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What Is the Definition of a Spreadsheet


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									Technology Buzz Words
       By Mrs. Ingoglia
                  Table of Contents
backup       download     memory             spreadsheet
byte         e-mail       modem              URL
cable        field        monitor            virus
CD-Rom       floppy disk network             WorldWideWeb (WWW)
cell         gigabyte    peripheral          Search for more Technology

chat         hard drive   pixel              Test Your Knowledge
chip         hardware     (micro)processor
computer     HTML         RAM
cpu          icon         RAM vs. HardDisk
cursor       Internet     record
database     kilobyte     scanner
disk drive   megabyte     software
 Definition:
An extra copy of a document, file or program.

 Explanation:
You should make backups of all important work. A
 backup of a file on the hard drive can be saved on a
 floppy or zip disk. A backup of a floppy disk file can be
 on the hard drive or another floppy or zip disk.

 Sentence:
"Don't forget to make a backup of your book report!"     Back to
                                                         Table of
 Definition:
A browser is a software program that lets you explore the
 World Wide Web to find text, graphics, sound, movies,
 games, chats and more.
 Explanation:
A browser helps you link to pages on websites around
 the world. To find a website, type in a URL (web
 address) or click a link or a button in the toolbar.

 Sentence:
"What is your favorite browser, Netscape or Explorer?"
                                                         Back to
                                                         Table of
 Definition:
A byte is a group of 8 bits, strung together.

 Explanation:
A bit is either a 1 or a 0. Each byte (8 bits) means
 something to the computer. The byte "01000001"
 means the capital letter A. The byte "01000010" means
 the capital letter B.

 Sentence:
"The phrase 'Hello World' is 11 bytes long."
                                                     Back to
                                                     Table of
 Definition:
A cable is a long, rubber-coated bundle of wires, with
 plugs on either end, that connects computer parts.

 Explanation:
You need a different cable for each device you hook up to
 your computer. Each end plugs into a port.

 Sentence:
"My printer didn't work because one end of the cable
 wasn't plugged in."
Note: Cables are also used to connect computers to other   Back to
 computers, and networks to other networks.                Table of
 Definition:
A round, shiny portable disk that stores large amounts of
 software and information.

CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk - Read Only Memory.
 You can only "read" information from most CD-ROMs
 and can not save ("write") on them.

"Let's see if the Grolier CD-ROM has any information
  about earthquakes."
                                                        Back to
                                                        Table of
A cell is the "box" where a column and a row
 intersect, in a spreadsheet.

Each cell can contain words, a number, or a formula.
 Each cell has an address, based on the column
 and row. For example, the cell highlighted above
 has the address C3.
 Sentence:
"Click in the cell to type your formula."         Back to
                                                  Table of
 Definition:
Chat is a way people in different places can "talk" to each
 other by typing their words into a computer.
 Explanation:
People chat on the Internet and on commercial services.
 Many people can chat at once in a "chat room.“
 Sentence:
"I had a chat with Aunt Sue over the Internet."

 Note:Did you know that people can surf the Web or play games
 while they chat? Many websites let you play checkers or bridge, race
 cars, browse the web, build space cities, or even play Pictionary, Back to
 while you chat with the people doing these things with you.        Table of
           chip (integrated circuit)
 Definition:
A chip is a tiny piece of silicon with electronic circuits. The
 chip is the most important part of the computer.

 Explanation:
There are many kinds of chips, most the size of a baby's
 fingernail. The CPU chip (Central Processing Unit) is the
 brains of the computer. Memory (RAM and ROM) also
 comes in chips.

 Sentence:
"Chips are attached to the circuit board inside the computer."
                                                             Back to
                                                             Table of
 Definition:
A computer is an electronic machine that
 1) takes in data and instructions (input)
 2) works with the data (processing)
 3) puts out information (output)
 Explanation:
Computers are made of HARDWARE
   - input devices like the keyboard and mouse
     - the CPU and memory
     - storage devices like hard drives
     - output devices like printers and monitors
     (the instructions that tell the computer what to do)
     - system software
     - programs (application software)                      Back to
                                                            Table of
 Definition:
The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the chip which is the
 brains of the computer. It is also know as the processor.
 Explanation:
The CPU processes data and instructions. It does
 calculations and does what the software programs tell it
 to do. The CPU is the most important part of a computer.

 Sentence:
"You might say that the CPU runs the computer!"
                                                         Back to
                                                         Table of
A blinking line or shape on the screen that tells you
 where the next character will go.
In the example above, the I-beam is used to put the
  cursor in place. The definition of cursor is
  changing; I-beams and other pointers are often
  called cursors.
 Sentence:
"Put the cursor before the letter N."              Back to
                                                   Table of
                                                       Back to
                                                       Table of

Definition: A database is an organized collection
 of information. It is like a box of 3x5 cards that you
 can search, sort and analyze rapidly with a
 database program.
A database program lets you add, delete and change data in
 the database.
You can create reports, lists, labels, etc.

