Electric_vehicle by zzzmarcus

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Electric vehicle

Electric vehicle
The electricity used to propel the vehicle may be provided in several ways, some of them more ecological than others: • on-board rechargeable electricity storage system (RESS), called Full Electric Vehicles (FEV). Power storage methods include: • chemical energy stored on the vehicle in on-board batteries: Battery electric vehicle (BEV) • static energy stored on the vehicle in on-board electric double-layer capacitors • kinetic energy storage: flywheels • direct connection to generation plants as is common among electric trains, trolley buses, and trolley trucks (See also : overhead lines, third rail and conduit current collection) • renewable sources such as solar power: solar vehicle • generated on-board using a diesel engine: diesel-electric locomotive • generated on-board using a fuel cell: fuel cell vehicle • generated on-board using nuclear energy: nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers It is also possible to have hybrid electric vehicles that derives electricity from multiple sources. Such as: • on-board rechargeable electricity storage system (RESS) and a direct continuous connection to land-based generation plants for purposes of on-highway recharging with unrestricted highway range • on-board rechargeable electricity storage system and a fueled propulsion power source (internal combustion engine): plugin hybrid Electric vehicles can include electric airplanes, electric boats, and electric motorcycles and scooters.

A streetcar (or Tram) drawing current from a single overhead wire, returning current through the rails and ground

An electric locomotive, taking power through a pantograph An electric vehicle (EV) is a vehicle with one or more electric motors for propulsion. This is also referred to as an electric drive vehicle. The motion may be provided either by wheels or propellers driven by rotary motors, or in the case of tracked vehicles, by linear motors. Unlike an internal combustion engine (ICE) that is tuned to specifically operate with a particular fuel such as gasoline or diesel, an electric drive vehicle needs electricity, which comes from sources such as batteries or a generator. This flexibility allows the drive train of the vehicle to remain the same, while the fuel source can be changed.

Electric motive power started with a small railway operated by a miniature electric motor, built by Thomas Davenport in 1835. In 1838, a Scotsman named Robert Davidson


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Electric vehicle
Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the first crude electric carriage, powered by non-rechargeable Primary cells.[2] By the 20th century, electric cars and rail transport were commonplace, with commercial electric automobiles having the majority of the market. Over time their general-purpose commercial use reduced to specialist roles, as platform trucks, forklift trucks, tow tractors and urban delivery vehicles, such as the iconic British milk float; for most of the 20th century, the UK was the world’s largest user of electric road vehicles.[3] Electrified trains were used for coal transport as the motors did not use precious oxygen in the mines. Switzerland’s lack of natural fossil resources forced the rapid electrification of their rail network. One of the earliest rechargeable batteries - the Nickel-iron battery - was favored by Edison for use in electric cars. Electric vehicles were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of light, powerful internal combustion engines, electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early 1900s. They were produced by Baker Electric, Columbia Electric, Detroit Electric, and others and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles. In the 1930s, National City Lines, which was a partnership of General Motors, Firestone, and Standard Oil of California purchased many electric tram networks across the country to dismantle them and replace them with GM buses. The partnership was convicted of conspiring to monopolize the sale of equipment and supplies to their subsidiary companies conspiracy, but were acquitted of conspiring to monopolize the provision of transportation services. Electric tram line technologies could be used to recharge BEVs and PHEVs on the highway while the user drives, providing virtually unrestricted driving range. The technology is old and well established (see : Conduit current collection, Nickel-iron battery). The infrastructure has not been built. In January 1990, General Motors’ President introduced its EV concept two-seater, the "Impact," at the Los Angeles Auto Show. That September, the California Air Resources Board mandated major-automaker sales of EVs, in phases starting in 1998. From 1996

Electric vehicle model by Ányos Jedlik, the inventor of electric motor ( 1828, Hungary) .

Edison and a 1914 Detroit Electric, model 47 (courtesy of the National Museum of American History)

An electric vehicle and an antique car on display at a 1912 auto show built an electric locomotive that attained a speed of four miles per hour (6 km/h). In England a patent was granted in 1840 for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, and similar American patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in 1847.[1]


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to 1998 GM produced 1117 EV1s, 800 of which were made available through threeyear leases. Chrysler, Ford, GM, Honda, Nissan and Toyota also produced limited numbers of EVs for California drivers. In 2003, upon the expiration of EV1 leases, GM crushed them. The crushing has variously been attributed to 1) the auto industry’s successful federal court challenge to California’s zero-emissions vehicle mandate, 2) a federal regulation requiring GM to produce and maintain spare parts for the few thousands EV1s and 3) the success of the Oil and Auto industries’ media campaign to reduce public acceptance of electric vehicles.

