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					                                         Country of
AbsNo   New Abs No   PresType   Topic                    AbsTitle
                                         Research



                                                      Predictors of
                                                      reproductive
                                                      intentions of
                                                      HIV/AIDS
                                                      patients
 778    TUPEC054       PE        C5     Nigeria       attending
                                                      Aminu Kano
                                                      Teaching
                                                      Hospital,
                                                      Northern
                                                      Nigeria




                                                      Implications
                                                      of high
                                                      fertility desire
                                                      on
                                                      reproductive
1336     CDC035      CDROM       C5     Mali
                                                      health needs
                                                      in men and
                                                      women
                                                      receiving
                                                      ART in Mali



                                                     Fertility
                                                     intentions of
                                                     HIV-positive
                                                     women
                                                     associated
                                                     with known
                                                     HIV-negative
1666    TUPEC056       PE        C5     South Africa status of her
                                                     primary
                                                     sexual
                                                     partner: a
                                                     reproductive
                                                     rights role for
                                                     HAART as
                                                     prevention
                                             Contraceptiv
                                             e use among
                                             HIV-positive
                                             women in
                                             Soweto,
2712    CDC036    CDROM   C5    South Africa
                                             South Africa:
                                             the influence
                                             of expanding
                                             access to
                                             HAART




                                             The triple
168     CDC031    CDROM   C5    Togo
                                             epidemic




                                             Post-
                                             exposure
                                             prophylaxis
                                             after sexual,
                                             blood,
                                             needlestick
                                             injuries or
                                             others non-
2888   WEPEC085    PE     C24   Benin        occupational
                                             exposure to
                                             HIV in
                                             children:
                                             what are the
                                             outcomes in
                                             resource-
                                             limited
                                             settings?
                                        Using health
                                        facility
                                        assessment
                                        data to
                                        strategically
                                        roll-out male
2502   MOPDC101    PD     C29   Kenya   circumcision
                                        in Nyanza
                                        province,
                                        Kenya: a
                                        mixed
                                        method
                                        approach




                                        Influence of
                                        gender in
                                        access to
3526    CDC073    CDROM   C31   India
                                        harm
                                        reduction
                                        services




                                        Community
                                        based risk
                                        behaviour
                                        study on
507    MOPEC014    PE     C33   Nepal
                                        HIV/AIDS
                                        targeting
                                        women in
                                        Nepal
                                              “Kar Geno” -
                                              a place of
                                              hope
                                              establishing
                                              a women-
3245    CDC094    CDROM   C34   Kenya
                                              friendly
                                              research
                                              clinic for
                                              microbicide
                                              trials




                                              Measuring
                                              informed
                                              consent:
                                              results from
                                              a
                                South Africa,
3383   WEPEC095    PE     C35                 randomized
                                Zimbabwe
                                              controlled
                                              trial of the
                                              diaphragm
                                              for HIV
                                              prevention




                                              The
                                              sustainability
                                              of care
                                              beyond HIV
                                              prevention
                                South Africa,
590    WEPEC094    PE     C35                 trials: an
                                Zimbabwe
                                              evaluation of
                                              the MIRA
                                              standard of
                                              care
                                              programme
                                           Over two
                                           decades of
                                           war:
                                           examining
                                           sexual
                                           vulnerabilitie
                                           s of young
                                           women and
                                           girls living in
2745   CDC117   CDROM   C37   Uganda
                                           displacement
                                           camps in
                                           conflict-
                                           affected
                                           Northern
                                           Uganda - a
                                           mixed
                                           methods
                                           study




                                           Disseminatin
                                           g HIV/AIDS
                                           information
                                           to young
3010   CDC119   CDROM   C37   Nigeria
                                           people
                                           through
                                           musical
                                           concerts




                                           RHRU's
                                           youth friendly
                                           services -
493    CDD003   CDROM   D1    South Africa
                                           findings of an
                                           outcome
                                           evaluation
                                     Simple and
                                     inexpensive
                                     point-of-care
                                     tests improve
                                     diagnosis of
2187   MOPED004   PE   D2   India
                                     vaginal
                                     infections in
                                     resource-
                                     constrained
                                     settings




                                     Designing
                                     interventions
                                     for
                                     parents/guar
2222   WEPED200   PE   D4   Uganda   dians of HIV
                                     perinatally
                                     infected
                                     adolescents
                                     in Uganda
                                            Increasing
                                            access to
                                            ART in the
                                            public sector
                                            through
                                            decentralizin
2172   TUPED100    PE     D5   South Africa g care in a
                                            high
                                            prevalence
                                            setting in
                                            KwaZulu-
                                            Natal, South
                                            Africa


2357    CDD113    CDROM   D8   South Africa Piloting an
                                            innovative
                                            Positive
                                            prevention
                                            through
                                            integration of
                                            sexual and
                                            reproductive
                                            health and
                                            HIV care
                                            services:
1855   WEPED222    PE     D8   South Africa
                                            perspectives
                                            of South
                                            African
                                            policymakers
                                            and non-
                                            governmenta
                                            l organization
                                            key
                                            informants


                                             Knowledge
                                             and attitudes
                                             of HIV
                                             discordant
                                             and
                                             concordant
                                             couples
1151    CDD108    CDROM   D8   India
                                             towards
                                             condom as a
                                             barrier for
                                             HIV
                                             prevention
                                             and
                                             contraception
                                            Scaling-up
                                            balanced
                                            counseling
                                            strategy plus
                                            to improve
                                            quality of
                                            family
                                            planning &
                                            HIV/AIDS
1529   WEPED220    PE     D8   South Africa counseling
                                            through
                                            linking
                                            counseling &
                                            testing with
                                            family
                                            planning
                                            services,
                                            Kenya &
                                            South Africa


                                            Effectiveness
                                            of available
                                            male
                                            involvement
                                            in
                                            reproductive
1892   TUPED144    PE     D9   South Africa health
                                            information,
                                            education &
                                            communicati
                                            on materials
                                            targeted at
                                            men




                                            How the
                                            fertility
                                            intentions of
                                            HIV+ women
                                            can inform
923     CDD116    CDROM   D9   Ethiopia     health care
                                            delivery in an
                                            Ethiopian
                                            capital of
                                            Addis
                                            Ababa?
                                             Adolescent
                                             early
                                             marriage in
                                             Northern
                                             Nigeria: case
                                             study on
2381    CDD118    CDROM   D9    Nigeria
                                             development
                                             of effective
                                             training
                                             materials for
                                             community
                                             advocates




                                             Women´s
                                             discharge
                                             from family
                                             planning
                                             programs
                                             after surgical
                                             sterilization
                                             associated to
3305   WEPED238    PE     D10   Brazil
                                             low
                                             compliance
                                             to condom
                                             use in the
                                             semi-arid
                                             North-
                                             Eastern
                                             Brazil
                                             Using a file
                                             audit as a
                                             means of
                                             strengthenin
                                             g record
                                             keeping,
                                             improving
                                             quality of
2174   TUPED154    PE     D12   South Africa care &
                                             monitoring
                                             adherence at
                                             a public
                                             sector ARV
                                             site in
                                             KwaZulu-
                                             Natal, South
                                             Africa
                                         Identifying
                                         sexual health
                                         policy needs
                                         for men who
                                         have sexs
                                         with men
661     CDD175    CDROM   D26   Kenya    (MSM) in
                                         access to
                                         quality
                                         HIV/AIDS
                                         care and
                                         prevention in
                                         Kenya




