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Ethiopia

Ethiopia
This article contains Ethiopic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Ethiopic characters. ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralāwī Dīmōkrāsīyāwī Rīpeblīk Kingdom of Dʿmt Kingdom of Aksum independent Abyssinia Constitution Democratic Republic 8th century BC c. 4th century BC 1137 1987 1991

Area Total Water (%)

1,104,300 km2 (27th) 426,371 sq mi 0.7 84,500,000 (15th²) 53,477,265 70/km2 (123rd) 181/sq mi 2008 estimate $70.995 billion[3] $896[3] 2008 estimate $25.658 billion[3] $324[3] 30 (medium) ▲ 0.389 (low) (169th) Birr (ETB) EAT (UTC+3) not observed (UTC+3) right .et 251

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem: Wodefit Gesgeshi, Widd Innat Ityopp’ya "March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia".

Population 2008 estimate 1994 census Density GDP (PPP) Total Per capita GDP (nominal) Total Per capita Gini (1999–00)

Capital (and largest city) Official languages Recognised regional languages

Addis Ababa
9°01′N 38°44′E / 9.017°N 38.733°E / 9.017; 38.733

HDI (2008) Currency Time zone Summer (DST) Drives on the Internet TLD Calling code
1

Amharic Other languages official amongst the different ethnicities and their respective regions. Oromo 36.62%, Amhara 24.91%, Somali 6.20%, Tigray 6.07%;[1][2] the remaining percent are other ethnic groups. Ethiopian Federal Parliamentary republic1 Girma Wolde-Giorgis Meles Zenawi c. 10th century BC 980 BC

Ethnic groups

According to The Economist in its Democracy Index, Ethiopia is a "hybrid regime", with a dominant-party system led by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front. Rank based on 2005 population estimate by the United Nations.

Demonym Government President Prime Minister

2

Establishment Traditional date

Ethiopia (IPA: /ˌiːθiːˈoʊpiə/) (Ge’ez: ????? ʾĪtyōṗṗyā) , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country situated in the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, Kenya to the south, Somalia to the east and Djibouti to the

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northeast. Its size is 1,100,000 km² with an estimated population of over 78,000,000. Its capital is Addis Ababa. Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world and Africa’s second-most populous nation.[4] Ethiopia has yielded some of humanity’s oldest traces,[5] making the area a primary factor in the origin and developmental history of humanity,[6] with recent studies claiming the vicinity of present-day Addis Ababa as the point from which human beings migrated around the world.[7][8][9] Ethiopian dynastic history traditionally began with the reign of Emperor Menelik I in 1000 BC.[10][11] The roots of the Ethiopian state are similarly deep, dating with unbroken continuity to at least the Aksumite Empire (which officially used the name "Ethiopia" in the 4th century) and its predecessor state, D`mt (with early 1st millennium BC roots).[12][13] After a period of decentralized power in the 18th and early 19th centuries known as the Zemene Mesafint ("Era of the Judges/Princes"), the country was reunited in 1855 by Kassa Hailu, who became Emperor Tewodros II, beginning Ethiopia’s modern history.[14][15][16][17] Ethiopia’s borders underwent significant territorial reduction in the north and expansion in the south, toward its modern borders for the rest of the century due to several migrations and commercial integration as well as conquests,[18] especially by Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena, culminating in its victory over the Italians at the Battle of Adwa in 1896 with the military leadership of Ras Makonnen, and ensuring its sovereignty and freedom from colonization.[18] It was brutally occupied by Benito Mussolini’s Italy from 1936 to 1941,[19] ending with its liberation by British Commonwealth and Ethiopian patriot forces.[20] Ethiopia has the most number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa and the country is famous for its Olympic distance athletes, rock-hewn churches and as the origin of the coffee bean. Having converted during the fourth century AD, it was the secondearliest country to officially adopt Christianity, after Armenia.[21] Ethiopia also has a considerable Muslim minority, dating from the earliest days of Islam - being the site of the first Hijra in Islam history, the earliest ninth-century Sultanates, the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash and home to the fourth holiest Muslim city of Harar. The country has been secular since 1974.[22][23]

Ethiopia
Historically a relatively isolated mountain country, Ethiopia by the mid 20th century became a crossroads of global international cooperation under the leadership of Emperor Haile Selassie I. It became a member of the League of Nations in 1923, signed the Declaration by United Nations in 1942, and was one of the fifty-one original members of the United Nations (UN). The headquarters of United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) is in Addis Ababa, often labeled Africa’s "Diplomatic Capital," as is the headquarters of the African Union (formerly the Organisation of African Unity), of which Ethiopia was the principal founder. When several African countries gained independence, they adopted Ethiopia’s national flag colors of green, yellow and red, often labeled as Pan-African colours.[24] There are about forty-five Ethiopian embassies and consulates around the world.

Name
It is not very certain how old Ethiopia is; its earliest attested use is in the Iliad, where it appears twice, and in the Odyssey, where it appears three times. The earliest attested use in the region is as a Christianized name for the Kingdom of Aksum in the 4th century, in stone inscriptions of King Ezana.[25] The Ge’ez name ʾĪtyōṗṗyā and its English cognate are thought by some recent scholars to be derived from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia, from Αἰθίοψ Aithiops ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn from Greek words meaning "of burned face".[26] However, the Book of Aksum, a Ge’ez chronicle compiled in the 15th century, states that the name is derived from "’Ityopp’is" — a son (unmentioned in the Bible) of Cush, son of Ham, who according to legend founded the city of Axum. Pliny the Elder[27] similarly states the tradition that the nation took its name from someone named Aethiops. A third etymology, suggested by the late Ethiopian scholar and poet laureate Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, traces the name to the "old black Egyptian" (sic) words Et (Truth or Peace) Op (high or upper) and Bia (land, country), or "land of higher peace". In English and generally outside of Ethiopia, the country was also once historically known as Abyssinia, derived from Habesh, an early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name "Ḥabaśāt" (unvocalized "ḤBŚT"), modern Habesha, the native name

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for the country’s inhabitants (while the country was called "Ityopp’ya"). In a few languages, Ethiopia is still referred to by names cognate with "Abyssinia," e.g., and modern Arabic Al Habeshah, meaning land of the Habesha people. The term Habesha, strictly speaking, refers only to the Amhara and Tigray-Tigrinya people who have historically dominated the country politically, and which combined comprise about 36% of Ethiopia’s population. Sometimes, the term is used to label the nearly 45% of Ethiopian population who used Semetic languages since ancient times like the Amharic (30.1% of Ethiopian population), Tigray (6.2%), Gurage (4.3%) and other smaller Semetic speaking communities like the Harari people in South east Ethiopia. Though since Amharic become the official language of the country, most of the population of the SNNPR and a significant portion of the Oromia and Benishangul-Gumuz regions use it as a second language. In contrast, in contemporary Ethiopia, the word Habesha is often used to describe all Ethiopians and Eritreans. Abyssinia can strictly refer to just the North-Western Ethiopian provinces of Amhara and Tigray as well as central Eritrea, while it was historically used as another name for Ethiopia.[28] Ethiopia has also been known to be considered the land of Cush. The name was originally derived from the Hebrews to refer to the nations on the eastern coast of the Red Sea. However, the Bible is clear in stating that the Cush people are actually Ethiopians. When Moses referred to the people of Cush, it was in reference of a kindred nation to the Egyptians. Due to the close political relations of Egypt and Ethiopia, both nations at one point in time were under the term Cush according to late Hebrew historians. Even though the original intentions of the word were in reference to both sides of the Red Sea, evidence has shown that parts of the eastern coast did belong to the Ethiopians.[29]

Ethiopia
There have been many other notable fossil findings in the country.

