Science Investigatory Project by xjz10043

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									     2002-2003 INTEL PHILIPPINE SCIENCE FAIR (IPSF)



                           GUIDELINES
Organizers:


   • Department of Science & Technology
   • Science Education Institute
   • Department of Education, Culture & Sports


Sponsor:

INTEL Philippines Manufacturing Inc.
    Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (Intel ISEF)
                               Winners

                                           2001-2002

             Prem Vilas Fortran M. Rara                        Allan N. Estrella
             Integrated Dev. School                            Jeric V. Macalintal
             MSU-IIT Iligan City                               Richard K.S. Manapat
             2ND GRAND AWARD,                                  Manila Science HS
             INDIVIDUAL CATEGORY,                              FIRST GRAND AWARD
             MICROBIOLOGY                                      TEAM CATEGORY, PHYSICS



           2000-2001                                               1999-2000

                                                                   Osmund Niño Amoroso
                                                                   Ray Ian Oco
         Reinabelle C. Reyes                                       Leo Marconi Carillo
         Philippine Science HS, Q.C.                               Central Mindanao Univ. Lab. HS
         SPECIAL AWARD, PHYSICS                                    4TH PLACE GRAND AWARD,
         PATENT & TRADEMARK OFFICE                                 BOTANY; HONORABLE MEN-
         US DEPT. OF COMMERCE                                      TION AWARD EASTMAN KODAK
                                                                   COMPANY


                                          1998-1999

           Karen Sobere Yu                              Karen Christine Braganza
           Dumaguete City Science HS                    Cayetano Arellano HS
           INTEL FELLOWS ACHIEVEMENT                    3RD GRAND AWARD, INDIVIDUAL CATE-
           AWARD                                        GORY, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE; 2ND
                                                        PLACE SPECIAL AWARD, PATENT & TRADE-
                                                        MARK OFFICE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COM-
                                                        MERCE; & 3RD PLACE AWARD U.S. SOCI-
                                                        ETY OF MINING, METALLURGY AND EXPLO-
                       Ma. Selina Perez                 RATION
                       Bernice De Guzman
                       Mary Rose Italia
                       Philippine Science HS, Q.C.
                       2ND GRAND AWARD
                       TEAM CATEGORY, MEDICINE &
                       HEALTH


                                            1997-1998




       Jessica D. Villamor                                    Christian Paolo D. Sanchez
      Sorsogon National HS                                    Ernest Anthony A. Baello III
      4TH GRAND AWARD                                         Lorenzo Fernando M. Lorilla
INDIVIDUAL CATEGORY, BOTANY                                   Philippine Science HS, Q.C.
                                                        4TH GRAND AWARD, TEAM CATEGORY
                                                                    ENGINEERING
                                   TABLE OF CONTENTS



        TITLE                                             PAGES

Intel Philippine Science Fair                             1

Objectives                                                1

Requirements for the Investigatory Projects               1-5

Two Major Areas of Study for the IPSF Projects            5-6

Adults Involved in a Science Project                      6-7

Mechanics of Implementation                               8-11

Phases of Selection                                       12

Awards and Prizes                                         13

Privileges of National Finalists                          14

Schedule of Activities                                    14

Flowchart for Required Forms                              15

Application Forms                                         16-17

Certifications/Required Forms                             18-23

Sample Abstract                                           24

Helpful Tips                                              25-28

List of Winning Science Projects in the 53rd Intel ISEF   29-31

Laboratory Rules & Safety Procedures                      32-38

Aseptic & Pure Culture Techniques                         39

Chemical Safety                                           40-42

IPSF Guidelines for ISEF Delegates                        43-46



                      PLEASE READ GUIDELINES CAREFULLY.
                       2002-2003 INTEL PHILIPPINE SCIENCE FAIR

      The Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (SEI-
DOST), in cooperation with the Department of Education (DepEd), announces the holding of the
Intel Philippine Science Fair (IPSF) under the 6th year sponsorship of Intel Philippines
Manufacturing Inc.

        The IPSF is an annual and nationwide competition that aims to promote science and
technology consciousness among the general public and the youth in particular, through the
exhibition of science investigatory or research projects. Ultimately, it seeks to identify the best
and the most creative among the science-inclined and technology-conscious students who can
ably represent the country in various international science competitions.

        The IPSF competitions will be conducted among high school students only. The
competition will start from the division level, progressing thru the regional and to the national
levels. Entries shall be categorized into individual and team projects to promote the values of
personal excellence as well as teamwork. For SY 2002-2003 entries will be classified into two
(2) major fields of study; the basic and applied sciences. The IPSF is affiliated with the Intel
International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) and is implemented in accordance with the
international guidelines.

                                       OBJECTIVES
GENERAL:
• To provide an effective medium in the development of science and technology
  consciousness among the youth and promote public understanding and appreciation of
  scientific breakthroughs.
• To improve the quality of science and technology education.

SPECIFIC:

•   To encourage research and development among young Filipino students.
•   To undertake scientific activities that will develop the youth’s creativity, analytical mind and
    integrity.
•   To disseminate and apply learned science and technology concepts and principles.
•   To identify and give recognition to outstanding youth science researchers.
•   To provide a venue for intellectual and social interaction among participants and experts.
•   To create an atmosphere of competitiveness and excellence in undertaking scientific
    activities and toward achieving breakthroughs in research.

                    REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INVESTIGATORY PROJECTS

I. Content

    Apply/demonstrate scientific principles or attempt to provide new knowledge;
    be a result of continuing or parallel scientific research and investigation & not a copy
    of any previous research;


                                                 1
   have socio-economic significance and relevance to livelihood development; and
   contribute to the advancement of S&T and the development of the community.

II. Physical Set-up/Visual Display

The physical set-up must be attractive and informative. Interested spectators and judges
should easily asses the study and the results obtained. Use clear and concise displays. Make
headings stand-out, draw graphs and diagrams clearly and label them correctly. A one-page
project abstract must be posted in one corner of the booth. Be sure to adhere to the size
limitations and safety rules when preparing the display.

The maximum size of project display must be:

        76 cm       (30 inches) deep
       122 cm       (48 inches) wide
       183 cm       (40 inches) high excluding table

A Sample Diagram of a Science Fair Display

                                        122 cm width




                                                                                      183 cm height




                       76 cm depth



  Fair organizers shall provide 1 table & 2 chairs to participants during the division & regional
  science fair.
  At the national level, each finalist shall be provided with a display booth with size not exceeding
  1.5 m by 1.5 m including backboard, 1 table & 2 chairs



                                                     2
NOT ALLOWED AT PROJECT OR IN BOOTH:

1.  Living organisms, including plants
2.  Human or animal food
3.  Human/animal parts or body fluids (for example, blood, urine)
4.  Preserved vertebrate or invertebrate animals
5.  Plant materials (living, dead or preserved which are in their raw, unprocessed or non-
    manufactured state
6. Laboratory/household chemicals
7. Poisons, drugs, hazardous substances or devices
8. Dry ice or other sublimating solids
9. Sharp items (for example, syringes, needles, knives)
10. Highly flammable materials
11. Batteries with open-top cells
12. Photographs depicting vertebrate animals in surgical techniques, dissections, improper
    handling methods and improper housing conditions
13. Glasswares
14. Computer units & peripherals

     Prototype or model for technology projects maybe displayed but within allotted space for
each project only.

III. Format of Research Paper

     The project write-up must be typewritten double-spaced in short bond paper (8”x11”) and
follows the following format:

     • Title Page – title of the project must be brief, simple and catchy.
     • Abstract - should consist of short, concise descriptions of the problem & its solution. It
         must be one page only, single-spaced with a maximum of 250 words, typewritten in
         Times Roman style; font 11. It must also state the following:

        a)   Purpose
        b)   Procedure used
        c)   Results
        d)   Conclusion

     • Acknowledgement – contains the names of people & agencies that helped in the
         conduct of the work described.
     • Table of Contents – lists the different parts of the whole report with the corresponding
         page number of each part. The wording & grammar of the chapter titles, heading &
         title of tables & figures should be consistent.
     • Introduction – informs the reader of the problem under study. It shows the nature of
         scope and the problem, its historical & theoretical background & a review of literature
         relevant to the problem.



                                                 3
   a) Background of the Study- states the rationale of the study. It explains briefly why
      the investigator chose this study to work on.
   b) Statement of Problem/Objectives – the nature & scope of the problem should
      be presented with clarity. Two types of objectives maybe stated:

        1. General Objective – this is related to the problem as given in the early part of
           the section.
        2. Specific Objective – this states the purpose of each experiment conducted.

   c) Significance of the Study- the importance of the study is explained in this part.
   d) Scope and Limitations – states the coverage & extent of the study.
   e) Review of Related Literature – sufficient background information should be
      presented for readers to understand & evaluate the results of the present study.
      Only the most important studies and theories written on the topic should be
      included.

• Methodology – provides enough details so that a competent worker can repeat the
      experiments.

 a) Materials/Equipment – the exact technical specifications, quantities and source of
    method of preparation for all materials used should be given. Specifically built
    equipment used in the study must be described and the description accompanied
    by a picture.
 b) Treatment/General Procedure – the manner & sequence by which each
    experiment or set of observations were done & how measurements were obtained
    should be described in detail. Avoid using the “recipe style” when stating the
    step-by-step procedure. Use the narrative form in the past tense.