                                         Pregnancy in
                                         adolescents
                                         with
                                         perinatally
                                         acquired
3316   MOPED081    PE     D26   Uganda
                                         HIV;
                                         implications
                                         for HIV
                                         programming
                                         in Uganda
                                           AbsText
Background: Despite increasing attention to the health care needs of HIV-infected
individuals in low resource settings including Nigeria, little attention has been given to their
reproductive choices and intentions. This study describes the reproductive desire of people
living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and identified factors associated with such desires.
Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered to a cross section of
PLWHAs receiving care at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Nigeria (n=340). Desire to have
children was the main outcome variable. Significant predictors were identified using
multivariate regression analysis.
Results: Approximately 71% of male respondents (n= 60) and 70% of female respondents
(n=177) were sexually active. Only 20% of sexually active PLWHAs used condoms. One
hundred and sixty seven females (65.5%) and 52 males (61.2%) expressed a desire to have
more children. Out of these, 16 (7.3%) wanted to have one child, 106 (48.4%) wanted two,
while 88 (40.2%) wanted three or more. Muslim respondents were almost twice as likely as
Christians to desire having children (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.8, 95% confidence interval
[CI]: 1.69-6.01). Those diagnosed within the preceding year were less likely to wish for more
children compared with those diagnosed for longer periods (adjusted OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-
Background: Fertility desire in HIV+ individuals poses prevention challenges for
heterosexual and vertical transmission. In resource-constrained settings, research is needed
on emerging reproductive health needs of HIV positive patients. Our aim is to evaluate fertility
desire and knowledge about PMTC in patients starting ART.
Methods: We analyzed baseline data from a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV+ patients
eligible for ART in 2 public hospitals and 2 community-based organizations. Patients (n=271)
were followed-up every 3 months for a year. Sociodemographic, behavioral, biological and
clinical data were collected at each visit. We performed gender specific statistical analyses to
identify factors associated with fertility desire.
Results: 71% of patients were women. Mean age was 33 years for women and 41 years for
men; 68% of men and 56% of women had CD4 count less than 200 cells/µl. Fertility desire
was high: 65% in women and 78% in men. Mean number of additional children wanted in
parous patients was 1.68 in women and 2.19 in men; Mean number of children wanted in
nulliparous patients was 2.82 in women and 3.85 in men. Fertility desire was higher in young
(p< 0.001) and married women (p=0.056). In men, younger age (p=0.001) and lower
Background: Advances in HIV treatment have dramatically increased life expectancy,
decreased morbidity, and reduced risks of vertical and horizontal transmission, thereby
reducing barriers to reproduction among HIV-positive individuals. However, it is currently
unknown whether sexual partners' HIV status influences fertility intentions of HIV-positive
women in high HIV prevalence settings.
Methods: We used cross-sectional survey data from 361 sexually active HIV-positive
women (18-49 years) recruited from the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto, South Africa
(May-December, 2007). 173 were HAART users (median duration of use = 31 months [IQR=
24, 37]) and 188 were HAART-naïve. Medical record review was conducted to confirm
clinical variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between partner's
HIV status and fertility intentions.
Results: Average age was 33 years [SD=6.0], 35% completed highschool, 13% were
married, and median parity was 2.0 [IQR 1.0, 3.0]. Mean CD4 cell count was 413 [SD=221]
and 364 [SD=202] in HAART users and HAART-naïve, respectively. 46% didn't know their
partner's HIV status (DK), 38% had HIV-positive partners (Pos), and 17% had HIV-negative
partners (Neg). Overall, 33% reported fertility intentions, with significant differences by
Background: One of the most important strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission
of HIV is to prevent unplanned pregnancies. It is currently unknown whether improved
access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) will influence fertility decision-making
and contraceptive practices of women in high HIV prevalence and high fertility settings.
Methods: We used cross-sectional survey data from 715 women (18-44 years) recruited
from the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto, South Africa (May-December, 2007). 230
were HAART users (median duration of use = 32 months [IQR= 28, 33]), 238 were HAART-
naïve, and 247 were HIV-negative. Medical record review was conducted to confirm clinical
variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between HAART and
contraceptive use.
Results: Of 563 non-pregnant, currently sexually active women, the average age was 30
years [SD=6.7], 50% had not completed high school, and 62% were unemployed. Less than
10% of women were currently married and 93% reported being in a sexual relationship.
Median parity was 1.0 [IQR 1.0, 2.0] and 55% reported that they are not planning to have any
(more) children. Mean CD4 cell count (cells/mm3) of HAART users was 406 [SD=210] and
351 [SD=202] in non-HAART users. Overall, 87% of HAART users, 81% of non-HAART
Introduction: Besides the challenges of the duo epidemic of HIV and TB, low literacy women
still live very risky reproductive lifestyles and do not have equitable access to health
information and services. Poor risk perceptions, myths, harmful cultural practices and
irregular health seeking behaviors of women are fuelling the triple driven and compounded by
literacy, drought and poverty. Marginalization of women's social and economic status,
negative reinforcement of stereotypes and lack of psychosocial life skills are contributing
towards their poor reproductive health.
Methodology: Qualitative targeted counseling of ante-natal mothers, rapid community
assessments through in-depth social and mapping techniques, community based focus
discussions with women in catchment areas, one to one structured interviews with traditional
healers, birth attendants and other care providers; both quantitative and qualitative primary
and secondary data, the latter collected from comprehensive desk reviews of existing
literature on women and men's reproductive health.
Results: Low literacy, drought and urban poverty have a negative effect on the overall
livelihood of women in general. More specific effects include morbidity, mortality, infertility,
poor family management and planning, early pregnancy, poor nutritional status, health
Background: PEP is not well-documented in children for non-occupational exposure to HIV;
the objective of this study is to describe other conditions in which children are exposed to HIV
and its outcome
Methods: From 2003 to 2008, children referred at Pediatric ART site of Military Teaching
Hospital because of being exposed to HIV were concerned. Clinical, serological, and
psychological assessment was done for each child. ARV prophylaxis was started if exposed
child was at high risk and within 72 hours after exposure; HIV antibody testing was performed
at 6 weeks and 3 months thereafter. Decision is taken by multidisciplinary team:
paediatrician, psychologist, social worker, therapeutic educator and gynaecologist.
In case of rape(sexual assault), gynaecological assessment is required, child enter
reproductive health program if she has already reached puberty
Results: Of 32 children concerned, 81,3% were female, median age 12 years(4-16 years).
Circumstances: rape 65,6 %, needlestick 15,6% and others 18,8%: human bites 2 cases,
drinking infected blood 2 cases and infected serum 1 case.
Delay between exposure and admission: 81,3% ≤ 72 hours; all were HIV negative at
admission;
Source HIV status: positive(31%), negative(43,8%) and unknown(25%): 7 for rape and 1 for
needle.
Psychological conditions: anxiety(29 cases), panic attack(5 cases), depression(3 cases)
ARV prophylaxis was started 46,9% (15 cases); prophylaxis regimen: AZT+3TC(3 cases),
D4T+3TC(2 cases), AZT+3TC+LP/r(3 cases), AZT+3TC+NFV(6 cases), D4T+3TC+NFV(1
case).
All entered therapeutic education program and completed treatment; 66% experienced
Background: The Male Circumcision Consortium is supporting the Government of Kenya
(GoK) to scale-up male circumcision (MC) services for HIV prevention in Nyanza Province,
Kenya. The Nyanza Reproductive Health Society (NRHS), as a member of MCC, is engaged
in increasing the capacity of health facilities to provide MCs in two districts.
Methods: NRHS conducted an assessment of all health facilities in the two districts. The
assessment focused on evaluating the minimum criteria for MC service provision as outlined
by the GoK. The assessment was conducted during February-October, 2008 using a
questionnaire and a GPS device. The minimum criteria were analyzed descriptively and
spatially using SAS and ArcGIS.
Results: 81 health facilities were assessed. Results showed that no facility was adequately
prepared to provide MC services. Most (85%) possessed 2-4 of the seven minimum criteria
to provide MC services. Many facilities were able to meet select criteria: 67% had an
autoclave and 70% provided HIV counseling and testing. Barriers to providing MC services
were: 21% of facilities did not have space for a minor theater; 12% staffed an adequate
number of clinicians; and 10% reported having an adequate STI drug supply. All facilities
required capacity building. ArcGIS pattern analysis tools (e.g., Nearest Neighbor and
Background: There are substantial proportions of female injecting drug users (IDUs) in the
Northeast India who require services as much as their male counterparts and may even be
with a more pronounced needs such as reproductive health services, condom programming.
Yet, most of the harm reduction services at present are not gender friendly and smaller
proportions of female IDUs are accessing services.
Methods: The study analyzed the influence of gender in access to harm reduction services
for female IDUs in Northeast India. The study was done through literature review along with
key informants communication. The gender analysis framework was adapted to identify and
analyze the barriers to service access.
Results: The study identified that there is a low access to harm reduction services by the
female IDUs such as 7% enrollment for the opioid substitution treatment programs. Most of
the enrollments are also coming from the facilities that already have worked with female IDUs
who are also sex workers.
The challenges in female IDUs access to services includes the followings:-
-Reluctance to attend the harm reduction services as most of them are male oriented with
domination of male clients and male workers
- Inability to afford the opportunity cost of availing services.
- Double stigma for female IDUs, which makes them, want to remain hidden.
- Non-approval by the male partners to attend such services.
Background: Nepal has progressed from a HIV low prevalence country to one with a
concentrated epidemic in certain subgroups of population. There is little documented
evidence on the risk behaviours among women in Nepal. This study was conducted to
assess the pattern of risk behaviour for HIV among women in the reproductive age group.
Methods: The main component of the study comprised a community based cross- sectional
study, using a multi stage random sampling technique. Data was collected by trained field
health workers using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Eight focus group
discussions were also conducted to supplement the findings. Statistical analysis was carried
out using SPSS version 13.
Results: A significant number of un-married (13.7%) women and 2.2% of married women
indulged in high risk sexual behaviour. A significant positive association was observed
between sexual risk behaviour of married women and monthly Family income less than 5000
Nepali Rs (X2 = 5.2, P < 0.05) and young age group (15- 34) in unmarried women. (X2 =
14.96, P < 0.01). Very few women indulged in Intra venous Drug use (0.04%). Nearly 70% of
women have heard about AIDS and have satisfactory level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS.
However, significant number of respondents had misconceptions that one could contract HIV
Issues: Vaginal microbicide safety and efficacy trials aim to recruit healthy, HIV negative,
non-pregnant, reproductive age women. Comprehensive reproductive health care provision
during microbicide trials may facilitate timely recruitment and enhance retention of enrolled
participants.
Description: To establish a holistic research centre providing comprehensive reproductive
health services in Kisumu, a high HIV-prevalence town in Kenya, we recruited a research
team and trained the study staff. Modules included the research protocol, Good Clinical
Practice, Voluntary Counseling and Testing, basic counseling, reproductive health, sexually
transmitted infections and basics on HIV/AIDS. The clinical team was further updated on
contraceptive counseling and provision. Concurrently, we undertook the renovation of a
previously used research facility employing soft colour schemes and murals to give the
centre a feminine touch. Recreational amenities included television, DVD and a variety of
appropriate magazines. Challenges included capacity building for a relatively clinical trial-
naïve team. We named the clinic “Kar Geno Centre”: “a place of hope” for women.
Lessons learnt: Involvement of the entire team maximizes on creativity and builds a spirit of
ownership through participation. Through tailored training, non-clinical staff members can be
empowered to disseminate correct reproductive health information to the community.
Background: Informed consent is integral to clinical trials research. There is debate on how
to ensure that participants understand the proposed research and consequences of
participation. More information is needed regarding techniques for improving and measuring
participants' recall of study-related concepts.
Methods: The Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa trial evaluated the
diaphragm for HIV prevention among women in Durban and Johannesburg, South Africa,
and Harare, Zimbabwe. From 2004-2006 researchers administered an Informed Consent
Quiz (ICQ) to enrolled participants assessing short (enrollment visit) and long term (month 12
visit) retention of study-related information and risks/benefits of participation. The ICQ
comprised 18 True/False questions. Incorrect responses were reviewed with participants. A
Total Score (TS) (percent correct of total) and Key Score (KS) (percent correct of 6 key
questions) were calculated for each ICQ. Frequencies/analysis were conducted using SPSS
(v14.0).
Results: At enrollment (n=1779) the median TS was 88.9% (range 44.4%-100.0%) at all
sites. KS medians were 83.3%, 83.3%, and 100.0% for Durban, Soweto and Harare
respectively (p< 0.0001) (range 16.7%-100.0%). Median TS and KS were equal across study
arms (TS=88.9%, KS=83.3%).
Background: The debate over the ethical obligation to provide ongoing healthcare to
seroconverting participants after the close of HIV prevention trials has evolved as treatment
options have expanded. The Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA)
trial (2003-2006), a Phase III randomised controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of the
diaphragm and Replens® lubricant gel in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV among
women in South Africa and Zimbabwe. During the study, seroconverters received counselling
and referrals for further care. Towards the end of the study, MIRA implemented the Standard
of Care (SOC) programme, which enabled participants who had seroconverted to receive
additional HIV-related clinical and psychosocial care at study clinics, and facilitated links to
long-term, sustainable care and ARV treatment from available public health facilities.
Methods: We attempted to re-contact all exited HIV-positive participants and invite them to
return for SOC services. We examined the frequency of eligible participants' uptake of these
optional, expanded services during the SOC period from October 2006 to May 2007.
Results: 185 (57%) of 327 HIV-positive participants accepted some form of follow-up care,
57 (17%) declined and 81 (25%) were lost to follow-up. 123 women (38%) received a CD4
test at a MIRA clinic, which facilitated their entry into government treatment programmes. 142
(43%) women received referrals to public health facilities and 90 (28%) enrolled in treatment
Background: While extensive NGO reporting exists, few studies address the HIV related
vulnerabilities of young women and girls surviving displacement camp circumstances. As
people in Northern Uganda resettle post conflict, it is important to deeply explore the sexual
vulnerabilities of displaced adolescent girls.
Methods: This study employed a mix-methods approach and was based on quantitative and
qualitative data collected at the height of insurgency in three displacement camps in Northern
Uganda. A socio-demographic questionnaire was administered to 515 displaced girls (aged
13-19), and 74 in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions with adult women (over
the age of 30), and adolescent girls and former female abductees (over the age of 14) were
conducted.
Results: Quantitative results revealed concerning patterns of early sex, early marriage and
early pregnancy and provided a snapshot of the patterns of risk of displaced women and
girls. Qualitative results highlighted the erosion of Acholi child mentoring, belief systems and
livelihoods that had previously served to protect young girl's sexuality. Being out of school,
movement at night to sleep elsewhere and a lack of appropriate sexual health information
and services enhances young women and girls' sexual vulnerability in camp settings.
Conclusions: Conflict prevention and resettlement planners must recognize the distinctive
patterns of vulnerability of young women and girls surviving conflict and displacement camp
Background: Olaleye village is a small community of about 350,000 populations. It is located
within Mainland Local Government Area in Lagos State. There is a very low level of HIV
education in the community, the young people in the community needs adequate information
about HIV/AIDS.
Methods: Batula Youth Movement (BYM), a youth-led community based organization
involved in youth development and HIV/AIDS prevention, organized a concert to improve
audience awareness of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. It featured various talented
musicians, as well as professionals from Youth Development Organizations, who took turns
to speak to the audience on the different challenges they face. Other facilitators were expert
in the field of HIV/AIDS, and Adolescent Reproductive Health.
Results: At the concert a survey was a conducted to know how many people would be willing
to go for HIV test. Out of the 300 administered questionnaires; 196 agreed to go for HIV
testing, 44 were not sure they would go for the test, 37said they would rather not know their
status, while 13 questionnaires were returned unfilled. The responses were based on the
information, education and lectures on HIV that was delivered at the concert.
Background: Sub Saharan African youth bear a heavy burden of HIV disease,
approximately 6000 new infections daily. National antenatal prevalence in 2006 indicated
women younger than 20 years, between 20-24 yrs have an HIV prevalence of 13.7% and
28% respectively.VCT needs of youth are different from adults, yet few countries have
adapted services accordingly. In 2007, RHRU established a youth friendly service (YFS) at
Esselen Clinic. The aim is to increase access to HIV, sexual and reproductive health care for
youth between 12-24 yrs. The programme is summarised as:



1. Community mobilisation
2. Youth oriented VCT, family planning, screening and treatment for TB, STIs;
3. Post-test support services
4. Referral for ART

Methodology: An outcome evaluation completed in December 2008 was conducted using a
descriptive study design. Retrospective review of routine data, reporting mechanisms,
outputs and interviews were conducted.
Results:


1. The YFS consists of specially trained providers and ensures privacy, confidentiality,
and accessibility;
2. Outreach is integral in referring youth back to the clinic for VCT. Recruitment and
training of 10 youth peer educators has facilitated this process;
3. There has been 137% increase in 2008 in number of youth testing for HIV, due to: 1)
staff increase; 2) provider-initiated testing; 3) increasing age group;
4. Functional integration, collaboration and networking with NGOs provide a holistic
package of care;
5. Referral for ART to initiation sites is a streamlined process;
6. The database has been revised and is inclusive of indicators not only for HIV but
teen pregnancy, family planning, referrals.

