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Technology                    Southern Maryland Chapter of
                           SOLE - International Society of Logistics
   Support Facility

       NAVAIR Support for AIT
                                        Using RFID successfully…

              Integrated Communications and
               Information Systems Division
                   NAVAIR Code 4.5.10
                      19 May 2005
                  Today’s Agenda
                             Technology is key to future projects…

     Welcome
     RFID 101

     FFDO Support

     NAVAIR AIT Support Facility

                     RFID – What and Why?
                                                          The Future for AIT…
       Various forms of electronic labeling that can be updated (read/write)
       Can be interrogated “hands free” at a distance, rapidly and reliably
       Does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner
        and the tagged item
       Extremely low error rate
       Data cannot easily be copied
       Can be interfaced with micro sensors to collect previously non-
        existent environmental data
       Lower frequencies offer greater range; higher frequencies provide
        faster data transfer

                                RFID Vocabulary
                                                             Some essential RFID terms…
    RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) encodes digital information in a portable tag
       that an electronic reader can capture using radio waves, without any physical contact.
    RFID Reader: a radio transmitter/receiver, controlled by a digital signal processor, that
       obtains information from RFID tags and forwards the data to a computer.
    •    “Fixed” readers are mounted in one location to capture information on passing tags.
    •    “Portable” readers can be handheld or vehicle mounted to move to tag locations.
    RFID Tag: an integrated circuit with an antenna, containing information about the tagged
    •    “Read Only” tag information, usually “license plate” data, cannot be changed.
    •    “Read/Write” tag information may be updated using the RFID Reader.
    •    “Passive” tags may be as small as a grain of rice; read distance is limited because
         they use only the power provided by the RFID reader.
    •    “Active” tags have an internal power source to respond to the reader, must be larger
         to contain a battery, but can transmit over more distance with more features.

                                 RFID Spectrum
                                                  Old principles, innovative practices…
                                                               RFID:          RFID:
                 RFID:                                    Toll Roads
             Access Control                                & Asset            Asset
                                          RFID:                             Management
               Animal ID &             Smart Cards        Management
            Asset Management
                                                      Terminal               Cell Phone
    Low Freq. EAS                  Mid. Freq.
                                     EAS               TV
     Data             Radio                             Garage
    Modem             Toys       AM       CB         FM Door

      10 kHz    100 kHz        1 MHz     10 MHz      100 MHz     1000 MHz    2.45 GHz     300 GHz

                          RFID Tag Reading
                                       Different technologies for different needs…

                                   RFID Reader

            INDUCTIVE              BACKSCATTER             TWO- WAY

                EAS             ACTIVE           PASSIVE
                             (with battery)

        Inductive: end item surveillance and access control systems
        Backscatter: toll collection, asset tracking and traffic management
        systems (used in most RFID applications)
        Two-way: Inter-modal container management, high-value asset control
        and manufacturing process control systems (expensive)

                            Passive Tags
                                            Simplest tag, most applications…

       Standard: In the works, for now mainly
        manufacturer proprietary systems/protocols
        (uses back scatter technology)
       Range: Typically measured in inches,
        industry targeting range of 20+ feet
       Characteristics: Small tag with “license
        plate” data, typically mounted to end item,
        reader captures data as item moves through
        choke point (door, pathway, frame, etc.)
       Data capacities: limited – usually 64 bits to
        1 kilobyte of non-volatile memory

             Passive Backscatter Technology
                                                   “Look, Ma! No battery!”

             Tag                                Reader/Writer

     RF energy emitted from antenna is used to power tag circuit.
     Tags use this energy to update data, emit (backscatter) signal
        at a fraction of the received power.
       These tags can carry single unique ID or multiple character
        length data fields.
       Range/performance is tied directly to frequency and power

                            Active Tags
                                            More range, data and features…

       Standard: In the works, for now mainly
        manufacturer proprietary systems/protocols;
        transmits at 400 MHz, 900 MHz, and 2.4 GHz
       Range: up to approximately 300 feet
       Characteristics: brick-sized tag with internal
        power cell mounted to item, interrogator queries
        tags, uploads/downloads data.
       Data capacities: typically up to 128k
       Features: may be capable of collecting,
        logging and reporting tag environmental data

                 Active Backscatter Technology
                                     More complex, more power, more distance…

               Tag                                Reader/Writer

        Active backscatter tags are equipped with an internal, replaceable
        Characteristics may vary greatly; tag may be able to perform
         special tasks, e.g., report temperature, intrusion, etc.
        The additional power available from the battery allows the tag to
         radiate at higher power levels, enabling greater range.

