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What Are the Main Parts of a Spreadsheet

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					                      Computer/Technology/5th Grade/Spreadsheets
                              4-45 minute class sessions.

Essential Learnings:

   •     Students will be able to create a spreadsheet using Microsoft Excel.
   •     Students will be able to recognize and explain the basic spreadsheet parts.
   •     Students will be able to create simple functions and formulas.
   •     Students will be able to create graphs and charts from spreadsheet data.
   •     Students will be able to evaluate the effectiveness of their spreadsheets to display
         data.


Essential Questions:

   •     How do you create and save a spreadsheet?
   •     What are the main parts of a spreadsheet and how are they used?
   •     How do you create simple functions and formulas?
   •     How can graphs and charts be created to better explain experiment results or
         researched data?
   •     How does your spreadsheet effectively or ineffectively relay your data to others in
         your absence?

Assessment Methods

   •     2 small projects
   •     1 quiz
   •     1 culminating project

Unit Map

Day 1:   Introduction to spreadsheets and Inserting and creating formulas.
Day 2:   Inserting/Creating Graphs and Graphics.
Day 3:   Introduction to project.
Day 4:   Complete project.
Assessment #1: part 1 - This assessment follows initial instruction and is considered
guided practice. Create a spreadsheet using Microsoft excel that shows how many pets
live in the homes of five students in your class. List each student’s name and the number
of pets that live with each student. Give your spreadsheet a title and include appropriate
labels. Part 2 – Add a function that will find a total number of all the pets and another
function that will find the average number of pets per student. Don’t forget to label
everything. It should look similar to the spreadsheet below.




     The function can be viewed here when
     the cell, where it is located, is selected.




Results of the function or mathematical calcu-
lation is shown here, not the function itself




                                      Spreadsheet Assessment #1: Rubric
      Criteria                       0 Points                 1 Point                       2 Points
                                                     Present but not visually
Title on Spreadsheet                   None                                        Has all elements included
                                                            appropriate
                                                       Columns not labeled         Columns and rows labeled
  Column labels                        None
                                                             correctly                correctly, easy to read
                                                      Cell information hard       Cell information correct and
 Cell information                      None
                                                      to read or not correct               easy to read
                                                       Not well organized,       Well organized and understand
Table organization                     None
                                                     hard to understand data                   data
                                                      Functions present, but     Functions present with correct
     Functions                         None
                                                     incorrect data included                   data
    Spelling &               Spelling mistakes are   Several entries are        Spell check has been utilized to
    Punctuation              present throughout      misspelled                 correct spelling errors
                             the spreadsheet
Assignment #2: Create a spreadsheet using Microsoft excel that shows the value (how
much something is worth) of your top five favorite books that you own (students may list
more). List each book along with how much it cost. Give your spreadsheet a title and
include appropriate labels. Also, include a function that will find a total value of all the
books and another function that will find the average value per book. Don’t forget to
label everything. It should look similar to the spreadsheet below.




                              Spreadsheet Assessment #2: Rubric
     Criteria                0 Points                   1 Point                       2 Points
                                               Present but not visually
Title on Spreadsheet           None                                          Has all elements included
                                                      appropriate
                                                 Columns not labeled         Columns and rows labeled
  Column labels                None
                                                       correctly                correctly, easy to read
                                                Cell information hard       Cell information correct and
 Cell information              None
                                                to read or not correct               easy to read
                                                 Not well organized,       Well organized and understand
Table organization             None
                                               hard to understand data                   data
                                                Functions present, but     Functions present with correct
     Functions                 None
                                               incorrect data included                   data
    Spelling &         Spelling mistakes are   Several entries are        Spell check has been utilized to
    Punctuation        present throughout      misspelled                 correct spelling errors
                       the spreadsheet
Assessment #4: There are several projects from which the students may choose to
complete within groups of three. One of these projects is described below. Although the
experiments are performed together, each student must complete an individual
spreadsheet assignment and save to his or her folder and print out.

What’s Your Reaction Time?
Tech Tools Resource Kit for Microsoft Excel. Teacher Created Materials. Westminster,
California: 2001.