Pre-History
Ethiopia is considered an area of one of the oldest human settlement, if not the oldest according to some scientific findings. Lucy, discovered in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia’s Afar region, is considered the world’s oldest, most complete, and best preserved adult Australopithecine fossil. Around the eighth century BC, a kingdom known as Dʿmt was established in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, with its capital at Yeha in northern Ethiopia. Most modern historians consider this civilization to be a native African one, although Sabaean-influenced due to the latter’s hegemony of the Red Sea,[31] while others view Dʿmt as the result of a mixture of Sabaeans and indigenous peoples.[32] However, Ge’ez, the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia, is now thought not to have derived from Sabaean (also South Semitic). There is evidence of a Semitic-speaking presence in Ethiopia and Eritrea at least as early as 2000 BC.[33][34] Sabaean influence is now thought to have been minor, limited to a few localities, and disappearing after a few decades or a century, perhaps representing a trading or military colony in some sort of symbiosis or military alliance with the Ethiopian civilization of Dʿmt or some other proto-Aksumite state.[35] After the fall of Dʿmt in the fourth century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the first century BC, the Aksumite Kingdom, ancestor of medieval and modern Ethiopia, which was able to reunite the area.[36] They established bases on the northern highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and from there expanded southward. The Persian religious figure Mani listed Aksum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four great powers of his time.[37] In 316 AD, a Christian philosopher from Tyre, Meropius, embarked on a voyage of exploration along the coast of Africa. He was accompanied by, among others, two Syro-Greeks, Frumentius and his brother Aedesius. The vessel was stranded on the coast, and the natives killed all the travelers except the two brothers, who were taken to the court and given positions of trust by the monarch. They both practiced the Christian faith in private, and soon converted the

History
Lucy’s species is named Australopithecus afarensis, which means ’southern ape of Afar, after the Ethiopian region where the discovery was located. Lucy is estimated to have lived in Ethiopia 3.2 million years ago.[30]

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queen and several other members of the royal court.

Ethiopia
became figureheads, controlled by warlords like Ras Mikael Sehul of Tigray, and by the Oromo Yejju dynasty, which later led to 17th century Oromo rule of Gondar, changing the language of the court from Amharic to Afaan Oromo.[45][46] Ethiopian isolationism ended following a British mission that concluded an alliance between the two nations; however, it was not until 1855 that Ethiopia was completely united and the power in the Emperor restored, beginning with the reign of Emperor Tewodros II. Upon his ascent, despite still large centrifugal forces, he began modernizing Ethiopia and recentralizing power in the Emperor, and Ethiopia began to take part in world affairs once again.

Restored contact with Europe
In the early fifteenth century Ethiopia sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since Aksumite times. A letter from King Henry IV of England to the Emperor of Abyssinia survives.[38] In 1428, the Emperor Yeshaq sent two emissaries to Alfonso VI of Aragon, who sent return emissaries that failed to complete the return trip.[39] The first continuous relations with a European country began in 1508 with Portugal under Emperor Lebna Dengel, who had just inherited the throne from his father.[40]

King Fasilides’ Castle. This proved to be an important development, for when the Empire was subjected to the attacks of the Adal General and Imam, Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (called "Grañ", or "the Left-handed"), Portugal responded to Lebna Dengel’s plea for help with an army of four hundred men, who helped his son Gelawdewos defeat Ahmad and re-establish his rule.[41] However, when Emperor Susenyos converted to Roman Catholicism in 1624, years of revolt and civil unrest followed resulting in thousands of deaths.[42] The Jesuit missionaries had offended the Orthodox faith of the local Ethiopians, and on 25 June 1632 Susenyos’ son, Emperor Fasilides, declared the state religion to again be Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and expelled the Jesuit missionaries and other Europeans.[43][44]

Yohannes IV, Emperor of Ethiopia and King of Zion, with his son, Ras Araya Selassie Yohannis. By the 1880s, Sahle Selassie, as king of Shewa, and later as Emperor Menilik II, with the help of Ras Gobena’s Shewan Oromo militia, began expanding his kingdom to the South and East, expanding into areas that hadn’t been held since the invasion of Ahmed Gragn, and other areas that had never been under his rule, resulting in the borders of Ethiopia of today.[47] The Ethiopian Great famine that afflicted Ethiopia from 1888 to 1892 cost it roughly one-third of its population.[48]

Zemene Mesafint
All of this contributed to Ethiopia’s isolation from 1755 to 1855, called the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of Princes". The Emperors

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Ethiopia
Being born from parents of the three main Ethiopian ethnicities of Oromo, Amhara and Gurage, and after having played a leading role in the formation of the Organisation of African Unity, Haile Selassie was known as a uniting figure both inside Ethiopia and around Africa. The independence of Ethiopia was interrupted by the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation (1936–1941).[49] During this time of attack, Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations in 1935, delivering an address that made him a worldwide figure, and the 1935 Time magazine Man of the Year.[50] Following the entry of Italy into World War II, the British Empire forces together with patriot Ethiopian fighters liberated Ethiopia in the course of the East African Campaign (World War II) in 1941, which was followed by sovereignty on 31 January 1941 and British recognition of full sovereignty (i.e. without any special British privileges) with the signing of the AngloEthiopian Agreement in December 1944.[51] During 1942 and 1943 there was an Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia. On 26 August 1942 Haile Selassie I issued a proclamation outlawing slavery.[52][53] In 1952 Haile Selassie orchestrated the federation with Eritrea which he dissolved in 1962. This annexation sparked the Eritrean War of Independence. Although Haile Selassie was seen as a national hero, opinion within Ethiopia turned against him due to the worldwide oil crisis of 1973, food shortages, uncertainty regarding the succession, border wars, and discontent in the middle class created through modernization.[54] Haile Selassie’s reign came to an end in 1974, when a Soviet-backed Marxist-Leninist military junta, the "Derg" led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, deposed him, and established a one-party communist state.

European Scramble for Africa
The 1880s were marked by the Scramble for Africa and modernization in Ethiopia, when the Italians began to vie with the British for influence in bordering regions. Asseb, a port near the southern entrance of the Red Sea, was bought in March 1870 from the local Afar sultan, vassal to the Ethiopian Emperor, by an Italian company, which by 1890 led to the Italian colony of Eritrea. Conflicts between the two countries resulted in the Battle of Adwa in 1896, whereby the Ethiopians defeated Italy and remained independent, under the rule of Menelik II. Italy and Ethiopia signed a provisional treaty of peace on 26 October 1896.

Selassie years

Haile Selassie’s reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation’s history. He is seen by Rastafarians as Jah incarnate. The early twentieth century was marked by the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I, who came to power after Iyasu V was deposed. It was he who undertook the modernization of Ethiopia, from 1916, when he was made a Ras and Regent (Inderase) for Zewditu I and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire. Following Zewditu’s death he was made Emperor on 2 November 1930.

Communism
The ensuing regime suffered several coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and a massive refugee problem. In 1977, there was the Ogaden War, when Somalia captured the whole of the Ogaden region, but Ethiopia was able to recapture the Ogaden after serious problems, due to a massive influx of Soviet military hardware and a Cuban military presence coupled with East Germany and South Yemen the following year.

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Hundreds of thousands were killed due to the red terror, forced deportations, or from the use of hunger as a weapon under Mengistu’s rule.[54] The Red Terror was carried in response to what the government termed "White Terror", supposedly a chain of violent events, assassinations and killings carried by the opposition.[55] In 2006, after a long trial, Mengistu was found guilty of genocide.[56] In the beginning of 1980s, a series of famines hit Ethiopia that affected around 8 million people, leaving 1 million dead. Insurrections against Communist rule sprang up particularly in the northern regions of Tigray and Eritrea. In 1989, the Tigrayan Peoples’ Liberation Front (TPLF) merged with other ethnically-based opposition movements to form the Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Concurrently the Soviet Union began to retreat from building World Communism under Mikhail Gorbachev’s glasnost and perestroika policies, marking a dramatic reduction in aid to Ethiopia from Socialist bloc countries. This resulted in even more economic hardship and the collapse of the military in the face of determined onslaughts by guerrilla forces in the north. The Collapse of Communism in general, and in Eastern Europe during the Revolutions of 1989, coincided with the Soviet Union stopping aid to Ethiopia altogether in 1990. The strategic outlook for Mengistu quickly deteriorated. In May 1991, EPRDF forces advanced on Addis Ababa and the Soviet Union did not intervene to save the government side. Mengistu fled the country to asylum in Zimbabwe, where he still resides. The Transitional Government of Ethiopia, composed of an 87-member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution, was set up. In June 1992, the Oromo Liberation Front withdrew from the government; in March 1993, members of the Southern Ethiopia Peoples’ Democratic Coalition also left the government. In 1994, a new constitution was written that formed a bicameral legislature and a judicial system. The first free and democratic election took place in May 1995 in which Meles Zenawi was elected the Prime Minister and Negasso Gidada was elected President. Though it is widely suspected that Meles Zenawi rigged the election. This suspicion is supported by Zenawi’s very low approval rating in Ethiopia.

