Public Employees Census New York State

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					   U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL
  STATISTICS SEMINAR

GOVERNMENTS DIVISION DATA

         Christopher Pece
        Michael Yamaner
       Governments Division

          301-763-1503         1
      UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

            Topics to Cover
•   Introduction to Governments Division
•   Basic Programs
•   Federal Statistics
•   Reimbursable Surveys
•   Conclusion



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     UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS


Introduction to Governments Division

 • Main Purposes of Governments Division
   Programs:
   – To provide economic statistics about
     Governments
   – They provide the government counterpart to
     business, industry, and services economic data


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     UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS


Introduction to Governments Division

• Government as an employer:
   – 15.8% of civilian labor force
    2.0% - Federal government
   13.8% - State and local government



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      UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS


Introduction to Governments Division

Government as a Producer (CY 2002)

Share of Gross Domestic Product
• 19.1% for all governments
    6.7% - Federal government
    12.4% - State and local government

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      UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS


Introduction to Governments Division

Government as a source of personal income
(CY 2000)

  • 21.9% derived from government sources
     – 9.0% from salaries and wages
     – 12.9% from transfer payments to persons


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      UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS


Introduction to Governments Division
 Governments and the Fortune 500
 • Measuring corporate sales and government
   revenue, all 50 states would make the
   Fortune 500 list
   – Two states in top 10 (CA=5th, NY=9th)
   – 15 states in top 100
   – Smallest state (SD) is about 350th
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       UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS


Introduction to Governments Division
 Governments and the Fortune 500 (continued)
 • Local governments –12 more would make list
    – 3 counties
    – 7 cities
    – 2 school districts
 • What’s true in national economy is true in
   individual states – i.e. governments are important
   economic entities in each state’s economy
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         UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS


Introduction to Governments Division

Main Users of Governments Division Data

  •   Bureau of Economic Analysis
  •   Federal Reserve Board
  •   Congress and state legislatures
  •   Public interest groups
  •   Businesses
  •   State and local governments
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      UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS


Introduction to Governments Division
 Primary emphasis:
 – State and local governments

 Some Federal government data, including:
 – Employment and payroll data
 – Expenditures, by function, program, and
   geography
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       UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

             Topics to Cover
•   Introduction to Governments Division
•   Basic Programs
•   Federal Statistics
•   Reimbursable Surveys
•   Conclusion



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     UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

    Basic Programs - Overview
• Government Organization
  How many governments are there?
  How are governments defined?
• Government Finances
  How much money do governments take in?
  How much do governments spend? On what?
  What’s government debt load?
• Government Employment
  How many public employees?
  What do they do (major function)?
  How much are they paid?
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          UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

Basic Programs - Government Organization
Classification of governments is our most basic and
  essential activity.
Why? Because……..
• Structure of governments vary
• Responsibilities of governments vary
Best data source – Government Organization
 Vol. 1, Number 1 Government Organization
 Vol.1, Number 2 Individual State Descriptions
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/abs/govern.html
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         UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

Basic Programs - Government Organization
• There are about 90,000 governments in the US
  (2002 official count = 87,576)
• Illinois had the most governments (6,904) and
  Hawaii the fewest (20)
• Cook County, Illinois, had more governments than
  any other county (539)
• Texas led nation with 254 county governments,
  Connecticut and Rhode Island have none.

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       UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

Basic Programs - Government Organization
Definition of government
• Existence as an organized entity – legal
  organization & corporate powers
• Governmental character – public officers &
  accountability
• Substantial autonomy
• Fiscal independence

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         UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

Basic Programs - Government Organization
              Government Units: 2002 and 1952

                            2002            1952
    Total governments      87,576          116,805
    U. S. Government            1                1
    State Governments          50               48
    Local Governments      87,525          116,756
    General Purpose        38,967           37,061
     County                 3,034            3,052
     Sub-county            35,933           34,009
      Municipal            19,429           16,807
      Township             16,504           17,202
    Special Purpose        48,558           79,695
     School District       13,506           67,355
     Special District      35,052           12,340
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                                  UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS
     Basic Programs - Government Organization
CITY OF NEW YORK, NEW YORK ID no. 33 2 031 001.                   New York City Municipal Water Finance Authority
                                                                  New York City Off-Track Betting Corporation
 Board of Education of New York City School District
                                                                  New York City Public Development Corporation
 City University of New York (community colleges)
 Fashion Institute of Technology, Manhattan
                                                                   New York City School Construction Authority
 Airports (John F. Kennedy International and La Guardia)

Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation                        New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA)
                                                                    Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Auth. (MABSTOA)
 Brooklyn Public Library (public libraries in Brooklyn)           South Brooklyn Railway Company (freight service only)
 Business Improvement Districts (BID)
                                                                   New York City Transit Construction Fund
 Business Relocation Assistance Corporation of New York City
                                                                   New York City Transitional Finance Authority
 City ferries to Staten Island (Dept. of Transportation)

 City markets and piers (Department of Ports and Terminals)        New York City Water Board

 City public health services (Department of Health)                Queens Public Library (public libraries in Queens)
 City water and sewer system (Dept. Environmental Protection)      Shea Municipal Stadium, Queens
 Community planning districts                                      Special Assessment Districts (SAD)
 Economic Development Corporation of New York City
                                                                   Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority (operates Battery Parking Garage,
 Financial Services Corporation of New York City                   Bronx-Whitestone Bridge, Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel, Cross-Bay Veterans
Municipal broadcasting station WNYC (Dept. of General Services)    Memorial Bridge, East Side Airlines Terminal and Parking Garage, Henry
New York City Educational Construction Fund)                       Hudson Bridge, Marine Parkway Bridge, New York Coliseum, Queens-
New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation                     Midtown Tunnel, Riis Park Parking Field [Queens], Throgs Neck Bridge,
New York City Housing Authority (assisted housing)                 Triborough Bridge, and Verrazzano Narrows Bridge)
New York City Housing Development Corporation                      Trust for Cultural Resources
  Housing New York Corp.
                                                                   United Nations Development District and Corporation
Residential Mortgage Insurance Corporation
                                                                                                                                        17
New York City Industrial Development Agency
       UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

Basic Programs - Government Organization

Other uses of Government Organization data
• Written into some statutes
• Fair Labor Standards Act
• Family Medical Leave Act – 50 employee
  threshold



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      UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

Basic Programs - Government Finances
Revenue (100+ data items)
• Taxes
• Service Charges
• Intergovernmental Revenue
Expenditure (300+ data items)
• Object – current expenditures, construction
  outlays….
• Function – education, highways, police,
  welfare…
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        UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

Basic Programs - Government Finances
Debt (70 data items)
• Debt issued
• Long-term debt
• Revenue bonds

Assets (20 data items)
• Available cash
• Invested funds
• Trust funds
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         UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

Basic Programs - Government Employment

Two major data elements
• Number of employees – Full and part-time
• One-month payroll (March)

About 25 different functions
• Highways, police, welfare, education
• Functions defined same as for finances

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        UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

   Basic Programs - Periodicity of Data

• Quarterly – taxes, finances of Public
  Employment Retirement Systems
• Annually – finances, employment
• Census of Governments
  – Quinquennial – every five years since 1957
  – Organization, finance, employment


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        UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

   Basic Programs - Census vs. Annual

• No difference in data elements or content

• Difference in scope
  – Census = Universe
  – Annual = Sample




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         UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

   Basic Programs – Interesting Facts
• Response is voluntary
• Virtually all data are publicly available –
  no confidentiality requirement
• Web Collection Instruments




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        UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

       Basic Programs – Data Uses

• Calculation of important economic measures
  – GDP – Bureau of Economic Analysis
  – Flow of Funds – Federal Reserve Board

• Time series analysis

• Comparative analysis

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              UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS
              Basic Programs – Data Uses:
                 Time Series Analysis
The Change in Importance to Local Governments of Property Taxes
               As a Percentage of Total General Revenue

Fiscal Year      U. S. – local governments   Minnesota – local governments
     1972                   36.2                          33.6
     1982                   25.0                          20.1
     1992                   26.4                          25.6
     1997                   24.5                          25.6
     1998                   24.1                          26.2
     1999                   23.9                          26.2
     2000                   23.4                          23.7
     2002                   24.9                          23.2



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                         UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

                        Basic Programs – Data Uses
                    Percent Distribution of State Government Tax Revenue: 2000

