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Computer/Technology/5th Grade/Spreadsheets 4-45 minute class sessions. Essential Learnings: • Students will be able to create a spreadsheet using Microsoft Excel. • Students will be able to recognize and explain the basic spreadsheet parts. • Students will be able to create simple functions and formulas. • Students will be able to create graphs and charts from spreadsheet data. • Students will be able to evaluate the effectiveness of their spreadsheets to display data. Essential Questions: • How do you create and save a spreadsheet? • What are the main parts of a spreadsheet and how are they used? • How do you create simple functions and formulas? • How can graphs and charts be created to better explain experiment results or researched data? • How does your spreadsheet effectively or ineffectively relay your data to others in your absence? Assessment Methods • 2 small projects • 1 quiz • 1 culminating project Unit Map Day 1: Introduction to spreadsheets and Inserting and creating formulas. Day 2: Inserting/Creating Graphs and Graphics. Day 3: Introduction to project. Day 4: Complete project. Assessment #1: part 1 - This assessment follows initial instruction and is considered guided practice. Create a spreadsheet using Microsoft excel that shows how many pets live in the homes of five students in your class. List each student’s name and the number of pets that live with each student. Give your spreadsheet a title and include appropriate labels. Part 2 – Add a function that will find a total number of all the pets and another function that will find the average number of pets per student. Don’t forget to label everything. It should look similar to the spreadsheet below. The function can be viewed here when the cell, where it is located, is selected. Results of the function or mathematical calcu- lation is shown here, not the function itself Spreadsheet Assessment #1: Rubric Criteria 0 Points 1 Point 2 Points Present but not visually Title on Spreadsheet None Has all elements included appropriate Columns not labeled Columns and rows labeled Column labels None correctly correctly, easy to read Cell information hard Cell information correct and Cell information None to read or not correct easy to read Not well organized, Well organized and understand Table organization None hard to understand data data Functions present, but Functions present with correct Functions None incorrect data included data Spelling & Spelling mistakes are Several entries are Spell check has been utilized to Punctuation present throughout misspelled correct spelling errors the spreadsheet Assignment #2: Create a spreadsheet using Microsoft excel that shows the value (how much something is worth) of your top five favorite books that you own (students may list more). List each book along with how much it cost. Give your spreadsheet a title and include appropriate labels. Also, include a function that will find a total value of all the books and another function that will find the average value per book. Don’t forget to label everything. It should look similar to the spreadsheet below. Spreadsheet Assessment #2: Rubric Criteria 0 Points 1 Point 2 Points Present but not visually Title on Spreadsheet None Has all elements included appropriate Columns not labeled Columns and rows labeled Column labels None correctly correctly, easy to read Cell information hard Cell information correct and Cell information None to read or not correct easy to read Not well organized, Well organized and understand Table organization None hard to understand data data Functions present, but Functions present with correct Functions None incorrect data included data Spelling & Spelling mistakes are Several entries are Spell check has been utilized to Punctuation present throughout misspelled correct spelling errors the spreadsheet Assessment #4: There are several projects from which the students may choose to complete within groups of three. One of these projects is described below. Although the experiments are performed together, each student must complete an individual spreadsheet assignment and save to his or her folder and print out. What’s Your Reaction Time? Tech Tools Resource Kit for Microsoft Excel. Teacher Created Materials. Westminster, California: 2001. Have you ever wondered how quick your “reaction time is? Reaction time is simply the amount of time it takes you to respond to something without warning. Reaction times are extremely quick, but there is a method to measure your reaction time by using classroom tools. Rather than measuring the time directly, we can measure something else and then convert it to time. Picture this: Your partner is dangling a ruler over the floor just above your hand, which is ready to pinch it. Your thumb and index finger are even with the 0cm mark, which is the end closest to the ground. Each (thumb and finger) is about one inch away from either side of the ruler. When your partner releases the ruler, without warning, it will fall to the ground. As soon as you notice this, you must pinch the ruler as quickly as possible. It is important that you do not try to anticipate when your partner will release the ruler. It is also important that your partner does not try to trick you into thinking he is releasing the ruler or try to thrust the ruler downward. The holder must simply release it without warning and you must try to pinch it with your thumb and index finger. By looking at the centimeter mark on the ruler where your fingers pinched, you can determine how far the ruler dropped before you caught it. The distance the ruler dropped can be converted into units of time by a formula that takes into account the acceleration force of gravity. This formula is provided for you, so you do not need to be a rocket scientist to figure it out. You will perform four drop trials with each hand, and average them. In order to see your data and compare it better, you will create a column chart displaying the average response time for both hands. Your Microsoft Excel spreadsheet must include: 1. Appropriate title. 