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									Use of XSLT in real-world applications

       CS 60-510 Background Reading




          Name: Ismail Jaghmani


       E-mail: jaghman@uwindsor.ca




        Instructor: Dr. Richard Frost
        Supervisor: Dr. Janguo Lu




               21 April 2003




                     1
                                                Table of Content

TABLE OF CONTENT................................................................................................. 2
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... 3
1. INTRODUCTION: .................................................................................................... 4
2. A SURVEY OF APPLICATIONS USING XSLT .................................................. 7
   2.1 APPLICATIONS TRANSFORMING XML TO XML OR HTML..................................... 7
   2.2 APPLICATIONS MANIPULATING UML STRUCTURES ................................................ 9
   2.3 APPLICATIONS TRANSFORMING XML TO NON-XML STRUCTURES ...................... 10
   2.4 APPLICATIONS USING XSLT TO FACILITATE DATA EXTRACTION ......................... 11
3. SURVEY OF COMMENTS ON EXPERIENCE GAINED AND
RECOMMENDATIONS MADE BY USERS OF XSLT ......................................... 13
   3.1 FROM USER PERSPECTIVE ...................................................................................... 13
   3.2 FROM THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE ........................................................................ 15
4. PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED BY USERS OF XSLT AND POSSIBLE
SOLUTIONS ................................................................................................................ 16
   4.1 FROM USER’S PERSPECTIVE ................................................................................... 16
   4.2 FROM A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE ..................................................................... 18
5. RESEARCH PAPERS ON XSLT .......................................................................... 20
6. EXTENDIONS THAT HAVE BEEN MADE OR SUGGESTED FOR XSLT .. 21
7. OTHER XSLT RESOURCES ................................................................................ 23
8. CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................ 25
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: ............................................................................................ 26
BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................ 27
APPENDIX A: CROSS REFERENCING GRAPH ................................................. 37
APPENDIX B: ANNOTATION ON REFERENCES .............................................. 38
APPENDIX C: FORTHCOMING CONFERENCES .............................................. 53
APPENDIX D: LIST OF RESEARCHERS .............................................................. 60
APPENDIX E: SAMPLE REPLY FROM RESEARCHER.................................... 63
APPENDIX F: STATEMENT OF ATTESTATION................................................ 64




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Abstract
XSLT is relatively new standard for transforming XML documents to other XML
documents. It is a recommendation from World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1999.
XSLT has been used to transform XML to HTML, XHTML, text, and other data
structures. It has been used in many applications; such as software engineering, e-
commerce, and information retrieval.
This paper is a survey of work on XSLT. It includes applications, comments on,
problems and research aspects of XSLT language. The main focus is to cover all
aspects of XSLT and to discover the strength and the weakness of this language.




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1. Introduction:

XSLT stands for Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation. It is a specification
from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It is a functional language for
transforming XML documents to other XML document. XSLT is part of XSL (the
Extensible Stylesheet Language) that includes XPath (the XML Path Language). XPath
is used by XSLT to create the output document.


The XSLT language is based on the DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and
Specification Language) which was developed in 1990 for rendering SGML
documents. The first XSL proposal [106] was submitted to W3C on August 27, 1997
by a group of authors from different organizations. These organizations include
Microsoft, Arbortext, ISO and the University of Edinburgh. A summery of the proposal
[110] was published by W3C on May 11, 1998 and the first working draft [108] of the
language was published on August 18, 1998. On November 16, 1999, the first
specification of XSLT (version 1.0)[112] was introduced as recommendation by W3C.
The specification starts with the following sentences: ―This specification defines the
syntax and semantics of XSLT, which is a language for transforming XML documents
into other XML documents‖. ‖ XSLT is designed for use as a part of XSL, which is a
stylesheet language for XML‖. After that, XSLT went through a series of drafts and
recommendations. The latest recommendation [107] was published by W3C on October
15, 2001 and the latest working draft (XSLT version 0.2) was published on November
15, 2002 [111]. The authors and contributors to the recommendation include members
from IBM, Pageflex, Adobe, Sun, Arbortext, and Xerox.


