Winter 2005 The Quarterly Newsletter of the Michigan Resource Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence The Effectiveness of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner In This Issue Programs The Effectiveness of By Rebecca Campbell Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Programs…..1 R ape survivors who seek post-assault health care and medical forensic evidence collection from emergency rooms often do not remarkably consistent in their conclusions, do not provide definitive evidence of the effectiveness of SANE nurses in forensic Book Review: Working with Women’s Groups………….…….2 receive basic services, wait long hours, and have evidence collection. Empirical studies that HIV and Immigrants: A evidence collection conducted by directly compare the evidence collected by Manual for HIV/AIDS personnel that lack training and experience. SANE nurses and physicians on objective Service Providers….....2 Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) criteria would better inform the debate over Preventing Pregnancy from Sexual Programs were created to alleviate these whether nurses are competent medical forensic Assault...………….......2 problems. This paper presents a brief summary of examiners. To date, there have been only two Framing Abuse: Media the structure and functions of SANE such comparative studies conducted in the Influence and Public programs as they currently exist in the United United States. Both studies found support for Understanding of Sexual States, and then reviews the empirical research better evidence collection by SANE nurses. Violence Against literature on the effectiveness of SANE However, it is important to note that training Children……………....3 programs in three domains: psychological and experience, not job title or professional Updated Michigan Foundation Directory…3 recovery of victims, forensic evidence collection degree, are the likely reasons behind these New Resource Available and prosecution rates. This paper concludes with findings. at the Resource Center..3 summary recommendations for future research Finally, by meticulously documenting Web Resources for and practice issues to help develop the most injuries and physical evidence, it is possible that SANE/SART effective, evidence-based practices. SANE programs may increase prosecution rates Programs…………..….3 Because traditional medical care often leaves in their communities. As with the literature on FVPF’s Toolkit: Making survivors feeling “re-raped,” SANE programs the quality of forensic exams, case studies the Connection: have sought to provide care in an empowering suggest that SANE programs increase Domestic Violence and Public Health................4 setting that addresses survivors’ emotional and prosecution. To date, there has been only one Book Review: Domestic medical needs. Although emotional care is a study that included a direct comparison of legal Violence: Guidelines for primary goal of SANE programs, there have been outcomes for SANE cases versus non-SANE Research Informed few studies that have systematically evaluated the cases and found strong evidence that Practice……………….4 psychological impact of SANE programs. The prosecution of sexual assault cases was higher NCADV to Publish available literature is limited, but suggests that in SANE cases. New Manual …............4 rape survivors perceive SANE nurses as helpful From this body of work, it appears that Michigan Resource and supportive. SANE programs are having beneficial effects Center on Another founding goal for many SANE on rape survivors’ psychological well-being and programs was to improve the quality of forensic they are improving the prosecution rates of Domestic and evidence collection relative to the methods sexual assault crimes. However, such Sexual Violence traditionally used in hospital emergency conclusions are tentative because most 3893 Okemos Rd., departments. published studies have not included adequate Suite B2 The clinical case study literature suggests that methodological controls or comparisons to Okemos, MI 48864 SANE nurses are not only competent in forensic rigorously test the effectiveness of SANE Phone (517) 381-4663 evidence collection, but they are actually better at programs. To address these research and TTY (517) 381-8470 it because of their extensive training and practice needs, it is important that researchers Fax (517) 347-1060 experience. Yet, clinical case reports, though and SANE program practitioners develop strong E-Mail collaborative relationships. In Brief: The Effectiveness of Sexual firstname.lastname@example.org National Domestic Violence Hotline Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs is Linea Nacional sobre la Violencia Domestica Visit us on the Web at part of a longer document authored by Rebecca www.mcadsv.org/ 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) Campbell for the National Resource Center on TTY 1-800-787-3224 mrcdsv Domestic Violence, PCADV and VAWnet. Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) This document and references are available 1-800-656-HOPE (4673) online at www.vawnet.org. Winter 2005 Page 1 New Print Working With Women’s Groups Preventing Pregnancy from Resources W orking with Women’s Groups, Volume 1, addresses issues which concern women across the country, including low self-esteem, Sexual Assault E ach year, an estimated 25,000 women become pregnant as a result of sexual assault. Managing a poor self-image, health problems such as eating (Stewart and Trussell, 2000). Below, you will find Nonprofit disorders and weight concerns, menopause, and facts and resources on rape, pregnancy and Organization in empowerment. The sexuality and leadership prevention. sections of Working with Women’s Groups, the 21st Century Volume 2, continues this exploration by offering • The American Medical Association, the Framing Abuse: American College of Emergency Physicians and workshops for lesbians and women of color who the American College of Obstetricians and Media Influence need their own support groups to explore their Gynecologists all recognize Emergency and Public specific experiences. In these groups women can Contraception (EC) as part of standard treatment Understanding of share their problems, compare their experiences, for rape survivors to prevent pregnancy. Sexual Violence and explore new options. Both books present Against Children structured group exercises that will help women • Emergency Contraception (EC) is a safe and conduct their own personal search for identity effective, FDA-approved method of preventing Growing Beyond more productively. pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. (FDA, Survival: A Self- To borrow these materials, please contact the 1997). Help Toolkit for Resource Center at (517) 381-4663. • EC is time-sensitive. The sooner it is given Managing the better it works. (Ellertson, C., Evans, M., Traumatic Stress HIV and Immigrants: A Manual Ferden, S., Leadbetter, C., Spears, A. and Betrayed As Boys: for HIV/AIDS Service Providers Johnstone, K. 2003). • EC could be used to prevent as many as Psychodynamic Treatment of I magine this scene: A client who has tested HIV positive comes to see you. Besides worrying about testing HIV positive, she also 22,000 of the pregnancies resulting from sexual assault each year. (Stewart and Trussell, 2000). Sexually Abused fears what will happen to her because she is not a Men US citizen. You may wonder whether her Resources on Preventing Pregnancy Domestic Violence immigration status will change the kind of • Preventing Pregnancy from Sexual Assault: Trial Manual services she can get. This manual is for anyone Four Action Strategies to Improve Hospital who works with HIV positive clients who may not Policies on Provision of Emergency Our Children: be US citizens. This includes case managers, HIV Child Sexual Contraception (National Sexual Violence test counselors, paralegals, social workers, health Abuse: A Resource Center, Education Fund of Family care workers, nurses, doctors, interpreters, and Planning Advocates of NYS and Clara Bell Duval Resource Guide to discharge planners in hospitals. We hope you will Reproductive Freedom Project of the ACLU of Help Children, learn that many non-citizens with HIV/AIDS, Pennsylvania, 2003) This toolkit provides facts Parents, and regardless of their immigration status, may have about emergency contraception for rape survivors, Professionals some immigration options and may be able to tools and strategies to assess the need for work or receive some benefits. Breakthrough Immigration law is complicated. Though this increased access, and four strategies to increase Thinking for manual will not make you an immigration law access. www.nsvrc.org Nonprofit expert, it will help you and your clients think • Emergency Contraception educational Organizations: about their choices and make informed decisions. materials for diverse audiences. The Program for Creative This resource is available online at Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) has Strategies for www.nationalimmigrationproject.org. created materials for public awareness in several Extraordinary different languages including: Amharic, Arabic, Results Cambodian, Chinese, English, Haitian-Creole, Korean, Laotian, Portuguese, Russian, Somali, Women of Spanish and Vietnamese. www.path.org Southwest Detroit Volunteer Opportunities available at • Emergency Contraception in the Americas. The Lobbying and the Michigan Resource Center! (Program on Women, Health and Development, Advocacy The Michigan Resource Center on Pan American Health Organization) This 2 page Handbook Domestic and Sexual Violence is seeking fact sheet provides information on what volunteers to assist with the day-to-day Emergency Contraception is and countries that are The Michigan upkeep of the Resource Center. Please for- currently making it available. www.paho.org Foundation • Emergency Contraception Services for Rape ward any inquires to Melissa Limon at Directory Victims in Pennsylvania Hospitals. (Clara Bell (517) 381-4663, ext.17 or via email at email@example.com. Duval Reproductive Freedom Project, 2002) This study was updated in the summer of 2002. It evaluated access to emergency contraception in Pennsylvania emergency rooms. www.aclupa.org Winter 2005 Page 2 Framing Abuse: Media Influence New Resource Available at the