Have you ever wondered how quick your “reaction time is? Reaction time is simply the
amount of time it takes you to respond to something without warning. Reaction times are
extremely quick, but there is a method to measure your reaction time by using classroom
tools. Rather than measuring the time directly, we can measure something else and then
convert it to time.

Picture this: Your partner is dangling a ruler over the floor just above your hand, which
is ready to pinch it. Your thumb and index finger are even with the 0cm mark, which is
the end closest to the ground. Each (thumb and finger) is about one inch away from
either side of the ruler. When your partner releases the ruler, without warning, it will fall
to the ground. As soon as you notice this, you must pinch the ruler as quickly as
possible. It is important that you do not try to anticipate when your partner will release
the ruler. It is also important that your partner does not try to trick you into thinking he is
releasing the ruler or try to thrust the ruler downward. The holder must simply release it
without warning and you must try to pinch it with your thumb and index finger. By
looking at the centimeter mark on the ruler where your fingers pinched, you can
determine how far the ruler dropped before you caught it. The distance the ruler dropped
can be converted into units of time by a formula that takes into account the acceleration
force of gravity. This formula is provided for you, so you do not need to be a rocket
scientist to figure it out. You will perform four drop trials with each hand, and average
them. In order to see your data and compare it better, you will create a column chart
displaying the average response time for both hands.


Your Microsoft Excel spreadsheet must include:
   1. Appropriate title.
   2. The distances the ruler dropped for each of the four trials for each hand. Be sure
      to include appropriate labels.
   3. The average distance the ruler dropped over the four trials for each hand,
      calculated by spreadsheet formulas of your design. Be sure to include appropriate
      labels.
   4. A column chart showing the reaction time of both hands. (See instructor for
      formula that converts centimeters into time). Make sure to include an appropriate
      title and axes labels.
   5. At least one graphic related to the topic.
   6. An explanation of any differences between the reaction time of your left and right
      hands.
   7. An explanation of how your spreadsheet does or does not describe your
      experiment and its results effectively in your absence.

                                 Data Collection Table
Hand             Trial #1 (cm)     Trial #2 (cm)     Trial #3 (cm)   Trial #4 (cm)
Left
Right
                     Spreadsheet Assessment #4: Project Rubric
    Criteria               0 Points                  1 Point                    2 Points
     Title on                                Present but not visually       Has all elements
                            None
   Spreadsheet                                     appropriate                  included
                                                                           Columns and rows
                                              Columns not labeled
  Column labels             None                                         labeled correctly, easy
                                                   correctly
                                                                                 to read
                                              Cell information hard     Cell information correct
 Cell information           None
                                              to read or not correct        and easy to read
                                               Not well organized,         Well organized and
Table organization          None
                                             hard to understand data        understand data
                                              Functions present, but    Functions present with
    Functions               None
                                             incorrect data included           correct data
                     Formula incorrectly       Formula incorrectly         Formula correctly
    Formulas             entered with          entered or incorrect       entered with correct
                        incorrect data                 data                        data
                                                                         Graph shows data as
    Graph(s)                None              Does not indicate the
                                                                           well organized
                                                  correct data
                      Not Appropriate for                                Organized and easy to
  Graph Type(s)                                   Hard to read
                             data                                                  read
     Report          Conclusion does         Some elements              Accurately explains
                     represent spreadsheet   accurately represent       student conclusion
                     data                    spreadsheet data           based on spreadsheet
                                                                        data
Spelling &           Spelling mistakes are   Several entries are        Spell check has been
Punctuation          present throughout      misspelled                 utilized to correct
                     the spreadsheet                                    spelling errors
Assessment #4 Example: What’s Your Reaction Time


Record the distance the ruler dropped in centimeters for each of your four trials for both hands.
Use spreadsheet formulas (cells G16 and G17) to calculate the average of the four trials for both hands.
   The average distance dropped will automatically be converted to seconds. The formulas in cells H16
   and H17 that make this conversion take into account the acceleration due to gravity, and convert
   the distance dropped into time (seconds).
Chart your final reaction time data for both hands in the same chart.
Can you explain any differences between your right and left hand?