An XSLT stylesheet consists of templates and patterns. When the XSLT processor
starts to transform an XML document, it matches the template with the pattern. A
template is an XSLT rule that is going to be applied to the specified pattern. A pattern
is an XPath expression that locates a node or set of nodes in the XML tree. When a
matched pattern is identified, the XSLT template is applied to that pattern to transform



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the original XML file to the output file. The purpose of the pattern is to identify the
parts of the document that are required to be manipulated by the template. The template
indicates how the selected parts should be transformed. For the transformation process
to take place we need an XML file, XSLT stylesheet, and XSLT processor. An XSLT
file is itself a well-formed XML document saved with an extension of .XSL or .XSLT.
XSLT processors do not operate directly on the input file, it builds three trees: the input
document tree, the XSLT Stylesheet tree, and the output document tree.


XSLT applications range from simple transformation process to sophisticated code
generation. Currently XSLT is used to transform XML documents to HTML, XML,
text, and other data structures. It has been used in database applications, software
engineering applications, e-commerce and many other applications.


The following shows an example of transforming XML document to HTML document
using XSLT Stylesheet:

   input.xml                                  input.xsl
                                              <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>       <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0"
     <StudentsList>                           xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
       <student ID="10023456" section="01">       <xsl:template match="/">
          <firstName>Ismail </firstName>             <html>
          <lastName>Jaghmani</lastName>                 <body>
          <course>                                         <table border="1">
             <courseName>                                     <tr>
           Background reading                                    <th>Student ID</th>
          </courseName>                                          <th>Mark</th>
             <Mark>50</Mark>                                  </tr>
          </course>                                           <xsl:for-each select="//student">
       </student>                                                <tr>
       <student ID="10145670" section="02">                         <td>
          <firstName>Mike </firstName>                            <xsl:value-of select="@ID"></xsl:value-of>
          <lastName>Smith</lastName>                                </td>
          <course>                                                  <td>
             <courseName>                                <xsl:value-of select="course/Mark"></xsl:value-of>
          Background reading                                        </td>
          </courseName>                                          </tr>
             <Mark>70</Mark>                                  </xsl:for-each>
          </course>                                        </table>
       </student>                                       </body>
     </StudentsList>                                 </html>
                                                  </xsl:template>
                                                </xsl:stylesheet>




                                                 5
 Output.html                           Displayed by the browser

   <html>
     <body>
        <table border="1">
           <tr>
              <th>Student ID</th>
              <th>Marks</th>
           </tr>                                Student ID Marks
           <tr>
              <td>10023456</td>                 10023456 50
              <td>50</td>
           </tr>                                10145670      70
           <tr>
              <td>10145670</td>
              <td>70</td>
           </tr>
        </table>
     </body>
   </html>




The rest of this survey is structured as follows: Section 2 introduces XSLT applications.
Section 3 introduces users comments and recommendations. Section 4 looks into XSLT
problems from user and theoretical perspectives. Section 5 discusses the research work
on XSLT. Section 6 investigates the extension to XSLT. Section 7 presents some of
XSLT resources. Finally a conclusion is presented in section 8.




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2. A Survey of Applications Using XSLT
2.1 Applications Transforming XML to XML or HTML
This section introduces the uses of XSLT to transform XML documents to other XML
documents.


In 2001, Micheal Bauer and Gunther Specht [7] used XSLT to enhance digital library
documents by adding links (e.g. to biography reference and keywords) without
modifying the source document. The added links are used to reference documents
inside or outside the source documents. They have used XSLT to merge the original
XML document and the linked information. However retrieving the information and
exchanging it with XSLT is done using the Java language. First the linked information
is retrieved from a database, and then a URL is built and pointed to the linked
document. An XSLT stylesheet is applied to the URL to create an HTML document. In
the transformation process, they used the Xalan XSLT processor where retrieving the
information and exchanging it with XSLT is done using Java language methods that
have been embedded inside the XSLT stylesheet. In 2001, Michael Christel [21] used
XSLT for tailored accessing in the digital video library. The data requested through a
query to the informedia database. The results of the query are validated through XML
Schema. Then XSLT is used to transform XML data to other XML structures, XHTML
and HTML structure. In 2001, W. T. Cole et al [24] described an approach that uses
XML and XSLT to process and present online journals. In their approach the
documents are first represented in XML format, then XSLT is used to display the XML
structure in HTML format.


