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					Environmental Indicators: Governance
Participation in Selected International Environmental Agreements                                                                             Last update: August 2009

                      Choose a country from the following drop-down list:                                              Afghanistan


                                 Conv. on             Conv. on        World                                                                UN Conv. to
                       Basel                                                   Montreal Ramsar        Rotterdam         Stockholm                        UN Conv. on the
Country                         Biological CITES      Migratory     Heritage                                                                   Combat
                       Conv.                                                   Protocol  Conv.            Conv.             Conv.                         Law of the Sea
                                 Diversity             Species        Conv.                                                              Desertification

                                                                                         year

Afghanistan             ...      2002       1985        ...         1979       2004       ...           ...                ...              1995              ...
                                                                                                website: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/ENVIRONMENT/qindicators.htm




                                 Conv. on             Conv. on        World                                                                UN Conv. to
                       Basel                                                   Montreal Ramsar        Rotterdam         Stockholm                        UN Conv. on the
Country                         Biological CITES      Migratory     Heritage                                                                   Combat
                       Conv.                                                   Protocol  Conv.            Conv.             Conv.                         Law of the Sea
                                 Diversity             Species        Conv.                                                              Desertification

                                                                                         year
Afghanistan               ...       2002     1985           ...        1979       2004       ...                 ...               ...             1995               ...
Albania                 1999        1994     2003         2001         1989       1999     1996                  ...             2004              2000             2003
Algeria                 1998        1995     1983             ...      1974       1992     1984                  ...             2006              1996             1996
Andorra                 1999          ...       ...           ...      1997       2009          ...              ...               ...             2002               ...
Angola                    ...       1998       ...          ...        1991       2000       ...                 ...             2006              1997             1990
Antigua and Barbuda     1993        1993     1997         2007         1983       1992     2005                 ...              2003              1997             1989
Argentina               1991        1994     1981         1992         1978       1990     1992               2003               2005              1997             1995
Armenia                 1999        1993     2008           ...        1993       1999     1993               2002                 ...             1997             2002
Australia               1992        1993     1976         1991         1974       1989     1975               2003               2004              2000             1994
Austria                 1993        1994     1982         2005         1992       1989     1983               2001               2002              1997             1995
Azerbaijan              2001        2000     1998             ...      1993       1996     2001                  ...             2004              1998               ...
Bahamas                 1992        1993     1979             ...        ...      1993     1997                  ...             2005              2000             1983
Bahrain                 1992        1996       ...            ...      1991       1990     1998                  ...             2005              1997             1985
Bangladesh              1993        1994     1981             ...      1983       1990     1992                  ...             2007              1996             2001
Barbados                1995        1993     1992           ...        2002       1992     2006                  ...             2004              1997             1993
Belarus                 1999        1993     1995         2003         1988       1988     1991                 ...              2004              2001             2006
Belgium                 1993        1996     1983         1990         1996       1988     1986               2001               2006              1997             1998
Belize                  1997        1993     1986           ...        1990       1998     1998               2004               2006              1998             1983
Benin                   1997        1994     1984         1986         1982       1993     2000               2003               2004              1996             1997
Bhutan                  2002        1995     2002           ...        2001       2004       ...                ...                ...             2003               ...
Bolivia                 1996        1994     1979         2003         1976       1994     1990               2002               2003              1996             1995
Bosnia and Herzegovina      2001    2002   2009       ...   1993    1992   1992    2006      ...    2002    1994
Botswana                    1998    1995   1977       ...   1998    1991   1997    2007    2002     1996    1990
Brazil                      1992    1994   1975       ...   1977    1990   1993    2003    2004     1997    1988
Brunei Darussalam           2002    2008   1990      ...      ...   1993     ...     ...      ...   2002    1996
Bulgaria                    1996    1996   1991    1999     1974    1990   1976    1999       ...   2001    1996