                    Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 Trial #4              Converted
           Hand                                         Average(cm)
                     (cm)     (cm)     (cm)     (cm)                to seconds

    Left               13         13         12          12         12.50           0.160
    Right              14         15         14          15         14.50           0.172



    My left hand reaction time was slower than my right. I think this is because I am right-handed
    and am quicker with my dominant hand.
                                                  Essential Questions:                                   Assessment Methods

                                                       •    How do you create and save a                     •    2 small
                                                            spreadsheet?                                          projects
                                                       •    What are the main parts of a                     •    1 quiz
                                                            spreadsheet and how are they used?               •    1 culminating
                                                       •    How do you create simple functions                    project
Day 1: Introduction to spreadsheets                         and formulas?
                                                       •    How can graphs and charts be created
                                                            to better explain experiment results or
General Lesson plans: The students will                     researched data?
                                                    •       How does your spreadsheet effectively
learn how to open and use spreadsheet                       or ineffectively relay your data to others
software. The students will learn how to                    in your absence?
insert functions and formulas into their
spreadsheets. Assisted by a step-by-step handout guide the students will create a simple
spreadsheet with information gathered from their classmates.

Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c

Materials: Spreadsheet guide, first assignment handout -project , and lab computer.

Anticipatory Set – Did you know that a computer could perform huge math problems for
you? It can. It can add up several hundred or even several thousand numbers almost
instantly. It can save you time. What am I talking about? Spreadsheets. Ask for
definition of a Spreadsheet (It’s on the handout). Explain what spreadsheets do. Let me
show you. Demonstrate by showing a sample grade book and inserting average functions
in the Final Grade column. This can be done easily by inserting the AVERAGE function
in the first cell at the end of the first student’s grades and clicking on the grab box and
dragging down to the last student. It will simultaneously place the AVERAGE function
in all the students’ rows and calculate the averages. (It should be impressive.) What do
you think spreadsheets would be used for?

Body -- Review the main parts of a spreadsheet and announce that there will be a short
quiz later. Demonstrate inserting functions and formulas into the spreadsheet from
project #1 following along with the handout guide (see guide).

Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the steps and the assignment
using dipstick method. Challenge students who do not usually perform well on
computers and those who cannot read very well. What is a spreadsheet? What is the
vertical information called? What is the horizontal information called? What is a cell?
How can you determine the cell address? What do we mean by “data entry?” How is a
formula different from a function? When should a formula be used instead of a function?

Call on three students using the seating chart to enter data into cells that you call out. As
each student takes a turn the spreadsheet should develop in accordance with project #1.
(Call on the first person in each row, followed by the second person in each row. Note:
there are six rows in various positions around the room. It would be rather difficult to
decipher the pattern. See seating chart lay-out.)

Guided Practice – Class work assignment: create a spreadsheet that lists the number of
pets in the homes of the students in your group (see Assignment #1: Part 1). There are
five groups of four students (+ or – one student). They are to ask each student in their
group for the number of pets living in their house. (This can get interesting if one or two
have a large aquarium of fish. One student may over 100 pets.) Students are not to call
out to the instructor, but are to place a red disc (laminated construction paper cut into a
circle) on top of his or her computer if assistance is required. A green and a red disc are
provided at each computer. Red is for assistance, green is placed on top of the computer
by the instructor when a task is complete signaling free time or enrichment activity has
begun.

Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Call on
students next in line (see seating chart). Cover all information listed in “Checks for
Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up
with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.)

Review – Covered in Closure for this particular assignment.

Independent practice – None
       Spreadsheets-Guide
What is a spreadsheet?
A spreadsheet is a type of software that allows you to organize numbers and
other data into a grid of cells. A spreadsheet can do math and create graphs
and charts. What is the name of the spreadsheet software that we will be us-
ing? Hint: this is the icon.

Spreadsheets are used by businesses to keep track of money. Teachers use them to record
and calculate grade point averages. There are many uses for a spreadsheet. Can you think
of any?


 1     What does a spreadsheet look like?
A spreadsheet uses a crisscross or grid worksheet, like a database, and is made up of columns and rows.
Columns go up and down and rows go side-to-side (across). A cell looks like a box and is where a col-
umn and row intersect. The entire worksheet is called a grid.