"I have my addresses on a database."
                       disk drive
                                                    Back to
                                                    Table of

A part of the computer that operates the disks that
 store information.
Disk drives are called "storage devices" because
 they store information on portable or permanent
 disks (e.g., floppy disks, hard disks and Zip disks).
 A disk drive spins the disk around at high speeds
 as it reads and writes data on the disk.
 Sentence:
"Put your floppy in the floppy disk drive."
To download a file is to get it from someone else's
 computer, over a network, and save it on your own
 computer or floppy disk.
Download means "receive." You can download
 many kinds of files from the Internet, including
 images and software.
"Let's download the image of Lincoln."
                                                 Back to
                                                 Table of
E-mail is a way of sending messages from one
 computer to another.
E-mail stands for "electronic mail." You send a
 message to someone, with attachments such as
 photos or files, using a modem or network. The
 message waits in another computer until the
 person goes online to get it.
 Sentence:
"I got e-mail from Aunt Sue in Hawaii."           Back to
                                                  Table of
                                                    Back to
                                                    Table of

In a database, a field holds exactly one type of
  information about an item or subject. It is like one
  line written on an index card in an index card file.
There are many fields on a record. In the example
  shown, there are 4 fields on each address record:
  the Name field, Address field, City field and Phone
  Number field.
"Enter 'Jane Doe' in the Name field."
           floppy disk (diskette)
 A round, floppy piece of plastic that you put into a
  computer to store information. It is in a hard
  square cover for protection.
The disk is made of thin, Mylar plastic. Because it
  has a magnetic coating, you should keep magnets
  away from the disk. You put it in the floppy disk
  drive to use it.
"I saved my earthquake report on my floppy disk."
                             gigabyte (GB)
 Definition:
A gigabyte is a unit of measure equal to 1,073,741,824 bytes, which is
  about one billion bytes.
 Explanation:
"Giga" means "billion." Measuring the number of gigabytes tells you
  how big your hard drive is, by counting billions of bytes.
 Sentence:
"The size of my new hard drive is 14 gigabytes.“
Notes: Gigabyte is abbreviated as "GB."
A gigabyte is the same as a thousand megabytes.
When we talk about a gigabyte, we usually refer to it as a billion bytes. However,
 keep in mind that computers use the binary system (not the decimal system) to
 work with data. Therefore, a gigabyte really refers to 2 to the power of 30 bytes,
 which is 1,073,741,824 bytes. (Remember, 2 to the power of 30 is the same as 2 x
 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2, which equals 1,073,741,824.)
                 hard disk/hard drive
 Definition:
The hard disk is a round, metal platter in the hard drive of
  the computer; it stores large amounts of information.
 Explanation:
The hard disk has a magnetic coating. It is sealed into the
  hard drive and usually installed inside the computer
  where you can't see it.
 Sentence:
"Let's save our HyperStudio stack
 in the Student Folder on the hard drive.“
Important: Storage of files on the hard drive is permanent until
 you delete them, as opposed to storage in memory (RAM), which
 is temporary.
The parts of a computer system that you can touch.
Examples of hardware are input devices like
 keyboards and mice, output devices like printers
 and monitors, storage devices like disk drives, and
 the computer itself.
"Let's take apart this old computer and look at its
 Definition:
HTML, known as "the language of the Web," is the set of codes used to
  make Web pages.
 Explanation:
HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the coded instructions that tell a
  browser how and where to place information, graphics and links on a
  web page.
 Sentence: "I changed the HTML to put a link to NASA at the top of my
  web page.“
Notes: HTML works on all types of computers, including Macs and PC's.
Here’s an example of HTML:
The above HTML displays the word "Welcome!" in bold font, in the center of a line, on a web page.
Although you don't see actual HTML instructions when you look at a web page, you can view them
  by selecting "View Document Source" from the Netscape menu bar. Viewing the HTML of web
  pages that you like is an excellent way to learn about HTML.
An icon is a tiny picture on the screen that
 represents a program, file or folder.
Icons make it easy to find what you are looking for.
 To tell the computer to open a file, folder or
 program, double-click on the icon. To select an
 item, click only once on the icon.
 Sentence:
"Double-click on the KidPix icon to launch the program."
 The Internet is millions of computers around the
  world connected to each other.
When you're on the Internet, your computer is
  connected to others by networks of telephone
  wire, cable and satellite. The Web, e-mail, chat, and
  newsgroups are things you can do on the Internet.
"Is this computer on the Internet?"
 Definition:
A kilobyte is a unit of measure equal to 1,024 bytes, which is
  about a thousand bytes.
 Explanation:
"Kilo" means "thousand." Measuring the number of kilobytes
  tells you how big a file, a hard drive or your memory
  capacity is, by counting thousands of bytes.
 Sentence:
"My Jupiter drawing is 48 kilobytes.“