                          RFID, GPS and RTLS
                                       Real-time location monitoring…
     Three major location sensing & tracking technologies are in use:
      Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) – tagged items move near a choke
       point, or a person moves a portable reader near the tagged item; location
       accuracy at each node passed is within a radius equal to the tag’s range
      Global Positioning System (GPS) – receiver computes position by “seeing”
       at least four (of 24) satellites, then periodically cell phones its position to
       the tracking data base; very expensive; location accuracy within 15 feet
      Real Time Locating System (RTLS) are of two types (both expensive):
          “Localizing” systems use long range tags and fixed antenna arrays to
           compute that the tagged item is within a zone of the antenna array.
          “Triangulation” systems use fixed antenna arrays to triangulate tag
           blinks to fix the “x and y” grid position of the tagged item with GPS
           level accuracy

                 Providing Current Information
                                                    NAVAIR keeps abreast of AIT…
        NAVAIR industry surveillance provides customers information about
         current AIT technology.
        Evaluation and testing of existing and emerging technology, including
         application testing under unique environmental conditions, supports
         unusual applications.
        NAVAIR maintains a library of references supporting operations.
        NAVAIR provides assistance to any activities in dealing with technology
         adoption, insertion, prototyping.

     NAVAIR project support has both depth
     and breadth in technical expertise, industry
     familiarity, and evaluation capability

                         Recent AIT Initiatives in DoD
                                                           Not all AIT projects select RFID…

            Bar Coding              Contact Memory                       RFID/RFDC
     Transportation (markings)   Aviation Repairables              Transportation (in-transit
     AEGIS CM                    Abrams PROSE Engines
                                                                   Afloat Supply Department of the
     Property Accountability     Serial Number Tracking            Future
     Fuel Distribution           COTS ISEA Functions               HAZMAT Management
     Inventory Control           Canopies/Ejection Seats           Depot Workflow
     TSA National Inventory      Medical Technical Manuals         Automated Warehousing
                                 Ordnance Training Devices         Engine Container Tracking
                                 Weapons Tracking                  Weapons Tracking

                  NAVAIR Support to FFDO
                                            Successfully fielding RFID…

     NAVAIR implemented RFID technology to improve management of
     weapons at the Transportation Security Administration Academy (TSAA)
     in support of the Federal Flight Deck Officer (FFDO) Program.

     Aircraft Safety is a Serious Subject
                      Now, lets talk about the FFDO project …

                           Phased Approach
                                          Designed and fielded incrementally…

     In conjunction with TSA Academy, NAVAIR planned system development
     and implementation in three logical phases to meet the user requirement

           Phase I – Stand Alone

                         Phase II – Re-qualification Sites

                                          Phase III – Extranet Reporting

                       TSA Armory Site Survey
                                    User Requirements - Artesia, NM - June 2004…
     Identify what the customer really needs from the system.
      Pilots completing the TSA Armory
        program are issued a federal FFDO ID.
        Thousands of pilots will be trained semi-
         annually at one of 17 or more re-
         certification sites nationwide.
        Data on FFDOs is “sensitive”/ “classified”
         - RF range is to be minimal at < 6 inches
        All weapons (H&K USP40 .40 caliber
         handgun) are stored in the armory safe
         every day, in multiple safes, each
         containing multiple drawers.
        The trainee will carry the weapon assigned
         during training into the field.
        95% of the maintenance on returned
         weapons is handled at TSA Armory.
                   Initial System Specifications
                                                         Building a solution…
     Functional requirements drive equipment and software specifications
         Weapons inventory management using low frequency COTS
          RFID tags and a handheld reader.
         Minimum data to be collected:
           – Trainee information
           – Weapon information and association
           – Date of initial qualification
           – Inventory of current stock
         Batch–mode data transfer only, wireless not required.
         Conform to best commercial practices for parts marking.

           Hardware – Handheld & Workstation
                                                  Low cost COTS products…
     NAVAIR proposed commercial-off-the-shelf hardware to minimize cost.

      Easy to navigate user interface – standard Microsoft
       Windows color schemes and controls.
      Intel XScale 400 MHz processor, 256 MB ram using
       Windows Pocket PC operating system

       Minimum 1.8 GHz system with 512 MB ram and 40
        GB storage capacity
       Windows XP Professional; MSDE 2000 Service Pack
        3; SQL Server CE 2.0
       TSA Armory Application Software

                             RFID Tag Selection
                                                          Form, fit and function…
     Selection of appropriate tag was crucial to operational success.
        Manufactured by ACG in Germany.
        Recommended by H&K for physical
        1K bytes of read/write capability
        Available in styles suitable for use with
        13.56 MHz provides very reliable,
         accurate RF emissions with few interference
        Extensive testing by H&K for durability and
         reliability when mounted within a firearm.