Ethiopia

Recent
In 1993 a referendum was held and supervised by the UN mission UNOVER, with universal suffrage and conducted both in and outside Eritrea (among Eritrean communities in the diaspora), on whether Eritreans wanted independence or unity with Ethiopia. Over 99% of the Eritrean people voted for independence which was declared on May 24, 1993. In 1994, a constitution was adopted that led to Ethiopia’s first multi-party elections in the following year. In May 1998, a border dispute with Eritrea led to the Eritrean-Ethiopian War that lasted until June 2000. This has hurt the nation’s economy, but strengthened the ruling coalition. On 15 May 2005, Ethiopia held another multiparty election, which was a highly disputed one with some opposition groups claiming fraud. Though the Carter Center approved the preelection conditions, it has expressed its dissatisfaction with postelection matters. The 2005 EU election observers continued to accuse the ruling party of vote rigging. Many from the international community are divided about the issue with Irish officials accusing the 2005 EU election observers of corruption for the "inaccurate leaks from the 2005 EU election monitoring body which led the opposition to wrongly believe they had been cheated of victory."[57] In general, the opposition parties gained more than 200 parliament seats compared to the just 12 in the 2000 elections. Despite most opposition representatives joining the parliament, some leaders of the CUD party were wrongly imprisoned following the post-election violence. Amnesty International considered them "prisoners of conscience" and they were consequently released.

Politics
See also: Rulers and Heads of State of Ethiopia and Foreign relations of Ethiopia Politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. On the basis of Article 78 of the 1994 Ethiopian Constitution, the Judiciary is completely independent of the executive and the

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legislature.[58] The current realities of this provision are questioned in a report prepared by Freedom House (see discussion page for link). According to The Economist in its Democracy Index, Ethiopia is a "hybrid regime" situated between a "flawed democracy" and an "authoritarian regime". It ranks 105 out of 167 countries (with the larger number being less democratic). Georgia ranks as more democratic at 104, and Burundi as less democratic at 106, than Ethiopia.[59] The election of Ethiopia’s 547-member constituent assembly was held in June 1994. This assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 1994. The elections for Ethiopia’s first popularly-chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June 1995 . Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections. There was a landslide victory for the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). International and non-governmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so. The current government of Ethiopia was installed in August 1995. The first President was Negasso Gidada. The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism, devolving significant powers to regional, ethnically-based authorities. Ethiopia today has nine semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under the present government, some fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press, are circumscribed.[60] Citizens have little access to media other than the state-owned networks, and most private newspapers struggle to remain open and suffer periodic harassment from the government.[60] At least 18 journalists who had written articles critical of the government were arrested following the 2005 elections on genocide and treason charges. The government uses press laws governing libel to intimidate journalists who are critical of its policies.[61] Zenawi’s government was elected in 2000 in Ethiopia’s first ever multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized by international observers and denounced by the opposition as fraudulent. The EPRDF also won the 2005 election returning Zenawi to

Ethiopia
power. Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both the opposition and observers from the European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet international standards for fair and free elections.[60] Ethiopian police are said to have massacred 193 protesters, mostly in the capital Addis Ababa, in the violence following the May 2005 elections in the Ethiopian police massacre.[62] The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in Oromia state the authorities used concerns over insurgency and terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods to silence critics following the election, particularly people sympathetic to the registered opposition party Oromo National Congress (ONC).[61] The government has been engaged in a conflict with rebels in the Ogaden region since 2007. The biggest opposition party in 2005 was the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD). After various internal divisions, most of the CUD party leaders have established the new Unity for Democracy and Justice party led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa. A member of the country’s Oromo ethnic group, Ms. Birtukan Mideksa is the first woman to lead a political party in Ethiopia. As of 2008, the top four opposition parties are the Unity for Democracy and Justice led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa, United Ethiopian Democratic Forces led by Dr.Beyene Petros, Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement led by Dr. Bulcha Demeksa, Oromo People’s Congress led by Dr. Merera Gudina, and United Ethiopian Democratic Party-Medhin Party led by Lidetu Ayalew. The prominent leader of the Unity (Birtukan) is rearrested after accusing her based on ’reckless’ accusation of her speech in Sweden about her pardon after the 2005 Ethiopian election.

Regions, zones, and districts
Before 1996, Ethiopia was divided into 13 provinces, many derived from historical regions. Ethiopia now has a tiered government system consisting of a federal government overseeing ethnically-based regional states, zones, districts (woredas), and neighborhoods (kebele). Ethiopia is divided into nine ethnicallybased administrative states (kililoch, sing. kilil) and subdivided into sixty-eight zones

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and two chartered cities (astedader akababiwoch, sing. astedader akababi): Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa (subdivisions 1 and 5 in the map, respectively). It is further subdivided into 550 woredas and six special woredas. The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states that can establish their own government and democracy according to theouncils implement their mandate through an executive committee and regional sectoral bureaus. Such elaborate structure of council, executive, and sectoral public institutions is replicated to the next level (woreda).

Ethiopia
been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromifa and Tigrinya. Ethiopia has its own alphabet, called Ge’ez or Ethiopic (???), and calendar.

Geography

The regions and chartered cities of Ethiopia, numbered alphabetically The nine regions and two chartered cities are:

Map of Ethiopia.

At 435,071 square miles (1,127,127 km²),[63] Ethiopia is the world’s 27th-largest country 1. Addis Ababa 6. Gambela (after Colombia). It is comparable in size to 2. Afar 7. Harari Bolivia. 3. Amhara 8. Oromia The major portion of Ethiopia lies on the 4. Benishangul- 9. Somali Horn of Africa, which is the eastern-most Gumuz 10. Southern Nations, part of the African landmass. Bordering 5. Dire Dawa Nationalities, and Ethiopia is Sudan to the west, Djibouti and People’s Region Eritrea to the north, Somalia to the east, and 11. Tigray Kenya to the south. Within Ethiopia is a massive highland complex of mountains and Languages dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Ethiopia has eighty-four indigenous lanValley, which runs generally southwest to guages. Some of these are: northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes, or semi-desert. The great diversity • Afar • Burji • Konso • Soddo of • Amharic • Gamo• Ongota • Somali terrain determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation, and settle• Anfillo Gofa • Oromo • Tigrinya ment • Awngi • Gurage • Saho • Wolaytta patterns. • Berta • Hadiya • Sidama • Xamtanga • Bussa • Harari • Silt’e • Zay Climate and landforms • Kambata Elevation and geographic location produce English is the most widely spoken foreign three climatic zones: the cool zone above language and is the medium of instruction in 2,400 meters (7,900 ft) where temperatures secondary schools. Amharic was the lanrange from near freezing to 16 °C (32–61 °F); guage of primary school instruction, but has the temperate zone at elevations of 1,500 to

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2,400 meters (4,900–7,900 ft) with temperatures from 16 to 30 °C (61–86 °F); and the hot zone below 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) with both tropical and arid conditions and daytime temperatures ranging from 27 to 50 °C (81–122 °F). The topography of Ethiopia ranges from several very high mountain ranges (the Semien Mountains and the Bale Mountains), to one of the lowest areas of land in Africa, the Danakil depression.

Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s environmental conditions leading to even greater habitat degradation.[65] Habitat destruction is a factor that leads to endangerment. When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, it doesn’t allow animals time to adjust. Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions.[66] Ethiopia has a large number of species listed as critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable to global extinction. To assess the current situation in Ethiopia, it is critical that the endangered species in this region are identified. The endangered species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories; Critically endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable.[67]
[68]

Ethiopian Highlands with Ras Dashan in the background. The normal rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September (longer in the southern highlands), preceded by intermittent showers from February or March; the remainder of the year is generally dry. Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts. Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. It also has a large number of endemic species, notably the Gelada Baboon, the Walia Ibex and the Ethiopian wolf (or Simien fox). The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.l

There are 31 endemic species, meaning that a species occurs naturally only in a certain area, in this case Ethiopia.[67] The Arican Wild Dog prehistorically had widespread distribution in Ethiopia; however, with last sightings at Fincha, this canid is thought to be potentially extirpated within Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia.

The Ethiopian Wolf

Environment
Endangered species
Historically, throughout the African continent, wildlife populations have been rapidly declining due to logging, civil wars, hunting, pollution, poaching, and other human interference.[64] A 17-year long civil war along with severe drought, negatively impacted The Ethiopian Wolf. Ethiopian wolves are decreasing rapidly in population. Fewer than 500 remain today due to the increased pressure from agriculture, high altitude grazing, hybridization with

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Critically endangered Bilen Gerbil Black Rhinoceros Ethiopian Wolf Guramba Shrew Harenna Shrew MacMillan’s Shrew Walia Ibex Endangered Grevy’s Zebra Mountain Nyala Nubian Ibex African Wild Dog Vulnerable African Elephant Ammodile Bailey’s Shrew Bale Shrew Beira Antelope Cheetah Dibatag Dorcas Gazelle Glass’s Shrew Large-eared Free-tailed Bat Lesser Horseshoe Bat Lion Moorland Shrew Morris’s Bat Mouse-tailed Bat species Natal Free-Tailed Bat Nikolaus’s Mouse

Ethiopia

Patrizi’s Trident Leaf-nosed Bat Red-fronted Gazelle Rupp’s Mouse Scott’s Mouse-eared Bat Soemmerring’s Gazelle Speke’s Gazelle Spotted-necked Otter Stripe-backed Mouse domestic dogs, direct persecution, and diseases such as rabies.[69] The EWCP (Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Project) actively works on protecting this conservation reliant species.[70] Scientists working with this project have found that this species has some resistance to the effects of small population sizes and some resilience to fragmentation.[70] A 2003 study on the Ethiopian wolf resulted in the conclusion that the key to its survival resides in securing its habitat and isolating its population from the impact of people, livestock and domestic dogs.[70] The interaction between humans and Ethiopian wolves have become increasingly threatening to their conservation as these negative interactions increase as human density increases. Human interactions include poisoning, persecution in reprisal for livestock losses, and road kills.[71] Mountainous areas are critical for Ethiopian wolves survival to provide a healthy habitat.[70] Protecting this unique creature entails securing protected status for conservation areas where ecological processes are preserved in an ecosystem, and addressing and counteracting direct threats to survival (human persecution, fragmented populations and coexistence with domestic dogs.) Biologists also recommend the goal of preserving a minimum of 90% of the existing genetic diversity of the species for 100 years, which may require establishing a Nucleus I captive breeding population (preferably in Ethiopia). These aspirations are being pursued by a group called the Ethiopian Wolf Recovery Programme (EWRP).[72]

Outreach
Several conservation programs are in effect to help endangered species in Ethiopia. A

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group was created in 1966 called The Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society, which focuses on studying and promoting the natural environments of Ethiopia along with spreading the knowledge they acquire, and supporting legislation to protect environmental resources.[73] There are multiple conservation organizations one can access online to make donations, one which connects directly to the Ethiopian Wolf. Funding supports the World Wildlife Fund’s global conservation efforts. The majority of the funds received (83%) goes towards conservation activities, while only 6% goes towards finance and administration. The remaining 11% of funds are allocated for fundraising, which is much needed. The WWF Chairman of the Board, Bruce Babbitt holds this organization accountable for the best practices in accountability, governance and transparency throughout all tiers within the organization.[74] A critical way to help threatened animals survive would be to protect their habitat permanently through national parks, wilderness areas and nature reserves. By protecting the places where animals live, human interference is limited. Protecting farms, and any place along roadsides that harbor animals helps encourage protection.[75]

Ethiopia
promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat. Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management.[77] Working with a grant of approximately 2.3 million Euro the Ethiopian government recently began training people on reducing erosion and using proper irrigation techniques that do not contribute to deforestation. This project is assisting more than 80 communities.

Economy
See also: Foreign aid to Ethiopia Ethiopia has one of the fastest growing economies in the world, according to The Economist. Ethiopia has showed a fast growing annual GDP and it was the fastest growing non-oil dependent African nation in 2007 and 2008.[78] Since 1991, there have been attempts to improve the economy, however there is some political opposition to the policies as well as a 2008 drought which slowed progress.[79] The effectiveness of these policies is reflected in the ten percent yearly economic growth from 2003-2008. Despite these economic improvements, urban and rural poverty remains an issue in the country. Historically, Ethiopia’s feudal and unfree economic structure have always kept it one rainless season away from devastating droughts. But Ethiopia has a big potential and it is one of the most fertile countries. According to the New York Times, Ethiopia "could easily become the breadbasket for much of Europe if her agriculture were better organized." [80] Provision of telecommunications services is left to a state owned monopoly. It is the view of the current government that maintaining state ownership in this vital sector is essential to ensure that telecommunication infrastructures and services are extended to the rural Ethiopia, which would not be attractive to private enterprises. The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may only lease land (up to 99 years), and are unable to mortgage or sell. Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user.

Deforestation
Deforestation is a major concern for Ethiopia as studies suggest loss of forest contributes to soil erosion, loss of nutrients in the soil, loss of animal habitats and reduction in biodiversity. At the beginning of the Twentieth century around 420,000 km² or 35% of Ethiopia’s land was covered by trees but recent research indicates that forest cover is now approximately 11.9% of the area.[76] Ethiopia is one of the seven fundamental and independent centers of origin of cultivated plants of the world. Ethiopia loses an estimated 1,410 km² of natural forests each year. Between 1990 and 2005 the country lost approximately 21,000 km². Current government programs to control deforestation consist of education, promoting reforestation programs and providing alternate raw material to timber. In rural areas the government also provides non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to

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Ethiopia

Exports
Ethiopia was the original source of the coffee bean, and coffee beans are the country’s largest export commodity.[84] Ethiopia is also the 10th largest producer of livestock in the world. Other main export commodities are khat, gold, leather products, and oilseeds. Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world.[85] With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business, with Taytu becoming the first luxury designer label in the country.[86] Additional small-scale export products include cereals, pulses, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes and hides. With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, it has also begun exporting electric power to its neighbors.[87][88][89] However, coffee remains its most important export product and with new trademark deals around the world, including recent deals with Starbucks, the country plans to increase its revenue from coffee.[90] Most regard Ethiopia’s large water resources and potential as its "white oil" and its coffee resources as "black gold".[91][92] The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some the less inhabited regions; however, political instability in those regions has harmed progress. Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in 2008. Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa. Gold bars from the National Bank of Ethiopia were found to be gilded metal by police, costing the state around US$17 million, according to the Science and Development Network website.[93]

Coffee farmer filling cups with coffee Agriculture accounts for almost 41 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), 80 percent of exports, and 80 percent of the labour force. Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector. Principal crops include coffee, pulses (e.g., beans), oilseeds, cereals, potatoes, sugarcane, and vegetables. Recently, Ethiopia has had a fast growing annual GDP and it was the fastest growing non-oil dependent African nation in 2007.[81][82] Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities, and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is Africa’s second biggest maize producer.[83] Ethiopia’s livestock population is believed to be the largest in Africa, and as of 1987 accounted for about 15 percent of the GDP. According to a recent UN report the GNP per capita of Ethiopia has reached $1541 (2009). The same report indicated that the life expectancy had improved substantially in recent years. The life expectancy of men is reported to be 52 and women 54 years.

