Templates for Drawing Clothes on People

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					   Chapter 9



Landscape Design
   Three major influences that have shaped
    American attitudes toward landscaping:
    – Formal tradition of 16th and 17th century
      Europe.
    – Naturalism of the 18th century England.
    – Nature symbolism of the orient.
   Naturalism gardens tore out the formal, symmetrical
    gardens with zeal and replaced them with lakes and
    islands, rolling hills, pastoral lawns, grazing animals,
    and added such picturesque touches as
    manufactured “ruins,” dead trees, hermits’ cottages,
    and vistas toward distant templates.
   Landscape Design is the arrangement of
    outdoor space in a way that serves the needs
    and desires of people without damage to
    natural ecological relationships.
   To serve the needs and desires of clients, the
    landscape designer must take an inventory of
    their characteristics and their attitudes
    toward the landscape sight.
Site Analysis and what it may include:

 Dimension of the lot           Historic importance
 Topography                     Directional orientation
 Geology                        Established circulation
 Hydrography                     patterns
 Existing vegetation            Proximity to roads, public
 Existing buildings
                                  transportation, or
                                  waterways
 Location of utility lines
  and pipes above and            Views from site
  below ground                   Views toward site
 Soil analysis                  Problem areas
                                 Prevailing wind direction
                                  and velocity
 Topography- the term used to describe the
  elevation variations.
 Geology- the term used to describe rock
  formations, including the bedrock base.
 Hydrography- the term used to describe the
  surface and underground water.
   A complicated terrain to be landscaped may require the
    services of an engineering firm to produce a detailed
    survey.
   Many designers use a checklist to summarize the
    characteristics of each site.
   The average home is divided into four areas, each
    having a different function.
   The public area is where guests are received. It includes
    the front door and the entrance hall.
 The general living area is where most of the
  daily family interaction occurs and where friends
  are entertained.
 The service area is where the utilization
  functions of the family are carried out.
 The private living area is used for personal
  aspects of family life.
   As with the home, the residential
    landscape has three or four different areas
    to accommodate different uses. They
    include:
    – The public area- between the house and street. It
      is the area everyone crosses to approach the
      house. The public area serves two functions: to
      direct traffic to the entrance of the home and to
      place the house in an attractive setting when
      viewed from the street.
    – The family living area- usually located at the rear
      of the house and often to the sides as well. It is
      the area where games are played, where the
      patio and pool may be found, where friends are
      entertained and barbecues held, and where the
      family members relax.
– The private living area- is not found in all landscapes.
  Where it does occur, it is the site for activities such as
  a quiet conversation, sun bathing, and hot tubs. It is
  usually limited to the use of the family members.
– The service area- contains the trash and garbage
  cans, utility sheds for storage of garden tools,
  compost piles, vegetable gardens, clothes lines, and
  similar items. It is always screened from the view.
 Improper design decisions can often be avoided
  by application of the outdoor room concept.
 Simplicity in the design usually dictates that
  separate elements be given less emphasis than
  massed elements, fussy bedlines be replaced
  with gentle curves or straight lines, and
  maintenance-free materials be used
 By massing plant species into groups, attention
  is not derived to each individual plant.
 Rhythm and line bring a feeling of continuity to
  the landscape.
 Balance is a visual quality of the landscapers
  design. In theory, it puts the landscape on a
  seesaw and requires that each side have the
  same visual weight.
 The three types of balance are: symmetrical,
  asymmetrical, and proximal/distal.
   Symmetrical is when one side of the landscape is an
    exact duplicate of the other
   Asymmetrical is when one side of the landscape has
    the same visual mass as the other but doesn’t
    duplicate it.
   Proximal/distal is when the on-site landscape is
    developed to counterbalance the off-site landscape.
 Each major use area of landscape should have
  one focal point.
 Focalization is the term used to describe when
  plants are arranged in an asymmetrical manner
  to move the viewers eye toward the entrance,
  the focal point.
 With proportion each element of the landscape
  must be the proper size relationship with all
  other elements.
 In proportion, the designer must envision a