In the area of software engineering, in 2002, Colin Bird and Andrew Sermon [9] used
XSLT in automated software validation. In their testing tool, an XML file is used as an
intermediate description for the driver tool script test and as statements of tasks that is
going to be performed by the test. Using XSLT, the XML script is translated to HTML
to be compared with the specification, then converted to a test program script to be run
on the driver tool. In software requirements verifications, in 2002, Amador Duran et al
[29] developed a tool called ―RME‖ to automatically verify software requirements.


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RME provides an immediate view to the user by representing the software requirements
as an XML document. Then applying a default XSLT template to transform the XML
file to an HTML document. The HTML document describes the requirements as a
sequence of events. Users can view the HTML file and consider any change in the
requirements. Any change in the requirements will automatically update the
representation of the HTML file and consequently changes the flow of the events. The
XSLT default template can be replaced by a user-defined template that represents the
requirements in different format.


XSLT has been used to define active rules for XML documents. In 2001, Angela
Bonifati et al [11] showed that the active rules for XML could be specified in the
context of XSLT. They argued that active rules for XSLT could be used for
implementing e-commerce services. XML content can be manipulated for any changes
to the XML information. The active rules are      defined in terms of events, conditions
and actions. The event part represents any changes in the XML document, the condition
part represents queries on the XML, and the action part represents the execution part.
An XML active document language was designed with data bindings being generated
by the event part and used by the condition and action parts. They recommend using
active rules for developing a new e-service, however they did not recommend using it
as tool for final implementation of e-services.


In 2002, Lee C. Allcorn and Martin [2] used XSLT to display information about
antibodies. The information is first transformed to XML using Script file, then XSLT is
used to display the information in HTML format. They also used XSLT to create
summary and sort data.


Tools have been developed to enhance XML transformation using XSLT. In 2001,
Edgar Pek et al [81] developed a teleconsulting system that uses XSLT to transform
XML documents to HTML documents. The system is constructed as three tiers: a
presentation-service tier, containing web browser and Apache web server. Process-
service tier containing Sablotron XSLT processor and PHP script. And a data service



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tier containing DBMS PostgreSQL tier. A PHP script is used to coordinate system
procedures. XSLT is used to transform XML data to HTML data, which is then passed
to the presentation service. In 2002 Taewoo Kim [52] built a system called ―rube‖ that
is used in education for customizing dynamic model structures. They have used XSLT
to merge two XML files to produce one file. In 2001, Johann Eder and Walter Strametz
[31] developed a system called ―CoX‖. The system is used to improve the
transformation process of XML document. The source XML document and the target
XML document are validated against DTD files. Then the transformation process is
accomplished by binding an XSLT stylsheet to the DTDs of the source and the target.
In 2000, David Cheung et al [19] described a generic e-commerce system for
processing XML documents. The system consists of Document Integrator (DI) and
Server Transformation Modules (TM). The core functionality of the DI is based on an
XSLT processor. The DI receives an XML file and a script file from the application
program. It manipulates the XML file based on the instruction in the script file using
XSLT. Then the file is passed to the appropriate TM. The TM processes the received
files based on a logic built inside the Module. The TM functionality depends on its
configuration and can for example extract data out of database, based on the XML
document instruction. The document returned from the TM Module is also an XML file
and is passed to the DI. The DI may merge files to produce one file before returning the
result to the application program.


2.2 Applications Manipulating UML structures
Most UML tools support the transformation of UML diagrams to XML Metadata
Interchange (XMI). However XMI tag names are long with complex format and in
many cases need to be transformed to a simpler structure [17]. This transformation is
usually done using XSLT stylesheets [26, 45, 46, 53, 75, 92].