• Results and Discussion – this maybe divided into sub-sections describing each set of
    experiment or observations.

   a) Findings – the data maybe presented in full & discussed descriptively in the text or
      these maybe summarized in tables, pictures & graphs. The statistical test used to
      determine the possible significance of the finding should be described. Tables,
      pictures & graphs should make the presentation of the data more meaningful.
   b) Analysis of Data – the interpretation of the findings are discussed & the significant
      features shown in the table, figures or graphs are pointed out.




Ethics Statement. Scientific fraud and misconduct is not condoned at any level of research or
competition. Plagiarism, use or presentation of other researcher’s work as one’s own and fabrication
or falsification of data will not be tolerated. Fraudulent projects are disqualified for the competition.




                                                 4
  • Conclusions – the general truth implied or illustrated by the results should be clearly
        stated. The evidence based on the results should be summarized for each
        statement.

  • Recommendations – consists of suggestions on future actions such as a new direction
        of research or further experiments to be performed, practices that might be adapted
        or discarded in order to attain certain goals or objectives.

  • Bibliography – a list of the references used in guiding the research work and writing the
         paper.


              TWO MAJOR AREAS OF STUDY FOR THE IPSF PROJECTS

1. BASIC SCIENCES

  a) Botany – Study of plant life – agriculture, forestry, plant taxonomy, plant     pathology,
     plant genetics, algae, etc.

  b) Zoology – Study of animals – animal genetics, animal ecology, animal husbandry, cellular
     physiology, histology, animal physiology, etc.

  c) Microbiology – Biology of microorganisms-bacteriology, virology, protozoology,       fungi,
     bacterial genetics, yeast, etc.

   d) Biochemistry – Chemistry of life processes – molecular biology, molecular genetics,
      enzymes, photosynthesis, blood chemistry, protein & food chemistry, hormones, etc.

  e) Chemistry – Study of nature & composition of matter and laws governing it –       physical
     & organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, materials, plastics, fuels, pesticides,
     metallurgy, soil chemistry, environmental and materials chemistry, plastics, etc.

  f) Physics – Theories, principles, and laws governing energy & the effect of energy on
     matter –solid state, optics, acoustics, particles, nuclear, atomic plasma,
     superconductivity, fluid and gas dynamics, thermodynamics, semiconductors,
     magnetism, quantum mechanics, biophysics, etc.

  g) Mathematics – Development of formal logical systems or various numerical algebraic
     computations and the application of these principles-calculus, geometry, abstract
     algebra, number theory, statistics, complex analysis, probability.




                                               5
2. APPLIED SCIENCES

A. COMPUTER AND ENGINEERING

     a) Computer Science – Study & development of computer hardware, software engineering,
        internet networking and communications, graphics (including human interface),
        simulations/virtual reality or computational science (including data structures,
        encryption, coding & information theory).

     b) Engineering – Technology; projects that directly apply scientific principles to
        manufacturing and practical uses –civil, mechanical, aeronautical, chemical, electrical,
        photographic, sound, automotive , marine, heating and refrigerating, transportation
        environmental engineering, etc.

B. MEDICINE AND HEALTH

         Study of diseases and health of humans and animals –dentistry, pharmacology,
pathology, ophthalmology, nutrition, sanitation, pediatrics, dermatology, allergies, speech and
hearing, etc.

C. OTHER APPLIED SCIENCES

     a) Earth & Space Sciences – Geology, mineralogy, physiography, oceanography,
        meteorology, climatology, astronomy, speleology, seismology, geography, etc.

     b) Environmental Science – Study of pollution (air, water and land) sources and their
        control, ecology.

     c) Biotechnology – the aspect of technology concerned with the application of biological
        and engineering data to problems relating to the mutual adjustment of man & machine.


                      ADULTS INVOLVED IN A SCIENCE PROJECT


1)    THE ADULT SPONSOR/PROJECT ADVISER

An Adult Sponsor/Project Adviser may be a teacher, university professor, or scientist in whose
laboratory the student is working. This individual must have a solid background in science and
should have close contact with the student during the course of the project.

He/She must be familiar with the regulations that govern potentially dangerous research as
they apply to a specific student project.

The Adult Sponsor/Project Adviser is responsible for ensuring the student’s research is eligible
for entry in the Intel Philippine Science Fair.

                                                6
2) THE QUALIFIED SCIENTIST

A Qualified Scientist should possess an earned doctoral/professional degree in the biomedical
and other sciences. However, a master’s degree with equivalent experience and/or expertise in
the student’s area of research is acceptable when approved by a Scientific Review Committee
(SRC). The Qualified Scientist must be thoroughly familiar with safety regulations in the
Philippines and U.S.A. that govern the student’s area of research.

The Qualified Scientist and the Adult Sponsor may be the same person, if that person is
qualified as outlined above.

3) THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE (SRC)

An SRC must consist of a minimum of three persons. Additional members are recommended to
avoid conflict of interest. The SRC must include:

     a) a scientist in the biomedical field or other sciences (M.D., Ph.D.)
     b) a science teacher
     c) at least one other member (i.e. a science department head, science supervisor)
        (the project adviser cannot serve as an SRC member)

A Scientific Review Committee (SRC) examines the science fair projects for the following:

     a) evidence of library search
     b) evidence of proper laboratory supervision
     c) use of accepted research techniques
     d) completed forms, signatures and dates
     e) humane treatment of animals
     f) compliance with rules and laws governing human and animal research
     g) appropriate use of recombinant DNA, pathogenic organisms, controlled substances,
        tissues and hazardous substances and devices
     h) appropriate documents and substantial expansion for continuation projects

THE SRC FOLLOWS THIS PROCESS:

1)        BEFORE EXPERIMENTATION, the SRC reviews and approves experimental procedures for
          projects involving human subjects, nonhuman vertebrates, pathogenic agents, controlled
          substances, recombinant DNA, and human/animal tissue to make sure they comply with
          the Rules and any pertinent laws. Human studies reviewed and approved by a properly
          constituted IRB do not have to be reviewed by the SRC until ISEF-Affiliated Fair
          competition.

2)        AFTER EXPERIMENTATION AND SHORTLY BEFORE THE ISEF-AFFILIATED FAIR:
          a) The SRC reviews and approves previously-approved projects to make sure that
              students followed the approved Research Plan (1A) and the Rules.
          b) The SRC also reviews all remaining projects to make sure students followed the
              applicable Rules.
                                                 7
                     2002-2003 Intel Philippine Science Fair
                       SCHEME OF IMPLEMENTATION

                              DIVISION LEVEL



                         BASIC                APPLIED



                 Clusters 1 & 2                        Clusters 1 & 2


     Individual              Team          Individual             Team




                                    SRC


                            PROJECT PROPONENT


                            REGIONAL COMPETITION




                   BASIC                               APPLIED


            Clusters 1 & 2                        Clusters 1 & 2


    Individual              Team          Individual             Team




                            NATIONAL LEVEL COMPETITION

     ISEF                                                                     ISEF
2 INDIVIDUAL        BASIC                                    APPLIED     2 INDIVIDUAL
   1 TEAM                                                                   1 TEAM
                             MECHANICS OF IMPLEMENTATION

A. CLASSIFICATION OF ENTRIES

   For each cluster, all entries will be classified into two (2) major areas of study namely, basic
and applied sciences. Applicants must indicate the classification of their project entries.

B. CATEGORIZATION OF PROJECT ENTRIES

   All applications must indicate the category of the project entry as follows:

       Individual Project - conducted by one student only in any of the identified disciplines
       of the IPSF, under Basic or Applied Sciences.
       Team Project - conducted by 2 or, at most, 3 students in any of the identified
       disciplines under Basic or Applied Sciences. Team Project with more than 3
       members starting at the division level will be disqualified.

    A team project cannot be converted into an individual project or vice-versa. A new member
may not be added to a continuing Team Project, but two original team members may continue
their research if the third member no longer participates.

    Each team should appoint a team leader to coordinate the work and act as spokesperson.
However, each member of the team should be fully involved with the project and be familiar
with all aspects of the project.

    Full names of all team members must appear on the abstract and forms. However, during
the science congress, only the team leader shall be allowed to act as spokesperson to defend
the project. The other members of the team may have the opportunity to discuss the project
with the judges during the on-site evaluation and with other inquiring guests at the exhibit hall.




                                                9
                                       Levels of Implementation

           Level                 Qualification                    Requirements (all clusters)
                                  (all clusters)
Level I-Division                                            Submission of project entries may be through
                                                     the website: www.sei.dost.gov.ph/intel-
Schools may conduct school        • secondary        philsciencefair or directly to the SEI or DOST
level competition:                  students         Regional Offices. A project entry must have an
• Cluster 1: Students from          not    more      accomplished application form. A project write-up
   the regular public high          than      21     without an accomplished application will not be
   schools and private high         years old        accepted.
   schools.                                                  Schools may send more than one entry.
• Cluster 2:                                         Requirements for submission of entries:
   Students from Special                             • application for participation
   Science High Schools and                          • certification as project adviser or adult sponsor
   secondary schools under                              signed by school head
   the tertiary institutions                         • four (4) copies of official abstract (1 page only,
• All regions will conduct                              single space not more than 250 words with the
   the Division Level for                               following contents:
   both clusters                                        - objective/purpose
• BOJ will select the best 3                            - procedures/methods
   projects       for     each                          - results
   category, cluster, area or                           - conclusion/s
   a total of 24                                     • four (4) copies of accomplished Research Paper
• winners                                            • other required forms
• Final judging - to select
   the entry to the regional
   competition




           SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE (SRC) EVALUATION OF PROJECT

          In accordance with the guidelines of the International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF),
 entries in the IPSF are required to undergo an SRC evaluation.