Elder Abuse and Public Understanding of Michigan Resource Center! Electronic Sexual Violence Against Children Resources C ombining in-depth analysis of media representations of child sexual abuse with B etrayed as Boys: Psychodynamic Treatment of Sexually Abused Men by Richard B. Gartner, examines how sexual betrayal affects National Center on focus group discussions and interviews with boys and the ways they carry this hurt into Elder Abuse (NCEA) nearly 500 journalists, campaigners and a cross- adulthood. Blending psychoanalytic Exists to provide elder section of ‘the public’, Framing Abuse: Media understanding with insights from trauma-oriented abuse information to Influence and Public Understanding of Sexual theory and practice, Gartner presents effective professionals and the Violence Against Children reveals the media’s strategies for meeting the unique therapeutic public; offer technical role in contemporary society. needs of men with sexual abuse histories. assistance and training Author, Jenny Kitzinger examines feminist Filled with evocative clinical material, the to elder abuse initiatives to challenge sexual violence, the book draws readers into the direct experience of agencies and related emergence of incest as a social problem and the these clients, the therapists who work with them, professionals; conduct development of new survivor identities. She also and the constantly shifting relational world they short-term elder abuse explores stereotypes around sex offenders, inhabit. It serves as an indispensable guide for research; and assist clinicians and educators in a range of settings. interrogates protests against ‘pedophiles-in-the- with elder abuse To borrow this resource, please contact the community’ and presents a detailed analysis of the program and policy impact of scandals about disputed abuse Resource Center at (517) 381-4663, ext.17. development. allegations. www.elderabuse Which stories attract attention and why? What Web Resources for SANE/SART center. org strategies do journalists and campaigners use to Programs persuade people and how do we respond? Answering these and other questions, the author demonstrates how media reporting can impact on E vidence Collection and Care of the Sexual Assault Survivor: The SANE-SART Response (Linda E. Ledray, RN, Ph.D, LP, National Clearinghouse on people’s knowledge of the ‘facts’, perceptions of FAAN, 2001). Abuse in Later Life risk, sense of appropriate policy responses and This Violence Against Women Online Resources NCALL provides training even how we interpret our own experiences. commissioned document outlines the components and technical assistance This book is essential reading for anyone of a coordinated Sexual Assault Response Team on issues that address interested in theories of media influence, identity (SART) model and illustrates the techniques and the nexus between and social change. It is also a key resource for implementation strategies that should be utilized domestic violence, sexual anyone concerned about sexual violence, involved when gathering forensic evidence post sexual assault and elder abuse/ in designing intervention strategies and the assault. www.vaw.umn.edu neglect. They also protection of children or who is attempting to provide resource and Sexual Assault Response Team Guidelines design intervention strategies. To borrow this facts sheets on abuse in (Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape, 2002) resource, please contact the Resource Center at later life. These guidelines provide a comprehensive set of (517) 381-4663. www.ncall.us recommended practices for multidisciplinary Updated Michigan Foundation teams responding to sex crimes. It also includes course outline for Sexual Assault Forensic Directory Now Available! Examiners. www.pcar.org National Committee for the Prevention T he Council of Michigan Foundations, in partnership with The Foundation Center, is pleased to announce the release of the New and Developing A Sexual Assault Response Team: Resource Guide for Kentucky Communities of Elder Abuse Promotes research, Improved Michigan Foundation Directory, 14th (Kentucky Association of Sexual Assault advocacy, public Edition. Since the last edition of the Directory, Programs, 2002) awareness, and over 100 foundations have been created in our This guide describes an eight step process for training regarding the state, including family, private, public, corporate developing sexual assault response teams and abuse and neglect of focuses on responding to sexual assault victims and community foundations. This manual explains older persons and the purpose of a foundation and lists various types that are fourteen or more years old. disabled adults. of grantmakers. A sample grant application form www.kasap.org www.prevent is also included. To borrow this resource, please Minnesota Model Sexual Assault Response elderabuse.org contact the Resource Center at (517) 381-4663. Protocol (Minnesota Coalition Against Sexual Assault: Minnesota Model Protocol Project, 2000) The Michigan Resource Center on Domestic and This guide was created to help effect a more Sexual Violence is a collaboration of the victim-centered approach toward