mm and come September Mm-mm a little longer Mm-mm we will remember Mm-mm a little longer Mm-mm Our Girls State here with you and our friendship true Mm-mm it‘s such a perfect night Mm-mm and as the years go by Mm-mm It doesn‘t seen quite right Mm-mm I‘ll think of you and sigh Mm-mm that this should be Mm-mm this is goodnight my last with you and not good bye THE YANKEE DOODLE BOY YOU‟RE A GRAND OLD FLAG by George M. Cohan by George M. Cohan I‘m a Yankee Doodle Dandy, You‘re a grand old flag, A Yankee Doodle, do or die; You‘re a high-flying flag A real live nephew of my Uncle Sam‘s, And forever in peace may you wave. Born on the Fourth of July. You‘re the emblem of I‘ve got a Yankee Doodle sweetheart, The land I love. She‘s my Yankee Doodle joy. The home of the free and the brave. Yankee Doodle came to London, Just to ride the ponies; Ev‘ry heart beats true I am the Yankee Doodle Boy. ‗Neath the Red, White and Blue, Where there‘s never a boast or brag. Should auld acquaintance be forgot, Keep your eye on the grand old flag. Colorado Columbine Girls State 63 THREE KIDS 1. Three kids in a sandbox 3. Three kids in an oak tree Three kids in the sand Three kids in the branches above They built a sandcastle They built a tree house With yellow, black, and white hands Bonded together by love 2. Three kids in the ocean 4. Three kids in the forest Three kids in the sea Three kids under God‘s own trees They got along together They walked along together Why not you and me? Happy to be free. Repeat 1st verse. TAPS YOU AND ME Day is done, gone the sun You and me, From the lake, from the hills, from the sky; We‘re gonna be partners All is well, safely rest, God is nigh. You and me, We‘re gonna be pals, Fading light, dims the sight, You and me, And a star gems the sky, gleaming bright. We‘re gonna be partners, From afar, drawing nigh, falls the night. Buddies and pals. LET THERE BE PEACE ON EARTH CLIMB EVERY MOUNTAIN Written by Rodgers and Hammerstein Let there be peace on earth And let it begin with me Climb every mountain, search high and low Let there be peace on earth Follow every byway, every path you know. The peace that was meant to be Climb every mountain, ford every stream, With God as our Father Follow every rainbow, till you find your dream! Brothers all are we Let me walk with my brother A dream that will need all the love you can give, In perfect harmony. Every day of your life for as long as you live. Climb every mountain, ford every stream, Let peace begin with me Follow every rainbow, till you find your dream! Let this be the moment now. With every step I take Let this be my solemn vow; To take each moment and live Each moment in peace eternally Let there be peace on earth And let it begin with me Colorado Columbine Girls State 64 FEDERALIST PARTY SONG NATIONALIST PARTY SONG Tune: Darling Clementine Tune: Darling Clementine We are Federals, we are Federals We are Nationals, we are Nationals We are Federals ‗til we die. We are Nationals is our cry, And we‘re out to beat the Nationals And we‘re out to beat the Federals For each office we will try. All you voters pass them by! We‘ve been working on the platform Better schools and better teachers; Half the night and all the day Balanced budgets all along. We‘ve been working for the party If you stick right with the party For the best is Federal‘s way! You will find you‘re never wrong. We are out for lower taxes We are Nationals, we are Nationals Better movies, better news. We are Nationals all around. If you want to know our platform With a halo on our heads Fall right in and hear our views. For heaven we are bound. Can‘t you feel the party spirit? Harps of gold, clouds of white Rise up early in the morn. Quiet peace throughout the land Can‘t you feel the power growing? With love our guiding master See the Nationals look forlorn! We will rule with strong hand. GO TO COLORADO If I had a wagon I would go to Colorado, Go to Colorado, if I had a wagon I would – If I had a wagon I would go to the state If I had a space ship I would land in Colorado Where a man can walk a mile high. Land in Colorado, if I had a space ship I would – You come across the prairie, If I had a space ship I would go to the state And there before your eyes, Where a man can walk a mile high. You see the Rocky Mountain peaks There‘s hating and there‘s fighting Climbin‘ up to the skies, Across this world so wide. Climbin‘ up to the skies. But a Yankee spirit they will find At the great Continental Divide. If I had a Chevy I would drive to Colorado Great Continental Divide. Drive to Colorado, if I had a Chevy I would – If I had a Chevy I would go to the state Well – I don‘t have a wagon, and I don‘t have a Chevy, Where a man can walk a mile high. And I don‘t have an airplane, and