         Requirements:
             • Accomplished official abstract form (4 copies)
             • Research paper (4 copies)




                                                      10
      Level                      Qualification                               Requirements
Level 2 -Regional      •   Best Project for each cluster,      •  Application for participation
• All regions will         category and area or a total of 8   •  Parental consent
  conduct        the       projects/division                   •  Medical certificate
  Regional     Level                                           •  certification as project adviser or Adult
  Competition.                                                    Sponsor signed by school head
• Best 3 projects                                              • four (4) copies of official abstract (1 page
  will be declared                                                only, single space, not more than 250
  by     BOJ     per                                              words) with the following contents:
  cluster/ category/                                              - objective/purpose
  area.                                                           - procedures/methods
• Best project per                                                - results/conclusion
  cluster/ category/                                           • four (4) copies of accomplished Research
  area will compete                                               Paper
  in the National                                              • other required forms
  Level Competition                                               * Entries maybe submitted to the DOST
                                                                    Regional Offices
                                                                  * For NCR: entries maybe submitted to
                                                                     SEI, 3rd Floor, PTRI Bldg., Bicutan,
                                                                     Taguig, M.M.
Level            3- •      Best project for each cluster,      Requirements are same as in level 2
National                   category and are or a total of 8     * Entries and other required forms of the
                           projects/region                        qualifiers for the national level shall be
                                                                  submitted to SEI-Bicutan.


One (1) complete copy of research paper and project data book must be displayed in the booth
during the regional and national levels. However, the project proponent must have the data
book ready even during the division level.




                                                    11
                                        PHASES OF SELECTION

        Level                                Activities                       Criteria for Judging       Rating
Division                 •   Application evaluation
                         •   Categorization of entry as individual or         •   Creativity,             35%
                             team project                                         Resourcefulness &
                         •   Classification of entry as basic & applied           Inventiveness
                             science
                         •   Evaluation of research paper                                                 35%
                         •   Selection of winners                             •   Scientific Thought
Regional/                •   Application evaluation                               &        Engineering
National                 •   Categorization of entry as individual or             Goals
                             team project                                                                 10%
                         •   Classification of entry as basic & applied
                             science                                          •   Thoroughness
                         •   Evaluation of research paper                                                 10%
                         •   Project exhibition
                         •   On-site interview of all participants (only      •   Research Skills
                             student- participants are allowed in the                                     10%
                             exhibit area during on-site interview)
                         •   Science congress to be participated by top       •   Presentation Skills
                             ranking participants based on preliminary
                             screening & interview
                         •   Final judging: At the regional, the BOJ will
                             select    the    best    3    projects    per
                             cluster/category/area.
                         •   At the national level the best 3 projects will
                             be chosen by the Board of Judges for the
                             IPSF         Grand         Awards         per
                             cluster/category/area and the chance to
                             compete in the ISEF
                         •   Projects for the Special awards will also be
                             chosen by the Board of Judges at the
                             national level.
International            •   On-site interview of the                         •   Originality             20%
Participation                top 3 winners per cluster/                       •   International           20%
                             category/area                                        impact                  15%
  The best three (3)                                                          •   Thoroughness            15%
projects in each         •   Deliberation of the Board                        •   Clarity                 15%
cluster/category/            Of Judges                                        •   Research Skills         15%
area are qualified for                                                        •   Scientific thought
the    selection    of   •   Final judging to select the ISEF entries             or engineering
entries to the ISEF.                                                              goals
Another     set     of
judges will choose
the following for
ISEF:
2 Ind – basic
2 Ind – applied
1 team – basic
1 team – applied

                                                         12
                                      AWARDS AND PRIZES

Division
• Medals for the top 3 winners
• Certificate of Achievement for the top three winners per cluster/category/area
• Certificate of Recognition for the winners’ advisers per category/cluster/area

Regional
• Cash Awards for the best 3 projects/cluster/category/area
      Individual                              Team
    Student/Adviser                        Student/Adviser
     P850/600                               P1,500/600

•   Medals for the best 3 winners
•   Certificate of Achievement for the best 3 winners per cluster/category/area
•   Certificate of Recognition for the winners’ advisers per cluster/category/area

National

Intel Special Awards
•    Best use of Computer     -       for the project which exemplifies the best application of
                                      the computer as an integral part of the research – P10,000
                                      cash prize
•    Science Project Adviser -        one per cluster/category – P2,500 each cash prize
•    Best Project Adviser    -        as international nominee to the ISEF Science Educator’s
                                      Award Program in Cleveland, Ohio, USA
•    Best Science Project     -       one per major area of study (basic/applied) – cash prize
                                      and Certificate of Recognition
•    Special Award            -       to a University Professor/Industry Consultant for his/her
                                      involvement in a winning science project during the
                                      national IPSF at P2,500/cluster/category and Certificate of
                                      Recognition to the participating institution.

GRAND AWARDS
•  Cash Awards for the Best 3 Projects/cluster/category/area

                 INDIVIDUAL                         TEAM
               Students/Advisers              Students/Advisers

                 5,000/4,000                       12,000/4,000
    • Medals for the best 3 winning project investigators
    • Certificate of Merit for the best three winners per cluster/category/area
    • Certificate of Recognition for the winners’ advisers per cluster/category/area

   Special Awards from professional         associations,   government    agencies     and private
foundations shall be announced later.


                                                13
   Privileges of National Finalists:

   The national finalists shall be represented by the project proponent for the individual project
   and by the project leader for the team project. Each must have a duly-designated official
   adviser. These finalists and advisers shall be entitled to:

   •   Free board and lodging effective breakfast of the first day of the scheduled date (putting up
       of exhibits) up to lunch of the closing day

   •   Free round trip transportation expenses (from residence to the fair site and back). Expenses
       are reimbursable supported by receipts/RERs subject to the usual government accounting
       and auditing rules. Claims for payment of hired vehicles are disapproved.

IPSF will shoulder the financial expenses of the team leader only. However, should the other 2
members of the team decide to attend the fair, it shall be at their own expense.

                                    SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES

   Competition/Activity          Schedule                     Deadline of Entry Submission

   Division                      October 16, 2002             September 30, 2002

   SRC Evaluation                November 13, 2002            October 28, 2002

   Regional                      December 5-6, 2002           November 22, 2002

   National                      February 19-21, 2003         January 10, 2003


   Application forms are available at any DOST/DECS Regional Offices/DOST-PSTC Offices and
   downloadable at the website www.sei.dost.gov.ph/intel-philsciencefair

       • For further inquiries, contact IPSF Secretariat
         Science Education Institute
         3/F, PTRI Bldg., Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila
         Telefax # 837-1333 Tel. No. 839-0083
         Fax       # 837-1924 Tel. No. 837-2071 to 82 Loc. 2382
         E-mail: ala@sei.dost.gov.ph
                  leviportugal@yahoo.com




                                                    14
             2002-2003 Intel Philippine Science Fair

                 FLOW CHART FOR REQUIRED FORMS
                    Requirements for ALL Projects




IPSF
Application
With
Certifications
           Official
           Abstract 250
           words
           (maximum
           1 page)
                       Research
                       Paper

                                 Approval
                                 Form
                                        Data
                                        Book
                                                       Registered
                                                       Research
                                                       Institution
                                                       Form

   Form                    Form
     is                    Maybe
  Required                Required


                                15
                                        Republic of the Philippines
                                  SCIENCE EDUCATION INSTITUTE
                                PTRI Bldg., Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila

                      APPLICATION FORM – INDIVIDUAL PROJECT


INSTRUCTION:            This form must be accomplished by all high school
                        investigators/ project researchers of individual project.
                        Please TYPE or PRINT clearly.

Region: _________                                                         Zone: _____________

Level:
(Please check)

[ ]     Division                  [ ]     Regional                 [ ]    National

FIELD OF STUDY: (Please check) Basic Science (___) Applied Science (___)
(Please refer to the two (2) major areas of study and disciplines in the IPSF Guidelines).

1.      Name: _________________________________________________________________________

2.      Permanent Home Address: ________________________________________________________

3.      Telephone/Fax No.: _____________ 4. Sex: ______________ 5. Birthdate: _________________

6.      School, Address of School & Tel./Fax No.: ____________________________________________

        _______________________________________________________________________________

7.      Year Level: ________________

8.      Title of Investigatory Project: ______________________________________________________

        _______________________________________________________________________________

9.      Attach one copy of accomplished OFFICIAL ABSTRACT FORM: (Not more than 250 words, one
        page only)


_______________________
Printed Name & Signature of
Project Investigator                                      NOTED:

_______________________                                   _______________________________
Printed Name & Signature of                               Printed Name & Signature of Principal
Project Adviser/Adult Sponsor                             or Head of S&T Department


                                                     16
                                        Republic of the Philippines
                                  SCIENCE EDUCATION INSTITUTE
                                PTRI Bldg., Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila

                           APPLICATION FORM – TEAM PROJECT

INSTRUCTION:            This form must be accomplished by all high school project
                        leaders of team projects. Please TYPE or PRINT clearly.