Electric vehicle
Mitsubishi Corp., are developing new-generation electric vehicles. [5]

Electricity sources

A passenger railroad, taking power through a third rail with return through the traction rails (See articles on diesel-electric and gasolineelectric hybrid locomotion for information on electric vehicles using internal-combustion energy sources). Batteries, electric double-layer capacitors and flywheel energy storage are forms of rechargeable on-board electrical storage. By avoiding an intermediate mechanical step, the energy conversion efficiency can be improved over the hybrids already discussed, by avoiding unnecessary energy conversions. Furthermore, electro-chemical batteries conversions are easy to reverse, allowing electrical energy to be stored in chemical form. Another form of chemical to electrical conversion is fuel cells, projected for future use. For especially large electric vehicles, such as submarines, the chemical energy of the diesel-electric can be replaced by a nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor usually provides heat, which drives a steam turbine, which drives a generator, which is then fed to the propulsion. See Nuclear Power

EV1 A movie made on the subject in 2005-2006 was titled Who Killed the Electric Car? and released theatrically by Sony Pictures Classics in 2006. The film explores the roles of automobile manufacturers, oil industry, the U.S. government, batteries, hydrogen vehicles, and consumers, and each of their roles in limiting the deployment and adoption of this technology. Honda, Nissan and Toyota also repossessed and crushed most of their EVs, which, like the GM EV1s, had been available only by closed-end lease. After public protests, Toyota sold 200 of its RAV EVs to eager buyers; they now sell, five years later, at over their original forty-thousand-dollar price. The production of the Citroën Berlingo Electrique stopped in September 2005. Nowadays, electric vehicles are hitting the mainstream [4]. All major carmakers, such as Daimler AG, Toyota Motor Corp., General Motors Corp., Renault SA, Peugeot-Citroen, VW and

Electric motor
The power of a vehicle electric motor, as in other vehicles, is measured in kilowatts (kW). 100 kW is roughly equivalent to 134 horsepower, although most electric motors deliver full torque over a wide RPM range, so the performance is not equivalent, and far exceeds a 134 horsepower (100 kW) fuel-


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powered motor, which has a limited torque curve. Usually, direct current (DC) electricity is fed into a DC/AC inverter where it is converted to alternating current (AC) electricity and this AC electricity is connected to a 3-phase AC motor. For electric trains, DC motors are often used.

Electric vehicle
buses, trams, metros and trolleybuses and electric locomotives. In the systems above motion is provided by a rotary electric motor. However, it is possible to "unroll" the motor to drive directly against a special matched track. These linear motors are used in maglev trains which float above the rails supported by magnetic levitation. This allows for almost no rolling resistance of the vehicle and no mechanical wear and tear of the train or track. Levitation and forward motion are two independent effects; the forward motive force normally requires external power, although some types, such as Inductrack, achieve levitation at low speeds without any. In addition to the high-performance control systems needed, switching and curving of the tracks becomes difficult with linear motors, which to date has restricted their operations to high-speed point to point services.

Vehicle types
Further information: Hybrid electric vehicle

Electric car Large-scale electric transport: energy and motors

Small scale electric vehicles

A trolleybus uses two overhead wires to provide electrical current supply and return to the power source Most large electric transport systems are powered by stationary sources of electricity that are directly connected to the vehicles through wires. Electric traction allows the use of regenerative braking, in which the motors are used as brakes and become generators that transform the motion of, usually, a train into electrical power that is then fed back into the lines. This system is particularly advantageous in mountainous operations, as descending vehicles can produce a large portion of the power required for those ascending. This regenerative system is only viable if the system is large enough to utilise the power generated by descending vehicles. Due to the extra infrastructure and difficulty in handling arbitrary travel, most directly connected vehicles are owned publicly or by large companies. These forms of transportation are covered in more detail in electric

50+ mph fun-ev electric scooter Some bicycles have been converted to electric power with a small battery and a small electric motor, some even have solar panels that are folded out when the vehicle is at rest. Small scale electric vehicles include electric cars, light trucks, neighborhood electric vehicles, motorcycles, motorized bicycles, electric scooters , golf carts, milk floats, forklifts and similar vehicles.

Issues regarding electric vehicles


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Electric vehicle
except for extremely high exposures.[7] Electric motors can be shielded within a metallic Faraday’s cage, but this reduces efficiency by adding weight to the vehicle, while it is not conclusive that all electromagnetic radiation can be contained.

Energy sources
Although electric vehicles have few direct emissions, all rely on energy created through electricity generation, emit pollution and generate waste, unless it is generated by renewable source power plants. Since electric vehicles use whatever electricity is delivered by their electrical utility/grid operator, electric vehicles can be made more efficient or less polluting by modify the electrical generating stations. This would be done by an electrical utility under a government energy policy, in a timescale negotiated between utilities and government. Fossil fuel vehicle efficiency and pollution standards take years to filter through a nation’s fleet of vehicles. New efficiency and pollution standards rely on the purchase of new vehicles, often as a the current vehicles already on the road reach their end-of-life. Only a few nations set a retirement age for old vehicles, such as Japan or Singapore, forcing periodic upgrading of all vehicles already on the road. Electric vehicles will take advantage of whatever environmental gains happen when a renewable energy generation station comes online, a fossil fuel station is decommissioned or upgraded. Conversely, if government policy or economic conditions shifts generators back to use more polluting fossil fuels and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), or more inefficient sources, the reverse can happen. Even in such a situation, electrical vehicles are still more efficient than a comparable amount of fossil fuel vehicles. In areas with a deregulated electrical energy market, an electrical vehicle owner can choose whether to run his electrical vehicle off conventional electrical energy sources, or strictly from renewable electrical energy sources (presumably at an additional cost), and switch at any time between the two.

