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					                                           Activities in 2009
                                                        Rabies
                                          Christine Fehlner-Gardiner
                    Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield (OLF)
                                          Centre of Expertise (CofE) for Rabies
                                   Tel.: (+1-613) 228 6698, Fax: (+1-613) 228 6669
                                     christine.fehlner-gardiner@inspection.gc.ca




                     Summary of general activities related to the disease


1.   Test(s) in use/or available for the specified disease at your laboratory

     The figures below are approximate only, and include the specimens tested at ADRI Lethbridge


                           Test                                    For              Specificity              Total

               Direct immunofluorescence                         Antigen         Lyssavirus specific         7303

                  Neuroblastoma culture                       Virus isolation    Lyssavirus specific         4107

                  Immunohistochemistry                           Antigen         Genotype 1 specific          10

                         RT-PCR                            Genomic RNA –         Lyssavirus specific           7
                                                          human samples only

           VN (for cooperative projects only)                   Antibody             Genotype 1              1300

          Competitive ELISA (for cooperative                     Antibody            Genotype 1              2000
                    projects only)

        Indirect immunofluorescence with MAb                     Antigen        Virus variant specific        145
                       panels



2.   Production and distribution of diagnostic reagents

     Serum of goats immunised with gradient-purified rabies ribonucleoprotein is labelled with fluorescein
     isothiocyante. The conjugate produced at OLF is also used at ADRI Lethbridge. OLF and ADRI Lethbridge are
     the only two laboratories performing rabies diagnostics in Canada. All direct immunofluorescence tests for rabies
     are conducted using the OLF conjugate.

     Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to N-, P-, G-, and M-proteins of various Lyssaviruses are produced in cooperation
     with OLF’s Hybridoma unit. The Mabs are used for virus genotype and variant identification. A panel suitable to
     differentiate between the virus variants occurring in Western Canada is supplied to the rabies lab at ADRI
     Lethbridge.

     The OLF molecular biology group in cooperation with the CofE for Rabies produces specific molecular probes for
     PCR and in situ hybridization for rabies virus variant identification and molecular epidemiology.




Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009                                         1
                                                        Rabies




     Reagents supplied to other OIE Member Countries

     Polyclonal rabbit antiserum and Mab 5DF12, prepared at the CofE for Rabies were supplied to the Agri-Food and
     Veterinary Authority of Singapore for use in immunohistochemistry tests for rabies.


                        Activities specifically related to the mandate
                                of OIE Reference Laboratories

3.   International harmonisation and standardisation of methods for diagnostic testing or the
     production and testing of vaccines

     The OLF rabies laboratory performs quality control on diagnostic rabies conjugate produced at Onderstepoort,
     South Africa


4.   Preparation and supply of international reference standards for diagnostic tests or vaccines

     None


5.   Research and development of new procedures for diagnosis and control

     The OLF rabies laboratory is continuously improving its rabies variant identification capabilities. Variant
     identification is conducted on all rabies positive submissions.

     The laboratory participated in the development of a human adenovirus rabies-glycoprotein recombinant oral
     vaccine. This new product is presently applied in wildlife rabies control projects in Ontario, Quebec and New
     Brunswick (2009). The CofE for Rabies participates in monitoring these control efforts through rabies serology
     and determinations of vaccine stability, and is continuing its research collaboration with the Ontario Ministry of
     Natural Resources examining the kinetics and duration of immune response of target species to this vaccine.


6.   Collection, analysis and dissemination of epizootiological data relevant to international disease
     control

     The CofE for Rabies continues to monitor the advancing front of raccoon rabies on the eastern border in a
     cooperative research project with Quebec authorities.

     An OLF Mab panel is used at the Onderstepoort OIE laboratory in South Africa for discriminating between
     Mokola, Lagos bat, canid and mongoose virus infections.


7.   Provision of consultant expertise to OIE or to OIE Members

     The CofE for Rabies is participating in a Technical Exchange Program, funded by the Canadian International
     Development Agency (CIDA), for the development of antibody binding assays for use in serological surveys of
     Mokola, Lagos bat, canid and mongoose virus infections in South Africa. This project began in 2009 and
     continues into 2010.


8.   Provision of scientific and technical training to personnel from other OIE Members

     As part of the Technical Exchange Program, the CofE hosted two visiting scientists from the Onderstepoort OIE
     laboratory in South Africa for training in ELISA techniques.


9.   Provision of diagnostic testing facilities to other OIE Members

     None




2                                                Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009
                                                             Rabies




10. Organisation of international scientific meetings on behalf of OIE or other international bodies

     20th International Conference on Rabies in the Americas, Quebec City, Canada, October 2009. Drs. Wandeler,
     Fehlner-Gardiner and Nadin-Davis were on the National Scientific Committee for this conference; as well Dr.
     Fehlner-Gardiner is a member of the RITA International Steering Committee.


11. Participation in international scientific collaborative studies

     Cooperation with the OIE Reference Laboratory in Onderstepoort and the Allerton Laboratory, KwaZulu Natal,
     South Africa, as well as with the Marwar Trust in Jodhpur, India, is ongoing.

     A WHO Collaborating Centres for Rabies multi-year collaborative study on the development of a therapeutic
     monoclonal antibody cocktail for rabies is ongoing, with work accomplished thus far published in 2009.