Region: _________                                                         Zone: _____________

Level:
(Please check)

[ ]     Division                  [ ]     Regional                 [ ]    National


FIELD OF STUDY: (Please check) Basic Science (___) Applied Science (___)
(Please refer to the two (2) major areas of study and disciplines in the IPSF Guidelines).

1.      Name of Leader: _____________________ Member _____________ Member _______________

2.      Permanent Home Address: ______________ _________________ _______________________

3.      Telephone/Fax No.: ____________________ _________________ _______________________

4.      Sex: ________________________________ _________________ _______________________

5.      Birthdate: ___________________________ _________________ ________________________

6.      School, Address of School & Tel./Fax No.: ____________________________________________

7.      Year Level: __________________________ ___________________ ______________________

8.      Title of Investigatory Project: ______________________________________________________

        _______________________________________________________________________________

        _______________________________________________________________________________

9.      Attach one copy of accomplished OFFICIAL ABSTRACT FORM: (Not more than 250 words, one
        page only)

_______________________
Printed Name & Signature of
Project Leader                                            NOTED:

_______________________                                   _______________________________
Printed Name & Signature of                               Printed Name & Signature of Principal
Project Adviser/Adult Sponsor                             or Head of S&T Department

                                                     17
                            CERTIFICATION AS INDIVIDUAL PROJECT


THIS IS TO CERTIFY that the project submitted by ____________________________________________
                                                        (Name of Project Investigator)

of ____________________________________________________________ as official entry to the 2002-
                     (School)

2003 Intel Philippine Science Fair was conducted/experimented by him/her.



                                               _________________________________________
                                               Printed Name & Signature of Adviser/Adult Sponsor

NOTED:


_________________________________                                     Date Signed: _______________
Printed Name & Signature of Principal or
Head of S&T Department


================================================================


                                CERTIFICATION AS TEAM PROJECT


THIS IS TO CERTIFY that the project submitted by ___________________________________________,
                                                               (Team Leader)

________________________________________, ____________________________________________
             (Member)                                       (Member)

of ___________________________________________________ as official entry to the 2002-2003 Intel
                     (School)

Philippine Science Fair was conducted/experimented by the abovementioned three (3) students.



                                               _________________________________________
                                               Printed Name & Signature of Adviser/Adult Sponsor

NOTED:


________________________________                                      Date Sgined: _______________
Printed Name & Signature of Principal or
Head of S&T Department
                                                  18
                              CERTIFICATE OF PARENTAL CONSENT

We, ______________________________________________________ who are legal parent/guardian of
                    (Name of Parent/Guardian)

___________________________________ with residence at ___________________________________
     Name of Project Investigator

______________________________________ do hereby certify that we give our full support for him/her

to participate in the 2002-2003 Intel Philippine Science Fair, ____________________________________
                                                                                (Level)

on _________________________ under the following conditions:
          (Date)

1.   Our child will be chaperoned/escorted by her/his project adviser;
          a. The chaperone will see to the safety, behavior and physical upkeep of our child as far as
               humanly possible;
          b. Considering the above conditions and the benefits that our child will derive from his/her
               participation in this activity, and realizing that every precaution will be undertaken by the
               adviser/ chaperone and your office, we the undersigned parents/guardian of the above
               name project investigator do hereby give our consent for him/her to participate in the
               2002-2003 Intel Philippine Science Fair. We shall bring him/her to the point of official
               debarkation.

______________________________                   _________________________                 __________
Name & Signature of Father/Guardian              Name & Signature of Mother                Date Signed

================================================================

                                       MEDICAL CERTIFICATE

Date: ___________________


THIS IS TO CERTIFY that ________________________________ of _____________________________
                             (Project Investigator)                   (School)

_____________________ has undergone physical examination and was found to be physically fit to

participate in the 2002-2003 Intel Philippine Science Fair, __________________ on _________________
                                                                  (Level)              (Date)

REMARKS:


                                                             ________________________________
                                                                Examining Physician
                                                 License No.: _________________________
                                                 Hospital/Clinic Office: _______________________

                                                    19
                         2002-2003 Intel Philippine Science Fair


                                          APPROVAL FORM


                                       Required for ALL Projects


1. Project Adviser/Adult Sponsor: I have read the research proposal prior to experimentation and
   has complied with the IPSF Rules.



    __________________________                  _____________________           _________________
    Printed Name of Project Adviser/                   Signature                  Date of Approval
    Adult Sponsor




2. Student Acknowledgement: I understand the risks and possible dangers to me of the proposed
   research; I will adhere to all the IPSF Rules when conducting this research.


    __________________________                  _____________________           _________________
      Printed Name of Student                          Signature                  Date of Approval




3. Parent/Guardian Approval: I have read and understand the risks and possible dangers involved
   in the adult sponsor-adviser approved research proposal. I consent to my child’s participation in this
   research.



    __________________________                  _____________________           _________________
       Printed Name of Parent/                         Signature                  Date of Approval
             Guardian




                                                   20
                           2002-2003 Intel Philippine Science Fair

                                          RESEARCH PAPER

     BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

1.      Student’s Name _________________________________________ Year Level: ______________

2.      a) Team Leader’s Name __________________________________ Year Level: ______________

        b) Member ____________________________________________ Year Level: ______________

        c) Member ____________________________________________ Year Level: ______________

3.      School _________________________________________________________________________

4.      School Address __________________________________________________________________

5.      Telephone/Fax Numbers __________________________________________________________

6.      Title of Project __________________________________________________________________

        _______________________________________________________________________________

7.      Project Adviser/Adult Sponsor ______________________________________________________

8.      This year’s experiment began ________________________ and ended _____________________
                                          (mo/day/year)                      (mo/day/year)

9.      Where did you conduct your lab work? (Check all that apply)

                 [ ] Research Institution         [ ] School
                 [ ] Field                        [ ] Home

10.     Name, address & phone no. of lab work site(s):
        _______________________________________________________________________________
        _______________________________________________________________________________
        _______________________________________________________________________________

 PROJECT WRITE-UP (TYPED OR COMPUTER PRINTOUT-DO NOT BOOK BIND)


        a)   Problem or question being addressed
        b)   Review of related literature
        c)   Hypothesis
        d)   Description in detail the method or procedures
        e)   Results
        f)   Conclusion
        g)   Impact of Study
        h)   Bibliography (List at least 3 major references from your library research)

                                                     21
                        Registered Research Institution/Industrial Setting Form
     This form must be completed by the scientist supervising the student research conducted in a registered
               research institution (e.g., university lab, medical center, etc.) or industrial setting.


Student’s Name : _______________________________________________________________________
Title of Project : _______________________________________________________________________

To be completed by the Scientist(NOT the Student or Adult Sponsor) after experimentation:
The student conducted research at my institution: (check one)

           a)        only to use the equipment                     b)        to perform experiment(s)

If b, the following questions must be answered.

1)         How did the student get the idea for her/his project?
      (e.g. Was the project assigned, picked from a test, an original student idea, etc.)




2)         What did the student do that showed creativity and ingenuity?
      (Did the student show creativity in experimental design, development of techniques or equipment, arrival at conclusions, etc.)




3)         Did the student work on the project as a part of a research group?                             yes        no
      (If yes, how large the group and what kind of research group was it (students, group of adult researchers, etc.)




4)       What specific procedures did the student actually perform and how independently did the student
      work? Please list and describe. (Do not list procedures student only observed)




5)        Student research projects dealing with human subjects, nonhuman vertebrate animals, pathogenic
      agents, controlled substances, rDNA, and human & nonhuman animal tissue require review and
      approval by institutional regulatory boards. Appropriate Institutional Committee approvals for
      procedures and projects as outlined in the research proposal must be attached.




Scientist’s Printed Name                   Signature                                        Title


Institution                                                                                 Date Signed


Address                                                                                     Phone



                                                                        22
                              IPSF OFFICIAL ABSTRACT FORM

TITLE:

Name:
Adress:                                                                                                Category
                                                                                                       Pick one only-
School:                                                                                                mark an “X” in



                                                                                                       Biochemistry

                                                                                                       Botany

                                                                                                       Chemistry

                                                                                                       Computers

                                                                                                       Earth and Space
                                                                                                       Sciences

                                                                                                       Engineering

                                                                                                       Environmental
                                                                                                       Science

                                                                                                       Mathematics

                                                                                                       Medicine and
                                                                                                       Health

                                                                                                       Microbiology

                                                                                                       Physics

                                                                                                       Zoology

                                                                                                       Biotechnology




1. As a part of this research project, the student directly handled, manipulated, or interacted with (check ALL that
   apply):
              human subjects                       pathogenic agents        recombinant DNA
              nonhuman vertebrate animal           controlled substances    human/animal tissues

2. Student independently performed all procedures as outlined in this abstract.     Yes       No

3. This project was conducted at a Registered Research Institution.      Yes       No

4. Is this project a continuation?    Yes      No
I/We hereby certify that the above statements are correct and the information provided in the Abstract is the result of
one year’s research. I/We also attest that the above properly reflects my/our own work.