If a large proportion of private vehicles were to convert to grid electricity it would increase the demand for generation and transmission, and consequent emissions. However, overall energy consumption and emissions would diminish because of the higher efficiency of electric vehicles over the entire cycle. In the USA it has been estimated there is already nearly sufficient existing power plant and transmission infrastructure, assuming that most charging would occur overnight, using the most efficient off-peak base load sources.[8]

Issues with batteries

Old: Banks of conventional lead-acid car batteries are still commonly used for EV propulsion On an energy basis, the price of electricity to run an EV is a small fraction of the cost of liquid fuel needed to produce an equivalent amount of energy. Issues related to batteries, however, can add to the operating costs.

Because of the different methods of charging possible, the emissions produced have been quantified in different ways. Plug-in EV and hybrids also have different consumption charateristics.[6] Electromagnetic radiation from high performance electrical motors has been claimed to be associated with some human ailments, but such claims are largely unsubstantiated

Traditionally, most EVs have used lead-acid batteries due to their mature technology, high availability, and low cost (exception: some early EVs, such as the Detroit Electric,


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Electric vehicle
would leak into the cabin immediately after charging. Lead-acid batteries have been re-engineered by Firefly Energy, increasing longevity, slightly increasing energy density, and significantly increasing power density. Firefly is expected market lightweight vehicle batteries, either directly or through manufacturing partners in 2008. Lead-acid batteries powered such earlymodern EVs as the original versions of the EV1 and the RAV4EV.

Nickel metal hydride
Nickel-metal hydride batteries are now considered a relatively mature technology. While less efficient (60-70%) in charging and discharging than even lead-acid, they boast an energy density of 30-80Wh/kg, far higher than lead-acid. When used properly, nickelmetal hydride batteries can have exceptionally long lives, as has been demonstrated in their use in hybrid cars and surviving NiMH RAV4EVs that still operate well after 100,000 miles (160,000 km) and over a decade of service. Downsides include the poor efficiency, high self-discharge, very finicky charge cycles, and poor performance in cold weather. GM Ovonic produced the NiMH battery used in the second generation EV-1, and Cobasys makes a nearly identical battery (ten 1.2V 85Ah NiMH cells in series in contrast with eleven cells for Ovonic battery). This worked very well in the EV-1. Patent encumbrance has limited the use of these batteries in recent years.

75 watt-hour/kilogram lithium ion polymer battery prototypes. Newer Li-poly cells provide up to 130 Wh/kg and last through thousands of charging cycles. used nickel-iron.) Like all batteries, these have an environmental impact through their construction, use, disposal or recycling. On the upside, vehicle battery recycling rates top 95% in the United States. Deep-cycle lead batteries are expensive and have a shorter life than the vehicle itself, typically needing replacement every 3 years. Lead-acid batteries in EV applications end up being a significant (25%-50%) portion of the final vehicle mass. Like all batteries, they have significantly lower energy density than petroleum fuels -- in this case, 30-40Wh/kg. While the difference isn’t as extreme as it first appears due to the lighter drive-train in an EV, even the best batteries tend to lead to higher masses when applied to vehicles with a normal range. The efficiency (70-75%) and storage capacity of the current generation of common deep cycle lead acid batteries decreases with lower temperatures, and diverting power to run a heating coil reduces efficiency and range by up to 40%. Recent advances in battery efficiency, capacity, materials, safety, toxicity and durability are likely to allow these superior characteristics to be applied in car-sized EVs. Charging and operation of batteries typically results in the emission of hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur, which are naturally occurring and normally harmless if properly vented. Early Citicar owners discovered that, if not vented properly, unpleasant sulfur smells

The sodium or "zebra" battery uses a molten chloroaluminate (NaAlCl4) sodium as the electrolyte. This chemistry is also occasionally referred to as "hot salt". A relatively mature technology, the Zebra battery boasts an energy density of 120Wh/kg and reasonable series resistance. Since the battery must be heated for use, cold weather doesn’t strongly affect its operation except for in increasing heating costs. They have been used in several EVs. Zebras can last for a few thousand charge cycles and are nontoxic. The downsides to the Zebra battery include poor power density (<300 W/kg) and the requirement of having to heat the electrolyte to ~270*C, which wastes some energy and presents difficulties in long-term storage of charge.