  mature landscape with comfortable, non-
  threatening size relationships between
    – Plants and buildings
    – Plants and other plants
    – Plants and people
 The master principle that gives cohesiveness to
  the landscape design is unity.
 When plants are used to shape the outdoor
  room, frame a view , shade a patio, or soften a
  brick wall, their function is architectural.
 When plants solve a problem such as directing
  traffic, reducing wind velocity, or absorbing dust
  and noise, they are engineering elements.
   If plants are valued essentially for their appeal to the
    senses, through fragrance, sound, color, or other visual
    attributes, they are aesthetic contributors.
   Hardiness is the term used to describe a plants ability to
    survive in the winter.
   Blossom color and fragrance are terms used to describe
    flowering qualities.
   Color, edibility, or toxicity are terms used to describe
    fruiting qualities.
   Nutrient requirements, soil composition, and pH are
    terms used to describe soil preferences.
   A list of plants which are suggested for the area in which
    the landscaper is working can be obtained from the local
    Cooperative Extension Services.
   Make visual notes of typical tree shrub silhouettes.
   Defining the corners of the outdoor room are the corner
    plantings.
   The corner planting has two parts:
    – Incurve- most desirable location for an
      attractive specimen plant because of its
      natural focal point.
    – Outcurve- plants are selected and placed to
      direct attention even more strongly to the
      incurve.
   The incurve plant is usually the tallest plant in the bed.
   Line planting is the basic method of forming outdoor
    walls with plants.
   Foundation plantings were used in the last century in an
    attempt to hide the unsightly base.
   Outdoor enrichment items may be classified as natural
    or man-made in origin, and as tangible or intangible in
    character. They are elements of the landscape that do
    not function as wall, ceiling, or floor.
   Hard pavings are either poured or set into place as
    modular units, and become solid when installation is
    complete.
   Soft pavings are loose aggregate materials, sometimes
    finely particulate like sand, sometimes coarsely
    particulate like crushed stone or brick chips.
   Make a visual comparison of enclosure styles and
    materials.
   Make a visual comparison of surfacing materials.
 The landscape designer communicates in the language
  of graphics.
 The landscape designer uses many of the same tools
  used by a drafter.
 The plan view assumes a vantage point directly above
  the proposed landscape looking down perpendicular to
  the ground.
 The plan view is a collection of symbols that represent
  the plants and construction materials to be used in the
  landscape.
   Advantages and disadvantages of plan
    views.
    – Adv.- are easily drawn to scale, efficiently
      combine the concepts of the design with
      necessary mechanics such as plant spacing,
      mulch depth, and concrete thickness.
    – Disadv.- some clients find it difficult to
      visualize the symbolic, two dimensional
      drawing in three dimensions.
Fourteen steps in the development of a
residential plan:
   1. Analyze the characteristics of the site
   2. Determine the needs of the clients
   3. Match client needs and site capabilities as closely as
    possible, allowing new needs to be suggested by the site’s
    potential for development.
   4. Select a scale that allows the site to be reproduced on
    paper, including lot, buildings, and existing features
   5. Assign use areas to appropriate regions of the property.
    Lay out the areas with wide angles to avoid the creation of
    narrow, tight, and impractically shaped spaces.
   6. Select focal points and locate them within the use areas.
   7. Shape each use area in a way that directs attention to the
    focal point and relates it to adjoining use areas. You may
    have to try numerous possibilities before you are satisfied.
    Lightweight vellum can be taped over the drawing to
    eliminate the need to erase as ideas are tired and rejected.
                            Cont.’d
   8. Retaining the shapes from the step above, convert the lines
    to planting beds and other outdoor wall elements. It is
    important to determine the location of the walls before
    considering specific plants or other materials.
   9. Define the function to be served by each plant in the
    design. The function directs and restricts the choice of
    species.
   10. Select plant species that will fill the roles defined for
    them, and symbolize them with their mature size and plant
    type.
   11. Select enclosure, surfacing, and enrichment items that
    complement the total design.
   12. Label all elements of the plan. Keep the letterning on or
    near the symbols.
   13. Compile a list of all plant species used and the total
    number needed of each.
   14. Trace the design, eliminating all unnecessary guidelines,
    on heavy vellum, film, or cloth, using a hard lead pencil or
    technical pen.

				
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