Burkina Faso                1999    1993   1989    1990     1987    1989   1990    2001      ...    1996    2005
Burundi                     1997    1997   1988       ...   1982    1997   2002    2003    2005     1997       ...
Cambodia                    2001    1995   1997      ...    1991    2001   1999      ...   2006     1997      ...
Cameroon                    2001    1994   1981    1983     1982    1989   2006    2001      ...    1997    1985
Canada                      1992    1992   1975      ...    1976    1988   1981    2001    2001     1995    2003
Cape Verde                  1999    1995   2005    2006     1988    2001   2005    2005    2006     1995    1987
Central African Republic    2006    1995   1980      ...    1980    1993   2006      ...     ...    1996       ...
Chad                          ...   1994   1989    1997     1999    1994   1990    2003    2004     1996      ...
Chile                       1992    1994   1975    1983     1980    1990   1981    2004    2005     1997    1997
China                       1991    1993   1981       ...   1985    1991   1992    2004    2004     1997    1996
Colombia                    1996    1994   1981       ...   1983    1993   1998    2007      ...    1999      ...
Comoros                     1994    1994   1994      ...    2000    1994   1995      ...   2007     1998    1994
Congo                       2007    1996   1983    2000     1987    1994   1998    2005    2007       ...   2008
Costa Rica                  1995    1994   1975    2007     1977    1991   1992      ...   2007     1998    1992
Cote d'Ivoire               1994    1994   1994    2003     1981    1993   1996    2003    2004     1997    1984
Croatia                     1994    1996   2000    2000     1992    1991   1991    2006    2007     2000    1995
Cuba                        1994    1994   1990    2008     1981    1992   2001    2007      ...    1997    1984
Cyprus                      1992    1996   1974    2001     1975    1992   2001    2003    2005     2000    1988
Czech Republic              1993    1993   1993    1994     1993    1993   1993    1999    2002     2000    1996
Korea, Dem. People's Rep.   2008    1994     ...     ...    1998    1995     ...   2003    2002     2004      ...
Dem. Rep. of the Congo      1994    1994   1976    1990     1974    1994   1996    2004    2005     1997    1989
Denmark                     1994    1993   1977    1983     1979    1988   1978    2003      ...    1995    2004
Djibouti                    2002    1994   1992    2004     2007    1999   2003    2003    2004     1997    1991
Dominica                    1998    1994   1995       ...   1995    1993     ...   2004    2003     1997    1991
Dominican Republic          2000    1996   1986      ...    1985    1993   2002    2005    2007     1997       ...
Ecuador                     1993    1993   1975    2004     1975    1990   1991    2003    2004     1995      ...
Egypt                       1993    1994   1978    1983     1974    1988   1988      ...   2003     1995    1983
El Salvador                 1991    1994   1987       ...   1991    1992   1999    1998       ...   1997      ...
Equatorial Guinea           2003    1994   1992      ...      ...   2006   2003    2002      ...    1997    1997
Eritrea                     2005    1996   1994    2005     2001    2005     ...   2004    2005     1996      ...
Estonia                     1992    1994   1992    2008     1995    1996   1994    2005      ...      ...   2005
Ethiopia                    2000    1994   1989       ...   1977    1994     ...   2002    2003     1997      ...
Fiji                          ...   1993   1997      ...    1990    1989   2006      ...   2001     1998    1982
Finland                     1991    1994   1976    1989     1987    1988   1975    2003    2002     1995    1996
France                      1991    1994   1978    1990     1975    1988   1986    2003    2004     1997    1996
Gabon                       2008    1997   1989    2008     1986    1994   1987    2002    2007     1996    1998
Gambia                      1997    1994   1977    2001     1987    1990   1997    2001    2006     1996    1984
Georgia                     1999    1994   1996    2000     1992    1996   1997    2006    2006     1999    1996
Germany                      1995    1993    1976     1984     1976    1988   1976     2000     2002     1996    1994
Ghana                        2003    1994    1975     1988     1975    1989   1988     2002     2003     1996    1983
Greece                       1994    1994    1992     1999     1981    1988   1975     2002     2006     1997    1995
Grenada                        ...   1994    1999        ...   1998    1989     ...       ...      ...   1997    1991
Guatemala                    1995    1995    1979       ...    1979    1989   1990       ...       ...   1998    1997
Guinea                       1995    1993    1981     1993     1979    1992   1993     1999        ...   1997    1985
Guinea-Bissau                2005    1995    1990     1995     2006    2002   1990     2007        ...   1995    1986
Guyana                       2001    1994    1977        ...   1977    1993      ...   2006        ...   1997    1993
Haiti                          ...   1996      ...      ...    1980    2000     ...       ...     ...    1996    1996
Honduras                     1995    1995    1985     2007     1979    1993   1993       ...    2005     1997    1993
Hungary                      1990    1994    1985     1983     1985    1989   1979     1999       ...    1999    2002
Iceland                      1995    1994    2000       ...    1995    1989   1978       ...    2002     1997    1985
India                        1992    1994    1976     1983     1977    1992   1982     2004     2006     1996    1995
Indonesia                    1993    1994    1978       ...    1989    1992   1992       ...      ...    1998    1986
Iran (Islamic Republic of)   1993    1996    1976     2008     1975    1990   1975     2003     2006     1997      ...
Iraq                           ...     ...     ...      ...    1974    2008   2008       ...       ...     ...   1985
Ireland                      1994    1996    2002     1983     1991    1988   1985     2004        ...   1997    1996
Israel                       1994    1995    1979     1983     1999    1992   1997       ...       ...   1996      ...
Italy                        1994    1994    1979     1983     1978    1988   1977     2001        ...   1997    1995