Conclusion: With heightened vigour, the YFS is on track to stemming the tide of HIV among
youth in the inner city. Empirical evidence on youth HIV knowledge, communication and
perceived risk is important to strengthen the programme, particularly in developing age
appropriate IEC material.
Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Trichomonas vaginalis infection (TV) have been
associated with adverse birth outcomes and increased risk for HIV. We describe the
performance of simple inexpensive point-of-care (POC) tests for diagnoses of BV and TV in
resource-constrained settings.
Methods: Between November 2005 and March 2006, 898 sexually active women attending
two reproductive health clinics in Mysore, India were recruited into a cohort study
investigating the relationship between vaginal flora and HSV-2 infection. Participants were
interviewed and screened for reproductive tract infections. Laboratory tests included serology
for HSV-2; cultures for TV, candida sp, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ; Gram stain. The POC
included vaginal pH and Whiff test.
Results: Of the 898 participants, 411 (45.7%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 42.4%-
49.0%) had any laboratory diagnosed vaginal infection. BV was detected in 165 women
(19.1%, 95%CI: 16.5% to 21.9%) using Nugent score. TV was detected in 76 women (8.5%,
95%CI: 6.7% to 10.4%) using culture. Of women who had BV or TV, 15.7% had concurrent
infections. Among the entire study population, POC correctly detected 82% of laboratory
diagnosed BV cases, and 83% of laboratory diagnosed TV infections. Among women with
Background: Limited research has been conducted in Uganda to examine the key
challenges parents/guardians of HIV positive adolescents face in addressing the Sexual and
Reproductive Health (SRH) needs and challenges of perinatally infected HIV positive
adolescents. A study conducted at 11 HIV Care and support Centres (2006/7) by TASO and
partners showed that only 30% of 732 (15-19 yrs) had talked to their parents/guardians about
their SRH needs since many see them as unsupportive. Coupled with a lack of clear
interventions, there was thus a need to equip these parents/guardians with skills to support
and empower their adolescents address the SRH needs and challenges faced as they grow
up.
Methods: Focus group discussions were conducted for 20 parents/guardians of HIV positive
adolescents from TASO-Entebbe Service Centre, to obtain their perspectives, fears and
limitations towards supporting their adolescents on SRH issues. In-depth interviews were
conducted with two experienced HIV counselors, three counselling psychologists together
with a curriculum design specials to identify needs for to developing a training course for
parents/guardians.
Results: The respondents (21- 57yrs) had 23 HIV perinatally infected adolescents (13-
Background: eThekwini district in KwaZulu-Natal has an estimated 1.5 million individuals
with HIV; 12-15% of whom require ART. ART provision is largely hospital-based with an over-
reliance on doctors and ARV sites are reaching capacity. The Reproductive Health and HIV
Research Unit (RHRU), is supporting the KwaZulu-Natal provincial Department of Health to
develop a model to decentralize services to primary health care level.
Methods: RHRU has developed a model for decentralizing care including standard operating
procedures for the up and down referral process. This includes the procedures for up referral
of adults (including pregnant women) and children; management of patients at initiating sites;
down referral of stable patients; dispensing ARVs to PHC; and the management of side
effects. Standardized data collection forms and a 2-way referral form have been developed
for patient tracking. RHRU conducts a 3 day training program for nurses and provides follow-
up mentoring & coaching on-site in order to implement the model.
Results: RHRU has trained over 215 nurses at PHC level and has 7 ARV sites down
referring patients to 19 PHC clinics. In total, nearly 900 patients have been down referred.
Over 97% of patients have remained in care, with only 15 patients lost to follow up and 2
deaths reported. 26 patients have been treated for OIs at PHC level and 18 patients have
Background: Integrating HIV services into family planning (FP) services has the potential to
increase uptake of HIV services including counselling and testing (C&T) & to potentiallyyet
Background: Most HIV-infected men and women are in their early reproductive years,
HIV/AIDS counselling in public-sector clinics does not routinely address reproductive
decision-making, safer conception, contraception, sexuality and abortion. This study explored
policymakers and non-governmental (NGO) key informants' attitudes about integrating sexual
and reproductive health (SRH) into public sector HIV care services.
Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 37 HIV/AIDS national and
provincial policymakers/managers, key HIV/AIDS university-based researchers, and
directors/senior staff at HIV support and advocacy NGOs in Cape Town and Johannesburg.
Issues explored in these interviews include current SRH service delivery protocols in HIV
care facilities and service provision gaps, SRH problems faced by HIV+ women and men,
need for SRH-HIV care integration, and lessons learned from other integrative models. Study
findings were used to inform development of a structural intervention to integrate SRH
services within mainstream, public sector HIV care.
Results: Discussion of SRH issues was not seen as prominent in public sector HIV care
services, making it difficult for HIV+ individuals to reach informed SRH decisions and access
appropriate SRH services. Training of health care providers in non-judgemental SRH
counselling of HIV+ men and women was considered key. While willing to explore the
feasibility of assisted reproduction methods for HIV+ individuals, most key informants
expressed reservations about their affordability and the public sector's human resource
capacity for implementation. The SRH care of HIV+ men was viewed as a critical, but
Background: National Institute for research in reproductive health has family planning clinic
which also extends its services to HIV infected persons for consistent use of condom and
dual protection contraceptive method
Methods: A study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes of HIV infected
(concordant / discordant) couples towards condom use, and motivate them for consistent use
of condom to prevent further transmission of HIV and unwanted pregnancies. A semi
structured questionnaire was designed and a couple was interviewed by a trained counselor
to assess their knowledge about HIV infection, contraceptive use and sexual practices. They
were supplied condoms as barrier contraceptive and informed about Emergency
contraceptive pills, if required. Counseling focused on consistent use of condom, its
demonstration for proper use including safe sexual practices.
Results: Out of 130 HIV infected couples, 81% were concordant whereas 19% couples were
discordant. About 4% couples were totally ignorant about HIV and its transmission, 27% men
had never used condoms while 17.6% were using them irregularly. The main reasons being
lack of privacy, sexual dissatisfaction, unavailability of condom at home and also wives were
using other contraceptive method. Condom use and non-penetrative sex are considered
Background: The Population Council's Frontiers in Reproductive Health (FRONTIERS)
Program, in collaboration with the Ministries of Health in Kenya and South Africa,
respectively, developed and tested a practical, interactive, and client-friendly strategy for
improving counseling during family planning (FP) consultations The aforementioned process
referred to as the Balanced Counseling Strategy (BCS), was tested and refined in several
countries, and involves a series of steps to determine the contraceptive methods that are
client specific.
Methods: The FRONTIERS program developed and piloted the BCS+ in Kenya and South
Africa owing to both countries high rates of STIs, including HIV, and their contraceptive
prevalence rates that are relatively high for the region. This approach provides opportunities
to reach a substantial proportion of the sexually active population. Like in most countries,
their FP and HIV programs are implemented separately, although both countries are actively
seeking, through both their ministries of health, to develop practical tools for an integrated
approach.
Results: Empirical research indicate, inter alia, that using the BCS strategy improved the
quality of the provider's counseling and allowed the client to take ownership of the decision
Use of the BCS+ algorithm increased the likelihood that providers would offer C&T, and that
the offer would be accepted. Nearly all providers who used the algorithm, the cards, or both
mentioned C&T, compared to 65 percent when no materials were used.
Conclusions: Scaling up of the BCS+ strategy as a practical, interactive, low cost and client
Background: Male involvement in sexual and reproductive health is the key to ensuring
men's wellbeing and those of their partners and children and contributes to prevention of HIV
and AIDS infection. The objective of the study was to obtain men's views regarding the
available Information, Education and Communication materials which target men. These
views would inform the adoption, adaptation and development of new materials.
Methods: 5 Focus Group Discussions were conducted in 3 provinces with 118 men aged 18 -
74 years. Themes discussed included Sexual Reproductive Health awareness and
knowledge, men's perception of HIV risk; Multiple Concurrent Partnerships, Voluntary
Counseling and Testing, Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission, Antiretroviral Treatment
and condom use. The effectiveness of available materials was assessed by questions
structured to address the current men's knowledge, practices and beliefs, their source of
information as well as types of communication that could encourage behavior change.
Results: The study found that there are limited materials and communication targeting men
on Sexual Reproductive Health. The information found in health establishments is not
accessible to men because they perceive these to be targeted at women. Although general
information on HIV and AIDS like importance of condom use and VCT is available,
Background: The objective of the study was to assess the fertility intention of HIV positive
women and examine differentials in their fertility by socio-economic, demographic and health
related factors
Methods: This was a quantitative institution based survey complemented with qualitative
methods. This study subjects were Women living with HIV/AIDS. The outcome variable was
future intention to have a child or not .The study was conducted in an urban setting, Addis
Ababa. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive and analytic statistics were employed
and the qualitative data was summarized.
Results: The mean age was 31.3 with SD of 7 years. With regard to the current
husband/partner HIV status 211(65.1%) of those who were in union had HIV positive partner.
Majority of the respondents 501 (59.4%) did not have an intention to have a child in the
future. A higher percentage 494(58.5%) of the respondents admitted that they are
discouraged by health professional not to bear a child.Majority of the discussants give
emphasis to their income as a factor affecting their decision to have a child. Majority of the
discussant indicated that the community believes that Women living with HIV/AIDS are
incapable of producing a child.Marital status, number of living children, knowledge of PMTCT,
Background: Early marriage is an important contributor to HIV exposure and other negative
reproductive health outcomes for adolescent girls across sub-Saharan Africa, and northern
Nigeria in particular. A large proportion of Nigerian girls are married during early
adolescence, where the median age is 14.6 and 15.0 in the North-West and North-East geo-
political zones of Nigeria respectively. Population Council, seeks to prevent new HIV through
targeted prevention messages for adolescent girls. Activities include individual peer
counselling for young girls and training of community advocates at faith-based organizations.
Design: The case study presents a methodology for developing an effective and appropriate
training manual on reproductive, maternal and sexual health issues for community-based
advocates at FBOs. Community knowledge and religious texts were used to develop a
religiously and culturally sensitive Advocacy Manual for community advocates in Northern
Nigeria. The manual was developed in collaboration with three NGOs, which contributed
grass-roots understanding of the cultural and religious context. The manual incorporates and
draws on religious texts, to deliver messages about behaviour and sexual health.
Results: The manual has been used in trainings of more than 500 community advocates
throughout eight Nigerian states, and the trainings have been met with considerable success.
Community advocates say that the manual is a practical and versatile tool for delivering
health messages. In addition, the manual was considered so effective by the US Department
Background: Surgical sterilization tends to discharge women from family planning
programs. Association between surgical sterilization and condom usage was investigated,
identifying risk groups and reasons for non use.
Methods: The state-wide reproductive health survey studied 20-49 years old women, from a
cluster sampling of 8,000 households. Information on surgical sterilization and condom use
were obtained. Adjusted prevalence rate ratios (PRR) were calculated from multivariate
analysis.
Results: From 8,883 reproductive age women, 21.3% had a surgical sterilization, the
region's leading contraceptive method. Sexual intercourse in previous 30 days was reported
by 76.2% and 71.2%, of sterilized and non-sterilized women, respectively (p< 0.001). Use of
condom was negatively associated to sterilization, as only 5.2% of the surgically sterilized
women had used them, against 29.5% of the non-sterilized. Adjusted analysis showed that
surgically sterilized women were 31% (95%CI 1.27-1.35) more probable of not using
condom, as compared to non-sterilized ones, even after controlling for age, schooling, marital
status and geographical area (urban/rural). Sterilization was a stronger risk factor for not
using condom among single (PRR=1.74 (1.52-1.98)) and university degree women
(PRR=1.51 (1.36-1.68)). Reasons for not using were very similar for both groups; the most
Background: Many public sector ARV sites lack adequate health information management
systems for informing evidence-based programming and monitoring patient outcomes. The
Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit (RHRU) supports the KwaZulu-Natal
Department of Health's HIV treatment & care programme, including improving M&E.
Wentworth Hospital was accredited in 2004 and has nearly 3000 patients enrolled on
treatment. However, no formal review of the paper-based data collection process had taken
place.
Methods: RHRU conducted a file audit in 2008 to establish gaps in record keeping and to
review quality of care. An audit tool designed to collect information on patient demographics,
CD4 count & viral load and patients no longer on treatment etc. was used. A team of 15
trained staff reviewed 2921 files.
Results: A total of 2768 patients had files opened at the site. 133 duplicated files were found.
65% of the patients 'ever receiving treatment' were female, 34% were male and data on
gender were missing for 12 (1%) files. 2% of patients were aged 0-4 years, 5% were 5-14
years, 92% were 15+. 1% of files reviewed did not record the client's date of birth and 10%
had no contact details. 666 (24%) patients were not initiated on treatment. 155 patients were
still in care waiting initiation and 461 (17%) were lost to initiation. Of the 2102 patients
Background: Research on Identifying Sexual Health Policy Needs for MSM in K For more
than a decade, many MSM have experienced discrimination, self stigmatization, rejection,
discrimination in access to HIV/AIDS care and prevention systems, quality counseling of
MSM infected by HIV/AIDS/STI's, information related to sexual health and rights, unclear
policy reflections on access to reproductive health clinics, especially MSM who suffer or have
suffered from STI's. The degree to which MSM experience negative impacts of HIV/AIDS
infections differs tremendously-that is, geographical locations, access to media, distribution
of information, number of NGO's working on MSM issues within the region.
Study Methodologies: Research on Identifying Sexual Health Policy Needs for MSM in K
The research identifying sexual health policy needs in Kenya. Was designed in five folds
which involved; social demographic characteristics of MSM, in access to quality reproductive
health care, sexual practices and pattern, including drug use, HIV/AIDS/STI, knowledge and
access to services and interpersonal communication. The projects team focused more on
quantitative and qualitative in-depth analysis of key sexual health policy issues. The process
involved review of relevant literature; assess available data at broad selection with key

1. For the sake of this research we noticed that majority of MSM are exceptionally
exited with young Luo boys, due to their skin co lour and the foreskin, which some
recorded that it stimulate the anal just like clitoris.
2. Many MSM do not use any prevention methods
3. Majority of MSM in rural Kenya have no access to information on HIV/AIDS care and
prevention
4. Stigma and self stigmatization is high among rural MSM
5. Many MSM don;t access quality clinical treatment and suffer from anal infections

6. Stakeholders are reluctant to involve MSM in care and due to moral imperative.


Background: The scale out of antiretroviral drugs has significantly transformed the lives of
children with perinataly acquired HIV. As a result they have graduated into adolescence and
early adulthood. Like all young people, they are experimenting with sex and reports from
different organizations indicate rising adolescent pregnancies. This presents a new and
dynamic chapter in the care of young positives and support needs. In Uganda, HIV programs
and policies lack clear strategies to deal with this critical aspect in the HIV fight.
Methods: This article is based on a desk review of emerging literature from different parts of
the world about the opportunities and gaps that exist in HIV programs and policies especially
in Uganda as far as addressing fertility intentions in this subgroup are concerned.
Results: The findings indicate that children with perinatary acquired HIV have an opportunity
to reach adolescence and early adulthood. Yet many HIV programs have no special
programs for this subgroup because they are designed around pediatric and adult care.
These adolescents are neither children nor adults and cannot be adequately handled in
either setting. Many HIV programs have not integrated sexual and reproductive health care
into HIV programmes which undermines capacity of their response to the needs of these
young women such as fertility intentions, desires and also the risk of unwanted pregnancies.
                                        Country of
AbsNo   New Abs No   PresType   Topic                  AbsTitle
                                        Research




                                                     Eight years
                                                     experience of
                                                     prophylaxis
 685    WEPEC083       PE       C24     Canada       after sexual
                                                     exposure to
                                                     HIV in
                                                     Canada




                                                     Acceptability
                                                     of male
                                                     circumcision
                                                     for the
                                        Dominican
 324    MOPDC103       PD       C29                  prevention of
                                        Republic
                                                     HIV/AIDS in
                                                     the
                                                     Dominican
                                                     Republic




                                                     Uptake of
                                                     HIV testing in
                                                     a
                                        United
1215     CDC065      CDROM      C30                  genitourinary
                                        Kingdom
                                                     medicine
                                                     (GUM) clinic
                                                     setting
                                             Low voluntary
                                             HIV testing
                                             and risky
3554   WEPEC092    PE     C34   Burkina Faso sexual
                                             behaviours in
                                             urban
                                             Burkina Faso