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Electric vehicle
proposed as an alternative. While it suffers from some problems (weight, standardization, etc), Project Better Place has already raised several hundred million dollars to build several electric vehicle networks of charging and battery replacement stations. One type of battery "replacement" proposed is much simpler: while the latest generation of vanadium redox battery only has an energy density similar to lead-acid, the charge is stored solely in a vanadium-based electrolyte, which can be pumped out and replaced with charged fluid. The vanadium battery system is also a potential candidate for intermediate energy storage in quick charging stations because of its high power density and extremely good endurance in daily use. System cost however, is still prohibitive. As vanadium battery systems are estimated to range between $350–$600 per kWh, a battery that can service one hundred customers in a 24 hour period at 50 kWh per charge would cost $1.8-$3 million.

Lithium ion
Lithium-ion (and similar lithium polymer) batteries, widely known through their use in laptops and consumer electronics, dominate the most recent group of EVs in development. The traditional lithium-ion chemistry involves a lithium cobalt oxide cathode and a graphite anode. This yields cells with an impressive 200+Wh/kg energy density[9] and good power density, and 80 to 90% charge/ discharge efficiency. The downsides of traditional lithium-ion batteries include short cycle lifes (hundreds to a few thousand charge cycles) and significant degradation with age. The cathode is also somewhat toxic. Also, traditional lithium-ion batteries can pose a fire safety risk if punctured or charged improperly. The maturity of this technology is moderate. The Tesla Roadster uses "blades" of traditional lithium-ion "laptop battery" cells that can be replaced individually as needed. Most other EVs are utilizing new variations on lithium-ion chemistry that sacrifice energy density to provide extreme power density, fire resistance, environmental friendliness, very rapid charges (as low as a few minutes), and very long lifespans. These variants (phosphates, titanates, spinels, etc) have been shown to have a much longer lifetime, with A123 expecting their lithium iron phosphate batteries to last for at least 10+ years and 7000+ charge cycles[10], and LG Chem expecting their lithium-manganese spinel batteries to last up to 40 years.[11] Much work is being done on lithium ion batteries in the lab[12]. Lithium vanadium oxide has already made its way into the Subaru prototype G4e, doubling energy density. Silicon nanowires[13][14][15], silicon nanoparticles[16], and tin nanoparticles[17][18] promise several times the energy density in the anode, while composite[19][20][21][22][23] and superlattice[24] cathodes also promise significant density improvements.

Other in-development technologies
Conventional electric double-layer capacitors are being worked to achieve the energy density of lithium ion batteries, offering almost unlimited lifespans and no environmental issues. High-K electric double-layer capacitors, such as EEStor’s EESU, promise to best lithium ion energy density several times over if they can be produced. Lithium-sulphur batteries offer 250Wh/kg[25]. Sodium-ion batteries promise 400Wh/kg with only minimal expansion/contraction during charge/discharge and a very high surface area[26].

Mechanically rechargeable batteries
There is another way to "refuel" electrical vehicles. Instead of recharging them from electric socket, batteries could be mechanically replaced on special stations just in a couple of minutes. The general rule here is the more energy density does have a battery the more difficult to recharge it electrically. There is Vanadium and Titanium diboride batteries which have great energy density [27], but can’t be recharged electrically.

Charging stations and battery swapping
Electric vehicles typically charge from either outlets or dedicated charging stations, a process that typically takes hours. One proposed solution is "rapid charging", such as the Aerovironment PosiCharge line (up to 250kW) and the Norvik MinitCharge line (up to 300kW). Battery replacement is also


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Instead, thermal methods of recharging could be used. If coal, nuclear or geothermal energy used as a source, overall efficiency could be much better than in electrically rechargeable batteries, but can be environmental externalities. Although renewable energy sources also could be used to recharge such type of batteries with high efficiency.

Electric vehicle

Advantages of electric vehicles
Electric motors are mechanically very simple. Electric motors often achieve 90% energy conversion efficiency[29]over the full range of speeds and power output and can be precisely controlled. They can also be combined with regenerative braking systems that have the ability to convert movement energy back into stored electricity. This can be used to reduce the wear on brake systems (and consequent brake pad dust) and reduce the total energy requirement of a trip. Regenerative braking is especially effective for start-andstop city use. They can be finely controlled and provide high torque from rest, unlike internal combustion engines, and do not need multiple gears to match power curves. This removes the need for gearboxes and torque converters. Electric vehicles have less vibration than internal combustion engines.

Disadvantages of electric vehicles
Many electric designs have limited range, due to the low energy density of batteries compared to the fuel of internal combustion engined vehicles. Electric vehicles also often have long recharge times compared to the relatively fast process of refueling a tank. This is further complicated by the current scarcity of public charging stations. Contrary to widespread belief, according to Department of Energy research conducted at Pacific National Laboratory, 84% of existing vehicles could be switched over to plug-in hybrids without requiring any new grid infrastructure.[28] In terms of transportation, the net result would be a 27% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, a slight reduction in nitrous oxide emissions, an increase in particulate matter emissions, the same sulfur dioxide emissions, and the near elimination of carbon monoxide and volatile organic compound emissions. The emissions would be displaced away from street level and have correspondingly less effect on human health.