                        RFID Test and Evaluation
                                                       Meeting operational needs…
     NAVAIR insured tag survived all possible conditions
        Evaluated three epoxies, selected Araldite
         2012 for durable bonding & quick set time.
        RFID tag mounted in magazine groove.
        Two weapons used for testing at Artesia and
         one at NAVAIR:
           1000 rounds fired through each handgun
            at TSA Armory
           Handguns cleaned with standard and non
            standard solvents
           Sheer testing for tag removal and
            damage assessment

                              RFID Tag Data
                                           UCC-standard data written to the tag…

           Credential                   Weapon                 Location

      97/ DHS#BC/1-50000   8004/ H&K#/ Weapon S/N        98/ DHS#BC/1-10000
     8004/H&K #/Weapon S/N

      ACG assigned serial #      ACG assigned serial #   ACG assigned serial #

              Company Prefix
         DHS Code:      896780000
         H&K Code:            642230
         Bureau Code (BC): 7054

                  Summary of Key Milestones
                                                   Accomplishing the goal …
     Success resulted from NAVAIR formal project execution based upon
     defined customer objectives.
        Program plan, business process analysis
         and design review
        Site visits for functional requirements
        RFID tag suitability testing
        Adhesive evaluations and selection
        Coordinate tag selection & placement
         with manufacturer
        Coordinate parts marking standards
         with UCC
        Phase I complete – Phase II under

                   NAVAIR TSA Support
                                    Fielding effective AIT applications…

      Optical barcode
         Designed, developed, tested, deployed and supported the
          linear barcode-based property management system for
          TSA Office of Property Management
         Provided personnel and technical resources to conduct a
          TSA National Inventory of security assets at all 450+
          federalized airports
      RFID:
        Designed, developed, tested and deployed the TSAA
        weapons management system

               NAVAIR AIT Support Facility
                                          Ten years of AIT experience…

        Founded August, 1994 to provide AIT expertise & support
        Recent DoD
          ● DoD Joint Service efforts
          ● Navy-specific projects
          ● Army projects
          ● Marine Corps projects
        Recent Department of Homeland Security
          ● TSA Office of Property Management
          ● Transportation Security Administration Academy (TSAA)

                          NAVAIR AIT Support Facility

               AIT HARDWARE                                            MULTIPLE OPERATING SYSTEMS
        1 and 2D Bar Code Scanners                                             Networked
        RFID Systems                                                               UNIX / LINUX
        CCD and Laser Scanners                                                     Novell
        Contact Memory Devices                                                 Desktop
        Interrogator's - Fixed and Portable                                        Windows 2000/XP
        Complete RFDC Systems                                                      Windows Server 2003
        Wireless Computers                                                         Windows NT
                                                                                    Pocket PC 2003

 Sponsored by…
  Transportation Security
     Administration                                                               …with Established
  Army’s Logistics
     Transformation Agency                     EXPERIENCED STAFF                   Navy AIT Implementation
                                                    Programmers                     Plan and Policies
    DoD Logistics AIT Office                       System Analysts               MOAs
    NAVSUP                                         Installers
                                                                                   Charters
    MARCORSYSCOM                                   Trainers
                                                    Tech Writers                  Annual Task Statements
    PEO EIS

            NAVAIR AIT-Based Projects History
                                                Recent weapons AIT experience…
        JFK Special Warfare School, Ft. Bragg, NC: Provided a secure,
         wireless, handheld capability for inventory control of over 10,000
         weapons and 7,000 pieces of communications/night vision equipment used
         by Special Forces
        U.S. Navy Seal Team 5, and LOGSU, San Diego: Automated total
         inventory management at each armory to include signature capture and
         electronic forms preparation
        Reserve armory, Ft. Lee, VA: Automated management of receipt,
         inventory, stow and issue of weapons to personnel using CAC ID cards
        SEABEES armories Gulfport, MS & Port Hueneme, CA: Exported the
         Seal Team application to other expeditionary forces

                       NAVAIR RFID Projects
                                                               Supporting the Navy…

      Automated Parts Load-Out & User Support – NAVSEA
        Examine the current process for Virginia-class submarine outfitting
             for suitability to convert to a passive RFID-based inventory
             management system.
            Tests indicated that significant doctrine in material handling or
             packaging materials will be necessary for reliable data.
      Afloat Storeroom of the Future (ASDOF) – NAVSUP
        Test assorted active RFID tags for EMC/EMI and demonstrate an
             RFID-based shipboard automated inventory control system.
            Successfully demonstrated the potential of RFID to track aviation
             rotatable pool transactions on the USS Truman and stores
             issues/receipts on the USS Normandy.