2. The distances the ruler dropped for each of the four trials for each hand. Be sure to include appropriate labels. 3. The average distance the ruler dropped over the four trials for each hand, calculated by spreadsheet formulas of your design. Be sure to include appropriate labels. 4. A column chart showing the reaction time of both hands. (See instructor for formula that converts centimeters into time). Make sure to include an appropriate title and axes labels. 5. At least one graphic related to the topic. 6. An explanation of any differences between the reaction time of your left and right hands. 7. An explanation of how your spreadsheet does or does not describe your experiment and its results effectively in your absence. Data Collection Table Hand Trial #1 (cm) Trial #2 (cm) Trial #3 (cm) Trial #4 (cm) Left Right Spreadsheet Assessment #4: Project Rubric Criteria 0 Points 1 Point 2 Points Title on Present but not visually Has all elements None Spreadsheet appropriate included Columns and rows Columns not labeled Column labels None labeled correctly, easy correctly to read Cell information hard Cell information correct Cell information None to read or not correct and easy to read Not well organized, Well organized and Table organization None hard to understand data understand data Functions present, but Functions present with Functions None incorrect data included correct data Formula incorrectly Formula incorrectly Formula correctly Formulas entered with entered or incorrect entered with correct incorrect data data data Graph shows data as Graph(s) None Does not indicate the well organized correct data Not Appropriate for Organized and easy to Graph Type(s) Hard to read data read Report Conclusion does Some elements Accurately explains represent spreadsheet accurately represent student conclusion data spreadsheet data based on spreadsheet data Spelling & Spelling mistakes are Several entries are Spell check has been Punctuation present throughout misspelled utilized to correct the spreadsheet spelling errors Assessment #4 Example: What’s Your Reaction Time Record the distance the ruler dropped in centimeters for each of your four trials for both hands. Use spreadsheet formulas (cells G16 and G17) to calculate the average of the four trials for both hands. The average distance dropped will automatically be converted to seconds. The formulas in cells H16 and H17 that make this conversion take into account the acceleration due to gravity, and convert the distance dropped into time (seconds). Chart your final reaction time data for both hands in the same chart. Can you explain any differences between your right and left hand? Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 Trial #4 Converted Hand Average(cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) to seconds Left 13 13 12 12 12.50 0.160 Right 14 15 14 15 14.50 0.172 My left hand reaction time was slower than my right. I think this is because I am right-handed and am quicker with my dominant hand. Essential Questions: Assessment Methods • How do you create and save a • 2 small spreadsheet? projects • What are the main parts of a • 1 quiz spreadsheet and how are they used? • 1 culminating • How do you create simple functions project Day 1: Introduction to spreadsheets and formulas? • How can graphs and charts be created to better explain experiment results or General Lesson plans: The students will researched data? • How does your spreadsheet effectively learn how to open and use spreadsheet or ineffectively relay your data to others software. The students will learn how to in your absence? insert functions and formulas into their spreadsheets. Assisted by a step-by-step handout guide the students will create a simple spreadsheet with information gathered from their classmates. Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c Materials: Spreadsheet guide, first assignment handout -project , and lab computer. Anticipatory Set – Did you know that a computer could perform huge math problems for you? It can. It can add up several hundred or even several thousand numbers almost instantly. It can save you time. What am I talking about? Spreadsheets. Ask for definition of a Spreadsheet (It’s on the handout). Explain what spreadsheets do. Let me show you. Demonstrate by showing a sample grade book and inserting average functions in the Final Grade column. This can be done easily by inserting the AVERAGE function in the first cell at the end of the first student’s grades and clicking on the grab box and dragging down to the last student. It will simultaneously place the AVERAGE function in all the students’ rows and calculate the averages. (It should be impressive.) What do you think spreadsheets would be used for? Body -- Review the main parts of a spreadsheet and announce that there will be a short quiz later. Demonstrate inserting functions and formulas into the spreadsheet from project #1 following along with the handout guide (see guide). Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the steps and the assignment using dipstick method. Challenge students who do not usually perform well on computers and those who cannot read very well. What is a spreadsheet? What is the vertical information called? What is the horizontal information called? What is a cell? How can you determine the cell address? What do we mean by “data entry?” How is a formula different from a function? When should a formula be used instead of a function? Call on three students using the seating chart to enter data into cells that you call out. As each student takes a turn the spreadsheet should develop in accordance with project #1. (Call on the first person in each row, followed by the second person in each row. Note: there are six rows in various positions around the room. It would be rather difficult to decipher the pattern. See seating chart lay-out.) Guided Practice – Class work assignment: create a spreadsheet that lists the number of pets in the homes of the students in your group (see Assignment #1: Part 1). There are five groups of four students (+ or – one student). They are to ask each student in their group for the number of pets living in their house. (This can get interesting if one or two have a large aquarium of fish. One student may over 100 pets.) Students are not to call out to the instructor, but are to place a red disc (laminated construction paper cut into a circle) on top of his or her computer if assistance is required. A green and a red disc are provided at each computer. Red is for assistance, green is placed on top of the computer by the instructor when a task is complete signaling free time or enrichment activity has begun. Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Call on students next in line (see seating chart). Cover all information listed in “Checks for Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.) Review – Covered in Closure for this particular assignment. Independent practice – None Spreadsheets-Guide What is a spreadsheet? A spreadsheet is a type of software that allows you to organize numbers and other data into a grid of cells. A spreadsheet can do math and create graphs and charts. What is the name of the spreadsheet software that we will be us- ing? Hint: this is the icon. Spreadsheets are used by businesses to keep track of money. Teachers use them to record and calculate grade point averages. There are many uses for a spreadsheet. Can you think of any? 1 What does a spreadsheet look like? A spreadsheet uses a crisscross or grid worksheet, like a database, and is made up of columns and rows. Columns go up and down and rows go side-to-side (across). A cell looks like a box and is where a col- umn and row intersect. The entire worksheet is called a grid. Each column has a letter at the top. The first column is lettered “A,” the second is “B” and continues through the alphabet. What happens if there are more columns than letters in the alphabet? Each row is numbered on the left side of our grid, staring with “1,” then “2,” and contin- ues in numerical. Will there ever be more rows than numbers? Each cell is identified by its column letter and then its row number. This is known as the cell address. The very first cell in the top left cor- ner, which is outlined is known as A1. The cell shaded above is identified as I20. What is the cell address of the cell shaded to the right? 2 Entering data into your spreadsheet Simply click on a cell to highlight it and begin typing in your data. You can type in words and numbers, and later you can insert functions. The spreadsheet to the right contains letters and numbers. Words and numbers are used to create an effective spreadsheet. A function that would add all of the numbers from cells B2:B5 would go in cell B6. When all of your numerical data has been entered, you can insert formulas or questions which will perform mathematical calculations. Entering functions and formulas into 3 your spreadsheet A function is a pre-made formula. It tells the computer to add, subtract, find the average, etc., any numbers you wish. To enter a formula click on the cell where you want your function to be. Then click on Insert on the menu bar and then click on function or you may simply click on the function icon on the tool bar. When you set-up your spreadsheet, you will have a place for the total number of pets and a place for the average. In order to insert a function for Click on you total, you must insert, click in the cell next then click to the word ”Total.” on func- You must click in the tion. cell next to the word “Average” in order to put your average function there. Click on the func- tion icon The Paste Function dialogue box will appear. You may choose your function from a list of categories. How many functions are there? You must choose the for- mula that is appropriate. If you want to add up all the numbers in the cells If you click on a certain category on the left side, you would use the SUM different functions will function. If you wanted appear on the right side. to count the number of The most common ones cells that