                                             Over two
                                             decades of
                                             war:
                                             examining
                                             sexual
                                             vulnerabilities
                                             of young
                                             women and
                                             girls living in
2745    CDC117    CDROM   C37   Uganda
                                             displacement
                                             camps in
                                             conflict-
                                             affected
                                             Northern
                                             Uganda - a
                                             mixed
                                             methods
                                             study




                                             Sex and the
                                             River: HIV
                                             and other
                                             sexually
3336   WEPEC114    PE     C37   Peru
                                             transmitted
                                             infections in
                                             the Peruvian
                                             Amazon
                                              A novel
                                              urban clinical
                                              service
                                              targeting
                                              men who
                                              have sex with
1937    CDD008    CDROM   D1   South Africa
                                              men (MSM) -
                                              an initial audit
                                              of patterns of
                                              utilisation and
                                              disease
                                              burden




                                              The
                                              implementati
                                              on and
                                              operation of
                                              sexual health
2227    CDD044    CDROM   D4   South Africa
                                              services for
                                              men who
                                              have sex with
                                              men in Cape
                                              Town




                                          Effectiveness
                                          of an
                                          education-
                                          based and a
                                          negotiation-
                                          based
                                          intervention
2438   WEPED203    PE     D4   Mozambique
                                          to promote
                                          sexual health
                                          and prevent
                                          HIV/AIDS in
                                          Mozambican
                                          women: a
                                          pilot study
                                         “Now I know
                                         there is life
                                         after HIV” - A
                                         three year
                                         evaluation of
                                         the
                                         effectiveness
                               United    of living well's
3491   WEPED213    PE     D4
                               Kingdom   positive self-
                                         management
                                         programme
                                         for people
                                         living with
                                         HIV in
                                         London (UK)
                                         2005-2008


                                         Promotion of
                                         HIV testing
                                         and
                                         counseling
                                         among Sub-
                                         Saharan
                                         African
1462   TUPED143    PE     D9   Belgium   migrants:
                                         assessing
                                         and
                                         addressing
                                         the barriers
                                         at community
                                         and health
                                         care level




                                         Adolescent
                                         early
                                         marriage in
                                         Northern
                                         Nigeria: case
                                         study on
2381    CDD118    CDROM   D9   Nigeria
                                         development
                                         of effective
                                         training
                                         materials for
                                         community
                                         advocates
                                          'LOVE THY
                                          HEALTH':
                                          feasibility and
                                          acceptability
                                United    of offering
3042   TUPED150    PE     D9
                                Kingdom   rapid HIV
                                          tests in a
                                          church-based
                                          setting in
                                          inner London




                                          HIV and risk
                                          behaviour
2432   CDD171     CDROM   D23   Kenya     among Male
                                          Inmates in
                                          Kenya




                                          Identifying
                                          sexual health
                                          policy needs
                                          for men who
                                          have sexs
                                          with men
661    CDD175     CDROM   D26   Kenya     (MSM) in
                                          access to
                                          quality
                                          HIV/AIDS
                                          care and
                                          prevention in
                                          Kenya
                                           AbsText
Background: Describe non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) use in a large
urban sexual health clinic cohort and evaluate the determinants of completing PEP follow-up.
Methods: All patients consulting at Clinique l'Actuel for PEP since 2000, were recruited in this
prospective study. Patients were assessed at day 1, and then followed for 6 months. Decision
to administer PEP was based on risk evaluation. We investigated the major determinants of
completion of PEP follow-up (FU) by multiple logistic regression.PEP-FU was considered
complete if the patient came back for HIV screening 3 or 6 months after exposition.
Results: 639 consultations (84% male, median age 33 years) for PEP were included. 81%
were for a first PEP and 86% for a moderate/severe risk of exposure. No changes in
characteristics of patients consulting for PEP over time were observed. Reason for
consultation was 55% of homosexual risky contact, 31% of intercourse with an HIV+ partner,
9% with a sex worker, and 3% with a partner from endemic region. Median delay before
consultation was 29 hours, without significant variation over time (p=0.289). Risk assessment
drove PEP administration, with 98% of patients treated after a high risk, 87% treated after a
moderate risk and 19% after a minor risk of exposition. Only 50% of the patients completed
FU. Complete FU was more likely in patients with moderate/severe risk of exposition
Background: The objective of this study was to assess the opinions and attitudes about MC,
the acceptability of the procedure , the circumcision status , sexual practices, and history of
sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men 18 to 50 years of age in the Altagracia
Province in the Dominican Republic.
Methods: A survey was administered to 368 men in 5 municipalities across the province. The
questionnaire was divided in 3 sections: 1) background demographics, 2) male circumcision
and 3) sexual health. Data were analyzed using SAS version 9.1.3. Descriptive statistics were
generated for each of the variables corresponding to specific questions in the survey and
contingency tables were constructed to calculate measures of association. Logistic regression
analysis was performed .
Results: The sample consisted of 238 (65%) Dominican men and 130 (35%) Haitian
immigrants. Almost all the men were uncircumcised (95%) and about half (52%) were single.
Overall, Haitian men were more likely to agree to a circumcision than Dominicans (OR=1.89,
95%CI, 1.18-3.02). Similarly, younger men (18-30 year-old) were more agreeable to the
procedure compared to their older (31-50 year-old) counterparts (OR=1.65, 95% CI, 1.02-
Background: Approximately 77,000 HIV positive people are living in United Kingdom of which
28% remain undiagnosed. Of these, 400 HIV positive people die each year. Late diagnosis
accounts for 35% of HIV related death.
Methods: A retrospective case notes review was performed in the month of September 2008
in the Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Walsall, UK. Case notes for a total 560 patients
over the age of 16 years were reviewed, of whom 252 were males (45%) and 308 (55%) were
females. National auditable standards stipulate that 73% of patients attending sexual health
clinics should be tested for HIV. However this translates to 27% of patients not being tested.
We evaluated the population who declined testing.
Results: Out of the total number of patients, 29% of females and 25% of males were not
tested. The largest age group that declined testing was from the 16-25 year age group. Higher
proportion of women than men (55/45) declined the test.Reason for declining the test was not
documented in the notes of 112 patients. Common reasons that were entered are as follows:
window period not being covered in 19, needle phobia in 4, recently tested in 7, one blood
donor, one felt that he was at low risk and other reasons in 2 patients.
Conclusions: With the increase mortality in HIV patients who are late presenters HIV testing
Objective: In order to guide HIV/STIs control programmes, the objective of this study was to
increase the knowledge on HIV and STI epidemiology in urban Burkina Faso, where the
epidemic is still highly concentrated.
Methods: We conducted a two-stage clustered population-based survey among a random
sample of 1695 women and men aged 15-49 years and living in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
After informed consent, the participants were anonymously interviewed at home, where blood
sample was taken for HIV, syphilis and HSV-2 infections. Women were invited to consult the
central laboratory of the city for genital examination.
Results: Among the 900 women and 795 men enrolled, HSV-2 was the most common
infection (respectively 23.7% and 15.3%). Overall prevalence of HIV was 4.4% (2.5% in men
and 6.0% in women). Almost all participants (99.3%) were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 65% knew
the main methods of prevention. Two third of participants perceived themselves at risk of HIV.
Only 10% of individuals had used voluntary counselling and testing services, and 7.9% had 2
or more sex partners in the past 12 months. Only 12.9% of women and 36.3% of men
reported consistent condom use with a recent occasional partner, with a lowest proportion
among younger under 25 years (8% and 25% respectively for young women and men).
Background: While extensive NGO reporting exists, few studies address the HIV related
vulnerabilities of young women and girls surviving displacement camp circumstances. As
people in Northern Uganda resettle post conflict, it is important to deeply explore the sexual
vulnerabilities of displaced adolescent girls.
Methods: This study employed a mix-methods approach and was based on quantitative and
qualitative data collected at the height of insurgency in three displacement camps in Northern
Uganda. A socio-demographic questionnaire was administered to 515 displaced girls (aged 13-
19), and 74 in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions with adult women (over the
age of 30), and adolescent girls and former female abductees (over the age of 14) were
conducted.
Results: Quantitative results revealed concerning patterns of early sex, early marriage and
early pregnancy and provided a snapshot of the patterns of risk of displaced women and girls.
Qualitative results highlighted the erosion of Acholi child mentoring, belief systems and
livelihoods that had previously served to protect young girl's sexuality. Being out of school,
movement at night to sleep elsewhere and a lack of appropriate sexual health information and
services enhances young women and girls' sexual vulnerability in camp settings.
Conclusions: Conflict prevention and resettlement planners must recognize the distinctive
patterns of vulnerability of young women and girls surviving conflict and displacement camp
Background: The role of highways in abetting the AIDS epidemic is well documented. The
Peruvian Amazon may face a similar threat in its waterways. Rivers are the “highways” in the
jungle and may replicate the problems seen on land in other parts of the world. We examined
river transportation systems and their connection with risky sexual behaviors. Prevalence of
HIV/STIs among indigenous groups was also estimated.
Methods: A mixed-methods study was conducted in 2007-08. Qualitative methods were
employed to ascertain information on the role of river transportation on the region´s sexual
health. A quantitative survey assessing HIV risks was administered to indigenous adults.
Participants voluntarily provided samples for HIV/STIs testing.
Results: Qualitative: Findings from ethnographic interviews and focus groups point at
facilitators of HIV/STIs infection: 1) boat crew members have transactional sex with female
passengers; 2) men who have sex with men who work as cooks have unprotected sex with
male passengers; 3) sex work is common. Quantitative: 644 indigenous individuals completed
the survey. Men (n=285) reported ever having sex with a sex worker (24%), having sex with
other men (17%), and low rates of protected sex at last intercourse (18%). Two men tested
Background: MSM are at high risk for HIV transmission and are prioritised in the South
African National Strategic AIDS Plan. Despite this, little is known regarding their burden of
disease and health requirements. Health4Men is a novel clinical service in Cape Town's “gay
village”, initiated by the Western Cape Department of Health in partnership with the PHRU
which aims to address the health care needs of MSM in urban and peri-urban Cape Town.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinic data for all male clients attending the service
between inception in August 2008 and February 2009 We report on: patient demographic
data, service utilisation and disease burden, specifically relating to sexual health, HIV and
psychological problems.
Results: 186 patients attended the service during the review period. Their average age was
36 yrs (20-65yrs). 147 (78.6%) clients were white, 24 (12.9%) coloured and 15 (8.1%) black.
116 (62.4%) did not have private medical insurance. 82 (44.1%) attending the clinic were HIV-
positive. 73 (39.2%) were positive at entry while a further 9/81 (11.1%) tested positive at the
clinic. 46 (56.1%) of HIV positive patients are on anti-retroviral therapy. Those patients not on
treatment still have a preserved CD4 count. 34 (18.3%) patients attending the service had an
STI with syphilis and non-specific urethritis being equally common (11 each) and HPV
Background: HIV services in South Africa have been primarily targeted at the heterosexual
population. This is understandable in light of the scale of the epidemic in this population, and
the fact that heterosexual intercourse is the primary mode of HIV transmission in the country.
This focus, however, neglects populations that may be at very high risk of HIV infection. Men
who have sex with men (MSM) are one such population.
This paper documents the initiation and operation of a health service targeting MSM in Cape
Town, with a view to understanding the particular dynamics and processes that have
contributed to its success thus far.
Methods: This is a process paper describing the initiation, implementation, and management
of a dedicated sexual health service targeting MSM in Cape Town. It is based on focused
discussions with the various people involved in implementing the service, and available
documentation of this process.
Results: The service has been operating for six months and has provided support to over 200
patients. There are important lessons arising from this project.
These include:
1. Services should be sited in areas where they are visible and accessible to the target
population.
2. Hiring staff who are familiar with the local context and its particular social dynamics may
increase the likelihood of the project's success.
3. Creating an environment where men feel comfortable is of key importance.
4. The local MSM community is extremely diverse and prevention and health care messaging
Background: The present study aims at testing the relative efficacy of two psychosocial
interventions, an education-based intervention (General AIDS Competency Intervention-GAC)
and a negotiation-based one (Accelerating Capacity for Conflict Exposure and Negotiation
Trainning-ACCENT, Hobfoll et al., 2002) in the Mozambican Women. GAC promotes general
HIV prevention competencies while ACCENT promotes negotiation skills through conflict and
knowledge about safer sex and risk behaviours. The results of similar studies with north-
american and portuguese females have shown that both interventions are effective in
increasing HIV prevention knowledge (Hobfoll et al., 1994; McIntyre & Costa, 2004). However,
the ACCENT intervention has been more effective in reducing barriers against safer sex,
increasing condom use and perceived social support (McIntyre & Costa, 2004), as well as in
improving negotiation skills (Hobfoll et al., 1994).
Methods: The sample consisted of 28 women (Mean age = 23,46) recruited from a
gynaecological service of a Central Mozambican Hospital. The instruments used were the
Portuguese version of the Women`s Health Study Questionnaire (Veiga-Costa, McIntyre &
Hobfoll, 2002). Main outcome variables were HIV knowledge, attitudes toward condom use
and condom use.
Results: These preliminary results from this study with Mozambican women are in agreement
Background: Funded by the UK National Health Service (NHS), Living Well has been
delivering their version of Stanford University's Positive Self-Management Programme
(PSMP) for the last seven years. A seven-week course delivered once a week for two and a
half hours, each session facilitated by two trained tutors, who themselves are living with HIV;
the PSMP is designed to help people meet the challenges of living with HIV by enabling them
to maintain their independence while increasing their confidence and skills, and maximising
their quality of life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the PSMP
intervention.
Methods: The evaluation of the effectiveness of the PSMP intervention was conducted by
Thames Valley University between 2005 and 2008. During that time Living Well delivered 22
PSMPs involving 218 participants from a wide and varied demographic. The evaluation used a
before-and-after model in which participants completed pre- and post-programme
questionnaires. These questionnaires include the World Heath Organization's WHOQOL-HIV
BREF instrument together with a number of other items designed to examine participants'
knowledge, plans for the future, medication adherence and overall perceptions of the
programme.
Results: Participants felt significantly (p < 0.05) more able to make informed decisions
Background: Similar to other Western-European countries, Belgium's communities of Sub-
Saharan African migrants are affected by a concentrated HIV-epidemic, characterized by late
diagnoses and high percentages of serostatus unawareness. To develop tailored
interventions, the perceptions, needs and barriers towards opt-in and opt-out HIV-testing were
assessed among communities and physicians.
Methods: This qualitative study used purposive sampling to recruit 70 community members
and 20 physicians for 8 focus group discussions and in-depth interviews respectively.
Following grounded theory principles, data were transcribed verbatim and manually analyzed
for recurrent themes using categories and codes until saturation was achieved.
Results: Due to cultural pronunciation of health and responsibility, most community members
are in favor of HIV-testing but expect physicians to propose it. Multiple, inter-twinned and
stigma related barriers withhold African migrants from voluntary testing. Fearing positive test-
results and the related medical, personal, legal and social consequences, most prefer
ignorance about their HIV-status and consequently do not seek HIV-testing. They expect their
physician, culturally perceived as a respected authority, to propose necessary medical
interventions. Physicians, however, perform HIV-testing only when requested, following
medical indications or known risk behavior. Target group focused opt-out testing, as proposed
Background: Early marriage is an important contributor to HIV exposure and other negative
reproductive health outcomes for adolescent girls across sub-Saharan Africa, and northern
Nigeria in particular. A large proportion of Nigerian girls are married during early adolescence,
where the median age is 14.6 and 15.0 in the North-West and North-East geo-political zones
of Nigeria respectively. Population Council, seeks to prevent new HIV through targeted
prevention messages for adolescent girls. Activities include individual peer counselling for
young girls and training of community advocates at faith-based organizations.
Design: The case study presents a methodology for developing an effective and appropriate
training manual on reproductive, maternal and sexual health issues for community-based
advocates at FBOs. Community knowledge and religious texts were used to develop a
religiously and culturally sensitive Advocacy Manual for community advocates in Northern
Nigeria. The manual was developed in collaboration with three NGOs, which contributed grass-
roots understanding of the cultural and religious context. The manual incorporates and draws
on religious texts, to deliver messages about behaviour and sexual health.
Results: The manual has been used in trainings of more than 500 community advocates
throughout eight Nigerian states, and the trainings have been met with considerable success.
Community advocates say that the manual is a practical and versatile tool for delivering health
messages. In addition, the manual was considered so effective by the US Department of
Background: High rates of undiagnosed HIV infection provide a strong rationale for greater
diffusion of HIV testing in the community. Faith-based settings are increasingly viewed as
important targets to enhance uptake to HIV testing. This study aimed to explore the feasibility
and acceptability of the provision of rapid, point of care HIV testing (POCT) in church-based
health clinics serving an inner city population.
Methods: A health clinic based in the premises of a Church of England church offering blood
pressure, blood sugar and rapid HIV testing was promoted by local cultural leaders, including
the pastor of the church. The clinic occurred weekly, over a 4 week period, between January
and February 2009. Attendees participated in a qualitative, semi-structured interview with pre-
and post- test counselling. A choice of two POCT platforms, oral swab (Oraquick Advance®
Rapid HIV1/2) or fingerprick testing (INSTI™), was selected according to patient preference.
Parallel serology was performed for any reactive test.
Results: 32 people attended the service over a 4 week period. 4 declined HIV testing. 15/32
(47%) had not seen their GP or attended a sexual health clinic in the previous year and 15
(54%) had never tested for HIV before. 19 (59%) were female, 22/32 (66%) were Black
Background: Approximately 400,000 inmates go through Kenya prisons annually. Despite
this there is scarce data on sexual behaviour among inmates which has implications on the
types of interventions put in place to respond to their sexual health and HIV needs. Liverpool
VCT, Care and Treatment carried out an exploratory research study in 2008 to establish the
sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge, practice and prevalence among male inmates in Kenya.
Methods: A cross sectional study design was utilised with 722 inmates from 13 prison
facilities. Simple random sampling was used to select the inmates. Data was collected using a
semi structured questionnaire. Some of the study variables included: ever had sex in prison,
alcohol consumption, condom use and HIV transmission. Voluntary Counselling and Testing
services were offered to those who consented. Ethical approval to conduct the study was
obtained from Kenyatta National Hospital Ethics Review Board.
Results: 648 (89.8%) inmates reported that anal sex occurs in prison. 59 (8.6%) inmates had
sex while in prison, 44 (74.6%) of whom had unprotected sex. 410 (56.8%) inmates were
tested for HIV on consent. 23 (5.6%) of these were HIV positive. Of the 312 inmates who were
not tested for HIV, 17 had unprotected sex.
71(10.3%) inmates indicated that they had consumed alcohol while in prison. Alcohol is
considered to have an association with sexual behaviour and HIV transmission.
Background: Research on Identifying Sexual Health Policy Needs for MSM in K For more
than a decade, many MSM have experienced discrimination, self stigmatization, rejection,
discrimination in access to HIV/AIDS care and prevention systems, quality counseling of MSM
infected by HIV/AIDS/STI's, information related to sexual health and rights, unclear policy
reflections on access to reproductive health clinics, especially MSM who suffer or have
suffered from STI's. The degree to which MSM experience negative impacts of HIV/AIDS
infections differs tremendously-that is, geographical locations, access to media, distribution of
information, number of NGO's working on MSM issues within the region.
Study Methodologies: Research on Identifying Sexual Health Policy Needs for MSM in K
The research identifying sexual health policy needs in Kenya. Was designed in five folds
which involved; social demographic characteristics of MSM, in access to quality reproductive
health care, sexual practices and pattern, including drug use, HIV/AIDS/STI, knowledge and
access to services and interpersonal communication. The projects team focused more on
quantitative and qualitative in-depth analysis of key sexual health policy issues. The process
involved review of relevant literature; assess available data at broad selection with key

