Communication and Information Technologies in Education

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					Telecommunications


                      Modems
                      Communication Lines
                      Internet Service Providers
                      Agricultural Telecommunications
                      Act



   Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Connecting to the Internet?




Computer             Modem                     ISP                 Internet




           Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Bits and Bytes – A Refresher
   All computer data is transmitted as a series of “0”s and
    “1”s. These are called Binary Digits.
       A Bit is one numeral, an 0 or a 1
       A Byte is 8 bits
            01000001 is an A
            00111101 is an =
       A Kilobyte (K or KB) is 1000 bytes (really 1024 bytes)
       A Megabyte (M or MB) is 1,000,000 bytes
       A Gigabyte (G or GB) is 1,000,000,000 bytes



              Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Modems & Communication
Lines




Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Confused??
                                      Cable
                                     Modems
  ISDN




  33.6 Kbps
                                                        T1 Lines


     Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Modem
   A device that translates the analog signals that
    travel over voice phone lines to the digital
    information understood by computers.
   The term “modem” derives from
    modulate/demodulate which describes the
    conversion process.




          Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Modems
   Analog Modems
       14.4 Kbps (Kilobits per second)
       28.8 Kbps
       33.6 Kbps
   Analog/Digital Modems
       56 Kbps
            X2 Technology – U.S. Robotics
            Flex technology – Lucent, Rockwell
               • These two technologies compete and are not compatible (similar
                 to beta vs. vhs)
            V.90 – this is superior to either X2 or Flex


              Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Modems/Communication Lines
   ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) – A true digital
    modem
   Requires a ISDN phone line (which is digital)
   Transmits data on two 64 Kbps channels which can be
    combined into a 128 Kbps stream
   More expensive than traditional phone lines and modems
    (Internet Service Provides may charge more)
   More complicated to setup and use
   It is rapidly loosing out to newer technology; it is nearly a
    historical footnote now

           Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Modems/Communication Lines
   Cable Modems
     Rented from your cable television company
     Cable TV company serves as the Internet Service
      Provider
     Can achieve speeds 10X faster than ISDN lines
      (1,500 Kbps)
     Speed is slowed as more people get on the same
      cable
     Limited availability


         Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Modems/Communication Lines
   DSL or ADSL – Digital Subscriber Line
     A system developed by the phone companies to
      compete with cable companies
     Digital signals are sent over existing phone lines

     The further you are away from the switching station,
      the slower the connection
     25x faster than a 56 Kbps modem




         Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Communication Speeds




    Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Modems/Communication Lines
   T1 lines
       A fiber optic cable that carries voice and computer data
       It is 60X faster than a standard modem (1.544 Megabits per
        second)
       Often used for networks
       Very reliable
       Costs $1,000 to $1,500 a month
   T3 lines
       3X faster than a T1


            Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Would You Believe?
   “Modems are available today that operate
    at speeds up to 9600 baud. As of today,
    speeds higher than 1200 baud are not
    common on most networks.”
           Camp, Moore, Foster & Moore
            “Microcomputer Applications for Students
            of Agriculture”, Interstate, 1988


   Note: at low speeds a baud = 1 bit



             Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Modem Speed Time Line
   300 bits per second          1963 to 1983
   1200 bps         1984
   2400 bps
   9600 bps                     1991
   19.2 Kbps
   28.8 Kbps
   33.6 Kbps
   56 Kbps                      1998
   DSL (10 Mbps)                1999

          Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Modems
   Internal                                 External
       Less expensive                           Easy to install if there is
       People don’t mess with                    no existing modem
        the settings
       Doesn’t take up desk
        space
       No power cord to plug in




            Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Modem Brands
   The top two rated brands are:
     U.S. Robotics
     3Com




         Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Emerging Modem Trends
   Wireless Modems
       Cellular
   Satellite Modems
     Bounce signals off satellites
     38 Mbps




           Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Internet Service Providers
(ISPs)




Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
   ISP: Short for Internet Service Provider, a
    company that provides access to the Internet. For
    a monthly fee, the service provider gives you a
    software package, username, password and
    access phone number. Equipped with a modem,
    you can then log on to the Internet and browse the
    World Wide Web and send and receive e-mail.
   There are about 10,000 ISPs in America


         Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
                      *According     to readers of Inter@active Week

Selecting an ISP*
   Network Reliability
       Few busy signals
       Doesn’t disconnect
   Value for the Price
   Network Performance
       Doesn’t lose data
   Customer Service Responsiveness
   Technical Support
   Start up-time
       How easy is it for a novice to get connected


            Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Selecting an ISP*
   Local Access Number
       In most medium and larger cities, there is a local access
        number
       In rural areas, this could be a problem
       If you must dial long distance to access an ISP, out of state is
        sometimes cheaper.
       Toll-free ISPs tend to charge by the minute, so they recoup
        the cost
   Customer Service
       If you need help setting up your service, will help be available

            Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Selecting an ISP*
Size
*


     Sizes range from 1-2 people to giant corporations
      employing thousands
     48% of ISPs serve only one area code

     96% of ISPs serve less than 10 area codes

     Size doesn’t determine quality of service but does
      have an impact on access across the country for
      the traveler


         Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
ISPs                % of ISPs    % Of Subscribers


         100

          80

          60

          40

          20

            0
                Local           Regional    National      Area Codes
                 (1-10)          (11-99)     (+100)       Served

       Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Leading ISPs (in subscribers)
                                                        AOL
30,000,000
                                                        MSN
25,000,000                                              EarthLink

20,000,000                                              United Online
                                                        (Juno + NetZero)
                                                        Comcast
15,000,000
                                                        SBC

10,000,000                                              Verizon
                                                        Bell South
 5,000,000
                                                        Cox

        0                                               Charter



        Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
         *According   to readers of PC Magazine
Customer Satisfaction with ISPs
    Dial Up                                 Broadband
                                             1.  Optimum Online: A+
    1.   Local ISPs: A-
                                             2.  Road Runner: A-
    2.   EarthLink: B+                       3.  Local ISPs: B+
    3.   AT&T World Link: B+                 4.  Earthlink: C+
    4.   NetZero: C                          5.  Charter Pipeline: C+
    5.   Juno: C                             6.  Bell South: C+
                                             7.  Verizon: C-
    6.   Prodigy: C-
                                             8.  AT&T: C-
    7.   MSN: D-                             9.  SBC: D-
    8.   AOL: E                              10. Comcast: D-

                                             11. AOL: D-



           Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Web Hosting
   Many ISPs allow you to maintain a web site at no
    charge.
   There are several companies that provide free
    web hosting service.
   The bigger ones are:
     Tripod
     Yahoo Geocities




         Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Agricultural Telecommunications
Act




     Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Agricultural Telecommunications Act
   Authorized in Section 1673 of the Food,
    Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990
     provides financial assistance through the USDA for
      the production and delivery of educational
      programs in agricultural extension, research, and
      academic programs.
     U.S. institutions of higher education are eligible to
      receive the grants.


         Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Agricultural Telecommunications Act
   Objectives
       Assure that producers, processors, researchers, and the
        public have immediate access to knowledge.
       Improve the competitive position of U.S. agriculture in
        international markets.
       Respond to food safety and environmental concerns.
       Improve the training of students for careers in agriculture and
        food industries.
       Identify new uses for agricultural commodities and increase
        demand.


            Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Agricultural Telecommunications Act
   Funds administered by the American Distance
    Education Consortium (ADEC)
       The NC State Department of Agricultural and
        Extension Education is the recipient of a $75,000
        grant to develop LEAP (Licensure in Education for
        Agricultural Professionals) – a web-based
        alternative teacher licensure program to certify
        agriculture teachers.



           Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Future Projections




Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Predictions
   Internet printing – All printers will have URLs. You
    can direct a job to be printed on any printer in the
    world provided you know the URL.




          Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Predictions
   PNG Graphics – The jpg and gif graphics now in
    use on the internet will be replaced by png
    (portable network graphics).




         Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Predictions
   People today walk around with their electronic tool
    belts (Palm Pilot, cell phone, pager); therefore we
    will soon have:
       PANs – Personal Area Networks
               devices for security, entertainment, credit,
          links
           medical monitoring, transportation and data
           communication.
          Wearable computers and communication devices




            Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Predictions
   In-vehicle computing and connectivity
     computers will be standard equipment on cars
     light poles will contain wireless hubs, these wireless
      hubs will transmit to central communication centers
     some towns today are nearly wireless




         Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Predictions
   Voice User Interface
       most computing devices will respond to voice
        commands




           Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Predictions
   Interactive Television
       most televisions will be internet ready
       there will be interactive programming




           Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Predictions
   Moore’s Law continues
       technology doubles every 18 months




           Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Predictions
   CPU Speed
       12 GHz soon
   CPU Architecture
       64 bit CPU soon (Merced – Intel, Sledgehammer -
        AMD)




           Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Predictions
   Compact FlashMemory Cards
       Zip drives and floppies will be replaced by compact
        flash memory cards




           Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education
Predictions
   120 GB hard drives will be standard by 2005




         Information Technologies in Agricultural and Extension Education

				
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