sexual assault crimes. It is intended for those interested in Michigan Domestic Violence developing a multidisciplinary protocol. Excerpts Prevention and Treatment Board are available online. www.mncasa.org and the Michigan Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence Winter 2005 Page 3 The Michigan FVPF’s Toolkit: Making the NCADV to Publish New “How to Resource Center on Connection: Domestic Violence Lobby Manual” Domestic and and Public Health Sexual Violence is a collaboration of the H ow can we engage public health leaders to respond to family violence? The Family T he NCADV Public Policy Office is in the process of updating and revising its “How To” Lobby Manual. This legislative action booklet Michigan Domestic Violence Prevention Fund has developed a tool contains vital information for domestic violence advocates, and is designed to assist activists in Violence Prevention (available on CD with an accompanying guidebook) that makes the connection between becoming involved in the democratic process. and Treatment The manual addresses information related to family violence and leading public health Board and the the legislative process and community organizing. concerns and presents effective strategies for Michigan Coalition responding. This evidence-based tool offers the Topics include how a bill becomes a law, visiting Against Domestic most relevant research on family violence, with legislators, and tips for community and Sexual implications for select public health programs, organizing. The manual includes sample letters to Violence. recommended clinical and policy strategies, assist activists when writing letters to legislators, promising practices and resources from around the as well as contact information for several key The Michigan country. federal and state government agencies. Domestic Violence This PowerPoint Presentation and This resource tool and action kit will also Prevention and accompanying guidebook helps presenters by contain information about motivating and providing evidence and “speaker's notes” for each organizing voting campaigns. NCADV will also Treatment Board is slide to make the case for violence prevention to provide the most current versions of our domestic the primary funder violence fact sheets which may be duplicated and public health leaders. A presenter may opt to and owner of the present on any of the following areas and may mix shared as an additional organizing resource. collection. Additional and match sections depending on their audience: NCADV’s Public Policy Office encourages funding is provided by • Overview & Epidemiology advocates not only to follow domestic violence the U.S. Department • Women’s Health legislation, but to also take action politically by utilizing the many tactics outlined in the manual. of Health and Human • Mental Health & Substance Abuse • Family Planning By expressing your views and contacting your Services and other legislators regarding your concerns, you will • Sexually Transmitted Infections & HIV generous supporters become part of social action to pass legislation • Perinatal Programs of the Michigan • Breastfeeding and Nutritional Supplements which will better protect domestic violence Coalition Against • Child and Adolescent Health victims and their families. Domestic and Sexual • Injury and Violence Prevention and The “How To” Lobby Manual will be Violence. • Regional and Local Data on Domestic available later this fall in hard copy as well as a Violence downloadable PDF document on NCADV’s To view the online version of the toolkit or to website. Participants in NCADV’s Lobby Day Resource Center events will receive a copy of the manual and have place an order, visit http://endabuse.org/programs/ Staff display.php3?DocID=344 or call toll-free at an opportunity to attend a “How To” Lobby Jenefer O’Dell, 1-888-Rx-ABUSE Workshop. Resource Center For more information, email NCADV’s Coordinator Domestic Violence: Guidelines for Public Policy office at firstname.lastname@example.org. Melissa Limon, Research-Informed Practice Resource Center Specialist T here is a growing concern that domestic violence has reached epidemic proportions. Existing services, developed by mental health professionals, frequently have minimal impact on reducing either the frequency or severity of Visit us on the Web! domestic violence. As a result, science- practitioners in this field have developed new clinical research programs to inform key practice issues and improve these services. Domestic Violence: Guidelines for Research- Informed Practice describes recently developed intervention programs which have been shown to be effective for reducing the incidence, severity or impact of domestic violence in particular Access the entire populations. It also features assessment programs Resource Center collection and that identify risk profiles of potential perpetrators order materials online at and victims. This new approach is designed to www.mcadsv.org/mrcdsv enhance the quality and effectiveness of service initiatives in domestic violence. To borrow this Winter 2005 Page 4 resource, please contact the Resource Center.
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