                        Each column has a letter at the top. The
                        first column is lettered “A,” the second is
                        “B” and continues through the alphabet.
                        What happens if there are more columns
                        than letters in the alphabet?



                      Each row is numbered on the left side of our
                      grid, staring with “1,” then “2,” and contin-
                      ues in numerical. Will there ever be more
                      rows than numbers?




                                           Each cell is identified by its column letter and
                                           then its row number. This is known as the cell
                                           address. The very first cell in the top left cor-
                                           ner, which is outlined is known as A1. The cell
                                           shaded above is identified as I20. What is the
                                           cell address of the cell shaded to the right?
 2      Entering data into your spreadsheet
Simply click on a cell to highlight it and begin typing in your data. You
can type in words and numbers, and later you can insert functions. The
spreadsheet to the right contains letters and numbers.

                   Words and numbers are used to create
                   an effective spreadsheet. A function
                   that would add all of the numbers
                   from cells B2:B5 would go in cell B6.




When all of your numerical data has been entered, you can insert formulas or questions which will
perform mathematical calculations.

        Entering functions and formulas into
 3      your spreadsheet
A function is a pre-made formula. It tells the computer to add, subtract, find the average, etc., any
numbers you wish. To enter a formula click on the cell where you want your function to be. Then
click on Insert on the menu bar and then click on function or you may simply click on the function
icon on the tool bar.




 When you set-up your
 spreadsheet, you will
 have a place for the
 total number of pets
 and a place for the
 average. In order to
 insert a function for                                                                Click on
 you total, you must                                                                  insert,
 click in the cell next                                                               then click
 to the word ”Total.”                                                                 on func-
 You must click in the                                                                tion.
 cell next to the word
 “Average” in order to
 put your average
 function there.
                                                                                     Click on
                                                                                     the func-
                                                                                     tion icon
    The Paste Function dialogue box will appear. You may choose your function from a list of categories. How
    many functions are there?


                                                                                          You must choose the for-
                                                                                          mula that is appropriate.
                                                                                          If you want to add up all
                                                                                          the numbers in the cells
If you click on a certain
category on the left side,
                                                                                          you would use the SUM
different functions will                                                                  function. If you wanted
appear on the right side.                                                                 to count the number of
The most common ones                                                                      cells that have numbers
appear in the Most                                                                        in them, you would use
Recently Used cate-                                                                       the Count function. If
gory and all functions                                                                    you want to find the av-
appear in the All cate-                                                                   erage of the all the num-
                                                                                          bers in the cells, you
                                                                                          would use the Average
                                                                                          function. After you have




   Once you have chosen a function, the prompt below will appear. The prompt is asking you which cells you




                                               This prompt—B4:B12 is asking the        The results        The numbers
                                               computer user if he or she would like   will appear        from the cells
                                               to add the numbers in the cells from    here.              listed appear
                                               B4 all the way to B12 (That’s B4, B5,                      here.
                                               B6, B7, B8, B9, B10, B11, and B12)
                                               together using the SUM function

                                               The cells the computer wants to in-     They will also
                                               clude in the SUM function are shown     appear her, if
                                                                                       you clicked on
                                                                                       this cell before




   Once you have determined that you have included the correct cells in your function, then click OK.
    After you have entered your data and inserted your SUM function, your spreadsheet should
    look something like the one below.




    The function can be viewed here when
    the cell, where it is located, is selected.




Results of the function or mathematical calcu-
lation is shown here, not the function itself.




      4      Creating and Inserting Graphs
    A graph can help explain your spreadsheet information. First, highlight the data you would like
    to include in your graph and then click insert and then chart or you can click on the chart icon
    on the tool bar.



                                                                                 Click on in-
                                                                                 sert and then
                                                                                 chart.




                                                                                 You can also
                                                        You must                 click on the
                                                        highlight data           chart icon
                                                        first.                   instead of
                                                                                 clicking on
                                                                                 insert.
                           After you click on chart
                           or the chart icon, this
                           prompt will appear.
                           You must select the ap-
                           propriate type of graph
                           for your data. In this
                           case a column chart has
                           been selected.



                           After choosing the ap-
                           propriate type of chart,
                           click next.