Jamaica                      2003    1995    1997        ...   1983    1993   1998     2001       ...    1997    1983
Japan                        1993    1993    1980       ...    1992    1988   1980     2003     2002     1998    1996
Jordan                       1989    1993    1978     2001     1975    1989   1977     2001        ...   1996    1995
Kazakhstan                   2003    1994    2000       ...    1994    1998   2007     2006       ...    1997      ...
Kenya                        2000    1994    1978     1999     1991    1988   1990     2004     2004     1997    1989
Kiribati                     2000    1994      ...       ...   2000    1993      ...     ...    2004     1998    2003
Kuwait                       1993    2002    2002        ...   2002    1992     ...    2005     2006     1997    1986
Kyrgyzstan                   1996    1996    2007        ...   1995    2000   2003     1999       ...    1997      ...
Lao People's Dem. Rep.         ...   1996    2004       ...    1987    1998     ...      ...    2006     1996    1998
Latvia                       1992    1995    1997     1999     1995    1995   1995     2002     2004     2002    2004
Lebanon                      1994    1994      ...       ...   1983    1993   1999     2005     2003     1996    1995
Lesotho                      2000    1995    2003        ...     ...   1994   2004     2007     2002     1995    2007
Liberia                        ...   2000    1981       ...    2002    1996   2003     2003     2002     1998    2008
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya       2001    2001    2003     2002     1978    1990   2000     2001     2005     1996       ...
Liechtenstein                1992    1997    1979     1997       ...   1989   1991     2003        ...   1999      ...
Lithuania                    1999    1996    2001     2002     1992    1995   1993     2003       ...    2003    2003
Luxembourg                   1994    1994    1983     1983     1983    1988   1998     2001     2003     1997    2000
Madagascar                   1999    1996    1975     2007     1983    1996   1999     2003        ...   1997    2001
Malawi                       1994    1994    1982        ...   1982    1991   1997     2008        ...   1996      ...
Malaysia                     1993    1994    1977        ...   1988    1989   1995     2001       ...    1997    1996
Maldives                     1992    1992      ...      ...    1986    1989     ...    2005     2006     2002    2000
Mali                         2000    1995    1994     1987     1977    1994   1987     2002     2003     1995    1985
Malta                        2000    2000    1989     2001     1978    1988   1989       ...      ...    1998    1993
Marshall Islands             2003    1992       ...      ...   2002    1993   2004     2002     2003     1998    1991
Mauritania                        1996     1996   1998    1998     1981    1994   1983    2004     2005     1996   1996
Mauritius                         1992     1992   1975    2004     1995    1992   2001    2004     2004     1996   1994
Mexico                            1991     1993   1991       ...   1984    1988   1986    2004     2003     1995   1983
Micronesia, Federated States of   1995     1994     ...     ...    2002    1995     ...      ...   2005     1996   1991
Monaco                            1992     1992   1978    1993     1978    1993   1997      ...    2004     1999   1996
Mongolia                          1997     1993   1996    1999     1990    1996   1998    2000     2004     1996   1996
Montenegro                        2006     2006   2007      ...    2006    2006   2006       ...   2006     2007     ...
Morocco                           1995     1995   1975    1993     1975    1995   1980       ...   2004     1996   2007
Mozambique                        1997     1995   1981       ...   1982    1994   2004       ...     ...    1997   1997
Myanmar                             ...    1994   1997       ...   1994    1993   2005      ...    2004     1997   1996
Namibia                           1995     1997   1990       ...   2000    1993   1995    2004     2005     1997   1983
Nauru                             2001     1993     ...      ...     ...   2001     ...     ...    2002     1998   1996
Nepal                             1996     1993   1975      ...    1978    1994   1988    2006     2007     1996   1998
Netherlands                       1993     1994   1984    1983     1992    1988   1980    1999     2002     1995   1996
New Zealand                       1994     1993   1989    2000     1984    1988   1976    2002     2004     2000   1996
Nicaragua                         1997     1995   1977      ...    1979    1993   1997    2007       ...    1998   2000
Niger                             1998     1995   1975    1983     1974    1992   1987    2005     2006     1996     ...
Nigeria                           1991     1994   1974    1987     1974    1988   2001    2000     2004     1997   1986
Norway                            1990     1993   1976    1985     1977    1988   1975    2000     2002     1996   1996
Oman                              1995     1995   2008      ...    1981    1999     ...   1999     2005     1996   1989
Pakistan                          1994     1994   1976    1987     1976    1992   1976    2004        ...   1997   1997
Palau                               ...    1999   2004    2008     2002    2001   2003      ...      ...    1999   1996
Panama                            1991     1995   1978    1989     1978    1989   1990    1999     2003     1996   1996
Papua New Guinea                  1995     1993   1975      ...    1997    1992   1993      ...    2003     2000   1997
Paraguay                          1995     1994   1976    1999     1988    1992   1995    2002     2004     1997   1986
Peru                              1993     1993   1975    1997     1982    1993   1992    2004     2005     1995     ...
Philippines                       1993     1993   1981    1994     1985    1991   1994    2005     2004     2000   1984
Poland                            1992     1996   1989    1996     1976    1990   1978    2004       ...    2001   1998
Portugal                          1994     1993   1980    1983     1980    1988   1981    2004     2004     1996   1997
Qatar                             1995     1996   2001       ...   1984    1996     ...   2003       ...    1999   2002
Korea, Republic of                1994     1994   1993       ...   1988    1992   1997    2002     2007     1999   1996