______________________________________                           _____________________
Signature of Individual Finalist or Team Leader                          Date



                                                           23
                                      SAMPLE ABSTRACT

TITLE: A NOVEL APPLICATION OF LOCALLY FORMULATED CHOLESTERIC
        LIQUID CRYSTALS IN DOSIMETRY                                                                    Category
Name: Allan N. Estrella, Jeric V. Macalintal, Richard Kristoffer S. Manapat                             Pick one only-
Adress: 7 Ninang Carmen St., B.F. Homes, Caloocan City, PHILIPPINES                                     mark an “X” in
School: Manila Science High School                                                                      box at right
        Taft Ave., Manila, PHILIPPINES

                                                                                                        Biochemistry
         Radiation has important industrial and economic applications. However, it poses health
risks to people exposed to it. International regulation sets a maximum dose of 50mSv per year for       Botany
the exposure to be considered safe. Also, the measurement of radiation exposure is integral to its      Chemistry
industrial applications. As a consequence, dosimetry was introduced. This study focused on the
potential use of liquid crystals as materials for the fabrication of dosimeters.                        Computers

                                                                                                        Earth and Space
         Three liquid crystalline mixtures were prepared using nematic E48, cholesteric TM74A           Sciences
and canola oil derived cholesteric liquid crystal with the following mass ratios: (E48: TM74A)          Engineering
20:80-Mixture A, (E48: TM74A) 30:70-Mixture B, and (E48:canola oil) 30-70-Mixture C. The
liquid crystals were then mounted to cells made from polyethylene sheets. Three samples were            Environmental
                                                                                                        Science
prepared for each mixture. The samples were then exposed to Cobalt-60 for gamma radiation with
doses ranging from 2.5 kGy to 30 kGy. After each exposure, the samples were observed and color          Mathematics
changes were noted.
                                                                                                        Medicine and
                                                                                                        Health
         Color changes corresponding to different gamma radiation doses were observed in all sam-
ples. In all responses, the Grandjean texture of the liquid crystals was retained suggesting that the   Microbiology
energy that was absorbed did not induce any chemical changes. However, observed color changes           Physics
indicated “unwinding” of the pitch of the helical conformation for the TM74A-based formulation
                                                                                                        Zoology
(Mixtures A and B) and “winding” for the Canola-based liquid crystals (Mixture C). The applica-
tion of liquid crystals in dosimetry was determied due to the color changes. The results indicated      Biotechnology
the feasibility of crystals in dosimetry.




I/We hereby certify that the above is the result of work done in my/our research.

________________________________                  _____________________
Signature of Finalist or Team Leader                      Date




Note: This team project garnered the First Grand Award, Physics category in the 53rd Intel International Science & Engi-
neering Fair (ISEF), held on May 12-18, 2002 in Louisville, Kentucky, USA.




                                                            24
                                        HELPFUL TIPS

GETTING STARTED

•     Pick Your Topic: Get an idea of what you want to study.
•     Research Your Topic: Go to the library or internet and learn everything you can on your
      topic. Gather existing information on your topic.
•     Organize: Organize everything you have learned about your topic.
•     Make a Timetable: Choose a topic that not only interest you, but can be done in the
      amount of time you have. Use a calendar to identify important dates.
•     Plan Your Experiments: Once you have a feasible project idea, write the research plan.
      This plan should explain how you will do your experiments and exactly what it will involve.
•     Consult Your Adviser: You are required to discuss your research plan with your adviser
      and other adults to be involved in experimentation.
•     Conduct Your Experiments: Give careful thought to experimental design. During
      experimentation, keep detailed notes of every step of the experiment, measurements and
      observations.
•     Examine Your Results: Upon completion of the experiments, examine and organize
      your findings. Did your experiments give you the expected results? If possible, statistically
      analyze your data.
•     Draw Conclusions: Which variables are important? Did you collect enough data?
      Do you need to conduct more experimentation? If your results do not support your
      original hypothesis, you still have accomplished successful scientific research.

Helpful Hints for Display

    • A Good Title: Your title is an extremely important attention-grabber.    A good title should
       simply and accurately present your research.

    • Take Photographs: Many projects involve elements that may not be safely exhibited at
       the fair but are an important part of the project. Take photos of the important
       parts/phases of your experiment to be used in your display. Visual presentations
       should depict proper handling methods and proper housing conditions.

    • Be Organized: Make sure your display is logically presented, scientific and easy to
       read. A glance should permit anyone (particularly the judges) to locate quickly the
       title, experiments, results and conclusions. Text should be simple and concise.

    • Eye-Catching: Make         your display     stand-out but not decorative.      Use    neat,
       colorful headings, charts and graphs to present your project. It is not even necessary to
       use a computer-based presentation except when it is an integral part of the project.

    • Display Board: Use light materials, collapsible, yet sturdy.



                                                  25
ELEMENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL PROJECT


1. PROJECT DATA BOOK

       A project data book is your most treasured piece of work. Accurate & detailed notes
make a logical and winning project. Good notes show consistency and thoroughness to the
judges. This will also help you in writing your research paper.


2. ABSTRACT

        After finishing the research and experimentation, you are required to write a (maximum)
250-word, one-page abstract.        An abstract includes the a) purpose of the experiment, b)
procedures used, c) data and d) conclusions.           It also includes any possible research
applications. The abstract should focus on work done since the last fair.



3. RESEARCH PAPER

        A research paper should be prepared and available along with a project data book, and
any necessary forms or relevant written materials. A research paper helps organize data as
well as thoughts. A good paper includes the sections identified in the following format of the
project write-up:

       a.   Title page
       b.   Abstract
       c.   Acknowledgement
       d.   Table of contents
       e.   Introduction
       f.   Methodology
       g.   Results and discussion
       h.   Conclusions
       i.   Recommendations
       j.   Bibliography




                                              26
GUIDE FOR PROJECT ADVISER


The items below can be used as guide for the adviser in monitoring the project of his/her
students, to make sure that the IPSF rules are followed.

1.    Evidence of use of reference materials
2.    Evidence of proper laboratory supervision
3.    Use of accepted research techniques
4.    Completed forms, signature and dates
5.    Status of investigatory projects: original concept of study (does not violate intellectual
      property rights) or with innovation

6.    Proper Use of pathogenic organisms, hazardous substances and devices/disposal of
      wastes

7.    No. of students : individual or team


JUDGING TIPS


Judges evaluate and focus on the following measures when they see your write-up and exhibit:

•    How well and confident you can talk about your work. Reading the project write-up or
     memorizing the text during the interview and science congress are both a disadvantage.
•    What you did in the current year
•    How well did you follow the scientific methodologies and how much innovation was
     contributed
•    How detailed and accurate was your research
•    What is the impact of your project




                                                 27
GUIDE IN PREPARING THE PROJECT DATA BOOK


I.       PLANNING CALENDAR                                          DATE: __________

* Essential Information

1.   IPSF Guidelines Obtained                                    [ ] Yes     [ ] No
2.   Criteria Obtained                                           [ ] Yes     [ ] No
3.   School Science Fair Due Date                                _______________
4.   Division Science Fair Due Date                              _______________
5.   Regional Science Fair Due Date                              _______________
6.   National Science Fair Due Date                              _______________

* Success Calendar                            Planned Date       Date Completed

 1. Choosing a topic (2-5 days)               ____________        _______________
 2. Collecting background information         ____________        _______________
     (1-3 weeks)
 3. Problem and hypothesis (1-4 days)         ____________        ______________
 4. Design for experiment (1 week)            ____________        ______________
 5. Getting materials ready for               ____________        ______________
     experiment (1 week)
 6. Making the data table (1-2 weeks)         ____________        ______________
 7. Recording in the data table               ____________        ______________
      (1-2 weeks)
 8. Stating results (1 week)                   _____________       ______________
 9. Drawing conclusions (1 week)              _____________       ______________
10. Compiling a bibliography (2-3 days)       _____________       ______________
11. Making the display (1-2 weeks)            _____________       ______________

II.      LOG BOOK

          The log book should begin the day the study begins. It should be divided into sections.
     If possible use tabs. The tabs generally used in an experiment are as follows:

         1. Daily journal
         2. Planning calendar
         3. Choosing a topic
         4. Background information
         5. Designing the experiment
         6. Problem and hypothesis
         7. Procedures
         8. Data
         9. Results and interpretations
         10. Conclusion

                                                 28
     LIST OF WINNING SCIENCE PROJECTS (GRAND AWARDS) IN THE 53rd
         INTEL ISEF, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY, U.S.A. 12-18 May 2002

I.   BASIC SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS

     I.1.   Botany –

            a)   Bacterial Activity in vitro of Chihuahuan Desert Plants & a Synergistic
                 Approach to Overcoming Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Resistance
            b)   Flammability of the Needles & Scales of Seven Species Of Western Montana
                 Conifers
            c)   Phytoremediation of Salinised Soils
            d)   The Truths Stinks

     I.2.   Zoology –

            a)   Biology & Behaviors of Hydra in Chromium Polluted Waters & their Practical
                 Application
            b)   Variations in Leafhopper Populations with Location & Temperature
            c)   Mutant Flies and Brain Genes
            d)   Soy Silage

     I.3.   Microbiology –

            a)   Effects of Red-Spectrum Light on Cell Growth
            b)   Antibiotic Substance Obtained from the Parotid Gland Secretions of the
                 Toad (Bufo marinus)-Philippine entry
            c)   Can Anti-sense Genes Reverse Antibiotic Resistance
            d)   Crosstalk Between Maternal & Neonatal Immune Response