After you choose a
graph type and click
next, the this prompt
will appear. Inspect
the chart to the right
to see if it is correct.

You can see in this
chart that the dollar
amounts are to the
left on the y-axis
and the book title
run along the x-axis.
The columns are la-
beled as “value.”

When you have de-
termined that the
data is correct, then
click next.
When this prompt ap-
pears, click in the white
box under the words
”Chart Title,” and type an
appropriate title for your
chart.

Then click in the white
box under the words
“Category (X) axis,” and
type in an appropriate la-
bel.

Then click in the white
box under the words
“Category (X) axis,” and
type in an appropriate la-
bel.


                                      When you are satisfied with your title and label, then click next.




 When this prompt appears, you
 must decide if you want your
 chart or graph to appear by itself
 separate from your spreadsheet

 Or

 if you would like for your chart
 of graph to appear on the same
 page as your spreadsheet.


 When you have decided, then
 click finish to see your chart or
 graph.
This is what you spreadsheet should look like if you chose to insert you chart or graph within the spread-
sheet.




This is what your chart or graph should look like if you chose to place it on a sheet separate from the
spreadsheet.
                                                 Essential Questions:                                   Assessment Methods

                                                      •    How do you create and save a                     •    2 small
                                                           spreadsheet?                                          projects
                                                      •    What are the main parts of a                     •    1 quiz
                                                           spreadsheet and how are they used?               •    1 culminating
Day 2: Inserting Functions and Formulas               •    How do you create simple functions                    project
into spreadsheets                                          and formulas?
                                                      •    How can graphs and charts be created
                                                           to better explain experiment results or
General Lesson plans: The students will                    researched data?
                                                      •    How does your spreadsheet effectively
learn how to insert functions and formulas                 or ineffectively relay your data to others
into their spreadsheets assisted by a step-by-             in your absence?
step handout. They will then save to a disk.

Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c

Materials: Spreadsheet guide, first assignment handout –project #1, and lab computer.

Anticipatory Set – Did you know that a computer could perform huge math problems for
you? It can. It can add up several hundred or even several thousand numbers almost
instantly. It can save you time. What am I talking about? Spreadsheets. Ask for
definition of a Spreadsheet (It’s on the handout). Explain what spreadsheets do. Let me
show you. Demonstrate by showing a sample grade book and inserting average functions
in the Final Grade column. This can be done easily by inserting the AVERAGE function
in the first cell at the end of the first student’s grades and clicking on the grab box and
dragging down to the last student. It will simultaneously place the AVERAGE function
in all the students’ rows and calculate the averages. (It should be impressive.) What do
you think spreadsheets would be used for?

Body – Review the main parts of a spreadsheet and announce that there will be a short
quiz later. Demonstrate inserting functions and formulas into the spreadsheet from
project #1 following along with the handout guide (see guide).

Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the steps and the assignment
using dipstick method. Challenge students who do not usually perform well on
computers and those who cannot read very well. “How is a formula different from a
function?” “When should a formula be used instead of a function?”

Call on three students using the seating chart to insert a function and a formula into the
demonstration spreadsheet. (Call on the first person in each row, followed by the second
person in each row. Note: there are six rows in various positions around the room. It
would be rather difficult to decipher the pattern. See seating chart lay-out.)

Guided Practice – Students will complete part 2 of project #1. They will insert a SUM
function and write in the AVERAGE formula.

Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Cover all
information listed in “Checks for Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of
lesson that students do not come up with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.)
Review – Quiz on main the parts of a spreadsheet. Students will open the quiz from the
F: Drive. It is called “Spreadsheet Quiz 5th Grade.” They are to take the quiz and print it
out.

Independent practice – None.




                     Spreadsheet Quiz – Main Parts of a Spreadsheet



What is the vertical information of a spreadsheet called?

Answer: Column

What is the horizontal information of a spreadsheet called?

Answer: Row

What do you call the box where a column and arrow intersect?

Answer: Cell

What are column’s labeled with?

Answer: Letters

What are rows labeled with?

Answer: Numbers

What information is used to determine a cell’s address?