                  More NAVAIR RFID Projects
                                                            Supporting the Army…

      Environmental Testing of Intelligent Labels – Army LTA
        Performed environmental testing of printable labels containing passive
           RFID tags. Testing included temperature, humidity, solar radiation
           and road debris to assess overall durability of the tag and performance
           of the AIT media.
        Concluded that RFID labels can be used for container and product
           marking in most expected conditions.
      Engineering evaluation of combination RFID and Micro
       Electromechanical Systems (MEMS)
        Selected five candidate tags based on market survey and customer
           requirements (Army Logistics Transformation Agency) and performed
           environmental testing on those tags.
        Applied tag/MEMS sensing and reporting to Individual Protective
           Equipment (IPE) under extreme environmental exposure (Army
           Soldier Systems Center – Natick, MA)

            And More NAVAIR RFID Projects
                                            Supporting Department of Defense…

      HAZMAT Identification – DoD AIT Office
        Evaluate intrinsic and human safety factors with the use of RFID
           interrogators and passive tags for tracking the induction of
           HAZMAT at wholesale storage sites.
        No personnel or safety issues were identified with the COTS
           products tested.
      Technical Services – various sponsors
        Participate on the DoD RFID working group to define the
           specification requirements for the Army’s RFID II contract.
        Participate as members of RFID standards committees.

                       NAVAIR AIT Services
                                             Customer support and engineering…
     Plan project, satisfy requirements, support after implementation
        Analyze customer requirements for possible AIT
        Develop cost-effective AIT plan to meet customer
        Select most effective AIT technology suite(s) for the
        Develop/Acquire and integrate software and hardware
        Develop customer training to use the AIT application
         effectively (e.g., TSA Sunflower training.)
        Implement proposed AIT application; refine hardware,
         software, and training components to satisfy customer.
        Provide post-implementation support (NAVAIR Help

                   NAVAIR Points of Contact

     Chuck O’Brien                       Burt Brooks
     DSN:     995-6323                   DSN:     995-8225
     Phone:   301-995-6342               Phone:   301-995-8225
     Fax:     301-995-8370               Fax:     301-995-8370
     Email:   ObrienCJ@webfld.navy.mil   Email:   BrooksBG@webfld.navy.mil

                      Are there any questions?

                      BACK-UP SLIDES

     Slides from this point are back-ups to the main briefing.

                             Areas of Expertise
                                         NAVAIR knows AIT and how to use it…

     Optical                         Radio Frequency
     Barcode printers & scanners     Radio Frequency Data Collection (RFDC)
        One dimensional barcode        Symbol products
        Two dimensional barcode        Intermec products
        Wedge                       Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
        Portable                     Passive tags (e.g., Intermec products)
     Optical Memory Card (OMC)            Active tags (SAVI products)
                                               Contact Memory Button (CMB)
                                                Dallas Semiconductor
                                                Valgay/Valtec
                                                   MacSema

              Develop RFID for Armory Process
                                                  Plan and complete step by step…
     Steps: plan the project, identify requirements, develop & test system
        Site Survey at the armory defined current processes & user requirements,
         developed an approach and a proposed solution
        Follow-up site visits gained functional requirements detail for refinement
         of proposed solution
        Proposed phased-approach architecture & Phase I software development:
          Overall Phase I System Architecture employing RFID
          Phase I Administration Software Architecture
          Phase I Handheld PDA Software Architecture
        Tag and RFID equipment selection & testing
          Adhesive evaluations and selection
          Coordinate tag selection & placement with manufacturer
          Coordinate parts marking standards with UCC
        Phase I testing and implementation, refine requirements for Phase II

           NAVAIR AIT RFID Involvement
                              Extensive in-house Government RFID capability…
     Alien and            Received vendor provided technical training with
     Intermec passive     ePC capable products including SDK and
     RFID                 hardware suite purchases

     Savi, Identec,       Procured interrogators and tags to baseline
     Alien, Phase IV,     performance and measure against environmental
     and Sovereign        effects and for adaptation to Army logistics
     active tags          transformation in asset monitoring
     Passive and active   Participating member of the various Navy & DoD
                          AIT working groups on RFID requirements,
                          standards and proof-of-principle demonstrations

     Industry-wide        Conducted a market assessment of the RFID
                          industry for what is available now and in the next
                          12 months


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