Republic of Moldova               1998     1995   2001      ...    2002    1996   2000    2004     2004     1999   2007
Romania                           1991     1994   1994    1998     1990    1993   1991    2002     2004     1998   1996
Russian Federation                1995     1995   1976      ...    1988    1988   1977      ...      ...    2003   1997
Rwanda                            2004     1996   1980    2005     2000    2001   2006    2003     2002     1998     ...
Saint Kitts and Nevis             1994     1993   1994       ...   1986    1992     ...      ...   2004     1997   1993
Saint Lucia                       1993     1993   1982       ...   1991    1993   2002       ...   2002     1997   1985
St. Vincent and the Grenadines    1996     1996   1988       ...   2003    1996     ...     ...    2005     1998   1993
Samoa                             2002     1994   2005       ...   2001    1992   2005    2001     2002     1998   1995
San Marino                           ...   1994   2005      ...    1991    2009     ...      ...     ...    1999     ...
Sao Tome and Principe               ...    1999   2001    2001     2006    2001   2006      ...    2006     1998   1987
Saudi Arabia                      1990     2001   1996    1991     1978    1993     ...   1999       ...    1997   1996
Senegal                           1992     1994   1977    1988     1976    1993   1977    2000     2003     1995   1984
Serbia                        2000     2002    2002     2008     2001    1992    1992        ...      ...   2007    2001
Seychelles                    1993     1992    1977        ...   1980    1993    2005        ...     ...    1997    1991
Sierra Leone                    ...    1994    1994        ...   2005    2001    2000       ...    2003     1997    1994
Singapore                     1996     1995    1986       ...      ...   1989      ...    2004     2005     1999    1994
Slovakia                      1992     1994    1993     1995     1993    1993    1993     2006     2002     2002    1996
Slovenia                      1992     1996    2000     1999     1992    1992    1991     1998     2004     2001    1995
Solomon Islands                  ...   1995    2007       ...    1992    1993       ...      ...   2004     1999    1997
Somalia                         ...      ...   1985     1986       ...   2001      ...      ...      ...    2002    1989
South Africa                  1994     1995    1975     1991     1997    1990    1975     2001     2002     1997    1997
Spain                         1994     1993    1986     1985     1982    1988    1982     2003     2004     1996    1997
Sri Lanka                     1992     1994    1979     1990     1980    1989    1990     2005       ...    1998    1994
Sudan                         2006     1995    1982        ...   1974    1993    2005     2004     2006     1995    1985
Suriname                        ...    1996    1980        ...   1997    1997    1985     1999       ...    2000    1998
Swaziland                     2005     1994    1997       ...      ...   1992      ...      ...    2006     1996      ...
Sweden                        1991     1993    1974     1983     1985    1988    1975     2002     2002     1995    1996
Switzerland                   1990     1994    1974     1995     1975    1988    1976     2001     2003     1996    2009
Syrian Arab Republic          1992     1996    2003     2003     1975    1989    1998     2002     2005     1997       ...
Tajikistan                      ...    1997      ...    2001     1992    1998    2001       ...    2007     1997       ...
Thailand                      1997     2004    1983        ...   1987    1989    1998     2001     2005     2001       ...
The Former Yugoslav Rep. of
Macedonia                     2000     1997    2000     1999     1997    1994    1991        ...   2004     2002    1994
Timor-Leste                     ...    2007      ...      ...      ...     ...     ...      ...      ...      ...     ...
Togo                          2004     1995    1978     1996     1998    1991    1995     2003     2004     1995    1985
Tonga                           ...    1998      ...       ...   2004    1998      ...       ...     ...    1998    1995
Trinidad and Tobago           1994     1996    1984       ...    2005    1989    1993        ...   2002     2000    1986
Tunisia                       1995     1993    1974     1987     1975    1989    1981        ...   2004     1995    1985
Turkey                        1994     1997    1996        ...   1983    1991    1994        ...      ...   1998       ...
Turkmenistan                  1996     1996       ...      ...   1994    1993    2009        ...     ...    1996      ...
Tuvalu                          ...    2002      ...      ...      ...   1993      ...      ...    2004     1998    2002
Uganda                        1999     1993    1991     2000     1987    1988    1988     2007     2004     1997    1990
Ukraine                       1999     1995    1999     1999     1988    1988    1991     2001        ...   2002    1999
United Arab Emirates          1992     2000    1990       ...    2001    1989    2007     2001     2002     1998      ...
United Kingdom                1994     1994    1976     1985     1984    1988    1976     2003     2005     1996    1997
United Rep. of Tanzania       1993     1996    1979     1999     1977    1993    2000     2001     2004     1997    1985
United States                   ...      ...   1974       ...    1973    1988    1987       ...      ...    2000      ...
Uruguay                       1991     1993    1975     1990     1989    1991    1984     2002     2004     1999    1992
Uzbekistan                    1996     1995    1997     1998     1993    1993    2002       ...      ...    1995      ...
Vanuatu                         ...    1993    1989        ...   2002    1994      ...      ...    2005     1999    1999
Venezuela                     1998     1994    1977        ...   1990    1989    1988     2004     2005     1998      ...
Viet Nam                      1995     1994    1994        ...   1987    1994    1989     2006     2002     1998    1994
Yemen                         1996     1996    1997        ...   1980    1996    2008     2005     2004     1997    1987
Zambia                        1994     1993    1980        ...   1984    1990    1991        ...   2006     1996    1983
Zimbabwe                         ...   1994    1981        ...   1982    1992       ...      ...      ...   1997    1993
Sources:
United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Outlook Data Portal (GEO Data).