1. For the sake of this research we noticed that majority of MSM are exceptionally
exited with young Luo boys, due to their skin co lour and the foreskin, which some recorded
that it stimulate the anal just like clitoris.
2. Many MSM do not use any prevention methods
3. Majority of MSM in rural Kenya have no access to information on HIV/AIDS care and
prevention
4. Stigma and self stigmatization is high among rural MSM
5. Many MSM don;t access quality clinical treatment and suffer from anal infections

6. Stakeholders are reluctant to involve MSM in care and due to moral imperative.
                                         Country of
AbsNo   New Abs No   PresType   Topic                    AbsTitle
                                         Research




                                                      PMTCT
                                                      activities
                                                      implementati
                                                      on : case of
 810     CDC010      CDROM       C2     Cote D'Ivoire
                                                      Côte d'Ivoire,
                                                      from
                                                      ACONDA's
                                                      experience




                                                      Predictors of
                                                      reproductive
                                                      intentions of
                                                      HIV/AIDS
                                                      patients
 778    TUPEC054       PE        C5     Nigeria       attending
                                                      Aminu Kano
                                                      Teaching
                                                      Hospital,
                                                      Northern
                                                      Nigeria




                                                      PMTCT scale-
                                                      up in Kenya:
                                                      evidence
3562    TUPEC059       PE        C5     Kenya         from the
                                                      Kenya AIDS
                                                      indicator
                                                      survey 2007
                                         Implications
                                         of high
                                         fertility desire
                                         on
                                         reproductive
1336    CDC035    CDROM   C5    Mali
                                         health needs
                                         in men and
                                         women
                                         receiving
                                         ART in Mali




                                         Predictors of
                                         pregnancy
                                         among HIV-
                                         positive
2867   TUPEC058    PE     C5    Uganda
                                         women
                                         attending an
                                         urban HIV-
                                         care center




                                         Predictors
                                         and
                                         outcomes of
                                         HIV-1 status
                                         disclosure
                                         among
                                         women
                                         participating
                                         in a study of
                                         transmission
2288   MOPEC026    PE     C33   Uganda
                                         rates among
                                         nevirapine
                                         (NVP)
                                         experienced
                                         compared to
                                         NVP naïve
                                         women - The
                                         NVP-Repeat
                                         Pregnancy
                                         (RP) study
                                         Challenges
                                         of integrating
                                         family
                                         planning and
3465   MOPEC039    PE     C33   Kenya
                                         HIV services
                                         in Kenya´s
                                         Coast
                                         Province




                                         Communicati
                                         on channels,
                                         decision-
                                         making and
                                         uptake of
                                         family
                                         planning (FP)
3480    CDC090    CDROM   C33   Uganda
                                         services
                                         amongst
                                         discordant
                                         couple at the
                                         Infectious
                                         Diseases
                                         Institute (IDI)


                                         Sexually
                                         transmitted
                                         infections
                                         and family
                                         planning
                                         usage
                                         among
                                         young adults
1022   MOPEC019    PE     C33   Uganda
                                         accessing
                                         care at
                                         Infectious
                                         Diseases
                                         Institute (IDI),
                                         Mulago
                                         Kampala,
                                         Uganda
                                             Standards of
                             Benin, South    care at
                             Africa,         microbicide
                             Tanzania,       clinical trial
                             United          sites:
3566   WEPEC096   PE   C35
                             Republic of,    recommenda
                             United          tions for the
                             States,         HIV
                             Zimbabwe        prevention
                                             research field




                                             Involving
                             Kenya,
                                             male
                             Malawi,
                                             partners in
                             Nigeria,
                                             trials of
                             Rwanda,
                                             female-
                             South Africa,
                                             initiated HIV
1945   WEPEC098   PE   C36   Tanzania,
                                             prevention
                             United
                                             methods in
                             Republic of,
                                             Africa: a
                             Uganda,
                                             review of
                             Zambia,
                                             strategies
                             Zimbabwe
                                             and evidence
                                          Home based
                                          care - an
                                          effective
                                          family
                                          response to
1284    CDC101    CDROM   C36   Uganda
                                          HIV/AIDS
                                          service
                                          delivery and
                                          treatment in
                                          Household




                                          High rates of
                                          unwanted
                                          pregnancies
                                          in a
                                          prospective
2992   WEPEC111    PE     C37   Kenya
                                          microbicide
                                          preparednes
                                          s study in
                                          Mombasa,
                                          Kenya




                                          From risk
                                          groups to risk
                                          behaviors:
                                          HIV
                                          epidemics
669    WEPEC104    PE     C37   Nigeria
                                          trend shift
                                          among adult
                                          married
                                          women in
                                          Nigeria
                                            RHRU's
                                            youth friendly
                                            services -
493     CDD003    CDROM   D1   South Africa
                                            findings of an
                                            outcome
                                            evaluation




                                             The
                                             Hispanic/Lati
                                             no
                                             RESPECT: a
                                             useful risk
3102   WEPED209    PE     D4   Puerto Rico   reduction
                                             behavioral
                                             intervention
                                             for women
                                             utilizing the
                                             rapid HIV test
                                               Scaling up
                                               PMTCT
                                               services in
                                               Malawi:
                                               ensuring
3364   TUPED117    PE     D5   Malawi
                                               adequate
                                               human
                                               resources to
                                               meet the
                                               demand




                                               Knowledge
                                               and attitudes
                                               of HIV
                                               discordant
                                               and
                                               concordant
                                               couples
1151   CDD108     CDROM   D8   India
                                               towards
                                               condom as a
                                               barrier for
                                               HIV
                                               prevention
                                               and
                                               contraception




                                               Women
                               Ethiopia,       accessing
                               Kenya,          integrated
2750   MOAD103     OA     D8   Rwanda,         services:
                               South Africa,   who are they
                               Uganda          and what do
                                               they need?
                                            Integration of
                                            counselling
                                            and testing
                                            into family
                                            planning:
822     CDD105    CDROM   D8   South Africa health
                                            providers
                                            and clients'
                                            perceptions
                                            and
                                            acceptability



                                            Piloting an
                                            innovative
                                            model to
                                            integrate HIV
                                            related
                                            services
                                            (counselling
                                            and testing
                                            and CD4
2357    CDD113    CDROM   D8   South Africa testing) into a
                                            family
                                            planning
                                            service in a
                                            high
                                            prevalence
                                            setting in
                                            KwaZulu-
                                            Natal, South
                                            Africa
                                            Scaling-up
                                            balanced
                                            counseling
                                            strategy plus
                                            to improve
                                            quality of
                                            family
                                            planning &
                                            HIV/AIDS
1529   WEPED220    PE     D8   South Africa counseling
                                            through
                                            linking
                                            counseling &
                                            testing with
                                            family
                                            planning
                                            services,
                                            Kenya &
                                            South Africa
                                             The effect of
                                             integrating
                                             counseling &
                                             testing of HIV
                                             within FP
1535   TUAD205     OA     D8    South Africa
                                             settings on
                                             sexual
                                             behavior and
                                             fertility
                                             intentions




                                             Scaling up
                                             HIV testing
                                             with
                                             community-
                                             based
                                             prevention
1609    CDD126    CDROM   D10   Haiti        and
                                             education in
                                             Haiti rural:
                                             NEC “Noyau
                                             Educatif
                                             Communauta
                                             ire”


                                             Women´s
                                             discharge
                                             from family
                                             planning
                                             programs
                                             after surgical
                                             sterilization
                                             associated to
3305   WEPED238    PE     D10   Brazil
                                             low
                                             compliance
                                             to condom
                                             use in the
                                             semi-arid
                                             North-
                                             Eastern
                                             Brazil
                                          Sexual risk
                                          behaviours of
                                          HIV positive
                                          persons not
                                          receiving HIV
                                          treatment in
                                          Mombasa:
2638   MOPED034    PE     D17   Kenya     are
                                          prevention
                                          programs
                                          missing
                                          healthy
                                          positives in
                                          the
                                          community?