   Notes: Kilobyte is abbreviated as "K" or "KB." When we talk about a kilobyte, we usually
    refer to it as a thousand bytes. However, keep in mind that computers use the binary system
    (not the decimal system) to work with data. Therefore, a kilobyte really refers to 2 to the
    power of 10 bytes, which is 1,024 bytes. (Remember, 2 to the power of 10 is the same as 2 x
    2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2, which equals 1024.)
 Definition:
A megabyte is a unit of measure equal to 1,048,576 bytes,
  which is about a million bytes.
 Explanation:
"Mega" means "million." Measuring the number of
  megabytes tells you how big a file, a hard drive or your
  memory capacity is, by counting millions of bytes.
 Sentence: "The Home Page program is 1.6 megabytes.“
 Notes: Megabyte is abbreviated as "MB."
When we talk about a megabyte, we usually refer to it as a million bytes. However, keep in mind that
  computers use the binary system (not the decimal system) to work with data. Therefore, a megabyte
  really refers to 2 to the power of 20 bytes, which is 1,048,576 bytes. (Remember, 2 to the power of 20 is
  the same as 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2, which equals
 A megabyte is the same as a thousand kilobytes.
 "Mega-" is also used in other measurements, such as "megahertz," which is a measure of speed
  (cycles per second).
Memory is temporary storage space on chips in your
Memory holds programs and data temporarily while
  you use them. RAM is the most important kind of
  memory, and "memory" usually refers to RAM.
"I have so much memory I can run several programs
  at once."
 A device that links a computer to other computers
  through a telephone line.
The modem lets a computer send and receive binary
  data over a telephone line by changing the bits
  into sound waves that can be sent over the phone
"You can always use a faster modem."
Definition:A monitor is the TV-like part of the
 computer that you look at to see information.
Monitors are sometimes called displays or screens.
 "Screen" refers to the glass front only, while
 "monitor" refers to the screen, the case and
 everything inside the case. Information on a
 monitor is displayed in pixels.
 Sentence:
"Look at the monitor to see my slide show on volcanoes."
 Note: Sometimes monitors are built right into the computer case,
 so the computer and monitor are "all in one."
   Definition: A network is a number of computers connected together to share
    information and hardware.
   Explanation: A Local Area Network (LAN) is small, perhaps a few computers sharing a
    printer. A Wide Area Network (WAN) is large, with many computers linked between
    towns or countries. The Internet is a network of networks that circles the globe.
   Sentence: "Let's get on the network and send e-mail to Jane."
  Notes: To be more accurate, a network is actually a system which can consist of many things, including:
 1. the computers and peripherals
   2. special networking cards inside each computer and peripheral
   3. the cables and communications lines which link all the computers and peripherals together
   4. central hardware devices which connect computers and route data to the right places on the network (hubs, patch panels, routers)
   5. network operating system software
   6. networking software in each computer and peripheral that lets them "talk" to each other
   7. an "address" system to identify each part of the network to all the other parts
   8. often, a main computer or computers usually called servers or hosts
The Network Administrator:
 The person who takes care of the network is called a Network Administrator. In a medium-sized network, this person is in charge of
   setting up and keeping hundreds of pieces of information set correctly in dozens of computers, with hundreds of cables all needing to
   be identified and plugged in the exact right spots, for the network to keep working correctly. Obviously, this job requires somebody who
   likes taking care of details.
 If the network has a server, the Network Administrator is also in charge of keeping the server and its software configured and running
   correctly 24 hours a day and making frequent backups of the information on it. When the server fails or crashes, the Network
   Administrator is in charge of getting it up and running properly again, carefully restoring any lost information anywhere on the network.
   You can see that this job also requires good problem-solving skills and lots of patience and persistence.
 The people who use the network are called Users. If a User accidently changes even one piece of networking information in the User's
   computer, or accidently unplugs a cable, that computer may not be able to get on the network, and the Network Administrator will have
   to figure out how to reconnect that computer - sometimes a time-consuming task. What skills do you think the Network Administrator
   requires when a well-meaning User innocently "undoes" part of the network?
 If your school or building has a network, then someone is the Network Administrator, even if they don't have that exact same title.