Urbanization
Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments and ecosystems’ capacity to provide people basic services.[94] Urbanization has steadily been increasing in Ethiopia, with two periods of significantly rapid growth. First, in 1936-1941 during the Italian occupation of Mussolini’s fascist regime, and from 1967-1975 when the populations of urban

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centers tripled.[95] In 1936, Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water.[96] This along with the influx of Italians and laborers was the major cause of rapid growth during this period. The second period of growth was from 1967-1975 when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions.[95] This pattern slowed after to the 1975 Land Reform program instituted by the government provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas. As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of 1970-1983.[97] This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture.[97] The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act.[97] Urban populations have continued to grow with an 8.1% increase from 1975-2000.[98]

Ethiopia
quarters with livestock, and 40% of children sleep on the floor, where night time temperatures average 5 degrees Celsius in the cold season.[99] The average family size is six or seven, living in a 30 square meter mud and thatch hut, with less than two hectares of land to cultivate.[99] These living conditions are deplorable, but are the daily lives of peasant associations. The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the land holdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility.[99] This land degradation reduces the production of fodder for livestock, which causes low amounts of milk production.[99] Since the community burns livestock manure as fuel, rather than plowing the nutrients back into the land, the crop production is reduced.[99] The low productivity of agriculture leads to inadequate incomes for farmers, hunger, malnutrition and disease. These unhealthy farmers have a hard time working the land and the productivity drops further.[99] Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty, and poor sanitation. In the capital city of Addis Ababa, 55% of the population lives in slums.[96] Although there are some wealthy neighborhoods with mansions, most people make their houses using whatever materials are available, with walls made of mud or wood. Only 12% of homes have cement tiles or floors.[96] Sanitation is the most pressing need in the city, with most of the population lacking access to waste treatment facilities. This contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water.[96] Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations due to their educational opportunities. Unlike rural children, 69% of urban children are enrolled in primary school, and 35% of those eligible for secondary school attend.[96] Addis Ababa has its own university as well as many other secondary schools. The literacy rate is 82%.[96] Health is also much greater in the cities. Birth rates, infant mortality rates, and death rates are lower in the city than in rural areas, due to better access to education and hospitals.[96] Life expectancy is higher at 53, compared to 48 in rural areas.[96] Despite sanitation being a problem, use of improved water sources is also greater; 81% in cities

Street scene of buses on Bole Road in Addis Abeba

Rural vs. urban life
Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better living conditions. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive. About 16% of the population in Ethiopia are living on less than 1 dollar per day (2008). Only 65% of rural households in Ethiopia consume the World Health Organisation’s minimum standard of food per day (2,200 kilocalories), with 42% of children under 5 years old being underweight.[99] Most poor families (75%) share their sleeping

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compared to 11% in rural areas.[98] This encourages more people to migrate to the cities in hopes of better living conditions. The continued urbanisation and migration poses a threat to environmental sustainability in Ethiopia. As more migration occurs, there will be decreased food production to sustain the population. Rather than fixing the problems of degraded land and water resources, people move to cities in hopes of a better life. If nothing is done about the problem, the capacity to grow food will decrease as populations continue to increase, while poverty and health conditions get worse. This is a problem many NGOs (NonGovernment Organisations) are working on fixing. But there is clear evidence that most are far apart, less coordinated, and working in isolation, with no effective mechanisms for them to relate with other NGOs.[98] This is why a consortium is required to solve the problem. The good news is that the Sub-Saharan Africa NGO Consortium is already coordinating efforts among NGOs in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Sudan, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Mali, Ghana, and Nigeria.[98] By sharing information, techniques, and resources, NGOs are better equipped to help the rural farmers of Ethiopia.

Ethiopia
grew at an average annual rate of 2.6% between 1994-2007 which is a decrease of 0.2% from period 1983-1994. The country’s population is highly diverse. Most of its people speak an Afro-Asiatic language, mainly of the Semitic (~ 40-5%) or the Cushitic (~ 40-5%) branches. The Oromo, Amhara, Tigray and Somali make up threequarters of the population, but there are more than 80 different ethnic groups within Ethiopia. Some of these have as few as 10,000 members. Ethiopians and Eritreans, especially Semitic-speaking ones, collectively refer to themselves as Habesha or Abesha, though others reject these names on the basis that they refer only to certain ethnicities.[101] The Arabic form of this term (Al-Habasha) is the etymological basis of "Abyssinia," the former name of Ethiopia in English and other European languages.[102] According to the Ethiopian national census of 2007, the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia at 34.49%. The Amhara represent 26.89%, while the Tigray people are 6.07% of the population. Other ethnic groups are as follows: Somali 6.20%, Sidama 4.01%, Gurage 2.53%, Wolayta 2.31%, Afar 1.73%, Hadiya 1.74%, Gamo 1.50%, Kefficho 1.18% and others 11%.[1][2] Some Italians and Britons settled in Ethiopia during their colonial periods, however, most of their descendants left after independence. The most recent census in the United States recorded 72,000 Ethiopians in the country.[103] Despite this some other sources put it at a much higher figure, 1.2 million Ethiopians in the US being one of these.[104] There are also large number of Ethiopian emigrants in the United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, Sweden and Australia In 2007, Ethiopia hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 201,700. The majority of this population came from Somalia (approximately 111,600 individuals), Sudan (55,400) and Eritrea (23,900). The Ethiopian government required nearly all refugees to live in refugee camps.[105]

Demographics
See also: People of Ethiopia

View from the Sheraton Hotel in Addis Ababa. Ethiopia’s population has grown from 33.5 million in 1983 to 75.1 million in 2006.[100] The 2007 Population and Housing Census results show that the population of Ethiopia

Religion
According to the 2007 National Census, Christians make up 62.8% of the country’s population (43.5% Ethiopian Orthodox, 19.3% other denominations) , Islam 33.9%,

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Religious affiliation Christianity Islam Traditional % of total 62.8 33.9 2.6

Ethiopia

This leather painting depicts Ethiopian Orthodox priests playing sistra and a drum. Ethiopia. The Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first nations to officially adopt Christianity, when St. Frumentius of Tyre, called Fremnatos or Abba Selama ("Father of Peace") in Ethiopia, converted King Ezana during the fourth century AD. Many believe that the Gospel had entered Ethiopia even earlier, with the royal official described as being baptised by Philip the Evangelist in chapter eight of the Acts of the Apostles. (Acts 8:26-39) Today, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, part of Oriental Orthodoxy, is by far the largest denomination, though a number of Protestant (Pentay) churches and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church have recently gained ground. Since the eighteenth century there has existed a relatively small (uniate) Ethiopian Catholic Church in full communion with Rome, with adherents making up less than 1% of the total population.[1] The name "Ethiopia" (Hebrew Kush) is mentioned in the Bible numerous times (thirty-seven times in the King James version). Abyssinia is also mentioned in the Qur’an and Hadith. While many Ethiopians claim that the Bible references of Kush apply to their own ancient civilization, pointing out that the Gihon river, a name for the Nile, is said to flow through the land, most nonEthiopian scholars believe that the use of the term referred to the Kingdom of Kush in particular or Africa outside of Egypt in general.