                                          A stitch in
                                          time saves
                                          nine -
                                          targeting
                                          younger sex
2471    CDD164    CDROM   D22   Kenya     workers in
                                          HIV
                                          prevention
                                          programs
                                          recommende
                                          d




                                          Issues of
                                          family
                                          planning
1389    CDD168    CDROM   D23   Jamaica   among HIV
                                          positive
                                          women in
                                          Jamaica
                                      Pregnancy in
                                      adolescents
                                      with
                                      perinatally
                                      acquired
3316   MOPED081   PE   D26   Uganda
                                      HIV;
                                      implications
                                      for HIV
                                      programming
                                      in Uganda
                                           AbsText
Background: With a HIV prevalence of 8.6% among pregnant women and 661,000 births
per year, Cote d'Ivoire has an estimated 55,000 HIV-infected women delivering per year who
need PMTCT services. ACONDA's extension of decentralized prevention and care for
pregnant women and PLWHA is based on a health district approach.
Methods: Health workers were trained. After, the program strategy consisted in coaching the
care providers at the sites in VCT techniques with rapid HIV testing for women with unknown
HIV status in ANC, labor-and-delivery rooms and Family Planning unit also.
Drawing up and spreading simple technical procedures helped the care providers in the
implementation of PMTCT.
ARV drugs are packed up at the sites to get PMTCT kits ready to be distributed.
The combined prophylaxis was offered to HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns
systematically, as recommended by national program, and then she got initial biological
exams. Those who were eligible received a readjusted treatment. Those who were ineligible
continued the current disease prevention. A psychosocial supports for treatment adherence,
was provided by counselors and Nutritional advices also. A child's early HIV diagnosis by
PCR is made after 6 weeks of postnatal follow up.
Results: From January through November 2008, PMTCT services were integrated into 90
ANC clinics covering 23 districts, with 100 trained health workers. Of 54,876 pregnant women
Background: Despite increasing attention to the health care needs of HIV-infected
individuals in low resource settings including Nigeria, little attention has been given to their
reproductive choices and intentions. This study describes the reproductive desire of people
living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and identified factors associated with such desires.
Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered to a cross section of
PLWHAs receiving care at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Nigeria (n=340). Desire to have
children was the main outcome variable. Significant predictors were identified using
multivariate regression analysis.
Results: Approximately 71% of male respondents (n= 60) and 70% of female respondents
(n=177) were sexually active. Only 20% of sexually active PLWHAs used condoms. One
hundred and sixty seven females (65.5%) and 52 males (61.2%) expressed a desire to have
more children. Out of these, 16 (7.3%) wanted to have one child, 106 (48.4%) wanted two,
while 88 (40.2%) wanted three or more. Muslim respondents were almost twice as likely as
Christians to desire having children (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.8, 95% confidence interval
[CI]: 1.69-6.01). Those diagnosed within the preceding year were less likely to wish for more
children compared with those diagnosed for longer periods (adjusted OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-
Background: Health facilities offering PMTCT services in Kenya increased from 463 in 2003
to >3000 in 2008. Using preliminary data analysis from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator
Survey (KAIS), we present progress in PMTCT program scale-up, focusing on antenatal
clinic (ANC) HIV testing and unwanted pregnancy prevention.
Methods: KAIS was a nationally representative population-based household survey,
including HIV testing and CD4 counts, conducted in 2007. Women aged 15-54 years,
pregnant between 2003 and 2007 (n=4346) reported ANC attendance and HIV testing
history; 15-49-year-old women pregnant during the survey (n=587) reported ANC
attendance. HIV-infected, married/cohabitating, 15-49-year-old women (n=377) reported
fertility intentions and contraceptive use.
Results: ANC attendance was similar between 2003-2007; 89.6% (95% CI: 88.1%-91.2%) of
women attended ANC ≥1 time during pregnancy. Attendance rates were lower among least-
educated (61.3%; 95% CI: 53.3%--69.3%) than most-educated women (94.4%; 92.1%-
96.6%) and lower among poorest (76.7%; 72.1%-81.4%) than wealthiest women (96.3%;
94.4%-98.2%). ANC attendees offered HIV testing increased from 2003 (56.8%; 46.2%-
67.5%) to 2007 (82.1%; 76.6%-87.6%); more ANC attendees were tested in 2007 (78.6%;
Background: Fertility desire in HIV+ individuals poses prevention challenges for
heterosexual and vertical transmission. In resource-constrained settings, research is needed
on emerging reproductive health needs of HIV positive patients. Our aim is to evaluate fertility
desire and knowledge about PMTC in patients starting ART.
Methods: We analyzed baseline data from a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV+ patients
eligible for ART in 2 public hospitals and 2 community-based organizations. Patients (n=271)
were followed-up every 3 months for a year. Sociodemographic, behavioral, biological and
clinical data were collected at each visit. We performed gender specific statistical analyses to
identify factors associated with fertility desire.
Results: 71% of patients were women. Mean age was 33 years for women and 41 years for
men; 68% of men and 56% of women had CD4 count less than 200 cells/µl. Fertility desire
was high: 65% in women and 78% in men. Mean number of additional children wanted in
parous patients was 1.68 in women and 2.19 in men; Mean number of children wanted in
nulliparous patients was 2.82 in women and 3.85 in men. Fertility desire was higher in young
(p< 0.001) and married women (p=0.056). In men, younger age (p=0.001) and lower
Background: As major efforts are under way to expand access to antiretroviral therapy
(ART), many women are resuming socially productive and sexually active lives involving
protected and unprotected sex with or without a desire for pregnancy. The main objective of
study was to determine prevalence and predictors of pregnancy among HIV positive women
receiving HIV/AIDS care and treatment in a Ugandan HIV clinic.
Methods: We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in March 2007, of HIV-
positive women (18-49 years), who were attending HIV/AIDS care and treatment at the Adult
Infectious Diseases Clinic. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine
predictors of pregnancy.
Results: Among 493 respondents, 328 (67%) had ever been pregnant, 134 (27%) had
become pregnant after knowing their HIV status and of those 79 (59%) of the pregnancies
were unintended. Reasons cited for the unintended pregnancies included lack of condoms
26 (33%), partner refusing to use condom 17 (21%) and forgetting to take contraceptive pills
6 (8%). Among those who had ever been pregnant since knowing their HIV status, 23(17%)
had never heard about prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, 42
(31%) had never used the service while 17 (14%) did not know where to access PMTCT.In
Background: During one year follow up of HIV infected mothers and infants in a prospective
observational trial, women brought up issues regarding HIV status disclosure. Through
disclosure counseling and support provided by the study, mothers raised concerns related to
HIV status disclosure to significant others and the potential for stigmatization and separation.
An IRB approved sub-study was conducted to gather information on HIV status disclosure, as
well as family planning and infant feeding concerns among these women.
Methods: An exit interview was conducted with 85 HIV-1 infected mothers at their 12 month
(last) visit in the prospective arm of the NVP-RP study at MU-JHU Research Clinic.
Proportions of women who had disclosed to a significant other, as well as predictors and
outcomes of disclosure were determined.
Results: Disclosure ranged from 2.4% to employer(s) to 68% to a relative other than a
parent. 53/85 (62%) of the women had disclosed to partners. Women with an HIV infected
baby were more likely to disclose to their partner (13/15) or if staying with the partner (13/15).
Reasons for non-disclosure included fear of separation and stigmatization. Most mothers
54/85 (63%) reported getting support following disclosure while a minority (14/85) received
negative reactions (neglect or separation from their partners resulting in loss of financial
support). Only 8/85 (9.5%) of male partners underwent HIV testing based on disclosure of the
woman's status; however 33/85 (38.8%) of partners had a prior HIV test. The HIV infection
couple discordance rate was 7/33 (21.2%).
Conclusions: Almost two thirds of HIV-infected pregnant women in a Uganda clinical
research study had disclosed their HIV status to their partner or relative. Particularly high
disclosure rates were seen among mothers of HIV infected babies. The supportive one-on-
Background: Emergence of HIV/AIDS amongst others, shifted much of the attention of
policy makers and donors away from family planning. This contributed to decreasing trends in
contraceptive uptake in sub-Saharan Africa; including Kenya. One of the challenges is male
involvement in family planning decisions. This analysis aimed to assess the influence of men
on women's contraceptive use, in Kenya's Coast Province.
Methods: A community based descriptive, cross-sectional study employing quantitative and
qualitative methods conducted in February 2008 in the Coast Province of Kenya. Semi-
structured questionnaires were administered to 150 couples from randomly selected
households using a multistage cluster sampling. Participants for the qualitative phase were
selected purposively and included four focus group discussions with 20 men and 17 women,
and three key informant interviews. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15 and Nvivo 7
software.
Results: Findings revealed only 31.3% (47/150) of women of reproductive age were on
contraceptives. Interviews with their male partners showed that 89.3% (134/150) stated that
men should be involved in contraceptive decision making, while only 32.7% (49/150) of men
were actually involved in decision making. Moreover, 37.3% (94/150) men reported
Background: In the continued efforts to curb the HIV/AIDS pandemic, prevention among HIV
positives, including discordant couple support, has emerged as a key component in HIV
prevention. The IDI started a discordant couple clinic in September 2008 that has to date
enrolled 160 couples with emphasis on comprehensive HIV prevention. We sought to identify
the role of various media and communication channels in FP choices in this population.
Methods: Prior to establishing the clinic a comprehensive survey was done to explore a
number of issues including the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices influencing FP choice.
We performed a retrospective analysis to ascertain the role of communication channels in
influencing the uptake of FP in discordant couples at the IDI.
Results: Multiple responses to the role of communication channels influencing uptake of FP
and decision-making revealed the following; out of 227 respondents, 39(17.2%) were self-
motivated, 30(13.2%) husband and wife, 8(3.5%) friends, 72(31.7%) health workers,
15(6.6%) radio program, 3(1.3%)TV program, 2(0.9%) posters, 2(0.9%) leaflets and
brochures and14(6.2%) talks about FP. Multiple responses on knowledge and current use of
12 FP methods revealed the following; out of 227 respondents, 192(84.6%), 8(3.5%) pills,
165(72.7%), 13(5.7%) injections, 72(31.7%), 0(0%) implants, 25(11%), 4(1.8%) diaphragm,
foam, jelly, 191(84.1%), 117(51.5%) condoms, 33(14.5%), 9(4%) female sterilization,
Background: Young people living with HIV (YPLHIV) aged 16 to 24 years account for 45%
of the new HIV infections annually in Uganda. They are a high risk group for early and
unwanted pregnancies and spreading sexually transmitted infections (STI).YPLHIV present
unique challenges to policy-makers, program planners, and health care providers.IDI, started
a YPLHIV clinic in August of 2008, and had so far registered over 161 clients.
Methods: A cross sectional sexual behavioral survey was carried out among YPLHIV to
determine the knowledge, current use of the different family planning methods as well as
prevalence and knowledge of STIs.
Results: 161 YPLHIV (median age 20 years) were recruited, of whom 131 (81.4 %), were
female and 30(18.6%) were male.104 (64 %) had presumed horizontal transmission of HIV
and 124(77%) reported to be sexually active in the past 6months. Of the sexually active
YPLHIVs, 90(73%) had regular sexual partners, 8(6%) had casual encounters, and 5(4%)
had multiple partners, 21(16.9%) did not respond. Out of the 161 YPLHIV102 (63.4%) had
ever been pregnant or had a pregnant partner, 24(53.3%) of the last pregnancies were
unintended and 110(68.4%) had suffered from an STI disease related symptom in the last 6
months. A total of 70% were knowledgeable about condoms as a family planning method but
only 36% used condoms consistently. Awareness of oral contraceptives and hormonal
Background: In 2006, the Global Campaign for Microbicides (GCM) embarked on an
exercise to map the standards of care (SOC) and prevention provided to participants in
Phase IIB/III microbicide trials.
The goal of the project was four-fold: 1) to conduct an independent assessment of the health
care and prevention services provided to women enrolled in the trials; 2) to better understand
the factors that inform care-related decisions at trial sites; 3) to explore the microbicide field's
progress toward achieving the ethical aspirations laid out in key ethical guidance documents;
and 4) to make recommendations to strengthen the field's ability to respond to care-related
challenges in the future.
Methods: The mapping exercise, conducted from mid-2006 to mid-2007, proceeded in three
phases: 1) an in-depth review of study-wide and site-specific documents; 2) interviews with
key international staff and study sponsors; and 3) visits to six trial sites in four African
countries. After analyzing the data, GCM also organized an international consultation to help
interpret the findings and to develop a set of consensus recommendations to help
researchers and study sponsors design and conduct future microbicide trials.
Results: This exercise and subsequent consultation resulted in a series of consensus and

Partnering research sites with existing care facilities;
Improving family planning and contraceptive provision and counseling;
Providing HIV treatment and care for women who seroconvert during study
participation and women who are screened out of trials as HIV positive; and
Facilitating improved access to HIV care and treatment programs.