     I.4.   Biochemistry –

            a)   Molecular Modeling & the Identification of Functional Domains of a New
                 Adhesive Molecule in Inflammatory Thrombosis
            b)   Paranoid Genes
            c)   Fractal Classification of DNA Sequences
            d)   Protein Profile Analysis: A New Application May Streamline Structural
                 Predictions


     I.5.   Chemistry –

            a)   Nanoconstruction with Self-assembling DNA-PNA Complexes
            b)   Biocatalytic Composite Electrodes for Biofuel Cell Applications
            c)   Investigating Catalytic Amide Reduction Using Silanes
            d)   Creation of a High-performance Polymer Blend


                                            29
      I.6.    Physics –

              a)   A Novel Application of Locally Formulated Cholesteric Liquid Crystal in
                   Dosimetry – Philippine entry
              b)   Magnetoplasmadynamics: Creating Ion Propulsion
              c)   Low Cost Plasma Reactor
              d)   Drag Reduction Based Approaches for Steering Cavitation Based Torpedoes

      I.7.    Mathematics –

              a)   Rainbow Ramsey Theory: Rainbow Arithmetic Progressions & Anti-Ramsey
                   Results
              b)   Nullhomotopic Knots in Real Projective Space
              c)   Data Detectives: A Study of CRC Polynomials
              d)   Winning Strategies for Games Played with Chips
              e)   When Do Operations with Functions Preserve Periodicity
              f)   Circle Packing

II.   COMPUTER AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES

      II.1    Computer Science –

              a)   Digital Audio Enhancement via Harmonic Relationships
              b)   Automatic Packet Reporting System: Building a Large Scale Geospatial
                   Database
              c)   Computer Recognition of Emotion in Speech
              d)   Like a Mouse to Cheese
              e)   Easy Create: Web Pages Made Easy
              f)   A Novel Calculus-based Cipher

      II.2.   Engineering -

              a)   Design & Fabrication of a Peristaltic Micropump
              b)   Compact Disc Recycling
              c)   Sweet PVC Rocketry
              d)   Optimization of the Location for two Drawpoint Holes in Conical Stockpiles
              e)   Improving Adhesion at Polymeric Interfaces Containing Carbon Black
              f)   Fiber Optic Smart Skin




                                             30
III.    MEDICINE AND HEALTH

                a)   Action of Indole-3-carbinol in Breast Cancer
                b)   Inhibition of Programmed Cell Death by Purine-derivative RPI-069
                c)   Anti-thrombotic & Anti-Cancer efficacy of Flavanoids
                d)   Anti-cancer Efficacy of Garlic: Cellular and Genetic Mediator
                e)   Validation of Residual Volumes as a Marker for Aspiration Risk


IV.    OTHER APPLIED SCIENCES

        IV.1.   Earth and Space Sciences

                a) Adaptive Telescope Control Using Star-Pattern Recognition
                b) A New Meteor Shower During the Leonids
                c) Evolution in Motion: Orbital Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms
                d) Mineral Fluorescence in the Near Infrared
                e)Optical Divide: An Independent Assessment of a Subset of Hipparcos &
                   Tycho-2 Proper Motions: Phase III
                f) Tessera Rings on Venus: The Unrecognized Remnants of Crystal Plateaus


        IV.2    Environmental Sciences

                a)   Utilization of Electromagnetic Fields as a Nontoxic Antifoulant
                b)   Functional Tolerance and Accumulation of Lead: A Novel Approach to
                     Understanding and Improving Uptake
                c)   Restoration of an Inland Bayou: Year IV
                d)   Tongue River Project
                e)   The Phosphorus Loading Issue: Biosolids III




                                               31
                 LABORATORY RULES AND SAFETY PROCEDURES



Doing Experiments

The following are some hints and guidelines to help make your experiments successful. The
experiments may not always work the first time. Chemists very often have to repeat
experiments several times. If one of your experiments does not work, read the instructions
again and try to work out what went wrong. Here are some important points to remember.

1.    Read all the instructions for an experiment before you start and make sure you have
     everything you need.

2.   Make   sure   all  your
     equipment is clean and
     dry.

     When       working     with
     chemicals, always wear a
     pair of safety goggles and
     a laboratory gown.

3.   Measure the amounts of
     chemicals you use very
     carefully. You can find out
     how to do this over the
     page.

4. Stick labels on all the jars
   and test-tubes you use, so
   that you know what is in
   them.

5. Always use clean, dry
   spoons for measuring and
   stirring different chemicals.

6. Carefully     observe what
   happens in the experiment. Note down any changes in color, formation of bubbles of gas or
   precipitates.

7. If an experiment does not work, wash all the equipment and start again. Make sure the
   used chemicals are placed into the proper waste chemical glass jars. If it keeps on going
   wrong, try using a completely different set of equipment or modified procedure.


                                             32
  Cleaning your equipment




As soon as you finish an experiment, *wash all the                   An old toothbrush is good for
equipment in warm, soapy water, rinse it well, and dry               cleaning test-tubes and scrubbing
with a paper towel. If you do not wash your equipment                ringmarks off jars.
straight away, it may be very difficult to clean them later.



      Labelling




  You should always label the jars or test-tubes you                 You can make labels from
  use for the chemicals in an experiment, even if there              paper and sticky tape, or buy
  are only two of them. It is very easy to forget which              sticky labels from a stationery
  is which during the experiment.                                    shop.




  Write the labels in pencil or               It is easier to write the labels before you stick them on
  crayon so they do not smudge.               the jars. To avoid spilling the chemicals, stick the labels
                                              on the jars before you put the chemicals in

* Pour chemicals into suitable waste chemical glass jars.


                                                     33
Measuring

It is very important to measure out chemicals
carefully and accurately, and to use exactly the
amounts given in the instructions. If you do not,
                                                           ROUNDED
the experiment may not work properly. When you             SPOONFUL
are doing the same experiment on two different
substances to compare them, make sure you use
equal amounts of the substances, or the
experiment will not be fair. Here are some ways          If a lot of material is to be used in an
to measure chemicals:                                    experiments you can measure the
                                                         chemicals in spoonfuls. A spoonful of
                                                         dry substance should be rounded,
                                                         not heaped.




To measure out equal amounts of liquids,            In some experiments, the instructions
use a jar. Mark a line anywhere on the jar          tell you to measure the depth of the
with a felt-tip pen. To measure each                liquid in a jar. It does not matter how
liquid, fill the jar up to the line.                big your jar is.




 To dissolve a solid in a liquid, you stir the           When a substance dissolves, it
 mixture for several minutes. Allow the mixture          disappears and becomes part of the
 to settle before stirring again, until none or          liquid. Some substances never
 most of the solid disappeared. If two liquids           dissolve completely though.
 are mixed, stir slowly until the interfacial
 boundary disappears.




                                             34
Safety Hints

All the experiments in this book are quite safe, and most of the chemicals are harmless.
However, even harmless substances can be dangerous if you mix them wrongly, so always take
great care and follow instructions. Below is a checklist of safety points to remember.


                          Never invent your own experiments without consulting your
                          adviser. Never play with chemicals. Always follow instructions
                          carefully.



                          Label all chemicals clearly and keep them away from young
                          children, on a high shelf or in a cupboard you can lock.




                          Keep a set of equipment, such as knives and spoons, for use
                          only in the experiments. Buy them specially if you cannot find
                          old ones that are no longer used.



                          Never taste or eat chemicals and do not experiment near food. Do
                          not rub you eyes or bite your nails while doing experiments.



                          When you have finished an experiment, wash the chemicals
                          away into the waste chemical jar and wash your equipment with
                          plenty of water. If they are dangerous chemicals, flush them
                          down the lavatory and wash your hands well.


                          Chemists wear goggles to prevent chemicals going in their eyes. If
                          you do get something in your eye, or spill a chemical on you hands
                          or clothes, wash it away with plenty of water. If you ever do have
                          an accident with chemicals, go to a doctor immediately and tell
                          him or her the name of the chemical involved.




                                            35
HUMAN HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS


ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT    INDICATED HAZARD

Steam (autoclave)      Burns from escaping steams or hot liquids; cuts from
                       exploding bottles

UV light               Corneal and skin burns from directed or deflected light

Ethylene oxide gas     Eye and respiratory irritation, skin desiccantation,
                       mutagenesis, potential carcinogenesis

                       Irritation; toxic effects and hypersensitation

Alcohol (isopropyl)    Contact dermatitis

Chlorine               Gaseous form highly toxic

Glutaraldehyde         Contact dermatitis

Hexachlorophene        Acute neurotoxin

Iodine (bisphenol)     Skin irritation
 (iodophores)

Phenols                Occupational leukoderma
                       Idiophatic neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

Quaternary ammonium    Minor contact dermatitis
 Compounds

Chloroform             Weak carcinogen (animal models only)