Answer: The letter of the column followed by the number of the row.
                                                Essential Questions:                                   Assessment Methods

                                                     •    How do you create and save a                     •    2 small
                                                          spreadsheet?                                          projects
                                                     •    What are the main parts of a                     •    1 quiz
                                                          spreadsheet and how are they used?               •    1 culminating
Day 3: Interpreting and inserting                    •    How do you create simple functions                    project
Graphs and Graphics                                       and formulas?
                                                     •    How can graphs and charts be created
                                                          to better explain experiment results or
General Lesson plans: The students will                   researched data?
                                                     •    How does your spreadsheet effectively
learn how to insert graphs and graphics into              or ineffectively relay your data to others
their spreadsheet assisted by a step-by-step              in your absence?
handout guide. They will then save to a
disk.

Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c

Materials: Spreadsheet guide, second assignment handout, and lab computer.

Anticipatory Set – What is the difference between a graph and a graphic? A graph
displays data in an easily viewed form and a graphic is a computer word for “picture.”
Are either one necessary in order to relay the information in your spreadsheet to others
who might read it? No, but the graph can help get your point across and the graphic can
make it look interesting. Show before and after versions of a spreadsheet with and
without a graph and a graphic and then ask, “Which looks better?” “Which spreadsheet
is easier to understand?” “Which is more interesting and will more likely draw your
attention to it and read it?”

Body – Think, Pair, Share – Distribute a copy of the “World’s Population Growth Chart.”
In the “World’s Population Growth Rate” spreadsheet each student must interpret that
particular graph and explain what it is saying to a partner before sharing with the class.
Then students must answer the following questions in groups of 2-3 and share with the
rest of the class: “Will the growth rate continue to increase?” “What will happen if it
does or doesn’t?” (I want the students think about what the spreadsheet and graph are
telling them. They should discuss overpopulation and its effect on the planet’s
resources.) Perspective-facet 4.

Demonstrate inserting graphs and graphics into a spreadsheet following along with the
handout guide (see guide). Review inserting a graphic first, and then demonstrate
creating a graph. (They have already learned how to insert graphics during the word
processing and Internet search projects. It is the same process.) Show them different
types of graphs and discuss how each is used for specific purposes (displaying different
types of data). Demonstrate interpreting the graphs and how to acquire information from
them.

Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the steps and the assignment
using dipstick method. Challenge students who do not usually perform well on
computers and those who cannot read very well. What is a graph? What is a graphic?
What is a graph used for? Why do we use graphics at all? They—graphics--are only
pictures and really do not show you any information, right?
Call on three students using the seating chart to create a graph and three more students to
insert graphics. (Call on the first person in each row, followed by the second person in
each row. See seating chart lay-out.)

Guided Practice – Class work assignment: students will open two spreadsheets, with
different types of data, from the F: drive and save them to their folders. They must
decide which type of graph would be appropriate for each spreadsheet and create one for
each. They must tell why they chose each in a short 2-3-sentence report and insert a
graphic along with each graph.

Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Call on
students next in line (see seating chart). Cover all information listed in “Checks for
Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up
with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.)

Review – Covered in Closure for this particular assignment.

Independent practice – Students must list their five favorite books that they own and the
cost of each. (Book prices are usually listed on the back cover near the bottom. If it
cannot be located, guess.) Data will be brought with them for the next class.
                                                               World Population

                                                           World Population Chart
                         7000


                         6000


                         5000
World Population (mil)




                         4000
                                                                                                               World Population
                         3000


                         2000


                         1000


                           0
                                0   500             1000               1500            2000             2500
                                                             Year




                                      Spreadsheets on the F: Drive that students have to insert graphs and
                                      graphics for.
                                                 Essential Questions:                                   Assessment Methods

                                                      •    How do you create and save a                     •    2 small
                                                           spreadsheet?                                          projects
                                                      •    What are the main parts of a                     •    1 quiz
                                                           spreadsheet and how are they used?               •    1 culminating
Day 4: Inserting Graphs and Graphics                  •    How do you create simple functions                    project
                                                           and formulas?
                                                   •       How can graphs and charts be created
General Lesson plans: The students will                    to better explain experiment results or
learn how to insert graphs and charts into a               researched data?
                                                   •       How does your spreadsheet effectively
spreadsheet. Assisted by a step-by-step                    or ineffectively relay your data to others
handout guide the students will create a                   in your absence?
simple spreadsheet with information
gathered from home (five favorite books and the cost of each). They will then save to a
disk.

Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c

Materials: Spreadsheet guide, second assignment handout –project #2, and lab
computer.

Anticipatory Set – Ask students to read their list of favorite books and the cost of each.
Ask them if they are ready to create a spreadsheet for their lists.

Body – Demonstrate inserting graphs and graphics into a spreadsheet following along
with the handout guide (see guide). Review inserting a graphic first, and then
demonstrate creating a graph. (They have already learned how to insert graphics during
the word processing and Internet search projects. It is the same process.) Show them
different types of graphs and discuss how each is used for specific purposes (displaying
different types of data). Demonstrate interpreting the graphs and how to acquire
information from them.

Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the steps and the assignment
using dipstick method. Challenge students who do not usually perform well on
computers and those who cannot read very well. What is a graph? What is a graphic?
What is a graph used for? Why do we use graphics at all? They—graphics--are only
pictures and really do not show you any information, right?

Call on three students using the seating chart to create a graph and three more students to
insert graphics. (Call on the first person in each row, followed by the second person in
each row. See seating chart lay-out.)

Guided Practice – Students will complete assessment # 2: project #2.

Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Call on
students next in line (see seating chart). Cover all information listed in “Checks for
Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up
with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.)

Review – see closure
Independent practice – Decide upon a project that they would like to complete from a
prepared list.
                                                 Essential Questions:                                   Assessment Methods

                                                      •    How do you create and save a                     •    2 small
                                                           spreadsheet?                                          projects
                                                      •    What are the main parts of a                     •    1 quiz
Day 5: Introduction to Final Assessment                    spreadsheet and how are they used?               •    1 culminating
Project.                                              •    How do you create simple functions                    project
                                                           and formulas?
                                                      •    How can graphs and charts be created
General Lesson plans: Students will set-up                 to better explain experiment results or
                                                           researched data?
spreadsheets in preparation for experiments,          •    How does your spreadsheet effectively
make predictions (generating hypotheses),                  or ineffectively relay your data to others
                                                           in your absence?
and then test their hypotheses through
experimentation. This addresses Marzano’s
“Generating and Testing Hypotheses.”

Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c

Materials: Spreadsheet guide, experiment project sheet, materials necessary to carry out
experiment, and lab computer.

Anticipatory Set – Have you ever thought something would happen and then it did? Or
perhaps it didn’t happen the way you thought. How many thought the Giants were going
to beat the Red Sox in the Superbowl? Do you think Hillary Clinton will win the election
next year? Are these hypotheses or just best guesses? A hypothesis is an educated guess,
which means that you are provided with some information and you simply predict what
you think will happen. Demonstrate “The Collapsing Can” and give the students the
opportunity to share their predictions with a partner. Explain experiment: Tell why the
can collapsed. The science fair is not far away. Today we are going to practice for the
science fair. We will set-up spreadsheets to be ready to accept data that we will create
from our experiments. We will make predictions and then test them.

Body -- Set-up a spreadsheet following along with the handout guide and a sample
project sheet (see guide). Demonstrate how to insert a text box and type in hypothesis
and also how to insert data results along with appropriate formulas (average, sum, etc.)

Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the steps and the assignment
using dipstick method. What is the text box used for? How do you insert it? Where does
your data go? Where are formulas used?

Call on three students using the seating chart to create a simple spreadsheet based on a
simple experiment. Each will complete one part of the spreadsheet (Title, label for the
data, formulas, hypothesis, and finally the experimental data. (Call on the next person in
each row according to the seating chart and beginning where you left off last time. See
seating chart lay-out.)

Guided Practice – Students will conduct an experiment with a partner, but will create
individual spreadsheets. They will set-up a spreadsheet that will be ready to accept
experimental data complete with title, labels, formulas, and hypothesis. They will
perform simple experiments with a partner, insert data, and determine if results
corroborated or contradicted their hypotheses.
Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Call on
students next in line (see seating chart). Cover all information listed in “Checks for
Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up
with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.) Be sure to ask, “Did anyone predict
their outcomes correctly? Did you get lucky are you an Einstein? Does it really matter if
your hypothesis was correct? Why or why not? What is more important than making a
correct hypothesis?