Electric vehicle release almost no air pollutants at the place where they are operated. In addition, it is generally easier to build pollution control systems into centralised power stations than retrofit enormous numbers of cars. Another advantage is that electric vehicles typically have less noise pollution than a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, whether it is at rest or in motion.

Heating of electric vehicles
In cold climates considerable energy is needed to heat the interior of the vehicle, and to defrost the windows. With IC engines this heat can come for free from the waste heat from the engine cooling circuit. If this is done with battery power cars, this will require extra energy from the battery, although some could be harvested from the motor and battery itself. There is not be as much waste heat available as from an ICE engine. However when plugged into the grid electric vehicles can be preheated, or cooled, and need little or no energy from the battery pack, especially for short trips. Newer designs are focused on using super-insulated cabins which can heat the car using the body heat of the passengers.

Energy resilience
Electricity is a form of energy that remains within the continent where it was produced and can be multi-sourced. As a result it gives the greatest degree of energy resilience [30].

Cost of recharge
The GM Volt will cost "less than purchasing a cup of your favorite coffee" to recharge. The Volt should cost less than 2 cents per mile to drive on electricity, compared with 12 cents a mile on gasoline at a price of $3.60 a gallon. This means a trip from Los Angeles to New York would cost $56 on electricity, and $336 with gasoline. This would be the


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equivalent to paying 70 cents a gallon of gas.

Electric vehicle
demonstrate and evaluate Plug-In Hybrids and other electric infrastructure concepts -like truck stop charging station, electric rail, and training for technicians to build and repair electric vehicles (greencollar jobs. [38] Qualifying electric vehicles purchased new are eligible for a one-time federal tax credit that equals 10% of the cost of the vehicle up to $4,000, provided under Section 179A of the Energy Policy Act of 1992; it was extended through 2007 by the Working Families Tax Relief Act of 2004. A tax deduction of up to $100,000 per location is available for qualified electric vehicle recharging property used in a trade or business. In 2008, Mayor Gavin Newsom, San Jose Mayor Chuck Reed and Oakland Mayor Ron Dellums announced a nine-step policy plan for transforming the Bay Area into the "Electric Vehicle (EV) Capital of the U.S." [39]. Other local and state governments have also expressed interest in electric cars. [40] In March 2009, as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the U.S. Department of Energy announced the release of two competitive solicitations for up to $2 billion in federal funding for competitively awarded cost-shared agreements for manufacturing of advanced batteries and related drive components as well as up to $400 million for transportation electrification demonstration and deployment projects. This announcement will also help meet President Barack Obama’s goal of putting one million plug-in hybrid vehicles on the road by 2015.[41]

Stabilising the grid
There is potential to allow electric vehicles to enhance electric grid response by feeding electricity into the grid during peak air conditioning times (mid-afternoon) while allowing sufficient charge for expected evening use as determined by the vehicle’s predicted use profile.[32] Furthermore, our current electricity infrastructure will most likely have to cope with increasing shares of variable-output power sources such as windmills and PV solar panels. This variability could to some extent be compensated for by, in real time, adjusting the speed at which EV batteries are charged, or possibly even discharged in the future. Some concepts see battery exchange and hence battery charging station, much like petrol stations today. Clearly these will enormous storage and charging potentials, which can be manipulate to vary rate of charging, and to output power during shortage periods, much as diesel generators are used for short periods to stabilise the UK and other national Grids[33] [34].

Incentives and promotion
Further information: Plug-in hybrid

United States
See also: Plug-in hybrid vehicle In 2003 the Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimated there would be 55,852 Full-electric vehicles (FEV) in 2004, with an annual growth rate of 39.1 % (excluding in this estimation electric hybrids).[35] The EIA’s 2007 Annual Energy Review (AER) estimates the actual number of FEV’s on the road in 2004 as 49,536 and a preliminary estimated 2006 number of 53,526.[36] President Barack Obama has announced $2.4 billion for electric vehicles.[37] . $1.5 billion in grants to U.S. based manufacturers to produce these highly efficient batteries and their components; up to $500 million in grants to U.S. based manufacturers to produce other components needed for electric vehicles, such as electric motors and other components; and up to $400 million to

European Union
Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services includes measures to promote efficient vehicles. AVERE has a table summarizing the taxation and incentives for these vehicles in the different European countries, related to state subsidies, reduction of VAT and other taxes, insurance facilities, parking and charging facilities (including free recharging on street or in the parking ares), EV imposed by law and banned circulation for petroleum cars, permission to use bus lanes, free road tax, toll free on highways and exempt from congestion charging free or reduced parking, free charging at charge points, between others


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Electric vehicle
in a new race to be the first to market with an all-electric car so they can claim the mantle as the world’s greenest automaker [48].

In Denmark petrol cars is taxed 180%+25% however EV cars (max. 2000 kg total weight) is only taxed 25%, free parking in Copenhagen and other cities, free recharging at some parking spaces.