                                  36
Controlled chemical carcinogens and ultratoxins


PRIMARY NAME                                      PRIMARY NAME

Abrin                                             3,3-Dimethylbenzidine
N-Acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene                   Dimethylethylenimine
2-Acetylaminofluorene                             1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
Aflatoxin B1                                      1,2-Dimethylhydrazine
Aflatoxin B2                                      1,4-Dinotrosopiperazine
Aflatoxin G1                                      p-Dioxane
Aflatoxin G2                                      Duboisine
Aldicarb                                          Ethionine
alpha-Naphthylamine                               Ethylene Dibromide
o-Aminoazobenzene                                 Ethylenimine
4-Aminodiphenyl                                   Ethylene glycol dinitrate
2-Aminofluorene                                   Ethyl methanesulfonate
Anabasine                                         Fluoroacetic acid
Apholate                                          Gitalin
Arsenic trioxide                                  Heroin
Atropine                                          Hexaethyl tetraphosphate (HETP)
Asbestos                                          Hydrazine
Benz anthracene                                   Hydrazoic acid
Benzene                                           Hydrocyanic acid
Benzidine                                         N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene
Benzo pyrene                                      Hyoscyamine
beta-Naphthylamine                                Inorganic arsenic
beta-Propiolactone                                Isobenzan
bis-Chloromethyl ether                            K-strophanthin
Bromoethyl methanesulfonate                       Lanatoside
Cantharidin                                       Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
Carbon tetrachloride                              3-Methylcholanthrene
Chlorambucil                                      Methyl chloromethyl ether
2-chloro-4-Dimenthi-amino-6-methyl                4-4 Methylene bis-(2-chloroaniline)
pyrimidine
Chloroform                                        Methyl methanesulfonate
Cycasin                                           1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine
Diazomethane                                      Nicotine salicylate
Dibenz (a, h,)anthrancene                         4-Nitrobiphenyl
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane thiazoly-formamide    N-4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-3-
3,3-Dichlorobenzidine                             Nitroglycerin
Diepoxygutane                                     4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide
Digalen                                           N-Nitrosodiethylamine
Digifolin                                         N-Nitroso-N-ethylurethane




                                           37
Digoxin                                     N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine
7,12-Dimethylbenz (a) anthracene            N-Nitrosodimethylamine
4-Dimethylaminobenzene                      N-Nitrosodi-N-methylurea
3,3-Dimethoxybenzidine                      N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine
N-Nitrosopiperidine                         Sulfotepp
N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea                       Tabun
N-Nitroso-N-methylurethane                  Tepp
Pantopon                                    2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodi-benzodioxin
Parathion                                   Thimet
Paroxon                                     m-Toluenediamine
Phosphine                                   Uracil mustard
Phosphorodithiotic acid                     Urethance
Phosphorus (yellow)                         Urginin
Polychlorinated biphenyls                   Vinyl chloride
Procarbazine                                Coke oven emissions
Propylenimine                               Arsenites
1,3 Propane sultone                         Nornicotine
2-propyl-peperidine                         2,3,7,8 tetrachloro-dibenzofuran
Ricin                                       Penta-and-Hex-chloro- or bromo-dibenzodioxins
Sarin                                       or furans
Scopolamine                                 Amino methyl carbamate
Sodium Azide                                Fiber glass
Sodium selenate




Source: Laboratory Safety: Principles and Practices. Brinton M. Miller, et. al. American Society
        for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. 1986.



                                              38
                       ASEPTIC AND PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES*

        Microorganisms normally occur as mixed populations in nature. To study the
characteristics and behavior of one microorganism, it should be first separated from other
species found in its habitat. It is necessary to obtain a pure culture of the microorganism. A
pure culture contains only one species of microorganism. If another species of microorganism
is introduced into a pure culture, the culture becomes contaminated. It is then a mixed culture.

       The microbiologist is always concerned with the possibility of contamination since a
contaminated culture will yield results that are usually different from those of pure cultures.
Since microorganisms are present everywhere, all unwanted organisms should be destroyed
and kept out of the growth medium by sterilization as in the case of culture media or by
employing aseptic techniques in obtaining and maintaining pure cultures.

        In asepsis, all materials that will come in contact with the desired microorganism should
be free from unwanted microorganisms. Prior to actual microbiological work, the working
environment, such as an inoculation hood is made sterile by ultraviolet irradiation. Moreover,
bench tops are disinfected with 70% ethyl alcohol or with other disinfectant. Periodic fumigation
of the laboratory should be carried out as part of a regular housekeeping program. Tools used
to handle microbial cultures such as an inoculating loop are flame-sterilized. Culture media and
glasswares are sterilized to kill contaminating organisms. Prior to sterilization, tubes and flasks
containing media are cotton-plugged or capped to prevent the entry of contaminants but allows
free gas exchange. Rims and mouths of tubes and flasks containing media are flamed to rid of
air-borne microbial contaminants that may have adhered on the glassware.

       Aseptic techniques are designed not only to prevent contamination of cultures and work
area but also to protect the laboratory personnel from potentially hazardous microorganisms,
and to ensure generation of good and reliable analytical or experimental results.

       An understanding of principles of aseptic techniques and constant practice will guide you
in developing the skills in handling microbial cultures. The following laboratory exercises are
focused on the principles and their applications.

General Principles that should be consistently observed:

   •   Culture media and diluents & their containers must be sterilized immediately after their
       preparation.

   •   Containers of culture media & diluents must be covered to prevent entrance of air-borne
       and dust-borne contaminants.

   •   Instruments used in handling the culture must be first sterilized.
   •   Avoid contamination of the work area with the cultures.


   *Contributed by Dr. Ma. Auxilia Siringan, UPD & NSRI Culture Collection

                                                39
                                       CHEMICAL SAFETY

I. Basic Safety Operating Procedures

1. Wear proper eye protection (at all times) in chemical work, handling and storage areas.
   Contact lenses will not be worn.

2. Follow hazard communication requirements.

3. Always wear appropriate protective clothing. Confine long hair and loose clothing.

4. Never work alone when handling hazardous substances.

5. Do not eat, drink, smoke, use medication, or apply cosmetics in chemical handling or
   storage areas.

6. Always was face, hands, and arms before leaving the work area.

II. General Precautions for Handling Chemicals

       All chemicals are potentially harmful. Avoid direct contact with any chemical.

1. Do not use or handle any chemical until you have read and understood the label and
   Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for that chemical.

2. All containers of chemicals must be clearly labeled.

3. Keep your hands and face clean. Wash thoroughly with soap and warm water whenever a
   chemical contacts your skin.

4. Never taste a chemical.

III. Safe Laboratory Techniques

1. Always add a reagent slowly.

2. When adding liquids or powders, point the opening of a container away from yourself and
   away from others.

3. Never look down the opening of a vessel.

4. Flasks and beakers containing hot or boiling liquids should always be cooled before an
   additional chemical is added.

5. Never use mouth suction to fill a pipette.


                                                40
IV. Chemical Spill Procedures
A. General Procedures for Spills

     1.   Immediately alert fellow workers and supervisors.

     2.   Avoid skin contact and minimize inhalation. All contaminated clothing must be
          removed immediately to prevent skin penetration. The skin must be washed with
          soap and water.

     3.   If the material is not particularly volatile, has a low order to toxicity, and there is no
          fire hazard, proceed clean-up operations as directed in the MSDS.

     4.   If a volatile, flammable or toxic material is spilled, warn everyone immediately to
          extinguish flames and turn off spark-producing equipment.

     5.   Many small liquid spills (<100 ml) can be absorbed with paper towels, sand or an
          absorbent.

B.   Spills of Specific Type of Chemicals

     1.   Acids and other Acid Materials

               Use calcined absorbent products. Avoid contact with skin. Do not clean up
          hydrofluoric acid with silica-containing materials such as sand or vermiculite.

     2.   Mercury

               Because of the high toxicity of mercury vapor, spilled mercury should be
          cleaned-up immediately and thoroughly using an aspirator or a vacuum device.

     3.   Alkali Metals

               A spill of an alkali metal should be smothered with powdered graphite and
          removed to a safe location where it can be disposed of by reaction with a long chain
          primary alcohol such as n-butyl alcohol.

     4.   White (Yellow) Phosphorus

               A spill of white phosphorus should be blanketed with wet sand or wet absorbent.

C.   Chemicals on the Skin

     1.   For spills covering a small amount of skin, flush immediately with water for 15 minutes
          or more.

     2.   For larger spills, quickly remove all contaminated clothing, shoes, jewelry, etc. while
          using the safety shower.

                                                  41
D.     Chemicals on the Eyes

          For chemical splashes, a minimum 2-minute flush of the eye is recommended: flushing
       the eye with copious amount of water and checking for removing contact lenses at once.
       Eyeballs should be rotated so that all surfaces are rinsed.

V.     General Equipment Set-up

       1.   Keep work space uncluttered.

       2.   Set up clean, dry apparatus, firmly clamped and well back from the edge of the lab
            bench.

       3. Use only equipment that is free from flaws such as cracks, chips, and obvious defects.
           Chipped or cracked glassware should be repaired or discarded.

       4. Condensers should be properly support with securely positioned clamps. The attached
           water hoses should be secured with wire or a clamping device.

       5. Fume hoods are recommended for all hazardous operations or whenever hazardous
            gases, vapor, mists or fumes are likely to be evolved.

       6. Use a hood when conducting a reaction that could result in an explosion or when using
          a vacuum system that may implode. Close the hood sash to provide a shield.




Reference:

Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Program Health & Safety Training Program. Fermical, Inc. USA




     International rules on experimentation for science fairs are available at the
     website: www.sciserv.org/isef/rules/asp



                                                 42
                          IPSF GUIDELINES FOR ISEF DELEGATES

Quick Rules Reference - 2003 Intel ISEF

Who will represent the country in the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) on
May 2003 in Cleveland, Ohio, USA?