Definitions & Technical notes:
The table presents the years of formalization of participation in a selection of international environmental treaties and conventions for the 192 United Nations member states only.
Participation , in this table, means the country or area has become party to the agreements under the treaty or convention, which is achieved through a variety of means depending
on country circumstances, namely: accession, acceptance, approval, formal confirmation, ratification, and succession. Countries or areas who have signed but not become party to
the agreements under a given convention or treaty are thus indicated as non-participants.
The years refer to the date that participation was formalized. No value, '…', indicates non-participation according to the source at the time of the latest update.
Participation can have special or country-specific provisions depending on the nature of the agreement and national circumstances. For more detailed country-specific information on
participation under each agreement please visit the website of the secretariat for the convention/treaty.
Below are the complete titles and secretariat websites for each of the selected environmental agreements in the table:
 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (www.basel.int/index.html)
 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (www.cbd.int/)
 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (www.cites.org/index.html)
 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) (www.cms.int/index.html)
 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (UNESCO World Heritage Convention) (whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext/)
 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (ozone.unep.org/)
 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) (www.ramsar.org/)
 Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade
(www.pic.int/home.php?type=t&id=5&sid=16)
 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (chm.pops.int/)

 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa (UNCCD) (www.unccd.int/main.php)
 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_overview_convention.htm)


Data Quality:
All values in this table are taken from the UNEP GEO Data Portal website. For more information see: http://geodata.grid.unep.ch.