Review – Covered in Closure for this particular assignment.

Independent practice – Come up with five experiments you think you might like to try.
Ask yourself, “Is there some things about you or the world around you that you would
like to know? Can you perform an experiment to find out? What are they? Do you have
any hypotheses?”
      Experiment Demonstration: The Collapsing Can
We are so accustomed to the pressure of the air around us that we don't even notice it.
However, the air pressure is large enough to crush a soda can. You can see the air crush a
can in this experiment.

For this experiment you will need:

       an empty aluminum soft-drink can
       a 2- or 3-liter (2- or 3-quart) saucepan
       a pair of kitchen tongs

Fill the saucepan with cold water. Put 15 milliliters (1 tablespoon) of water into the
empty soft-drink can. Heat the can on a hot plate to boil the water. When the water boils,
a cloud of condensed vapor will escape from the opening in the can. Allow the water to
boil for about 30 seconds. (You can heat water using the office microwave oven.
Immerse can in the water for 30+ seconds. It is not as dramatic this way.) Using the
tongs, grasp the can and quickly invert it and dip it into the water in the pan. The can will
collapse almost instantaneously.
What caused the can to collapse? When you heated the can you caused the water in it to
boil. The vapor from the boiling water pushed the air out of the can. When the can was
filled with water vapor, you cooled it suddenly by inverting it is water. Cooling the can
caused the water vapor in the can to condense, leaving the can empty. When the can was
empty, the pressure of the air outside crushed it.
A can is crushed when the pressure outside is greater than the pressure inside, and the
pressure difference is greater than the can is able to withstand. You can crush an open
aluminum can with your hand. When you squeeze on the can, the pressure outside
becomes greater than the pressure inside. If you squeeze hard enough the can collapses.
Usually, the air pressure inside an open can is the same as the pressure outside. However,
in this experiment, the air was driven out of the can and replaced by water vapor. When
the water vapor condensed, the pressure inside the can became much less than the air
pressure outside. Then the air outside crushed the can.
When the water vapor inside the can condensed, the can was empty. You may have
expected the water in the pan to fill the can through the hole in the can. Some water from
the pan may do this. However, the water cannot flow into the can fast enough to fill the
can before the air outside crushes it.
CAUTION: Do not heat the can over high heat or heat the can when it is empty.
This may cause the ink on the can to burn or the aluminum to melt.
                                               Essential Questions:                                   Assessment Methods

                                                    •    How do you create and save a                     •    2 small
                                                         spreadsheet?                                          projects
                                                    •    What are the main parts of a                     •    1 quiz
Day 6: Students will complete Final                      spreadsheet and how are they used?               •    1 culminating
Assessment Project                                  •    How do you create simple functions                    project
                                                         and formulas?
                                                    •    How can graphs and charts be created
General Lesson plans: The students will                  to better explain experiment results or
                                                         researched data?
insert functions and/or formulas, graphs            •    How does your spreadsheet effectively
and/or charts, graphics and a short report               or ineffectively relay your data to others
                                                         in your absence?
into their project spreadsheets. They will
then save to a disk.

Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c

Materials: Spreadsheet guide, experiment project sheet, and lab computer.

Anticipatory Set – Acknowledge that all students have setup their spreadsheets and have
conducted their experiments. “I will choose 10 to display on the bulletin board. It will
be our mini-science fair.”

Body – quickly review inserting a graph/chart, graphic, function, and formula.
Demonstrate how to write a 2-3-sentence report explaining personal interpretation of
experiment results as it is displayed on the spreadsheet. Think, Pair, Share: show a
completed spreadsheet on the Smartboard and have students share their interpretations
with a partner before sharing their thoughts with the class.

Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the report using dipstick method.

Guided Practice – Students will complete their spreadsheet projects.

Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Call on
students next in line (see seating chart). Cover all information listed in “Checks for
Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up
with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.)

Review – Who would like to present their spreadsheet project to the class?

Independent practice – None

				
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