have numbers appear in the Most in them, you would use Recently Used cate- the Count function. If gory and all functions you want to find the av- appear in the All cate- erage of the all the num- bers in the cells, you would use the Average function. After you have Once you have chosen a function, the prompt below will appear. The prompt is asking you which cells you This prompt—B4:B12 is asking the The results The numbers computer user if he or she would like will appear from the cells to add the numbers in the cells from here. listed appear B4 all the way to B12 (That’s B4, B5, here. B6, B7, B8, B9, B10, B11, and B12) together using the SUM function The cells the computer wants to in- They will also clude in the SUM function are shown appear her, if you clicked on this cell before Once you have determined that you have included the correct cells in your function, then click OK. After you have entered your data and inserted your SUM function, your spreadsheet should look something like the one below. The function can be viewed here when the cell, where it is located, is selected. Results of the function or mathematical calcu- lation is shown here, not the function itself. 4 Creating and Inserting Graphs A graph can help explain your spreadsheet information. First, highlight the data you would like to include in your graph and then click insert and then chart or you can click on the chart icon on the tool bar. Click on in- sert and then chart. You can also You must click on the highlight data chart icon first. instead of clicking on insert. After you click on chart or the chart icon, this prompt will appear. You must select the ap- propriate type of graph for your data. In this case a column chart has been selected. After choosing the ap- propriate type of chart, click next. After you choose a graph type and click next, the this prompt will appear. Inspect the chart to the right to see if it is correct. You can see in this chart that the dollar amounts are to the left on the y-axis and the book title run along the x-axis. The columns are la- beled as “value.” When you have de- termined that the data is correct, then click next. When this prompt ap- pears, click in the white box under the words ”Chart Title,” and type an appropriate title for your chart. Then click in the white box under the words “Category (X) axis,” and type in an appropriate la- bel. Then click in the white box under the words “Category (X) axis,” and type in an appropriate la- bel. When you are satisfied with your title and label, then click next. When this prompt appears, you must decide if you want your chart or graph to appear by itself separate from your spreadsheet Or if you would like for your chart of graph to appear on the same page as your spreadsheet. When you have decided, then click finish to see your chart or graph. This is what you spreadsheet should look like if you chose to insert you chart or graph within the spread- sheet. This is what your chart or graph should look like if you chose to place it on a sheet separate from the spreadsheet. Essential Questions: Assessment Methods • How do you create and save a • 2 small spreadsheet? projects • What are the main parts of a • 1 quiz spreadsheet and how are they used? • 1 culminating Day 2: Inserting Functions and Formulas • How do you create simple functions project into spreadsheets and formulas? • How can graphs and charts be created to better explain experiment results or General Lesson plans: The students will researched data? • How does your spreadsheet effectively learn how to insert functions and formulas or ineffectively relay your data to others into their spreadsheets assisted by a step-by- in your absence? step handout. They will then save to a disk. Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c Materials: Spreadsheet guide, first assignment handout –project #1, and lab computer. Anticipatory Set – Did you know that a computer could perform huge math problems for you? It can. It can add up several hundred or even several thousand numbers almost instantly. It can save you time. What am I talking about? Spreadsheets. Ask for definition of a Spreadsheet (It’s on the handout). Explain what spreadsheets do. Let me show you. Demonstrate by showing a sample grade book and inserting average functions in the Final Grade column. This can be done easily by inserting the AVERAGE function in the first cell at the end of the first student’s grades and clicking on the grab box and dragging down to the last student. It will simultaneously place the AVERAGE function in all the students’ rows and calculate the averages. (It should be impressive.) What do you think spreadsheets would be used for? Body – Review the main parts of a spreadsheet and announce that there will be a short quiz later. Demonstrate inserting functions and formulas into the spreadsheet from project #1 following along with the handout guide (see guide). Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the steps and the assignment using dipstick method. Challenge students who do not usually perform well on computers and those who cannot read very well. “How is a formula different from a function?” “When should a formula be used instead of a function?” Call on three students using the seating chart to insert a function and a formula into the demonstration spreadsheet. (Call on the first person in each row, followed by the second person in each row. Note: there are six rows in various positions around the room. It would be rather difficult to decipher the pattern. See seating chart lay-out.) Guided Practice – Students will complete part 2 of project #1. They will insert a SUM function and write in the AVERAGE formula. Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Cover all information listed in “Checks for Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.) Review – Quiz on main the parts of a spreadsheet. Students will open the quiz from the F: Drive. It is called “Spreadsheet Quiz 5th Grade.” They are to take the quiz and print it out. Independent practice – None. Spreadsheet Quiz – Main Parts of a Spreadsheet What is the vertical information of a spreadsheet called? Answer: Column What is the horizontal information of a spreadsheet called? Answer: Row What do you call the box where a column and arrow intersect? Answer: Cell What are column’s labeled with? Answer: Letters What are rows labeled with? Answer: Numbers What information is used to determine a cell’s address? Answer: The letter of the column followed by the number of the row. Essential Questions: Assessment Methods • How do you create and save a • 2 small spreadsheet? projects • What are the main parts of a • 1 quiz spreadsheet and how are they used? • 1 culminating Day 3: Interpreting and inserting • How do you create simple functions project Graphs and Graphics and formulas? • How can graphs and charts be created to better explain experiment results or General Lesson plans: The students will researched data? • How does your spreadsheet effectively learn how to insert graphs and graphics into or ineffectively relay your data to others their spreadsheet assisted by a step-by-step in your absence? handout guide. They will then save to a disk. Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c Materials: Spreadsheet guide, second assignment handout, and lab computer. Anticipatory Set – What is the difference between a graph and a graphic? A graph displays data in an easily viewed form and a graphic is a computer word for “picture.” Are either one necessary in order to relay the information in your spreadsheet to others who might read it? No, but the graph can help get your point across and the graphic can make it look interesting. Show before and after versions of a spreadsheet with and without a graph and a graphic and then ask, “Which looks better?” “Which spreadsheet is easier to understand?” “Which is more interesting and will more likely draw your attention to it and read it?” Body – Think, Pair, Share – Distribute a copy of the “World’s Population Growth Chart.” In the “World’s Population Growth Rate” spreadsheet each student must interpret that particular graph and explain what it is saying to a partner before sharing with the class. Then students must answer the following questions in groups of 2-3 and share with the rest of the class: “Will the growth rate continue to increase?” “What will happen if it does or doesn’t?” (I want the students think about what the spreadsheet and graph are telling them. They should discuss overpopulation and its effect on the planet’s resources.) Perspective-facet 4. Demonstrate inserting graphs and graphics into a spreadsheet following along with the handout guide (see guide). Review inserting a graphic first, and then demonstrate creating a graph. (They have already learned how to insert graphics during the word processing and Internet search projects. It is the same process.) Show them different types of graphs and discuss how each is used for specific purposes (displaying different types of data). Demonstrate interpreting the graphs and how to acquire information from them. Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the steps and the assignment using dipstick method. Challenge students who do not usually perform well on computers and those who cannot read very well. What is a graph? What is a graphic? What is a graph used for? Why do we use graphics at all? They—graphics--are only pictures and really do not show you any information, right? Call on three students using the seating chart to create a graph and three more students to insert graphics. (Call on the first person in each row, followed by the second person in each row. See seating chart lay-out.) Guided Practice – Class work assignment: students will open two spreadsheets, with different types of data, from the F: drive and save them to their folders. They must decide which type of graph would be appropriate for each spreadsheet and create one for each. They must tell why they chose each in a short 2-3-sentence report and insert a graphic along with each graph. Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Call on students next in line (see seating chart). Cover all information listed in “Checks for Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.) Review – Covered in Closure for this particular assignment. Independent practice – Students must list their five favorite books that they own and the cost of each. (Book prices are usually listed on the back cover near the bottom. If it cannot be located, guess.) Data will be brought with them for the next class. World Population World Population Chart 7000 6000 5000 World Population (mil) 4000 World Population 3000 2000 1000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Year Spreadsheets on the F: Drive that students have to insert graphs and graphics for. Essential Questions: Assessment Methods • How do you create and save a • 2 small spreadsheet? projects • What are the main parts of a • 1 quiz spreadsheet and how are they used? • 1 culminating Day 4: Inserting Graphs and Graphics • How do you create simple functions project and formulas? • How can graphs and charts be created General Lesson plans: The students will to better explain experiment results or learn how to insert graphs and charts into a researched data? • How does your spreadsheet effectively spreadsheet. Assisted by a step-by-step or ineffectively relay your data to others handout guide the students will create a in your absence? simple spreadsheet with information gathered from home (five favorite books and the cost of each). They will then save to a disk. Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c Materials: Spreadsheet guide, second assignment handout –project #2, and lab computer. Anticipatory Set – Ask students to read their list of favorite books and the cost of each. Ask them if they are ready to create a spreadsheet for their lists. Body – Demonstrate inserting graphs and graphics into a spreadsheet following along with the handout guide (see guide). Review inserting a graphic first, and then demonstrate creating a graph. (They have already learned how to insert graphics during the word processing and Internet search projects. It is the same process.) Show them different types of graphs and discuss how each is used for specific purposes (displaying different types of data). Demonstrate interpreting the graphs and how to acquire information from them. Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the steps and the assignment using dipstick method. Challenge students who do not usually perform well on computers and those who cannot read very well. What is a graph? What is a graphic? What is a graph used for? Why do we use graphics at all? They—graphics--are only pictures and really do not show you any information, right? Call on three students using the seating chart to create a graph and three more students to insert graphics. (Call on the first person in each row, followed by the second person in each row. See seating chart lay-out.) Guided Practice – Students will complete assessment # 2: project #2. Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Call on students next in line (see seating chart). Cover all information listed in “Checks for Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.) Review – see closure Independent practice – Decide upon a project that they would like to complete from a prepared list. Essential Questions: Assessment Methods • How do you create and save a • 2 small spreadsheet? projects • What are the main parts of a • 1 quiz Day 5: Introduction to Final Assessment spreadsheet and how are they used? • 1 culminating Project. • How do you create simple functions project and formulas? • How can graphs and charts be created General Lesson plans: Students will set-up to better explain experiment results or researched data? spreadsheets in preparation for experiments, • How does your spreadsheet effectively make predictions (generating hypotheses), or ineffectively relay your data to others in your absence? and then test their hypotheses through experimentation. This addresses Marzano’s “Generating and Testing Hypotheses.” Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c Materials: Spreadsheet guide, experiment project sheet, materials necessary to carry out experiment, and lab computer. Anticipatory Set – Have you ever thought something would happen and then it did? Or perhaps it didn’t happen the way you thought. How many thought the Giants were going to beat the Red Sox in the Superbowl? Do you think Hillary Clinton will win the election next year? Are these hypotheses or just best guesses? A hypothesis is an educated guess, which means that you are provided with some information and you simply predict what you think will happen. Demonstrate “The Collapsing Can” and give the students the opportunity to share their predictions with a partner. Explain experiment: Tell why the can collapsed. The science fair is not far away. Today we are going to practice for the science fair. We will set-up spreadsheets to be ready to accept data that we will create from our experiments. We will make predictions and then test them. Body -- Set-up a spreadsheet following along with the handout guide and a sample project sheet (see guide). Demonstrate how to insert a text box and type in hypothesis and also how to insert data results along with appropriate formulas (average, sum, etc.) Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the steps and the assignment using dipstick method. What is the text box used for? How do you insert it? Where does your data go? Where are formulas used? Call on three students using the seating chart to create a simple spreadsheet based on a simple experiment. Each will complete one part of the spreadsheet (Title, label for the data, formulas, hypothesis, and finally the experimental data. (Call on the next person in each row according to the seating chart and beginning where you left off last time. See seating chart lay-out.) Guided Practice – Students will conduct an experiment with a partner, but will create individual spreadsheets. They will set-up a spreadsheet that will be ready to accept experimental data complete with title, labels, formulas, and hypothesis. They will perform simple experiments with a partner, insert data, and determine if results corroborated or contradicted their hypotheses. Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Call on students next in line (see seating chart). Cover all information listed in “Checks for Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.) Be sure to ask, “Did anyone predict their outcomes correctly? Did you get lucky are you an Einstein? Does it really matter if your hypothesis was correct? Why or why not? What is more important than making a correct hypothesis? Review – Covered in Closure for this particular assignment. Independent practice – Come up with five experiments you think you might like to try. Ask yourself, “Is there some things about you or the world around you that you would like to know? Can you perform an experiment to find out? What are they? Do you have any hypotheses?” Experiment Demonstration: The Collapsing Can We are so accustomed to the pressure of the air around us that we don't even notice it. However, the air pressure is large enough to crush a soda can. You can see the air crush a can in this experiment. For this experiment you will need: an empty aluminum soft-drink can a 2- or 3-liter (2- or 3-quart) saucepan a pair of kitchen tongs Fill the saucepan with cold water. Put 15 milliliters (1 tablespoon) of water into the empty soft-drink can. Heat the can on a hot plate to boil the water. When the water boils, a cloud of condensed vapor will escape from the opening in the can. Allow the water to boil for about 30 seconds. (You can heat water using the office microwave oven. Immerse can in the water for 30+ seconds. It is not as dramatic this way.) Using the tongs, grasp the can and quickly invert it and dip it into the water in the pan. The can will collapse almost instantaneously. What caused the can to collapse? When you heated the can you caused the water in it to boil. The vapor from the boiling water pushed the air out of the can. When the can was filled with water vapor, you cooled it suddenly by inverting it is water. Cooling the can caused the water vapor in the can to condense, leaving the can empty. When the can was empty, the pressure of the air outside crushed it. A can is crushed when the pressure outside is greater than the pressure inside, and the pressure difference is greater than the can is able to withstand. You can crush an open aluminum can with your hand. When you squeeze on the can, the pressure outside becomes greater than the pressure inside. If you squeeze hard enough the can collapses. Usually, the air pressure inside an open can is the same as the pressure outside. However, in this experiment, the air was driven out of the can and replaced by water vapor. When the water vapor condensed, the pressure inside the can became much less than the air pressure outside. Then the air outside crushed the can. When the water vapor inside the can condensed, the can was empty. You may have expected the water in the pan to fill the can through the hole in the can. Some water from the pan may do this. However, the water cannot flow into the can fast enough to fill the can before the air outside crushes it. CAUTION: Do not heat the can over high heat or heat the can when it is empty. This may cause the ink on the can to burn or the aluminum to melt. Essential Questions: Assessment Methods • How do you create and save a • 2 small spreadsheet? projects • What are the main parts of a • 1 quiz Day 6: Students will complete Final spreadsheet and how are they used? • 1 culminating Assessment Project • How do you create simple functions project and formulas? • How can graphs and charts be created General Lesson plans: The students will to better explain experiment results or researched data? insert functions and/or formulas, graphs • How does your spreadsheet effectively and/or charts, graphics and a short report or ineffectively relay your data to others in your absence? into their project spreadsheets. They will then save to a disk. Objective: SOL 5.2a & c, 5.4c Materials: Spreadsheet guide, experiment project sheet, and lab computer. Anticipatory Set – Acknowledge that all students have setup their spreadsheets and have conducted their experiments. “I will choose 10 to display on the bulletin board. It will be our mini-science fair.” Body – quickly review inserting a graph/chart, graphic, function, and formula. Demonstrate how to write a 2-3-sentence report explaining personal interpretation of experiment results as it is displayed on the spreadsheet. Think, Pair, Share: show a completed spreadsheet on the Smartboard and have students share their interpretations with a partner before sharing their thoughts with the class. Checks for understanding – Ask questions concerning the report using dipstick method. Guided Practice – Students will complete their spreadsheet projects. Closure – “What did we learn today?” Let students answer this question. Call on students next in line (see seating chart). Cover all information listed in “Checks for Understanding section.” (Only bring up aspects of lesson that students do not come up with. They will usually cover all aspects plus more.) Review – Who would like to present their spreadsheet project to the class? Independent practice – None

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