Conclusion: These recommendations provide evidence-based examples that will help
inform current discussions around SOC, will help researchers and sponsors improve the
design and conduct of future trials, and will help strengthen the relationship between
community, advocacy, and research.
Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, men remain the primary the reproductive and sexual
decision-makers. Consequently, studies of female-initiated HIV prevention methods have
identified male involvement (MI) as an important component of women's ability to participate
in trials, and their acceptability and use of these methods. There is limited data on the risks
and benefits of involving male partners, and on effective strategies to engage them in
prevention trials for women.
Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review of MI strategies in Africa from published
literature of clinical trials, exploratory and acceptability research of female-initiated methods,
as well as MTCT and family planning programs.
Results: MI strategies were summarized from 19 studies of female-initiated HIV prevention
(10 completed, 3 ongoing and 6 planned). Several recently completed studies reported
significant associations between women's perceptions that her partner was supportive of her
study participation, study product use, and visit adherence. Most ongoing and planned
studies intend to more actively promote MI through community education/ sensitization and
more frequent group information/educational sessions or invitations of male partners to
Background: Prompt access to care and support services at the Health facilities is a big
challenge. There is an increasing number of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) who are
poor amidst the limited trained human resources and facilities. 75% of 22,462 TASO Mbale
Service centre registered PHAs are poor and live beyond 20km away from the facility (TASO
Mbale MIS, 2008)
Methods: TASO uses a Home Based Care (HBC) strategy which focuses on the PHAs and
their family members for holistic family care and treatment. The trained community nurse and
the volunteers do play a major role in providing health education, basic care and treatment of
opportunistic infections to the PHAs and make appropriate referrals to health facilities for
further investigation and management. Family members are empowered to offer home based
care services and management of simple conditions of bedridden PHAs using the local
resources. Care givers are also educated about HIV prevention, nutrition, family planning
methods, hygiene and drug adherence.
Results:
1. Involving caregivers at homes and building their capacity enhances care, adherence and
management of common infections for PHAs.
2. Home based care provision to PHAs has promoted behavior change, early HIV testing and
disclosure because of reduced stigma and effective utilization of services. 3. Home based
care service is the most efficient and cost effective strategy of service delivery for PHAs in
Background: Unexpectedly high pregnancy rates have been observed in several
microbicide clinical trials. Pregnancies in these trials raise important methodological and
ethical concerns. A cohort study assessing HIV incidence involving 400 Female Sex Workers
(FSW) observed high pregnancy rates (109/400) in the first year of follow-up, with most
women indicating the pregnancies were unintended despite the availability of free family
planning (FP) services (condoms, pills, injectables). A follow-up study was conducted to
identify reasons for unintended pregnancies during the cohort study and to determine a more
effective delivery and uptake of modern contraception.
Methods: Research was conducted in Kisauni and Changamwe divisions in Mombasa
District. Participants were recruited using convenience sampling from 400 FSW who
participated in a cohort study to estimate HIV-1 incidence. Data relies on information from 76
women through 5 focus group discussions (FGD), 24 in-depth-interviews and 5 key-informant-
interviews with study staff. Participants in the FGDs were grouped by age. Data were
analyzed using QSR NVivo 7.0 software.
Results: Study participants displayed an ambivalent attitude towards FP. While viewed as
important, low use of hormonal contraceptives was associated with untoward side effects
including low libido, amenorrhea, perceived hypertension, weight gain or loss, excessive
Background: Many married women assumed that they couldn´t be at risk of HIV infection
because they are faithful to a man all their lives, and yet are not drug users. But a shift in
trend based on partners´ risky behaviors has been noticed among married couples.
Methods: In a stratified sampling procedure, the bio-data and demographic status of
individuals who had HIV testing was computed from a Secondary Health Facility (General
Hospital Otukpo) between January 2007 and December 2008. The results were analyzed
and distributed into five major categories (Children; Unmarried; Married; Divorced; and
Widowed) using the SPSS.
Results: A total of 7,407 individuals received HIV testing and results. Children were 464
(6.3%); unmarried- 2,613 (35.3%); married- 3,340 (45.1%); divorced- 245 (3.3%); and
widowed- 745 (10.0%). Of the married total, 1710 (51.2%) were HIV positive. Married
adolescents (15-24 years) accounted for 5.2% (male-0.3%, female 4.9%) of the HIV
infection. Adults aged 25-40 years had 34.5% (male-13.0%, female-21.3%) and aged 41+
years was 11.7% (male-8.1%, female-3.6%) of the positive HIV results. Among unmarried
individuals, HIV infection was 31.1% and adolescents accounted for 10.6% with male (1.5%):
female (9.1%) ratio in HIV infection. Of the 745 widowed, 467 (62.7%) widows were HIV
Background: Sub Saharan African youth bear a heavy burden of HIV disease,
approximately 6000 new infections daily. National antenatal prevalence in 2006 indicated
women younger than 20 years, between 20-24 yrs have an HIV prevalence of 13.7% and
28% respectively.VCT needs of youth are different from adults, yet few countries have
adapted services accordingly. In 2007, RHRU established a youth friendly service (YFS) at
Esselen Clinic. The aim is to increase access to HIV, sexual and reproductive health care for
youth between 12-24 yrs. The programme is summarised as:



1. Community mobilisation
2. Youth oriented VCT, family planning, screening and treatment for TB, STIs;
3. Post-test support services
4. Referral for ART

Methodology: An outcome evaluation completed in December 2008 was conducted using a
descriptive study design. Retrospective review of routine data, reporting mechanisms,
outputs and interviews were conducted.
Results:


1. The YFS consists of specially trained providers and ensures privacy, confidentiality,
and accessibility;
2. Outreach is integral in referring youth back to the clinic for VCT. Recruitment and
training of 10 youth peer educators has facilitated this process;
3. There has been 137% increase in 2008 in number of youth testing for HIV, due to: 1)
staff increase; 2) provider-initiated testing; 3) increasing age group;
4. Functional integration, collaboration and networking with NGOs provide a holistic
package of care;
5. Referral for ART to initiation sites is a streamlined process;
6. The database has been revised and is inclusive of indicators not only for HIV but
teen pregnancy, family planning, referrals.