Mosque in Harar practitioners of traditional faiths 2.6%, and other religions 0.6%[1] This is in agreement with the updated CIA World Factbook, which states that Christianity is the most widely practiced religion in Ethiopia.[106] Orthodox Christianity has a long history in Ethiopia dating back to the first century, and a dominant presence in central and northern Ethiopia. Both Orthodox & Protestant Christianity has large representations in the South and Western Ethiopia. A small ancient group of Jews, the Beta Israel, live in northwestern Ethiopia, though most have emigrated to Israel in the last decades of the twentieth century as part of the rescue missions undertaken by the Israeli government, Operation Moses and Operation Solomon.[107] Some Israeli and Jewish scholars consider these Ethiopian Jews as a historical Lost Tribe of Israel. Sometimes Christianity in Africa is thought of as a European import that arrived with colonialism, but this is not the case with

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Ethiopia
more lowland regions in the east and south of the country. Ethiopia is also the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari movement, whose adherents believe Ethiopia is Zion. The Rastafari view Emperor Haile Selassie I as Jesus, the human incarnation of God, a view apparently not shared by Haile Selassie I himself, who was staunchly Ethiopian Orthodox Christian. The concept of Zion is also prevalent among Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, though it represents a separate and complex concept, referring figuratively to St. Mary, but also to Ethiopia as a bastion of Christianity surrounded by Muslims and other religions, much like Mount Zion in the Bible. It is also used to refer to Axum, the ancient capital and religious centre of Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, or to its primary church, called Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion.[108] The Bahá’í Faith is concentrated primarily in Addis Ababa, but also in the suburbs of Yeka, Kirkos and Nefas Silk Lafto.[109]

Ethiopian calendar
A traditional Ethiopian depiction of Jesus and Mary. Some have argued that biblical Kush was a large part of land that included Northern Ethiopia, Eritrea and most of present day Sudan. The capital cities of biblical Kush were in Northern Sudan. Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion; in 615, when a group of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Ethiopia via modern day Eritrea, which was ruled by Ashama ibn Abjar, a pious Christian king. Moreover, Bilal, the first muezzin, the person chosen to call the faithful to prayer, and one of the foremost companions of Muhammad, was from Abyssinia (Eritrea, Ethiopia etc.). There are numerous indigenous African religions in Ethiopia, mainly located in the far southwest and western borderlands. In general, most of the (largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church) Christians generally live in the highlands, while Muslims and adherents of traditional African religions tend to inhabit Ethiopia has its own calendar, which is based on the Coptic calendar, and is roughly eight years behind the Gregorian calendar.

Health
According to the head of the World Bank’s Global HIV/AIDS Program, Ethiopia has only 1 medical doctor per 100,000 people.[110] However, the World Health Organization in its 2006 World Health Report gives a figure of 1936 physicians (for 2003),[111] which comes to about 2.6 per 100,000. Globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for a better economic opportunity in the West. Ethiopia’s main health problems are said to be communicable diseases caused by poor sanitation and malnutrition. These problems are exacerbated by the shortage of trained manpower and health facilities.[112] There are 119 hospitals (12 in Addis Ababa alone) and 412 health centers in Ethiopia.[113] Ethiopia has a relatively low average life expectancy of 45 years.[114] Infant mortality rates are relatively very high, as over 10% of infants die during or shortly after childbirth,[114] while birth-related complications such as obstetric fistula affect

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many of the nation’s women. HIV is also prevalent in the country.

Ethiopia

Ethiopian traditional medicine
The low availability of health care professionals with modern medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services, leads to the preponderancy of less reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments. One medical practice that is commonly practiced irrespective of religion or economic status is female genital mutilation.[115] As of 1965, close to four out of five Ethiopian women were circumcised.[115]

Typical Ethiopian cuisine: Injera (pancakelike bread) and several kinds of wat (stew). Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no pork or shellfish of any kind, as they are forbidden in the Islamic, Jewish, and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian faiths. It is also very common to eat from the same small dish in the center of the table with a group of people. In the morning they drink tea and bread, and buttermilk.

Education
See also: List of universities and colleges in Ethiopia Education in Ethiopia has been dominated by the Orthodox Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s. The elites, mostly Christians and central ethnic Amhara population, had the most privilege until 1974, when the government tried to reach the rural areas. In fact, until right now, it is only the elite Christians who have better chance to higher education. Languages other than Amharic are suppressed. Oromo, for example wasn’t allowed in the educational institutions. The current system follows very similar school expansion schemes to the rural areas as the previous 1980s system with an addition of deeper regionalisation giving rural education in their own languages starting at the elementary level and with more budget allocated to the Education Sector. The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school.[116]

Music

Cuisine
The best known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrees, usually a wat, or thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread made of Teff flour. One does not eat with utensils, but instead uses injera to scoop up the entrees and side dishes. Tihlo prepared from roasted barley flour is very popular in Amhara, Agame, and Awlaelo (Tigrai).

Mahmoud Ahmed, an Ethiopian singer of Gurage ancestry, in 2005. The Music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country’s 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Ethiopian music uses a unique modal system that is pentatonic, with characteristically long intervals between some notes. Influences include ancient Christian elements and Muslim and

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folk music from elsewhere in the Horn of Africa, especially Sudan and Somalia. Popular old and young musicians include Teddy Afro (Tewodros Kasahune), Tilahun Gessesse, Aster Aweke, Hamelmal Abate, Tewodros Tadesse, Kemer Yusuf, Ephrem Tamiru, Muluken Melesse, Bizunesh Bekele, Mahmoud Ahmed, Tadesse Alemu, Alemayehu Eshete, Neway Debeallbe, Asnaketch Worku, Ali Birra, Gigi, Dawit (Messay) Mellesse,Mulatu Astatke and Gossaye Tesfaye.

Ethiopia

References

[1] ^ 2007 Census, [1]PDF (51.7 KB) . Retrieved 3 may 2009. [2] ^ Embassy of Ethiopia, Washington, DC. Retrieved 6 April 2006. [3] ^ "Ethiopia". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ ft/weo/2009/01/weodata/ weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1& Retrieved on 2009-04-22. [4] "Ethiopia, Africa’s second most populous country". Nctimes.com. 2007-05-29. http://www.nctimes.com/articles/2007/ The main sports in Ethiopia are football and 05/30/news/nation/15_43_415_29_07.txt. running. Ethiopian athletes have won many Retrieved on 2009-03-16. olympic gold medals in track and field but [5] "Ethiopia is top choice for cradle of the national football team has not had much Homo sapiens". Nature. 16 February success. Some notable Ethiopian athletes are 2005. http://www.nature.com/news/2005/ Abebe Bikila, Mamo Wolde, Miruts Yifter, 050214/full/050214-10.html. Retrieved Haile Gebrselassie, Derartu Tulu, Kenenisa on 2008-02-02. Bekele, Tirunesh Dibaba and Meseret Defar. [6] Iroku, Osita, A DAy in the Life of God, published by The Enlil Institute, 2008. [7] Li, J. Z. (February 2008). "Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation". Science 319 (5866): 1100–1104. doi:10.1126/science.1153717. PMID 18292342. http://www.sciencemag.org/ Nations, nationalities and cgi/content/abstract/319/5866/1100. peoples [8] "Humans Moved From Africa Across • Solomon • Dasanech • Kabena • Omo DNA Study Says". Globe, • Afar • Dime • Kaficho • Oromo Bloomberg.com. 2008-02-21. • Agnwak • Dizi • Komo • Oyidda http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/ • Agaw-Awi • Arbore • Konso • Shekicho news?pid=20601081&sid=awJVkvnk8KjM&refer=au • Agaw-Himra • Gamo • Konta • Sheko Retrieved on 2009-03-16. • Alaba • Gambella • Kore • By KAREN [9] Shinasha KAPLAN, Los Angeles Times • Amhara • Gedio • Kunama • Shita (2008-02-21). "Around the world from • Argobba • Ghidicho • Kusme • Sidama Addis Ababa". Startribune.com. • Ari • Gnagnatom • Libido • Silt’e http://www.startribune.com/world/ • Beta Israel • Gofa (also • Somali 15860017.html. Retrieved on • Basketo • Gawada called • Surma 2009-03-16. • Bench • Gumuz Mareko) [10]Tigrai • Speaking after his signing the disputed • Benishangul • Gurage • Majangir [2] treaty between Ethiopia and Italy in • Berta • Hadiya • Maale • Tigre Emperor Menelik II made clear his 1889, • Burji • Hamer • Mashillie Wurgi position: "We cannot permit our integrity • Chaha • Harari • Meinit • Timbaro as a Christian and civilised nation to be • Daworo • Irob • Mursi • Tsamay questioned, nor the right to govern our • Derashe • Kambata • Nao • Wolayta in absolute independence. The empire • Nuer • Yem Emperor of Ethiopia is a descendant of a • Zayse dynasty that is 3,016 years old — a • Zulman that during all that time has dynasty never submitted to an outsider. Ethiopia has never been conquered and she never shall be conquered by anyone." Ethiopia • List of Ethiopia-related topics Unbound: Studies In Race Emancipation