EU member states
In Portugal, the government has linked up with car-makers to further the use of electric cars by investing in setting up electric charging stations across the country and in raising awareness of the vehicle’s benefits [43]. In October 2008 UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown pledged £100 million in government money to support electric, hybrid and other more environmentally friendly car projects over a five-year period to help make Britain "the European capital for electric cars" [43] [44]. Denmark is planning to introduce a greater number of battery driven electric cars on the streets - charged on renewable energy from the country’s many windmills - ahead of the UN Climate Summit that is to descend on Copenhagen in December 2009. A great deal of the electricity is generated by windmills [43]. “ Electric vehicles are the future and ” the driver of the industrial revolution

South Africa
• Joule, designed by Cape Town-based Optimal Energy[49], made its debut at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, has a maximum driving range of 400 kilometres. It accommodates two large-cell lithium ion battery packs[50].

• BYD F6DM (2008) • Nanjing Dongyu Electric Motorcycle&Electric Bicycle • Tradwin Hongkong International(Distributor)

European Union
• Morgan LifeCar (2009+) • Lightning GT (2009+) • Imperia GP (2010), from 70,248€ Excl. VAT, preorders in 2009[51] • eRUF Portugal and Spain want to create the first green car in Iberia, hoping to generate 150 million euros worth of investment and 800 new jobs in the region’s struggling motor industry. The green car, which could be powered by electricity. The Mobi-green car, as the vehicle is named, is being developed by two automotive research centres in Portugal and Spain using funds from both the public and private sectors. [52] London, England is at the forefront and a London-based entrepreneur has just unveiled a three-wheeled zero-emission electric vehicle aimed at delivery fleets. The A-Kar is powered by lithium-ion battery cells and takes five hours for a full charge, giving a range of 70 miles and a top speed of 35mph.

—Miguel Sebastian, Spanish Industry Minister [45] Spain’s government aims to have 1 million electric cars on the roads by 2014 as part of a plan to cut energy consumption and dependence on expensive imports, Industry Minister Miguel Sebastian said [43] [45] [46].

Further information: Automotive market, Aftermarket kit, Electric vehicle conversion, and Plug-in hybrid Electric vehicles are hitting the mainstream [4]. Automakers are going to showcase at the 2009 Washington Auto Show their commitment to quickly bringing electric hybrid and all-electric vehicles to market as early as 2010 [47].

Practically the only EV to have been manufactured for several years is the Indian REVA. It is produced by REVA Electric Car Company Private Ltd. (RECC) in Bangalore, India, a company established in 1994 as a joint venture between the Maini Group India and AEV LLC, California USA. After seven years of

World production race
All major carmakers, such as Daimler AG, Toyota Motor Corp., General Motors Corp., Renault SA, Peugeot-Citroen, VW and Mitsubishi Corp., are developing new-generation electric vehicles. [5]. Really, Automakers are


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R&D, they commercialized the first REVA car in June 2001. [54] The current version of the REVA is the REVAi. It was first reserved for the Indian market, but it is now distributed in several European countries: UK (by GoinGreen under the name G-Wiz), Cyprus and Greece (by REVA Phaedra Electricity Mobility Ltd., Belgium (by Green Mobil), Norway (by Ole Chr. Bye AS), Iceland (by Perlukafarinn ehf), Spain (by Emovement)and Germany (by Elektro PKW, the REVA is also available in the Republic of Ireland GreenAer. It may be exported to the USA with a speed limiter for use as a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV). In addition to Bangalore-based Reva, which currently is the only company actually selling EVs today, electric cars made in India includes: • Mahindra & Mahindra: Four-seat model by 2010 [55]. • Tata: 2008-2009 (also possibly an air car) [56]. • Ajanta Group: clockmaker with plans for low-cost electric vehicle [57] [57]. • Tara: Low-cost EV less than a Tata Nano[58]. • Hero Electric: 2013 Electric car [59][60]. With Tata, Ajanta and Tara talking about ’low-cost’ cars and "less than a Tata Nano".

Electric vehicle


• • • • • • Chevy Volt Tesla Model S (2010+) Toyota iQ PHEV Toyota Prius PHEV Visionary Vehicles Zap X

Buying and leasing
U.S. Army
The U.S. Army has announced that it will lease 4,000 Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs) within three years. The Army plans to use NEVs at its bases for transporting people around the base, as well as for security patrols and maintenance and delivery services. The Army accepted its first six NEVs at Virginia’s Fort Myer in March 2009 and will lease a total of 600 NEVs through the rest of the year, followed by the leasing of 1,600 NEVs for each of the following two years. With a full eight-hour recharge, the NEVs can travel 30 miles (48 km) at a top speed of 25 mph (40 km/h)[62] .

United States
Startups are taking the lead in electric vehicles in North America [61] • Myers Motors, a small private company, has created an electric personal Three wheeled car called NMG (No More Gas). This car can take only one passenger, and is being sold in very small numbers in the US only.