Conclusion: With heightened vigour, the YFS is on track to stemming the tide of HIV among
youth in the inner city. Empirical evidence on youth HIV knowledge, communication and
perceived risk is important to strengthen the programme, particularly in developing age
appropriate IEC material.
Background: Puerto Rico has been impacted adversely by the AIDS epidemic, particularly
women who are at high risk of heterosexual acquisition. Although new treatments continue to
offer hope for individuals infected with HIV, behavioral interventions shown to reduce HIV risk
behaviors remain one of the most powerful tools in curbing the HIV epidemic. The aims of
this study were: (1) to obtain a culturally adapted risk reduction intervention for acquiring
HIV/STD with the integration of the rapid HIV test, and (2) to explore the impact of the
intervention in a group of Hispanic women with different levels of risk.
Methods: The Hispanic/Latino RESPECT is a cultural adaptation of the RESPECT-2, which
is one of the Effective Behavioral Interventions endorsed by the CDC. It is an individual
counseling intervention utilizing the rapid HIV test, utilizes a teachable moment which is an
opportunity to motivate the participant to change risky behaviors, negotiate an achievable
step and implements a risk reduction plan. It was administered to 163 women with varying
levels of risk (women from a STD clinic, street sex workers/drug users/IDU sex partners, and
women from a family planning clinic). The study had 4 visits over a one year period. The
intervention assessed the participant's knowledge, current risks of HIV/STDs and risk
reduction techniques. The rapid HIV test was performed and a post counseling session was
given. Participants also had contact and follow-up visits.
Background: The Government of Malawi is currently scaling up national implementation of
the new Ministry of Health (MOH) PMTCT guidelines. In the district of Machinga, the MOH
plans to provide, with partner assistance, comprehensive and integrated PMTCT services in
antenatal, labor and delivery, under-five, family planning and antiretroviral therapy (ART)
services. To ensure success, the MOH and its partners need to understand the resulting
increase in staffing requirements.
Methods: We built a deterministic model to quantify cadre-specific staffing requirements of
15 distinct services using a task-based approach. Forecasted demand for each service was
based on PMTCT targets and estimated fertility, HIV prevalence, ART eligibility, and vertical
HIV transmission rates. Information on the scheduling, duration, and allocation of each task
was obtained through interviews with clinical staff in Machinga. We compared staffing
requirements under the proposed parameters to alternative scenarios including: 1) increasing
the time allocated to clinical tasks; 2) task-shifting from nurses to lower cadres; and 3)
increasing the CD4 threshold for antiretroviral initiation.
Results: The delivery of antenatal and infant care, including PMTCT, will require 63, 79, and
84 clinicians (doctors, nurses, clinical officers, or medical assistants) in years 1, 2, and 3.
Background: National Institute for research in reproductive health has family planning clinic
which also extends its services to HIV infected persons for consistent use of condom and
dual protection contraceptive method
Methods: A study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes of HIV infected
(concordant / discordant) couples towards condom use, and motivate them for consistent use
of condom to prevent further transmission of HIV and unwanted pregnancies. A semi
structured questionnaire was designed and a couple was interviewed by a trained counselor
to assess their knowledge about HIV infection, contraceptive use and sexual practices. They
were supplied condoms as barrier contraceptive and informed about Emergency
contraceptive pills, if required. Counseling focused on consistent use of condom, its
demonstration for proper use including safe sexual practices.
Results: Out of 130 HIV infected couples, 81% were concordant whereas 19% couples were
discordant. About 4% couples were totally ignorant about HIV and its transmission, 27% men
had never used condoms while 17.6% were using them irregularly. The main reasons being
lack of privacy, sexual dissatisfaction, unavailability of condom at home and also wives were
using other contraceptive method. Condom use and non-penetrative sex are considered
Background: Responding to the growing interest in integrated FP-HIV services, in 2007-
2008 an assessment of three integration models (family planning in care and treatment
services, family planning in counselling and testing, and HIV services in family planning) was
carried out in 5 countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa and Uganda. The goal was
to provide donors and local programs information needed to improve and expand integrated
services. One objective was to examine client characteristics and calculate unmet need for
the newly-added service.
Methods: 1961 women attending clinics sponsored by 21 programs participated in the study,
and were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using a case
study approach; each cluster of integration models represents a case. Analysis used
bivariate statistics and summary measures including percentages, means and medians.
Results: Women accessing integrated services differed in average age, marital status and
sexual activity. Unmet need for contraception ranged from 17 to 46% among women in
counseling and testing services, and reached 18% among women in care and treatment.
Assessing need for HIV services among women in family planning services was complicated
by not knowing their partner's sexual history. Women reported incomplete screening for their
Background: South Africa is a country with the highest number of people living with HIV and
AIDS (PLWHA) in the world (HIV/AIDS Policy Fact Sheet, 2005). Contraceptive use among
women in the reproductive age (15-49) is also high 65.3% (SADHS, 2003) and many women
get contraceptives in the public sector. Thus family planning services present the opportunity
to reach a large number of sexually active women. VCT provides an entry point to treatment
and care for HIV. However, the uptake remains low and many people do not know their HIV
status because they have never been offered the test, due to fear of knowing their status,
stigma and assumed lack of confidentiality. The project aimed to document client and
provider perceptions regarding the integration of information on prevention, and counselling
and testing for HIV during family planning consultations.
Methods: This presentation will focus on findings from focus group discussions with
providers and clients on feasibility, acceptability and some of the challenges and
considerations of integration of FP and HIV services.
Results: This paper will highlight provider´s opinions and perceptions on the integration of
C&T into FP services, the type of clients to be offered C&T, why clients do not test for HIV,
whether clients disclose their HIV status, and use of dual protection, how they feel about
Background: Integrating HIV services into family planning (FP) services has the potential to
increase uptake of HIV services including counselling and testing (C&T) & to potentially
create new contraceptive users. HIV C&T is the entry point to treatment and care, but HIV
services are often vertical with little integration. The early identification of people in need of
ART is also vital to improving treatment outcomes.
Methods: The Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit (RHRU) has pioneered an
innovative model to offer C&T and HIV services at a public sector FP clinic. This clinic is
mainly frequented by sexually active young women, a population particularly at risk of HIV
infection. RHRU trained and mentored lay counsellors and a nurse to conduct WHO staging
and CD4 testing to ensure clients are transitioned into care and support. HIV+ clients receive
CD4 counts the same day to enable early identification of patients eligible for treatment.
Results: In 14 months, a total of 4680 clients (87% female) have received HIV tests, 26% of
whom tested positive. 752 HIV+ clients received CD4 counts and 168 (22%) were identified
as eligible for treatment. These clients are up referred to nearby ART sites and clients with
CD4 counts below 50 (n=30) were fast tracked onto treatment. The 584 clients not eligible for
ART were given appointments to return for CD4 counts 6 months. To date 79 patients with
CD4 count >200 returned after 6 months & 11 (14%) had CD4< 200 and were referred to
ART sites.
Conclusions: With support and mentoring, C&T and CD4 testing can be successfully
Background: The Population Council's Frontiers in Reproductive Health (FRONTIERS)
Program, in collaboration with the Ministries of Health in Kenya and South Africa,
respectively, developed and tested a practical, interactive, and client-friendly strategy for
improving counseling during family planning (FP) consultations The aforementioned process
referred to as the Balanced Counseling Strategy (BCS), was tested and refined in several
countries, and involves a series of steps to determine the contraceptive methods that are
client specific.
Methods: The FRONTIERS program developed and piloted the BCS+ in Kenya and South
Africa owing to both countries high rates of STIs, including HIV, and their contraceptive
prevalence rates that are relatively high for the region. This approach provides opportunities
to reach a substantial proportion of the sexually active population. Like in most countries,
their FP and HIV programs are implemented separately, although both countries are actively
seeking, through both their ministries of health, to develop practical tools for an integrated
approach.
Results: Empirical research indicate, inter alia, that using the BCS strategy improved the
quality of the provider's counseling and allowed the client to take ownership of the decision
Use of the BCS+ algorithm increased the likelihood that providers would offer C&T, and that
the offer would be accepted. Nearly all providers who used the algorithm, the cards, or both
mentioned C&T, compared to 65 percent when no materials were used.
Conclusions: Scaling up of the BCS+ strategy as a practical, interactive, low cost and client
Background: In South Africa, counseling and testing for HIV (C&T) is mainly limited to
antenatal care settings and stand alone centers. Family planning (FP) services on the other
hand are well established with high rates of utilization. Prevalence rates of STI and HIV
infections are common often quite high among FP clients and FP consultation is frequently a
missed opportunity for providers to integrate information about other services. To address
this gap the Population Council in collaboration with the North West Department of Health
(NWDoH) is evaluating a model of integrating C&T into family planning settings.
Methods: Twelve clinics were randomly selected and assigned to 6 interventions and 6
comparisons. FP providers in the intervention sites were trained to discuss HIV risk and
prevention and routinely offer testing for HIV using Balance Counselling Strategy Plus. 319
family planning clients were interviewed after FP consultation at baseline and followed up 12
months post intervention.
Results: Post intervention dual protection from intervention clinics increased from 50% to 58
%( p= 0.183) while in control clinics a decline in percentage was observed 48% to
42%.Condom use at last sex increased post intervention from 29% to 48%(p =0.000) while in
control sites a decline was seen from 38% to 32%. Always using condoms with main partner
increased from 22% to 50 %(p= 0.000) post and a slight decrease in control clinics was
Background: In rural Haiti, communication is most often by word of mouth, due in part to
lack of or sporadic power sources. In 2002 Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante (PIH/ZL)
initiated the community-based education and prevention program: Noyau Educatif
Communautaire (NEC), including in one community (Belladeres, Haiti) where stigma against
people living with HIV was extremely high.
Methods: The program uses five young local people, with at least secondary school diploma,
in each district where PIH/ZL works. They run community-based education sessions in
schools, church and choir groups, boys and girl scout meetings, teachers groups and football
matches and have regular meetings with peasant farmers in their villages and with traditional
healers. NEC train trainers among villagers for the propagation of the work.
Results: Between 2003 and 2007 HIV testing at PIH/ZL clinics progressively increased from
23,511 tests per year to 76,326 tests per year (catchment area 550,000). The proportion of
positive cases decreased from 7.5% in 2003 to 4.8% in 2007. In Belladeres (population
65,000) a total of 50,106 HIV tests (77% of total population) were performed in the period
2003-2008. As many as 17% of the town's population were tested each year. Although some
people test more than once, this suggests a very high rate of 'knowing your status' in this
Background: Surgical sterilization tends to discharge women from family planning
programs. Association between surgical sterilization and condom usage was investigated,
identifying risk groups and reasons for non use.
Methods: The state-wide reproductive health survey studied 20-49 years old women, from a
cluster sampling of 8,000 households. Information on surgical sterilization and condom use
were obtained. Adjusted prevalence rate ratios (PRR) were calculated from multivariate
analysis.
Results: From 8,883 reproductive age women, 21.3% had a surgical sterilization, the
region's leading contraceptive method. Sexual intercourse in previous 30 days was reported
by 76.2% and 71.2%, of sterilized and non-sterilized women, respectively (p< 0.001). Use of
condom was negatively associated to sterilization, as only 5.2% of the surgically sterilized
women had used them, against 29.5% of the non-sterilized. Adjusted analysis showed that
surgically sterilized women were 31% (95%CI 1.27-1.35) more probable of not using
condom, as compared to non-sterilized ones, even after controlling for age, schooling, marital
status and geographical area (urban/rural). Sterilization was a stronger risk factor for not
using condom among single (PRR=1.74 (1.52-1.98)) and university degree women
(PRR=1.51 (1.36-1.68)). Reasons for not using were very similar for both groups; the most
Background: HIV prevention programs for persons living with HIV (PLHA) often target those
who are receiving care and treatment. There is little information on sexual behaviours of
'healthy' PLHA who are not receiving ART.
Methods: Researchers undertook a cross-sectional survey in Mombasa to examine sexual
behaviours of PLHA not receiving ART. A total of 698 PLHA (164 males; 534 females) were
recruited from the community through community health workers and post-test clubs.
Results: The mean age was 34 years, 34% were currently married and 77% had no contact
with HIV programs.
Fifty-nine percent of participants were sexually active. Males reported a higher median
number of sexual partners than females (15 vs. 4; p< 0.001) over the past 6 months.
Females reported sex with regular partners more frequently than males (80% vs. 62%; p<
0.001), while males reported sex with casual partners (11% vs. 8%) and sex workers (7% vs.
2%) more frequently than females (p< 0.001). Three-quarter of sexual partners were of
unknown HIV-status.
Unprotected sex (UPS) in the last 6-months was reported in 48% of sexual relationships.
Females reported UPS more commonly than male respondents (55% vs. 44%; p=0.01). On
multivariate analysis, non-disclosure of HIV-status to partners (AOR 2.47, 95% CI:1.53-3.99),
Background: Prevention of new HIV infections continues to pose a major challenge in
developing countries due to the presence of several high transmitter core groups. Sex
workers have always been an important source of new infections to their clients who in turn
transmit it to members of the general population. However, many programs that target sex
workers presume similar risks cutting across this group ignoring or neglecting important age-
specific risk taking behaviors that influences infectivity. Our data demonstrate that there is
value in fine tuning HIV prevention messages in an attempt to meet the needs posed by the
different age-specific groups among those engaged in sex work.
Methods: A new dedicated sex workers clinic opened its doors to sex workers in Nairobi 6
months ago. HIV prevention is its main goal through screening and treatment of STI's, health
education on safer sex practices and counseling services. Enrolled sex workers have their
demographics, past medical history, sexual behavior and immediate health needs captured
on structured questionnaires. By end of January 2009, 1300 women had been enrolled and
samples collected to screen for assorted STDs, HIV and immunological profiles. This data
has been analyzed using SPSS and several significant differences have emerged across the
age-specific groups.
Results: The prevalence of HIV rapidly increases with age being lowest among sex workers
Background: A collaboration was established between government and academic partners
in the fields of obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics and psychiatry to evaluate the factors
contributing to repeat pregnancies of 30-40% among 800 HIV+ women.
Methods: Following focus group discussion, a questionnaire was designed and used to
interview 92 women. Qualitative and qualitative data were analyzed using Atlas Ti and SPSS,
respectively.
Results: 70% were in visiting relationships, 60% had high school education and were
unemployed and 68% depended on the partners for financial subsistence. Despite uniform
counseling and 80% attendance at HIV clinics, 60% did not believe their HIV+ status. 67%
perceived that their child was healthy, although 40% claimed they did not know their child's
HIV status. 64% of partners had been HIV-tested and 90% perceived that the partner was in
good health. 69% had 2-3 repeat pregnancies since diagnosed with HIV sero-positivity and
23% were currently pregnant. 70% reported contraceptive use, with condoms accounting for
66%, although only 33% reported consistent condom use, with 31% reporting partner
objection was the main reason against condom use 44% wanted a tubal ligation and 16%
already had one. Tubal ligation uptake correlated with rural clients, larger family size and
Background: The scale out of antiretroviral drugs has significantly transformed the lives of
children with perinataly acquired HIV. As a result they have graduated into adolescence and
early adulthood. Like all young people, they are experimenting with sex and reports from
different organizations indicate rising adolescent pregnancies. This presents a new and
dynamic chapter in the care of young positives and support needs. In Uganda, HIV programs
and policies lack clear strategies to deal with this critical aspect in the HIV fight.
Methods: This article is based on a desk review of emerging literature from different parts of
the world about the opportunities and gaps that exist in HIV programs and policies especially
in Uganda as far as addressing fertility intentions in this subgroup are concerned.
Results: The findings indicate that children with perinatary acquired HIV have an opportunity
to reach adolescence and early adulthood. Yet many HIV programs have no special
programs for this subgroup because they are designed around pediatric and adult care.
These adolescents are neither children nor adults and cannot be adequately handled in
either setting. Many HIV programs have not integrated sexual and reproductive health care
into HIV programmes which undermines capacity of their response to the needs of these
young women such as fertility intentions, desires and also the risk of unwanted pregnancies.
                                         Country of
AbsNo   New Abs No   PresType   Topic                   AbsTitle
                                         Research




                                                      The rate of
                                                      complication
                                                      in the copper
                                                      intrauterine
                                                      device use
 770     CDC032      CDROM       C5     Ukraine
                                                      among HIV
                                                      positive
                                                      women with
                                                      postpartum
                                                      inserting




                                                      Communicati
                                                      on channels,
                                                      decision-
                                                      making and
                                                      uptake of
                                                      family
                                                      planning (FP)
3480     CDC090      CDROM      C33     Uganda
                                                      services
                                                      amongst
                                                      discordant
                                                      couple at the
                                                      Infectious
                                                      Diseases
                                                      Institute (IDI)
                                           AbsText
Background: Such use contraception by HIV positive women is an important way to reduce
HIV positive births. About 90% women first year postpartum want to delay another pregnancy
at least two years or avoid future pregnancy altogether. There is no evidence about the rate of
complications after postpartum inserting of an IUDs and HIV transmission.
Methods: We aim to determine whether IUD-related complications after postpartum insertion
are more common among HIV positive than among HIV negative women.In the Odesse
Perinatal Center (Ukraine) we selected purposively 88 postpartum HIV positive women with
WHO I or II stages of HIV disease (median counts of CD4+ > 360 cells) and 45 HIV negative
women in maternal wards. We inserted the Co-IUDs to all women in the first 24-48 hours after
vaginal delivery. The rate of IUDs -related complications were evaluated at 1, 6 and 12
months of use. after vaginal delivery. The rate of IUDs -related complications were evaluated
at 1, 6 and 12 months of use.
Results: In the first month use the rate of complete expulsion of IUDs was similar in two
groups, particularly after second delivery (2.5%). After 6 month use 19.04% HIV positive
women reported about prolonged and heavy monthly bleeding and 25% of them had severe
anemia without ART. This complication was 1.7 times less in uninfected women. The first
episode of pelvic infection appears in HIV positive women after 9 month of use IUDs with
Background: In the continued efforts to curb the HIV/AIDS pandemic, prevention among HIV
positives, including discordant couple support, has emerged as a key component in HIV
prevention. The IDI started a discordant couple clinic in September 2008 that has to date
enrolled 160 couples with emphasis on comprehensive HIV prevention. We sought to identify
the role of various media and communication channels in FP choices in this population.
Methods: Prior to establishing the clinic a comprehensive survey was done to explore a
number of issues including the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices influencing FP choice. We
performed a retrospective analysis to ascertain the role of communication channels in
influencing the uptake of FP in discordant couples at the IDI.
Results: Multiple responses to the role of communication channels influencing uptake of FP
and decision-making revealed the following; out of 227 respondents, 39(17.2%) were self-
motivated, 30(13.2%) husband and wife, 8(3.5%) friends, 72(31.7%) health workers, 15(6.6%)
radio program, 3(1.3%)TV program, 2(0.9%) posters, 2(0.9%) leaflets and brochures
and14(6.2%) talks about FP. Multiple responses on knowledge and current use of 12 FP
methods revealed the following; out of 227 respondents, 192(84.6%), 8(3.5%) pills,
165(72.7%), 13(5.7%) injections, 72(31.7%), 0(0%) implants, 25(11%), 4(1.8%) diaphragm,
foam, jelly, 191(84.1%), 117(51.5%) condoms, 33(14.5%), 9(4%) female sterilization,
                                         Country of
AbsNo   New Abs No   PresType   Topic                   AbsTitle
                                         Research




                                                      The rate of
                                                      complication
                                                      in the copper
                                                      intrauterine
                                                      device use
 770     CDC032      CDROM       C5     Ukraine
                                                      among HIV
                                                      positive
                                                      women with
                                                      postpartum
                                                      inserting
                                           AbsText
Background: Such use contraception by HIV positive women is an important way to reduce
HIV positive births. About 90% women first year postpartum want to delay another pregnancy
at least two years or avoid future pregnancy altogether. There is no evidence about the rate of
complications after postpartum inserting of an IUDs and HIV transmission.
Methods: We aim to determine whether IUD-related complications after postpartum insertion
are more common among HIV positive than among HIV negative women.In the Odesse
Perinatal Center (Ukraine) we selected purposively 88 postpartum HIV positive women with
WHO I or II stages of HIV disease (median counts of CD4+ > 360 cells) and 45 HIV negative
women in maternal wards. We inserted the Co-IUDs to all women in the first 24-48 hours after
vaginal delivery. The rate of IUDs -related complications were evaluated at 1, 6 and 12 months
of use. after vaginal delivery. The rate of IUDs -related complications were evaluated at 1, 6
and 12 months of use.
Results: In the first month use the rate of complete expulsion of IUDs was similar in two
groups, particularly after second delivery (2.5%). After 6 month use 19.04% HIV positive
women reported about prolonged and heavy monthly bleeding and 25% of them had severe
anemia without ART. This complication was 1.7 times less in uninfected women. The first
episode of pelvic infection appears in HIV positive women after 9 month of use IUDs with
IAS 2009              Track A   Track B   Track C   Track D
reproductive health      0         0        14        15
sexual health            0         0         6         9
family planning          0         0        14        15
IUD                      0         0         2         0
Intrauterine device      0         0         1         0
Total
 29
 15
 29
  2
  1
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