Is Spain Bankrupt

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					       Spain’s Empire
                    &
European Absolutism
        Chapter 21 Section 1
                 p. 513-517
Charles V
 Inherited the throne of Spain
 Controlled Spain’s American
  colonies
 Reined over parts of Italy, Austria,
  and the Netherlands
 As Holy Roman Emperor he
  controlled much of Germany
Charles V
Spain’s Powerful Empire

 Charles   V was a devout Catholic
 He opposed the Lutherans

 Agreed to the Peace of Augsburg

 It allowed German princes to
  choose the religion for their
  territory
Charles V Retires

 Charles  divided his empire
 His brother Ferdinand got Austria
  and the Holy Roman Empire
 His son Philip II got Spain, The
  Spanish Netherlands, and the
  American colonies
Philip II’s Empire

 In 1580, the king of Portugal died
  without an heir and Philip seized
  Portugal
 The Portuguese kingdom had
  land in Africa, India, and the East
  Indies
Philip II
r. 1556-1598



Artist: Coello

Location: Museo
  del Prado,
  Madrid

See note
Philip’s Wealth
 By 1600, American mines
  supplied Spain with 339,000
  pounds of gold
 Between 1550 and 1650, 16000
  tons of silver were taken back to
  Spain
 His wealth supported a standing
  army of 50,000 soldiers
Defender of Catholicism

 Philip took power at a time of
  religious wars
 He believed it was his duty to
  defend Spain against Muslims of
  the Ottoman Empire and
  Protestants of Europe
Battle of Lepanto

 The  Pope called on Catholic
  princes to fight the growing power
  of the Ottoman Empire
 Philip sent 250 ships to fight the
  Battle of Lepanto
The Escorial

 Philip’s  palace
 Demonstrated his power and
  his faith
 The palace had a monastery
  inside
Golden Age of Spanish Art
(16th & 17th Centuries)

 El Greco
   Distorted figures, brilliant colors

   Showed deep Catholic faith

 Diego Velasquez

   Court painter to Philip IV

   Painted scenes of royal family life
Portrait of
a Cardinal


   El Greco,
    1600

   Museum of Art
   NY
Holy Trinity
1577
Martyrdom
of
St. Maurice,
1580s



   note
Philip IV
r. 1621-1665




 Painted in
   1628 by
   Velasquez

 Location:
   Prado
Isabel de
Valois
(1602-1644)


First wife of
  Philip IV

Painted 1631
Private Collection
Philip IV
of Spain




   Velasquez,
    1644

   Frick
    Collection
Mariana
of
Austria


   2nd wife &
    niece of
    Philip IV

   1652,
    Prado
Las
Meninas


1656/7
Prado
Infanta
Margarita



 1658-60

 Kiev Museum
   of Western
   Art, Kiev
Don Quixote de la Mancha

 Often  called the birth of the
  European novel
 Written by Miguel de Cervantes

 About a poor nobleman who
  dreams of being a medieval
  knight
Windmills in La Mancha
Problems Weaken the Spanish
Empire

 The gold brought from the
 Americas made Spain wealthy
 for a while, but it also caused
 many economic problems
Inflation and Taxes

 Spain’s  population growth
  increased the demand for food
 Merchants raised food prices

 As more silver was brought to
  Spain, its value dropped
Other Problems
 When   the Reconquista expelled the
  Jews and Muslims, Spain lost many
  valuable artisans and businessmen
 Nobles did not have to pay taxes
 The rich got richer and the poor
  remained poor
 Spain never developed a middle
  class
Making Spain’s Enemies Rich
 Guilds produced Spain’s cloth and
  manufactured goods
 This made Spanish goods more
  expensive
 Spain bought much of what it needed
  from England, France, and the
  Netherlands (mostly Spain’s
  enemies)
Bankruptcy
 To  finance wars, Spain borrowed
  money from German and Italian
  bankers
 When new silver arrived in Spain,
  it was sent abroad to pay debts
 Philip declared Spain bankrupt
  three times
The Dutch Revolt

 Philipneeded a standing army
  to keep control of his lands in
  the Spanish Netherlands
 Spain was mostly Catholic, the
  Netherlands had many
  Calvinists
The Dutch Revolt (2)
   Philip raised taxes and tried to crush
    Protestantism
   Protestant mobs destroyed Catholic
    churches and religious artwork
   Philip sent the Duke of Alva to punish
    them.
   On a single day, the duke ordered the
    execution of 1500 Protestant rebels
   Fernando
    Álvarez de
    Toledo, Duke
    of Alba. Detail
    from the
    painting by
    Anthony More
Duke of Alva
   Titian
William of Orange

A  Dutch prince
 Wanted to free the
  Netherlands from Spain
 Won the Battle of Leiden in
  1574
William
of Orange


   William III
    1689-1702

King by
  consent of
  the
  governed
William of
Orange


   William III of
    England
Battle of Leiden
 The  Dutch flooded the Low
  Counties by opening dikes
 Much of the Low Countries was
  below sea-level
 The Spanish Army was driven
  from their camp outside of the city
  of Leiden
1579
   Seven northern Protestant provinces
    united and declared their independence
    from Spain
   They became the United Provinces of the
    Netherlands
   The southern provinces are present-day
    Belgium (they were Catholic)
Leiden, site of Spanish defeat
Dutch Independence, 1579
        Provinces
  United
  (Netherlands)

   Religioustoleration practiced
   Republic w/ elected governor

   Stable government
Surrender of Breda
The Independent Dutch Prosper

 The  United Provinces
  practiced religious toleration
 It was a republic, not a
  kingdom
 Each province had an elected
  governor
Dutch Trading Empire
   The Dutch built the largest fleet of ships in
    the world
   They shipped their goods to areas where
    prices were high an sold them for a profit
   The replaced the Italians as the bankers of
    Europe

   The trade in the Atlantic became more
    important than the trade in the
    Mediterranean
Dutch Art

 Wealthy   patrons supported
  artists
 Rembrandt van Rijn
 Famous for portraits
 Jan Vermeer
 Painted indoor, domestic
  scenes
Rembrandt van Rijn
(1606-1669)


         for the wealthy and
 Portraits
 groups of important citizens

 Sharpcontrasts of light
 /shadow
“ Anatomy lesson”
“Night Watch”
A
Scholar

 1631
Syndics of the Clothmaker’s Guild
 Jan Vermeer
 (1632-75)

 Domesticindoor settings
 Women involved in household
  work
 Shows importance of middle
  class
Woman in
Blue
Reading a
Letter

   1662-4
   Vermeer
   Rijks-
    museum
Girl With a
Pearl
Earring
   Vermeer
   1665
   Mauritshuis
    in the
    Hague
 The
 Milkmaid




1658-60
Rijksmuseum,
   Amsterdam
Absolutism in Europe

 Even though Philip lost his
 Dutch possessions, many
 other Europeans tried to be
 absolute monarchs, rulers
 without limits
The Theory of Absolutism
 Allpower rests in the hands of the
  king
 They believed in divine right, the
  idea that God created the
  monarchy and that the king acted
  as God’s representative on earth
 Absolute monarchs answered
  only to God
Growing Power of Europe’s
Monarchs
A  growing middle class in Europe
  often supported absolute
  monarchs because they promised
  peaceful stability and support for
  business
 The breakdown of Church
  authority made it easier for kings
  to gain absolute control
Crises Lead to Absolutism
 Widespread    war caused
  governments to raise large armies
 Armies were paid for with heavy
  taxes
 Peasants revolted
 Rulers tried to gain more control
 They built large bureaucracies to
  help keep control

				
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