I‘ll never have a space I‘m lookin‘ for more than silver. ship, I‘m lookin‘ for more than gold. But I‘ve got to keep on climbing ‗cause it‘s Pike‘s Peak Just like the Rocky Mountain peaks, or bust, They‘ve got folks who are rugged and bold. Where America can learn again, Just like Colorado men, Folks who are rugged and bold. How to hold its head up high. Where a man can walk a mile high! If I had an airplane I would fly to Colorado Fly to Colorado, if I had an airplane I would – If I had an airplane I would go to the state Where a man can walk a mile high. Just take a great big breath of That most abundant air. That is why so many folks From California are there, California are there. Colorado Columbine Girls State 65 GOD BLESS THE U.S.A. by Lee Greenwood If tomorrow all the things were gone From the lakes of Minnesota I‘d worked for all my life, to the hills of Tennessee, And I had to start again Across the plains of Texas with just my children and my wife, from sea to shining sea. I‘d thank my lucky stars From Detroit down to Houston to be living here today, and New York to L.A., ‗Cause the ﬂag still stands for freedom There‘s pride in every American heart and they can‘t take that away. and it‘s time we stand and say: I‘m proud to be an American I‘m proud to be an American where at least I know I‘m free, where at least I know I‘m free, And I won‘t forget the men who died And I won‘t forget the men who died who gave that right to me, who gave that right to me, And I gladly stand up next to you And I gladly stand up next to you and defend her still today, and defend her still today, ‗Cause there ain‘t no doubt I love this land ‗Cause there ain‘t no doubt I love this land God Bless the U.S.A. God Bless the U.S.A. STAR-SPANGLED BANNER Oh, say can you see by the dawn‘s early light What so proudly we hailed at the twilight‘s last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous ﬁght, O‘er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? And the rocket‘s red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our ﬂ ag was still there. Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave O‘er the land of the free and the home of the brave? On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep, Where the foe‘s haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o‘er the towering steep, As it ﬁtfully blows, half conceals, half discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning‘s ﬁrst beam, In full glory reﬂected now shines in the stream: ‗Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh long may it wave O‘er the land of the free and the home of the brave! And where is that band who so vauntingly swore That the havoc of war and the battle‘s confusion, A home and a country should leave us no more! Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps‘ pollution. No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror of ﬂight, or the gloom of the grave: And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave O‘er the land of the free and the home of the brave! Oh! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand Between their loved home and the war‘s desolation! Blest with victory and peace, may the heav‘n rescued land Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation. Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, And this be our motto: ―In God is our trust.‖ And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave O‘er the land of the free and the home of the brave! Colorado Columbine Girls State 66 GIRLS STATE EVALUATION FORM Complete this form each day while the activities are fresh in your mind. The planning committee uses these comments to plan the next session. Include favorite activities and least favorite activities as well as any other reﬂections you may have. Please fill out the other side regarding activities. Your responses are confidential. Turn form in to counselor before you leave on Friday. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday, Colorado Columbine Girls State 67 GIRLS STATE EVALUATION Rating: On a scale of 1 to 10 (10 being the best) rate each of the following parts of program Activity or Event Rating Comments Opening Sunday Keynote Speaker Parliamentary Instruction County and State Assemblies Election Procedures Open Forum Legislative Process WhistleStop Campaign Flag Etiquette Presentation Girls Nation Reports Talent Show Inauguration & Banquet Commencement Canteen Dress Code Flag Ceremonies Manual Meals Reﬂections Judicial Presentation Use of Technology at Girls State Speaker(s) you enjoyed: Speaker(s) you would recommend: Staff you enjoyed/staff comments: Name (optional:) Girls State City: Colorado Columbine Girls State 68 WESTERN STATE COLLEGE CAMPUS MAP Colorado Columbine Girls State 69