In 2001, Roy Gronmo [45] described a Model-driven architecture ―MDA‖ that is used
to generate a Geography Markup Language ―GML‖ from a UML conceptual model.
The UML model is first transformed to XMI, and then XMI is constrained to produce
what they called a ―simpleXMI‖. The smpleXMI is actually XMI document that has



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been simplified by conforming it to a predefined XML Schema. Then XSLT processor
is used to generate the code from the simpleXMI document. In 2002, Stephen
Cranefield et al [26] proposed an approach for defining agent communication language
directly from UML. UML diagrams are first transformed to XMI, and then XLST
stylesheets are used to transform XMI structure to java code, which can be plugged to
agent massaging system. In 2002, Jernej Kovse and Theo Harder [53] also used XSLT
to transform UML to a selected predefined XMI, which allows the construction of a
model from independently transformed models parts. In 2002, Gordon Gu. and Dorina
Petriu [46] proposed an approach to transfer an UML model to LQN performance
models using XSLT. The input to XSLT is a UML model in XML format. An XSLT
stylesheet is used to process XML file to produce an XML tree that represents the LQN
information. Then the LQN tree is traversed to represent the information in the desired
textual format. The XSLT approach has been compared with a graph grammar-based
transformation approach and it has shown that the XSLT approach has many
advantages over the other approach.


In 2001, two approaches have been developed by Jing Sun et al [92] to display and
transfer Z-notion and object Z (in XML) on the web or to UML (in XMI) diagrams
using XSLT. In the first approach, an object Z is defined in XML format. Then using
XSLT, the XML file is displayed on the web. In the second approach, an XML file is
transformed to XMI using the DOM/SAX parser, and XSLT processor, then the XMI
file is transferred to UML diagrams using rational rose2000.



2.3 Applications Transforming XML to non-XML Structures
In some applications, XML is required to be transformed to a text file or to other data
structures. In 2001 G. Boella et al [10] used XSLT to extend the functionality of
EasyDail (Developer toolkit for Dialogs). The structure of the language that represents
the system knowledge is defined by XML and controlled by a predefined DTD file. An
XSLT stylesheet is used to transfer the XML representation to data structures and C-
language procedures that can be processed directly by the EsayDial system. In 2002,
Grey J. Badros [5] presented a tool called ―JavaML‖. JavaML is designed to convert


                                          10
Java source code to XML structure and back to Java source code. It uses a DTD to
specify the rules that JavaML accepts. The implementation of the tool is based on IBM
Jikes java compiler, XMLUparser and XSLT. XSLT is mainly used to transform the
XML representation to a source code identical to the original code.


XSLT has also been used in semantic mismatches between metadata standards. In
2000, Dean Kuto et al [55] have described a single point search using XSLT. The
search point allow users to locate information on different catalogue systems, where
each of these catalogues may have different metadata standards. Particularly, between
ANZLIC (Australia and New Zealand Information Council) metadata standard and the
DIF (Directory Interchange Format) metadata            standards. To translate between
ANZLIC and DIF using XSLT, both metadata standards are first conformed to a
predefined DTD file. Then XSLT templates are programmed to define the translation
rules that map between the two standards. In 2000, David Carlisle [14] argued that
XSLT could be used to transform between OpenMath and MathML. Both OpenMath
and MathML are used to express mathematical notations. ―OpenMath is a language that
models mathematical expression as tree structure‖. ―MathMl is a recommendation of
W3C and defined in term of XML‖. He claims that the two languages have much in
common, and transformation is possible between them using XSLT.


2.4 Applications Using XSLT to facilitate Data Extraction
XSLT has been used to extract data out of XML structures. It has been used as a search
engine for XML documents and many other process that facilitate data extraction such
as the transformation of XSLT to some other query language or the transformation of
other query language to     XSLT. In 2001, Jussi Myllymaki [71] suggested an XML-
based approach for data extraction from web sites. He introduced a software framework
called ―ANDES‖ that relies on XML and XSLT technologies. The URL of the web site
is passed to the system and then a set of XSLT templates is applied to the input
document. The usage of XSLT templates is to analyse, filter, validate and merge XML
files. The validation of each XML document is done to determine any changes in the
original file format. If the XML file is validated, the format of the web site has not been



                                            11
changed, otherwise an alert is sent to the administrator for possible change in the XSLT
templates. The system also uses an XSLT stylsheet to convert XML structures to
relational tuples. In 2002, Ad Emmen [32] described a management system
―EnterTheGrid‖ that is based on XML and XSLT. EnterTheGrid is simply a community
management system that contains information such as news articles. The information is
first stored in XML format with the help of XSLT, and then a search engine built from
XSLT is used to query the XML data.