Based on the final selection criteria of the Intel Philippine Science Fair (IPSF), the Philippine
Team to the Intel ISEF will comprise of secondary students with projects officially declared as
the over-all:

   •    Two (2) Best Individual Projects – Basic Science
   •    Two (2) Best Individual Projects – Applied Science
   •    One (1) Best Team Project – Basic Science
   •    One (1) Best Team Project – Applied Science

The total number of student-delegates for the Philippines is 10, consisting of four (4) individual
finalists and two (2) 3-member team finalists. They shall be accompanied by an Adult-in-Charge
from the DOST-SEI.

Intel ISEF rules are very strict and all participants must comply, or else risk forfeiture from the
competition. To help ensure that Philippine delegates are familiar with the ISEF rules, Intel
Philippines and the DOST-SEI will assist the delegates in their requirements for travel, lodging
and project exhibit.

If you are chosen to represent the country to the Intel ISEF, the documents to be prepared are:

   1.   Authenticated birth certificate
   2.   Passport
   3.   DSWD certificate
   4.   Letter of parental consent
   5.   Accomplished visa application
   6.   Five (5) copies of 1.77” x 1.37” new colored photo with plain, white background

THINGS TO CONSIDER:

A. Travel process
      1. Securing of passport. For delegates who do not have a passport yet, there are
           two options:

            a. They get the passport themselves and later reimburse the passport fee to DOST-
               SEI.
            b. Secure the passport through Intel Philippines’ in-house travel agency.




                                                43
       2. Securing of visa. Visa processing shall be done through an assigned agency by
          Intel Phils. Intel Phils will shoulder all visa fees and provide the guarantee letters. It
          is the responsibility of the participant to provide the necessary documents and do
          the follow-ups on the visa processing. Assistance by the assigned travel agency will
          be given in accordance to the guidelines of the US Embassy on visa processing.

       3. Securing of tickets. Intel will book all tickets for the participants. The idea is to
          have all student-participants, DOST and Intel representatives travelling together,
          meaning, they will all depart and arrive on the same dates. Booking of tickets will
          strictly follow this route: Manila-Ohio-Manila.

B. Expenditures in the US
      1. Board and lodging. The following actual costs of board and lodging shall be
         covered:
             a. Meal allowance of $35 a day
             b. * Transportation to and from ISEF site
             c. Laundry/miscellaneous expenses of up to $10 a day
             d. * Airport fees
             e. *Actual Hotel Accommodation
             f. * ISEF registration fees

       * Note: All agreed expenses may be liquidated provided they are accompanied by official
       receipts and bills. All allowances will be released through travelers checks.

C. Project preparation
      1. Project exhibit. Intel Philippines, through an assigned agency, will assist the SEF
         delegates conceptualize and develop all project exhibit posters to ensure that they
         conform with the size standards of ISEF. The company will also be shouldering the
         costs of these.
      2. Miscellaneous. Student-participants who live outside of Metro Manila will be
         entitled to the following during their stay in Manila for any coordination with Intel, its
         assigned agency and the DOST in preparation for ISEF:
                     *Reimbursable actual round trip ticket to and from residence.
                     *Board and lodging allowance for three (3) days at P300/day for the
                      following activities:
                           a) Science clinic
                           b) Poster preparation
                           c) Interview at the US Embassy
                           d) Other days where official activities need to be done




                                                44
D. Media interviews
     1. Granting media interviews. As representatives of the country in an international
         competition, expect that some media people will want interviews. Use the
         opportunity to expound on how both the IPSF and ISEF have helped promote
         Science and Technology among Filipino students. Make sure also to mention the
         involvement of Intel Philippines and the DOST-SEI as organizers of the programs.
         Inform Intel/DOST-SEI/Agatep if any publication/reporter approaches you for any
         comments as we can help prepare you as well as set up a proper interview at a
         proper venue.
         Should a parent insist on sitting in on the interview, it is best to advise them not to
         speak on your behalf, and that they should only comment if a question is directed to
         them.
     2. Guide when being interviewed. The following are guides when asked for an
         interview:
            1. Interview strategies
                a. Direct and Immediate Answers
                    • Do not ramble
                    • Do not exceed fifteen to twenty five seconds for your replies, short
                        and concise answers are a good rule of thumb
                b. Buying time
                    • Buy time by repeating the question
                    • You may reply by first saying “I need to think about that”
                    • You may pause and think before you answer
                c. A or B Multiple choice
                    • Interviewer might give you an A or B
                    • If the proper answer is not contained in the choices simply say so and
                        give the correct answer
                d. Absent third Party
                    • You never have to and should not answer for a third party
                    • “I can’t answer for . . . . . What I can tell you is...”
                    • Establish the fact that you are answering for yourself
                e. Hypothetical
                    • These questions are asking you to speculate
                    • If that is in your best interest, it is an advantage
                    • For speculative questions you do not want to answer, say that you do
                        not want to guess or speculate
                f. Do not over answer
                    • Many questions deserve a simple and direct answer
                    • Good, strong, declarative language is best
            2. Types of questions
                a. Irrelevancies
                    • It is easy to talk about a subject you find relevant
                    • Remember to answer irrelevant question nicely, but as briefly as you
                        can
                    • Bridge back to your subject


                                               45
                b.   Multiple Questions
                     • Interviews will occasionally ask not one question but several at once
                     • Listen closely for the topic or topics most important to you and go to
                        that rather than answer the last question asked.
                c.   Questions you don’t have to answer
                     • Personal questions, competitive questions, third party questions,
                        questions involving legalities or negotiations are all questions that do
                        not have to be answered
                     • Be sure to share with the media why you are not answering
                     • Best reason not to answer a question is not knowing the answer
                     • Don’t fake it! Don’t speculate! Don’t lie!
                     • Don’t be afraid to say “I don’t know, but I will find out for you”
                     • The most unacceptable answer is: “No comment”
                     • You never have to answer for someone
                d.   Questions you must rephrase
                     • Questions worded in a derogatory manner are questions you must
                        rephrase to neutralize
                     • Don’t repeat the charge
                e.   Ranking
                     • Questions like name your “worst mistake” or your “top three
                        priorities” or the “two or three best” can be traps
                     • Answer from your perspective
                     • Sample answer: “We have many priorities and think they are all
                        important”
                f.   Personal Opinion
                     • If you are representing your company or association you will always
                        be quoted as just that.
                     • Even making very clear that your words are your own won’t prevent
                        the quote or sound-bite from being identified as coming from the
                        president or spokesman of your group.

E. Submission of Travel Report – Delegates are required to submit a travel report to DOST-
   SEI and Intel Philippines a week after arrival from the trip.




                                              46
                                  DIRECTORY OF DOST REGIONAL OFFICES

REGION/DIRECTORS                         ADDRESS                  PROJ. COORDINATORS/TEL./FAX NOS.

CAR Dr. Ben D. Ladilad                   DOST CAR                       Darius B. Coloma
                                         KM. 6, BSU Campus              (074) 422-0979
                                         La Trinidad, Benguet

I     Dr. Edgar F. Padilla               DMMMSU-MLU Campus              Racquel P. Marquez
                                         San Fernando City, La Union    (072) 242-4878

II    Dr. Rustico B. Santos              Nursery Compound               Cecilia S. Calagui
                                         Tuguegarao, Cagayan            (078) 846-2765

III   Dr. Conrado J. Oliveros            Regional Gov't Center          Marites C. Batac
                                         Maimpis, San Fernando          (045) 963-6691
                                         Pampanga

IV    Prof. Hipolito B. Aycardo         RSTC IV, Jamboree Rd.           Virgilia V. Ragotero
                                        Brgy. Timugan                   (049) 536-5013
                                        Los Baños, Laguna

V     Prof. Hipolito B. Aycardo         Regional Center Site            Pilita O. Lucena
      Officer-in-Charge                 Rawis, Legaspi City            (052) 820-5385

VI    Engr. Zinnia P. Teruel            Magsaysay Village               Arlene G. Torre
                                        La Paz, Iloilo City            (033) 320-0093/320-0908

VII Engr. Rene Burt N. Llanto           Gov. Manuel Cuenco Ave.         Vivian S. Cabando
                                        Banilad, Cebu City              (032) 231-7015

VIII Dr. Enrique M. Avila               Gov't. Center, Candahug         Anita O. Ansales
                                        Pawing, Palo, Leyte             (053) 323-7111

IX    Ms. Brenda L. Nazareth             Pettit Barracks,               Martin A. Wee
                                         Zamboanga City                 (062) 991-2752

X     Dr. Constancio C. Cañete          J.R. Borja Memorial Hospital    Roselyn V. Arellano
                                        Compound, Carmen                (088) 858-3931
                                        Cagayan De Oro City

XI    Ms. Ma. Delia Moran-Morados      Davao Medical Center Compd.    Arnel M. Rodriguez
                                       Cor Friendship & Dumanlas Rds. (082) 221-5971
                                       Bajada, Davao City

XII Dr. Zenaida Hadji-Raof Laidan      LTP Complex, Cotabato City       Shamera A. Abobakar
                                                                        (064) 421-6908/421-2711

CARAGA Mr. Angelito C. Alolod         450 Balbarino Subd.               Norma B. Alli
                                      Butuan City                       (085) 342-5684

ARMM      Dr. Abdulgalib I. Halud     LTP Complex, Cotabato City        Estrellita M. Ibrahim
                                                                        (064) 421-1675

								
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