Sport

Archaeology

Peoples and languages

See also

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Ethiopia

- p. xxv by Joseph Ephraim Casely http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/ Hayford 5176110.stm. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. [11] "’’Ethiopia at Bay: A Personal Account of [24] Many countries around Africa adopted the Haile Selassie Years’’ - p. 319 by the three colors of the Ethiopian flag John Spencer". Books.google.com. [25] Munro Hay 1991 http://books.google.com/ [26] "Aithiops, Henry George Liddell, Robert books?id=w5q7NVScott, ’’A Greek-English Lexicon’’, at vSPwC&pg=PA319&dq=ethiopia+%223000+years%22&lr=&sig=YSqFflAVmAQK2j9Pu1IvTX0R_E0. Perseus". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ [12] Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aen Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: Retrieved on 2009-03-16. University Press, 1991, pp.57. [27] Nat. Hist. 6.184-187 [13] Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History [28] "Abyssinia - LoveToKnow 1911". of Ethiopia, 2005. 1911encyclopedia.org. 2006-10-22. [14] Christopher S. Clapham, Haile-Selassie’s http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/ Government, 1969, p.12. Abyssinia. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. [15] Teshale Tibebu The Making of Modern [29] Anthon, Charles. A Classical Dictionary. Ethiopia: 1896-1974, p. xii. New York: Harper & Brothers [16] S. Rubenson, "Modern Ethiopia" in Publishers, 1891. Joseph C. Anene, Godfrey N. Brown, eds. [30] "Mother of man - 3.2 million years ago". Africa in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/ Centuries: A Handbook for Teachers, p. prehistoric_life/human/human_evolution/ 216. mother_of_man1.shtml. Retrieved on [17] Mordechai Abir, Ethiopia: The ERA of 2009-03-16. the Princes: The Challenge of Islam and [31] Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Re-unification, p. 183, "The coronation of Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: Teodros is considered by most historians University Press, 1991, pp.57. of Ethiopia to be the end of the era of the [32] Taddesse Tamrat, Church and State in princes and the beginning of modern Ethiopia: 1270–1527 (Oxford: Oxford Ethiopia." University Press, 1972), pp. 5–13. [18] ^ Marcus, A History of Ethiopia ISBN: [33] ibid. 0520224795 (page no?) [34] Herausgegeben von Uhlig, Siegbert. [19] It was decided at the official Paris Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, "Ge’ez". Conference, that for purposes of Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005, calculating reparations, for Ethiopia pp. 732. WWII began on 3 October 1935. Other [35] Munro-Hay, Aksum, pp. 57. dates aside from 1 September 1939 are [36] Pankhurst, Richard K.P. Addis Tribune, used for other countries such as China "Let’s Look Across the Red Sea I", 17 and Japan, as well. Richard Pankhurst, January 2003. "Italian Fascist War Crimes in Ethiopia: [37] Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: A Civilization A History of Their Discussion, from the of Late Antiquity (Edinburgh: University League of Nations to the United Nations Press, 1991), pp. 13. (1936-1949)" in Northeast African [38] Ian Mortimer, The Fears of Henry IV Studies 6.1-2 (1999). p. 116. (2007), p.111 [20] The Armed Forces of World War II, [39] Girma Beshah and Merid Wolde Aregay, Andrew Mollow, ISBN 0-85613-296-9 The Question of the Union of the [21] "Online NewsHour: Famine Risk - 3 July Churches in Luso-Ethiopian Relations 2003". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/ (1500–1632) (Lisbon: Junta de newshour/bb/africa/july-dec03/ Investigações do Ultramar and Centro de ethiopia_7-3.html. Retrieved on Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos, 1964), 2009-03-16. pp. 13–4. [22] Goldmann, Kjell (2000). Nationalism and [40] Girma and Merid, Question of the Union Internationalism in the Post-Cold War of the Churches, pp. 25. Era. Routledge. ISBN 0415238900. [41] Girma and Merid, Question of the Union [23] "Harar- the fourth holiest muslim city". of the Churches, pp. 45–52. BBC News. 2006-07-13.

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[58] Constitution of Ethiopia - 8 December 1994 [59] Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006 (PDF file) [60] ^ "Map of Freedom 2007". Freedom House. http://freedomhouse.org/ template.cfm?page=22&year=2007&country=7175. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. [61] ^ "Essential Background: Overview of human rights issues in Ethiopia". Human Rights Watch. http://hrw.org/ englishwr2k7/docs/2007/01/11/ ethiop14704.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. [62] "Ethiopian probe team criticises judge over report.". Reuters. http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/ CrisesArticle.aspx?storyId=L07807962&WTmodLoc= R5-Alertnet-2. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. [63] "CIA World Factbook -Rank Order Area". https://www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-world-factbook/ rankorder/2147rank.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-02. [64] Bakerova, Katarina et al. (1991) Wildlife Parks Animals Africa. Retrieved 24 May 2008, from the African Cultural Center. http://www.africanculturalcenter.org/ 3_0wildlife.html [65] Encyclopedia of Nations. Ethiopia Environment. Retrieved on 24 May 2008, from the Encyclopedia of the Nations website. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/ Africa/Ethiopia-ENVIRONMENT.html [66] Kurpis, Lauren (2002). How to Help Endangered Species. Retrieved 25 May 2008, from the Endangered Specie website. http://www.endangeredspecie.com/ Ways_To_Help.htm [67] ^ Massicot, Paul (2005). Animal InfoEthiopia. Retrieved 24 May 2008, from Animal Info. http://www.animalinfo.org/ country/ethiopia.htm [68] (IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals) [69] Humber, David (1996). Ethiopia Conservation Projects. Retrieved 24 May 2008, from the African Conservation Foundation. http://www.africanconservation.org/ ethiopia1.html [70] ^ Marino, Jorgelina (2003). Threatened Ethiopian Wolves. Retrieved on 24 May 2008, from the Wildcru organization. http://www.wildcru.org/research/es/