In 2002, Volker Turau [94] argued that most of the web sites are database driven,
where the data is requested from a database and then transformed to HTML format
using XSLT based on the requested document. He introduced a caching system that
maps the requests to a corresponding transformation document. The system contains
three caches; a document cache to keep the final format of the document, an XML
cache is to keep the XML format of the document, and an XSLT cache to keep the
object that performs the transformation. When the request is received, and the XML
document is already in the cache, it is fetched from the XML cache. Otherwise it is
generated and the XML cache is updated. If the object that transforms the document is
in the XSLT cache, it is used to transform the document otherwise it is read from a file
and the XSLT cache is updated.


In 2000, Norihide Shinagawa et al [87] proposed an extensible XML query language
―X2QL‖, which is an extension to XML-QL query language. The difference between
XML-QL and X2QL is that X2QL can incorporate user-defined functions. X2QL is
implemented on top of the XSLT processor. An X2QL query is translated to XSLT
template that is processed by the XSLT processor. In 2002, Stephan Lechner et al [57]
described a process to translate XQuery language to an XSLT stylesheet. Both XQuery
and XSLT are XML query languages. They claim that writing complex query using
XSLT is difficult and error prone. On the other hand, XSLT can be used to rearrange
XML documents and present it in different format. They proposed a tool to translate
between the two languages that aimed to combine the best of both languages. They
proposed a tool called ―XQ2XSL‖. XQ2XSL is represented by abstract state machine



                                          12
ASM. It uses the JavaCup parser to map XQuery to an object tree that is further
described using AST. The presented AST statements are coded in XSLT or Java to
transfer each node of the tree to an XSLT statement. In 2002, Sushant Jain et al [50]
argued that an XSLT program that is querying an XML document could be transformed
to query the database that contains the XML data.        They presented a system that
translates XSLT programs to SQL queries. An XML view of the database is first
constructed, then the system accepts the XSLT program over the defined view and
translates it to an SQL query.


3. Survey of comments on experience gained and recommendations
made by users of XSLT

3.1 From user perspective
In 2002, Gorden P. Gu and Dorina C. Petriuused [46] used XSLT to transform UML
models to LQN models. They stated that ―XSLT program is much shorter and easier to
develop then the java code‖. They have also concluded that ― the main strength of
XSLT are the matching of given features in the source tree through patterns and the
generation of the results subtrees through templates‖ and that ― the main advantages of
the XSLT-based transformation is that it is faster to develop, and it depends only on the
standard XMI DTD (no other supporting libraries are needed)‖.


In 2000, Dean Kuto et al [55] studied the semantic mismatches between metadata
standards and has compared using Perl script and SGML approach with XML and
XSLT approach. They stated ―the major advantages of using XML and XSLT are: tools
are widely available; the amount of coding is greatly reduced due to their
appropriateness; and, any XML validating parser can be used to check the correctness
of individual metadata records‖.


In 2002, James Bailey et al [6] proposed a language for event-condition-action for
XML using XPath and XQuery. They indicated that XSLT can be used instead of
XQuery, however they stated that the disadvantages of using XSLT is that ― XSLT



                                           13
would have to process the entire source document after any update to it in order to
produce a new document‖. XSLT is designed to transform XML document to another
XML document. An XSLT processor takes an XML input document and an XSLT
stylesheet, which is also XML structure, and transforms the input document to the
output document using the instructions in the stylesheet document. XSLT processor
builds the three documents in memory, which found to be computationally expensive.
On the other hand XQuery is a functional language created for querying XML
documents and XML databases. Each query in the language is defined as an expression.
―XQuery is designed to operate on actual XML documents; it takes as input a set of
XML documents and composes an output or a result document using its own repertoire
of selection, projection, join and other capabilities‖[3] ―The data model of XQuery is
not only designed to operate on a single XML document but also a well-formed
fragment of a document, a sequence of documents, or a sequence of document
fragments.‖[76]




In 2002, Jixue liu et al [63] stated that ― directly defining queries reflecting the
variations in XSLT can be very complex and errors can be introduced‖. Describing
XSLT and XML-Ql, they have pointed that ― defining retrieval patterns in these
languages can be easy when a pattern has a fix structure and there are not many
variations in the pattern‖.