   Do you know who your Network Administrator is?
A hardware device that is connected to a computer,
 usually by a cable.
Keyboards and mice are peripherals that help us
 "input" information. Printers and monitors are
 peripherals that "output" information.
"Does your computer have many peripherals
 connected to it?"
 Definition:
A pixel is a tiny dot of light on the monitor.
 Explanation:
"Pixel" stands for Picture Element. It is the smallest part of
 every image you see on the monitor. The color of a pixel is
 partly determined by how many bits (on/off units) are used
 to store the pixel.
 Sentence:
"This icon is 32 pixels wide by 32 pixels tall. It contains a total of 1024
 Notes: This icon has 1024 pixels. If you blow up a picture, you can get an idea of
 how the separate pixels work together to create a picture. Each square is the
 equivalent of a pixel when it is shrunk back down to normal size. It's interesting to
 know that each color pixel is actually made up of three "rays" of light: green, red
 and blue rays of varying intensities.
The processor is the chip which is the brains of the
 computer. It is also know as the CPU (Central
 Processing Unit).
Processors have their name because they process
 data and instructions. The processor is the most
 important part of a computer.
 Sentence:
"How fast is the processor in your new computer?"
RAM, also called memory, is temporary storage
 space on chips in your computer. RAM stands for
 Random Access Memory.
RAM holds files and programs temporarily while you
 use them. When you turn off the power to the
 computer, everything in RAM "disappears."
"I need 16MB of RAM to run Netscape."
                    RAM vs. Hard Disk
 It's easyto get RAM and Hard Disk space confused. When people get
  an "out of memory" error message from their computer, they often
  think their hard drive is too full, when in reality, the RAM (memory) is
  getting too full. Here's a chart which may help you think about the
  difference between RAM and Hard Disk storage space.
 See Chart on following slide
                             RAM                                                    Hard Disk (Hard Drive)
Memory                                                            Storage
Smaller amount (typically 16-64MB)                                Much larger amount (typically 500MB to 14 GB)
Temporary storage of files and programs                           Permanent storage of files and programs

A little like your real desktop - has only your current work on   Like a file cabinet - has long-term storage of work (it's safe
it (which could be ruined by a spill of Coke or coffee!)          from spills!)
Contents disappear when you turn off power to the                 Contents remain when you turn off the power to the
computer                                                          computer (they don't disappear unless you purposely
                                                                  delete them)
Contents disappear when the computer crashes                      Contents remain when the computer crashes
Consists of chips (microprocessors)                               Consists of hard disks (platters)
Contents are stored electronically in bits on the chip, in        Contents are stored magnetically, also in bits which are off
electronic offs and ons (0's and 1's), so RAM needs               or on (0 or 1), so the Hard Disk does not need power to
electrical power to hold the contents                             hold the contents
When you want to use a program, a temporary copy is put           Holds the original copy of the program permanently
into RAM and that's the copy you use
The file you are modifying, plus all the changes you make,        When working on a file, the original file is left untouched
are kept here in RAM until you do a "save"                        here in the Hard Drive until you do a "save;" the "save"
                                                                  copies the new version of the file that's in RAM onto the
                                                                  Hard Disk (and usually replaces the original file) Back to
                                                                                                                       Table of
                             RAM                                                    Hard Disk (Hard Drive)             Contents
 Definition:                      record
In a database, a record holds all the information about one
  item or subject. It is like one index card in an index card
 Explanation:
In the database shown here and below, there are three
  address records. Each record has several fields.
 Sentence:
"Did you add Jane's record to our address database yet?"
 In this sample database, each of the 3 address record
holds all the information about that one address
(person's name, street address, city,
and phone number).
A device that "takes a picture" of something and
 turns it into a computerized image.
When you scan a picture, the picture is digitized
 (turned into numbers in binary code) so the
 computer can show it on the monitor or print it out.
"You'll need to use the scanner to get your photo
 into your presentation."
Software is the programs that run on a computer.

Software is made up of instructions that tell the
 computer what to do. It is stored on disks in bits
 and bytes. Microsoft Word and Powerpoint are
 examples of software.

"Please load the Powerpoint software on the
A spreadsheet is a document which helps you
 organize data in rows and columns of cells.
Each cell can contain words, a number, or a formula.
 A formula does calculations with the numbers in
 other cells. You can make charts and graphs
"We analyzed our survey results with a spreadsheet."
A URL is the address of a website on the World
 Wide Web.
To visit a website, you type the URL into a browser.
 URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. Other
 Internet resources have URL's, too, but if the URL
 starts with "www." then you know it's on the Web.
"The URL for the NASA website is www.nasa.gov."
A virus is a computer program that was written to
 purposely damage computer systems.
Your computer can get a virus from another computer,
 through modems, networks or disks. You can
 protect your computer from viruses by using virus
 protection software, and by only downloading
 programs from sources you trust.
 Sentence:
"My computer got a virus from the game I downloaded from
 the Internet."
          World Wide Web (WWW)
The Web is the part of the Internet that consists of
 pages (documents) linked to each other around the
 world. These pages have pictures, sounds, and
A website can have many pages; the first is the
 Home Page. You use a browser to point and click
 your way to other pages or to do research.
"Do you have a site on the Web?"
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