• • • • Phoenix SUT Tesla Roadster Zap Xebra eviLightTruck [4]

• • • • Miles XS500 Fisker Karma Lightning GT Aptera type 1e Eliica Battery Electric Car with 370 km/h top speed and 200 km range


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Electric vehicle
plugging it into a standard household AC electrical source. On October 29, 2007, Shai Agassi launched Project Better Place, a company focused on building massive scale Electric Recharge Grids as infrastructure supporting the deployment of electric vehicles (including plug-in hybrids) in countries around the world. On January 21, BPP and the Nissan-Renault group signed a MOU - PBP will provide the battery recharging and swapping infrastructure and Renault-Nissan will massproduce the vehicles.

The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4,000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006. Ferdinand Dudenhoeffer, head of the Centre of Automotive Research at the Gelsenkirchen University of Applied Sciences in Germany, said that "by 2025, all passenger cars sold in Europe will be electric or hybrid" electric [43]. Several start-up companies like Tesla Motors, Ronaele Incorporated, Commuter Cars, Phoenix Motorcars, Miles Electric Vehicles, and Aptera Motors will have powerful battery-electric vehicles available to the public in 2008. Battery and energy storage technology is advancing rapidly. The average distance driven by 80% of citizens per day in a car in the US is about 50 miles (US dept of transport, 1991), which fits easily within the current range of the electric car. This range can be improved by technologies such as Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles which are capable of using traditional fuels for unlimited range, rapid charging stations for BEVs, improved energy density batteries, flow batteries, or battery swapping. In 2006 GM began the development of a plug-in hybrid that will use a lithium-ion battery. The vehicle, initially known as the iCar, is now called the Chevrolet Volt. The basic design was first exhibited January 2007 at the North American International Auto Show. GM is planning to have this EV ready for sale to the public in the latter half of 2010. The car is to have a 50-mile (80 km) range. If the battery capacity falls below 30 percent a small internal combustion engine will kick in to charge the battery on the go. This in effect increases the range of the vehicle, allowing it to be driven until it can be fully charged by

Improved long term energy storage and nano batteries
There have been several developments which could bring electric vehicles outside their current fields of application, as scooters, golf cars, neighborhood vehicles, in industrial operational yards and indoor operation. First, advances in lithium-based battery technology, in large part driven by the consumer electronics industry, allow full-sized, highway-capable electric vehicles to be propelled as far on a single charge as conventional cars go on a single tank of gasoline. Lithium batteries have been made safe, can be recharged in minutes instead of hours, and now last longer than the typical vehicle. The production cost of these lighter, highercapacity lithium batteries is gradually decreasing as the technology matures and production volumes increase.

Introduction of battery management and intermediate storage
Another improvement is to decouple the electric motor from the battery through electronic control, employing ultra-capacitors to buffer large but short power demands and regenerative braking energy. The development of new cell types combined with intelligent cell management improved both weak points mentioned above. The cell management involves not only monitoring the health of the cells but also a redundant cell configuration (one more cell than needed). With sophisticated switched wiring it is possible to condition one cell while the rest are on duty.

100x faster battery recharging
By soaking the matter found in conventional lithium ion batteries in a special solution,


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
lithium ion batteries can be recharged 100x faster. The research was conducted by Gerbrand ceder of the MIT. The researchers believe the solution may appear on the market in 2011.[63] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Electric vehicle
Dual-mode vehicle Electrathon Electrical engineering Electric Vehicle (EV produced in 1899) Electric Vehicle Company Electric vehicle conversion Electric vehicle production Electric Vehicle Technical Center Electrification Electrocar Green enterprise Green tuning Hybrid electric vehicle Hydrogen vehicle List of production battery electric vehicles Low-cost electric vehicle Mitigation of global warming Motorized bicycle Nanotechnology batteries. Neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV) Plug-in vehicle: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Supplemental battery Tribrid vehicle World car of the year

Electric vehicle organizations
The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA), chairman Hisashi Ishitani, formed by: • Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA) • Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP) • European Association for Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (AVERE) [5] It organizes the EVS (Worldwide International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium).

North America
• • • • Seattle Electric Vehicle Association Oregon Electric Vehicle Association Humboldt Electric Vehicle Association NEDRA National Electric Drive Racing Association • The Electric Auto Association (EAA) (North America) and its chapter Plug In America. • Electric Car Society

[1] History of Railway Electric Traction [2] Inventors - Electric Cars (1890 - 1930) [3] Escaping Lock-in: the Case of the Electric Vehicle [4] ^ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/ 378351_plugins09.html [5] ^ Start-Ups Race to Produce ’Green’ Cars - WSJ.com [6] Knipping, E. and Duvall, M. (June 2007) "Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Volume 2: United States Air Quality Analysis Based on AEO-2006 Assumptions for 2030" Electric Power Research Institute and Natural Resources Defense Council accessed July 21, 2007 [7] GreenFacts summary of the IARC Evaluation of Static and Extremely LowFrequency (ELFs) Electric and Magnetic Fields [8] PNNL: Newsroom - Mileage from megawatts: Study finds enough electric capacity to “fill up” plug-in vehicles across much of the nation [9] [1] [10] A123 Inks Deal to Develop Battery Cells for GM Electric Car | Xconomy [11] GM-VOLT : Chevy Volt Electric Car Site