In 2000, Alison Cawsey [16] studied the possibility of using XSLT to create tailored
descriptions from RDF and concluded ― XSLT, despite its complexity and power, has
limitations as tool for creating tailored recourse descriptions from metadata‖.



In 2001, Temithy W. Cole et al [24] described an approach that uses XML and XSLT
to process and present online journals, and stated that ―the current XSL and XSLT
specifications anticipate the need for multiple XSL stylesheets to be attached to a single
XML document (e.g. to support multiple views of the data converted within that



                                           14
document), but the mechanisms to determine which of the referenced stylesheets to
apply under which circumstances is unclear‖. However, they stated that ―XSLT is
already mature enough and robust enough to be used immediately for large collections
containing online articles or similar sized online text objects‖.


In 2001, David S. Linthicum [61] investigated the use of XSLT in application
integration, and described XSLT ― the power of XSLT resides in its simplicity, tight
integration with XML, and completeness‖. ―XSLT provides several advantages over
SAX and DOM. XSLT’s design is based on the fact that the most transformation
programs use same design patterns and, therefore, can be automated using a higher
level, declarative language‖. Also described the common advantages of using XSLT in
B2B as ―language for transforming application semantics as text or XML moves
between applications; Standard for representing transformation behaviors; Input and
output massage/document structure; Tool that most major B2B and EAI technology
venders and consultants support‖.


SAX and DOM          are APIs for XML parsers. SAX (Simple API for XML) was
developed by XML-DEV mail list [109] and DOM (Document Object Model) is a
recommendation of W3C. However, they take different approaches for accessing XML
information. SAX is an events-based that processes documents in a serial manner. It
treats the information as a sequence of events. On the other hand, DOM is memory-
based. It represents the XML document as tree of nodes in the memory. DOM allows
ease modification to the document. SAX is faster with low memory consumption




3.2 From theoretical perspective
In 2002, Geert Jan Bex [8] studied XSLT language recommendation of November
1999 and noted that        ―XSLT does not make the explicit distinction between
constructing and selecting template rules, or even, between the variable definition part
and the constructing part of a template rule‖. They claimed that making an explicit
distinction make XSLT programming more structured. They have also stated ―XSLT is



                                            15
a powerful transformation language, we are, however, rather hesitate to promote or
support XSLT as standard query language‖. They indicated the reason for not
recommending XSLT as query language for XML, is that ― XSLT is much too
procedural for query language and therefore might be too difficult for the average
user‖. However they stated, ―XSLT is highly adequate for the simple transformations it
was intended for‖.


In 2000, Phillp wadler [100] described the XSLT language from the draft of December
16, 1998 as ambiguous and not clear to understand due to English language ambiguity
for describing the specification.


In 2002, Jerome Euzenat and Laurent Tardif [34] studied the XML transformation flow
processing using XSLT (w3c 1999 recommendation) and stated ―XSLT is not as
limited as it may appear. But it has been designed in such a way that some powerful
operations are difficult to express‖.


4. Problems identified by users of XSLT and possible solutions
4.1 From user’s perspective
In 2000, Norihide Shinaqawa et al [26] described the XSLT specifications as ― low-
level-and procedural, and they are difficult for novice user‖ and introduced a query
language ―X2QL‖ that can specify the document manipulation more declaratively. In
2001, Stehen Lechner et al [57] described query writing using XSLT as error prone. To
overcome this problem they have introduce a translation between XSLT and XQuery.


In 2001, Jane Hunter and Carl Lagoze [48] studied the possibility of mapping between
XML Schema and RDF Schema using XSLT and stated, ― The mapping
implementation revealed that XSLT is inadequate for implementing flexible dynamic
semantic mappings between the metadata vocabularies. This is due to: XSLT’s limited
capabilities for handling variable input descriptions based on schemas which are not
tightly constrained; The non-existence of machine-understandable semantic information
in declarative XML–encoded metadata descriptions; Processor dependent handling of


                                          16
input parameters and procedural code extensions; Limited string manipulation and
compression functions, e.g., it is not possible to perform case-insensitive string
comparisons with in XSLT.‖ They stated that possible solutions are        ― semantic
knowledge in the form of an ontology or thesaurus is required to enable flexible,
dynamic mapping between XML-encoded metadata descriptions‖ and ― using XSLT, it
is possible to parse an input XML description and for each new element encountered,
call a java procedural code extension which determines the equivalent term in the
output domain‖.