      Fiscal Year       Total Total Sales and General Selective License Individual Corporation All Other
         2000            %    Gross Receipts Sales     Sales     Taxes   Income      Income     Taxes
U.S. Average              100               50     34        16       7         33           5         5
California                100               40     31         9       6         41           9         4
Delaware                  100               15      0        15      36         34          10         5
Florida                   100               76     55        21       7          0           5        12
Kentucky                  100               47     29        18       6         34           4         9
Maine                     100               48     31        16       6         40           3         3
Minnesota                 100               43     28        15       7         38           4         8
New Mexico                100               52     38        14       4         26           3        15
New York                  100               36     21        15       2         54           5         3
North Carolina            100               43     25        17       6         44           6         1
Wisconsin                 100               45     31        14       5         43           4         3




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                   UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

                 Basic Programs – Data Uses
      State and Local Government Employment (Per 10,000 Pop.)


  March, 2002 (Full-Time Equivalent)   U.S. Average     Georgia         Wisconsin


Total                                             545             556               533
Education                                         289             302               308
Public Welfare                                     18              12                27
Hospitals                                          32              35                10
Highways                                           19              17                21
Correction                                         24              32                23




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       UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

             Topics to Cover
•   Introduction to Governments Division
•   Basic Programs
•   Federal Statistics
•   Reimbursable Surveys
•   Conclusion



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         UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

     Federal Statistics - Expenditures

Federal Government Domestic Outlays by:
• Geographic Area – state, county, place
• Type of Outlay – grants, direct payments,
  procurement contracts, salaries and wages

• Specific Program – Medicaid, Social Security,
  food stamps, military pay, Highway Trust Fund,
  student loan subsidies, and more
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          UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

      Federal Statistics - Expenditures
              Federal Expenditures in California
              Percent of U.S. Total – FY 2003
TANF (public welfare)                              21.6
Supplemental Security Income Payments              15.1
Defense Procurement                                13.0
Population                                         12.2
Military Payroll                                   11.3
All Federal Funds                                   9.8
Social Security (Retirement)                        9.6
Non-defense Procurement                             8.7
Agricultural Assistance – Direct payment            3.8
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        UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

     Federal Statistics - Expenditures
       Per Capita Ranking in Federal Funds
               Florida — FY 2003

Total Direct Expenditures……………………...30
 Direct Payments - Retirement & Disability……..3
 Other Direct Payments………..………………....6
 Procurement Contracts…………………………29
 Salaries and Wages…………………………….34
 Grants…………………………………………..49
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       UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

             Topics to Cover
•   Introduction to Governments Division
•   Basic Programs
•   Federal Statistics
•   Reimbursable Surveys
•   Conclusion



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       UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS


Reimbursable Surveys – Main Aspects
• Criminal Justice Statistics
  How much money is spent on criminal justice?
  How many employees, jails, prisoners?

• Education Statistics
  What are revenue sources for education?
  How much is spent per pupil?


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       UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS
Reimbursable Surveys – Criminal Justice
              Statistics
Criminal Justice Functions
• Police
• Corrections
• Courts and other legal activities
Types of Data
• Expenditure
• Employment
• Characteristics of criminal justice agencies,
  facilities, and populations
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         UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

Reimbursable Surveys – Criminal Justice
              Statistics
Adults Under Correctional Supervision in 2000
Total (number)…………………………….6,488,300
                           (3.1% of adult residents)
Percent distribution:
Probation………………………………………..59%
Prison…………………………………………...20%
Parole…………………………………………...11%
Jail……………………………………………….9%
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         UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

 Reimbursable Surveys – Elementary &
        Secondary Education

• Detailed finance data – revenues, expenditures,
  debt, financial assets

• Non-fiscal data – general descriptive information
  plus counts of students and staff



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       UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

             Topics to Cover
•   Introduction to Governments Division
•   Basic Programs
•   Federal Statistics
•   Reimbursable Surveys
•   Conclusion



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        UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

              Conclusion
• Primary Mission – collect, analyze, and publish
  data on state and local government organization,
  finance, and employment.
• GOVS also contracts with other agencies to
  collect, analyze, and publish data on federal
  expenditures, criminal justice programs, and
  schools.

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        UNDERSTANDING FEDERAL STATISTICS

              Conclusion
• Data quality is extremely high – constant
  internal and external review

• For more information –
  http://www.census.gov/govs/www/index.html



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