• The EAA Europe, the European chapter of the Electric Auto Association and Clean Vehicle Petition • The Campaign for Battery Electric Vehicles (UK based) • The Battery Vehicle Society (UK)

• U.S. Patent 1,017,198, E. W. Bender, Electric Motor vehicle

See also
• • • • All-Terrain Electric Vehicle (ATEV) Battery electric vehicle Battery swapping BugE


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Electric vehicle

[12] Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries Made [35] http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/ Safer - Nikkei Electronics Asia page/atftables/afvs2001.xls February 2008 - Tech-On! [36] http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/txt/ [13] Nanowire battery can hold 10 times the ptb1004.html charge of existing lithium-ion battery [37] http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/ [14] Microsoft PowerPoint - Cui-Nanowire progress_alerts.cfm/pa_id=152 Energy for GCEP publication [38] http://www.calcars.org/calcars-news/ [15] GM-VOLT : Chevy Volt Electric Car 1051.html Site » Blog Archive » GM-Volt.com: [39] http://www.sfgov.org/site/ Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of mayor_index.asp?id=93399 Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery [40] http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/ Breakthrough 2008-11-27-electric-powered-cars_N.htm [16] Nanotech promises lithium ion battery [41] http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/ boost - vnunet.com daily.cfm/hp_news_id=159 [17] Using nanotechnology to improve Li-ion [42] http://www.avere.org/state_subsidies.pdf battery performance [43] ^ http://euobserver.com/882/26594 [18] http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi[44] http://www.worldcarfans.com/ bin/abstract/117923780/ 9081028.008/prime-minister-gordonABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 brown-samples-thnk-city-ev-at-downing[19] Argonne’s lithium-ion battery technology street to be commercialized by Japan’s Toda [45] ^ http://blogs.edmunds.com/ Kogyo greencaradvisor/2008/07/spain-taking[20] http://www.transportation.anl.gov/ steps-to-put-1-million-electric-vehiclespublications/transforum/v5n2/ on-nations-roads-by-2014.html composite_cathodes.html [46] http://gas2.org/2008/07/30/1-million[21] Argonne licenses new lithium-ion battery electric-cars-on-spains-roads-by-2014/ technology and http://www.triplepundit.com/pages/ [22] Profile Li-Ion batteries.pmd spain-to-put-1-million-electri-003363.php [23] http://www.sciencedirect.com/ [47] http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/ science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TH1-4MBCJKRarticle?AID=/20090203/AUTO04/ G&_user=440026&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000020939&_version= 902030329/1148/&source=nletter[24] Hybrid Develops New "Superlattice business Structure" Lithium Battery Capable of [48] http://planetark.org/wen/51191 Increasing Drive Ranges in Excess of 200 [49] http://www.optimalenergy.co.za Miles | Hybrid Technologies [50] http://www.southafrica.info/business/ [25] http://www.sciencedirect.com/ trends/newbusiness/joule-061008.htm science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TG0-4D48WFM-1&_user=440026&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search& [51] http://www.imperia-auto.be [26] A multifunctional 3.5[thinsp]V iron-based [52] Planet Ark : Portugal, Spain Sign Green phosphate cathode for rechargeable Car Partnership batteries : Abstract : Nature Materials [53] [3] [27] http://www.sciencedirect.com/ [54] The website of the REVA Electric Car science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TH1-4RFCD2C-6&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sor Company [28] [2]. [55] http://www.evworld.com/ [29] Better Place news.cfm?newsid=18999 [30] Our Electric Future — The American, A [56] http://www.evworld.com/ Magazine of Ideas news.cfm?newsid=18776 [31] http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2008/ [57] ^ http://www.evworld.com/ autos/0809/gallery.gm_volt_reveal/ news.cfm?newsid=17985 index.html [58] http://www.evworld.com/ [32] First vehicle-to-grid demonstration (By news.cfm?newsid=17794 Pacific Gas and Electric Company) [59] http://www.heroelectricindia.com [33] http://www.claverton-energy.com/ [60] http://www.evworld.com/ energy-experts-library/downloads/ news.cfm?newsid=19001 enginesgasturbines [61] http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/ [34] http://www.claverton-energy.com/ news_detail.cfm/news_id=12178 download/131/


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[62] http://www.army.mil/-newsreleases/ 2009/01/12/15707-army-announceshistoric-electric-vehicle-lease/ [63] 100x faster recharging of battery

Electric vehicle

0071543732/ ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qisbn=1221763

External links
• Alternative Fueling Station Locator, charging stations (EERE). • Int. Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications - Enabling the Electric Vehicle. • Plug-In Electric Vehicle industry information and comparisons.

Further reading
• Leitman, Seth and Brant, Bob (2008-10). Build Your Own Electric Vehicle, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc.. ISBN 0071543732. http://www.amazon.com/ Build-Your-Own-Electric-Vehicle/dp/

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_vehicle" Categories: Alternative propulsion, Electric vehicles, Electrification This page was last modified on 15 May 2009, at 03:10 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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