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ethiopianwolf/ [82] "Ethiopia has fastest growing African Marino%20Oryx%202003.pdf economy that is not Oil dependent". [71] Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Jimma Times. 2008-01-09. Programme. Retrieved on 7 June 2008 http://www.jimmatimes.com/ from the EWCP Website 2005. article.cfm?articleID=17566. Retrieved www.ethiopianwolf.org on 2008-02-02. [72] Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio and Macdonald, [83] "Get the gangsters out of the food David. (2002) The Ethiopian Wolf. chain". The Economist. 2007-06-07. Retrieved on 20 May 2008, from the http://www.economist.com/world/africa/ Canids website. http://www.canids.org/ displaystory.cfm?story_id=9304411. PUBLICAT/EWACTPLN/ewaptoc.htm Retrieved on 2008-02-02. [73] Humber, David (1996). Ethiopia [84] "Starbucks in Ethiopia coffee vow". BBC. Conservation Projects. Retrieved 24 May 21 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ 2008, from the African Conservation business/6225514.stm. Retrieved on Foundation. 2007-06-21. "Starbucks has agreed a http://www.africanconservation.org/ wide-ranging accord with Ethiopia to ethiopia1.html support and promote its coffee, ending a [74] Babbit, Bruce (2008). World Wildlife long-running dispute over the issue. ... Organization. Retrieved on 25 May 2008, Ethiopia is Africa’s largest coffee from the WWF website. producer, ahead of Uganda and the Ivory http://www.worldwildlife.org/who/ Coast, and coffee is its largest source of index.html foreign exchange." [75] Kurpis, Lauren (2002). Causes of [85] "Ethiopia’s flower trade in full bloom". Endangerment. Retrieved 25 May 2008, Mail & Guardian. 19 February 2006. from the Endangered Specie website. http://www.mg.co.za/ http://www.endangeredspecie.com/ articlePage.aspx?articleid=264689&area=/ causes_of_endangerment.htm breaking_news/ [76] Mongabay.com Ethiopia statistics. breaking_news__business/. Retrieved on (n.d).Retrieved 18 November 2006, from 2007-06-21. "Floriculture has become a http://rainforests.mongabay.com/ flourishing business in Ethiopia in the deforestation/2000/Ethiopia.htm. past five years, with the industry’s [77] Parry, J (2003). Tree choppers become exports earnings set to grow to tree planters. Appropriate Technology, $100-million by 2007, a five-fold increase 30(4), 38-39. Retrieved 22 November on the $20-million earned in 2005. 2006, from ABI/INFORM Global Ethiopian flower exports could generate database. (Document ID: 538367341). an estimated $300-million within two to [78] "Ethiopia sees Africa’s fastest growth". three years, according to the head of the Afrol.com. http://www.afrol.com/articles/ government export-promotion 28991. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. department, Melaku Legesse." [79] "Six million children threatened by [86] "Ethiopia’s designs on leather trade". Ethiopia drought: UN". Terradaily.com. BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/ http://www.terradaily.com/reports/ 6703551.stm. Retrieved on 2007-06-21. Six_million_children_threatened_by_Ethiopia_drought_UN_999.html. luxuriously soft "The label inside the Retrieved on 2009-03-16. black leather handbag reads Taytu: [80] "New York Times quote from CERC". Made In Ethiopia. But the embroidered Catholiceducation.org. print on the outside, the chunky bronze http://www.catholiceducation.org/ rings attached to the fashionably short articles/population/pc0005.html. straps and the oversized "it" bag status Retrieved on 2009-03-16. all scream designer chic." [81] Giorgis, Tamrat G. (2007-01-27). "IMF [87] "water resource revenue potentials being Positive on Ethiopia’s Growth Outlook". tackled in ethiopia". Addis Fortune. Waterpowermagazine.com. 2006-07-10. http://www.addisfortune.com/ http://www.waterpowermagazine.com/ IMF%20Positive%20on%20Ethiopia%92s%20Growth%20Outlook.htm. Retrieved on story.asp?sc=2037246. Retrieved on 2008-02-02. 2009-03-16.

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Ethiopia

[88] largest hydro electric power plant goes [101]— About us". Abesha.com. " smoothly http://www.abesha.com/abesha18/ [89] "Hydroelectric Power Plant built". aboutus.php. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. Addistribune.com. [102] ime Europe — Abyssinia: Ethiopian T http://www.addistribune.com/Archives/ Protest 9 August 1926 2004/02/27-02-04/New.htm. Retrieved on [103]Country-of-birth database". " 2009-03-16. Organisation for Economic Co-operation [90] Foek, Anton (2007-05-16). "new coffee and Development. http://www.oecd.org/ deal with Starbucks". Alternet.org. dataoecd/18/23/34792376.xls. Retrieved http://www.alternet.org/story/51936/. on 2008-09-21. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. [104]A loveless liaison.". Economist. " [91] Ethiopia water resources referred as 2008-04-03. http://www.economist.com/ "White oil" world/africa/ [92] Independent Online. "Ethiopia hopes to displaystory.cfm?story_id=10979876. power neighbours with dams". Retrieved on 2008-04-11. "Many in Int.iol.co.za. http://www.int.iol.co.za/ Ethiopia’s 1.2 m-strong diaspora in the index.php?set_id=1&click_id=87&art_id=qw1145360700509B231. lobbied their United States have Retrieved on 2009-03-16. congressional representatives to [93] "Sub-Saharan Africa news in brief: 13–25 condemn Mr Zenawi’s government as March". SciDev.Net. 2008-03-28. tyrannical." http://www.scidev.net/en/sub-suharan[105]World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. " africa/news/sub-saharan-africa-news-inCommittee for Refugees and Immigrants. brief-13-25-march.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-19. http://www.refugees.org/ 2009-03-16. survey. [94] Racin, L. "Future Shock: How [106]CIA - The World Factbook - Ethiopia". " Environmental Change and Human Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/ Impact Are Changing the Global Map" publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ Woodrow Wilson International Center for et.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. Scholars, 2008. [107]The History of Ethiopian Jews". " http://www.wilsoncenter.org/ Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. index.cfm?topic_id=1413&fuseaction=topics.event_summary&event_id=395038 http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/ [95] ^ Ofcansky, T and Berry, L. "Ethiopia: A jsource/Judaism/ejhist.html. Retrieved on Country Study". Editied by Washington: 2009-03-16. GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991. [108] addesse Tamrat, Church and State. T http://countrystudies.us/ethiopia [109]Families and youth identified as keys to " [96] ^ Shivley, K. "Addis Ababa, Ethiopia" reducing poverty". News.bahai.org. http://www.macalester.edu/courses/ http://news.bahai.org/story/486. geog61/kshively/index.html Accessed 15 Retrieved on 2009-03-16. May 2008. [110] BC, The World Today, 24 July 2007 B [97] ^ Anderson, Frank. Belete, Abenet, [111]Global distribution of health workers in " Dillon, John L. "Development of WHO Member States" (PDF). The World Agriculture in Ethiopia since the 1975 Health Report 2006. World Health land reform" Agricultural Economics. Organization. http://www.who.int/whr/ Blackwell. 2 December 1991. Pages 2006/annex/06_annex4_en.pdf. Retrieved 159-175 on 2008-02-02. [98] ^ World Bank http://worldbank.org [112]Ethiopia - Health and Welfare". " Accessed 5-10-08 Countrystudies.us. [99] ^ Crawley, Mike. "Breaking the Cycle of http://countrystudies.us/ethiopia/75.htm. Poverty in Ethiopia". April, 2003. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. International Development Research [113] tharc.org - Ethiopia e Centre. Retrieved on 24 May 2008, from [114] Aids Action (The International News ^ the IDRC website. https://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/ Letter on AIDS Prevention and Care): dspace/bitstream/123456789/33518/1/ Issue 46, Health Link World Wide Ecohealth_6_Ethiopia_e.pdf (October-December 1999) [100] iercke Landerlexicon, 1983 D [115] Pankhurst, Richard.: A Historical ^ Examination of Traditional Ethiopian

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Medicine. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 3:157-172 (1965). [116] Damtew Teferra and Philip. G. # Altbach, eds., African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook Indiana University Press, 2003), pp. 316-325

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• Mockler, Anthony (1984). Haile Selassie’s War. New York: Random House. Reprint, New York: Olive Branch, 2003. ISBN 1902669533. • Pankhurst, Richard. "History of Northern Ethiopia — and the Establishment of the Italian Colony or Eritrea". Civic Webs Virtual Library. http://www.civicwebs.com/cwvlib/africa/ ethiopia/pankhurst/ history_of_northern_ethiopia.htm. Retrieved on 5 April 2008. • Rubenson, Sven (2003). The Survival of Ethiopian Independence (4th ed.). Hollywood, CA: Tsehai. ISBN 0972317279. • Siegbert Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2003). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Vol. 1: A-C. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. • Siegbert Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2005). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Vol. 2: D-Ha. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. • Siegbert Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2007). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Vol. 3: He-N. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Bibliography
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook. • Bahru Zewde (1991). A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855–1974. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press. ISBN 0852550677. • Haile Selassie I. (1999). My Life and Ethiopia’s Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Selassie I. Translated by Edward Ullendorff. Chicago: Frontline. ISBN 0948390409. • Henze, Paul B. (2004). Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. Shama Books. ISBN 1-931253-28-5. • Marcus, Harold G. (1975). The Life and Times of Menelik II: Ethiopia, 1844–1913. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon. Reprint, Trenton, NJ: Red Sea, 1995. ISBN 1569020094. • Marcus, Harold G. (2002). A History of Ethiopia (updated ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520224795.

External links
Ministry of Information Ethiopia at the Open Directory Project Wikimedia Atlas of Ethiopia Ethiopian Tourism Commission Ministry of Culture and Tourism • Ethiopia travel guide from Wikitravel • Ethiopian News Agency government news agency • • • •

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