12. Publication and dissemination of information relevant to the work of OIE (including list of
    scientific publications, internet publishing activities, presentations at international conferences)

         Presentations at international conferences and meetings

     20th International Conference on Rabies in the Americas, Quebec City, Canada, October 2009:

     Dr. Pamela Hamill:
      “Rabies in Canada – 2007 and 2008”

     Dr. Susan Nadin-Davis:
      “Use of DNA bar-coding methods to improve knowledge of bat rabies epidemiology in Canada”

     Dr. Alex Wandeler:
      Keynote speaker at the workshop on “Control of canine rabies: Sharing experiences South to South”.

         Scientific publications in peer-reviewed journals

     Safety studies on an adenovirus recombinant vaccine for rabies (AdRG1.3-ONRAB) in target and non-target
     species. Knowles MK, Nadin-Davis SA, Sheen M, Rosatte R, Mueller R, Beresford A. Vaccine. 2009 Nov
     5;27(47):6619-26.

     Development of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods for human rabies diagnosis.
     Nadin-Davis SA, Sheen M, Wandeler AI. J Med Virol. 2009 Aug;81(8):1484-97.

     Molecular characterization of the complete genome of a street rabies virus isolated in China. Ming P, Du J, Tang
     Q, Yan J, Nadin-Davis SA, Li H, Tao X, Huang Y, Hu R, Liang G. Virus Res. 2009 Jul;143(1):6-14.

     In vitro and in vivo genetic stability studies of a human adenovirus type 5 recombinant rabies glycoprotein vaccine
     (ONRAB). Knowles MK, Roberts D, Craig S, Sheen M, Nadin-Davis SA, Wandeler AI. Vaccine. 2009 May
     5;27(20):2662-8. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

     Detection of polyoma and corona viruses in bats of Canada. Misra V, Dumonceaux T, Dubois J, Willis C, Nadin-
     Davis S, Severini A, Wandeler A, Lindsay R, Artsob H. J Gen Virol. 2009 Aug;90(Pt 8):2015-22.

     Mokola virus involved in a human contact (South Africa). Sabeta C, Blumberg L, Miyen J, Mohale D, Shumba W,
     Wandeler A. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009 Sep 8. [Epub ahead of print]

     Fatal human rabies due to Duvenhage virus from a bat in Kenya: failure of treatment with coma-induction,
     ketamine, and antiviral drugs. van Thiel PP, de Bie RM, Eftimov F, Tepaske R, Zaaijer HL, van Doornum GJ,
     Schutten M, Osterhaus AD, Majoie CB, Aronica E, Fehlner-Gardiner C, Wandeler AI, Kager PA. PLoS Negl Trop
     Dis. 2009 Jul 28;3(7):e428.




Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009                                          3
                                                      Rabies




    The control of raccoon rabies in Ontario Canada: proactive and reactive tactics, 1994-2007. Rosatte RC, Donovan
    D, Allan M, Bruce L, Buchanan T, Sobey K, Stevenson B, Gibson M, MacDonald T, Whalen M, Davies JC,
    Muldoon F, Wandeler A. J Wildl Dis. 2009 Jul;45(3):772-84.

    Development of a mouse monoclonal antibody cocktail for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis in humans. Müller T,
    Dietzschold B, Ertl H, Fooks AR, Freuling C, Fehlner-Gardiner C, Kliemt J, Meslin FX, Rupprecht CE, Tordo N,
    Wandeler AI, Kieny MP. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009 Nov 3;3(11):e542.

         Other communications – Co-authored presentations at international meetings

    20th International Conference on Rabies in the Americas, Quebec City, Canada, October 2009:

    Dr. Christine Fehlner-Gardiner:
     “Field Performance of ONRAB and RABORAL V-RG oral vaccines in raccoons and striped skunks in New
    Brunswick, Canada and Maine, United States of America”, J. Badcock, presenter

     “G glycoprotein amino acid residues required for RAB1 neutralization are conserved in rabies virus street
    isolates”, G. Babcock, presenter

     “Le contrôle de la rage du raton laveur au Québec : évaluation du succès des operations d’épandages d’appâts
    vaccinaux ONRAB®, Part I”, J. Mainguy, presenter

     “Le contrôle de la rage du raton laveur au Québec : évaluation du succès des opérations d’épandage d’appâts
    vaccinaux ONRAB®, Part II” , G. Séguin, presenter

     “Aerial distribution of ONRAB® baits as a tactic to control rabies in raccoons and striped skunks in Ontario,
    Canada”, D. Donovan, presenter

    Dr. Susan Nadin-Davis:
     “Human antibody responses to dog and bat rabies with the Milwaukee Protocol”, R. Willoughby, presenter.

     “ONRAB surveillance”, C. Kyle, presenter

     “Epidemiology and sequential analysis of skunk associated rabies within the Midwestern United States”, R.
    Davis, presenter


13. Inscription of diagnostic kits on the OIE Register

    i)    Did you participate in expert panels for the validation of candidate kits for inscription on the
          OIE Register? If yes, for which kits?
          No

    ii)   Did you submit to the OIE candidate kits for inscription on the OIE Register? If yes, for
          which kits?
          No

                                               _______________




4                                              Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009

				
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