In 2000, Cawsey Alison [16] investigated the possibility of using XSLT to create
tailored descriptions from RDF metadata. To overcome the difficulties arise from
handling the abbreviations syntax in RDF, its data structure is first normalized using
XSLT stylesheet, which make the metadata easer to be manipulated by another XSLT
stylesheet. Their study has concluded that despite of the XSLT power, there are
limitations of using it as tool for creating customized resource descriptions form RDF
metadata. XSLT is not suitable for generating a coherent textual output from low
constrained input. For example using XSLT to generate a coherent natural language
output from varying input data.


In 2001, Wolfgang Emmerich et al [33] have used XSLT to solve semantic data
integration problems and stated,     ―We have managed to express 80%-90% of
transformation concerns in XSLT. We, however, also found various need for using
paradigms other than XSLT template-based tree transformations. These were, for
example complex computations of attribute values for calculating accrued interest of a
bond, transforming one date representation into the other, or table-based mappings of
account identifications‖. They have used Java and JavaScript languages to define
function to extend the power of XSLT to overcome these problems.


In 2001, Timothy W. Cole et al [24] described an approach that uses XML and XSLT
to process and present online journals and stated the performance of XSLT parser is
slow in case of executing complexes, recursive instruction and in case of large



                                         17
documents and the possibility of attaching the XSLT stylsheet to XML document using
XML processing instruction is incomplete.


4.2 From a theoretical perspective
In 2002, Jerome Euzenat and Laurent Tardif [34] studied the XML transformation flow
processing using XSLT (w3c 1999 recommendation) and stated that ―XSLT suffers
from a few shortcomings that make it both too sophisticated and too restricted at once‖.
―Writing simple transformations requires knowledge of XSLT even though they can be
expressed in a straightforward manner by the user. There is no simple way to
implement these transformations in XSLT‖. ― If it is easy to parse an XSLT stylesheet,
it is not easy to understand it because roughly the same constructs with many different
parameters is used for writing both simple transformations and sophisticated ones‖.
―Writing complex transformation flows involving multiple documents, independently
designed stylesheets, closure operations require the use of an external environment and
compromises portability of the transformations‖. To overcome the above problems they
have developed a system called ―trasmorpher‖ that is compatible with XSLT.


In 2002, Greert Jan Bex et al [8] defined a formal model for an expressive fragment of
XSLT and stated that ―Performing join and doing complicated grouping operations
seems to require XSLT programs to traverse the input document many times in several
directions, and therefore are more difficult to write, especially for users with little
programming experience‖. To solve the problem, they introduced a formal model of a
subset of XSLT called ―XSLT0‖. The ―XSLT0‖ syntax limits the matching expressions
to the current node and divides the XSLT templates to selecting template and
constructing template. The former is to determine the variables while the letter is to
define the template that is going to be applied to the pattern to generate the output. The
model is used to study the power of the XSLT and to show expressiveness of the
language as XML query language.


In 2002, Erik Wustner et al [103] discussed the tradeoff between standardization and
conversion cost in XML e-commerce applications. They classified the process of



                                           18
converting business documents using XML and XSLT into different categories. He
argued that, in the case of converting XML documents that have different names and
contain different numbers of sub elements, the structure of the two documents must be
known. If the structure and the content are known, a simple XSLT script can be used.
However, he stated that this becomes a complicated problem if the overall document
structure is different. Without knowing the exact structure of the document, such
conversion may lead to a loss of data. Other problems arise when the two documents
have two different logical structure of grouping. One document considers an element
part of one group and the other document considers the same element part of anther
group. He described this conversion as ambiguous and unsafe.


XSLT also suffers from problems in its pattern-matching mechanism. This problem
was addressed, in 2002, by Peter T. Wood [102]. He investigated the pattern-
equivalence problem for a subset of XSLT patterns by considering the containment
between patterns. He defined an XML-based structure for XML and a semantic for
XSLT patterns in the context of datalog programs, to capture the semantics of XSLT
patterns. He used a track procedure as decision for containment of datalogs derived
from XSLT patterns. XSLT patterns are considered equivalent based on their
corresponding datalog program. A pattern can be replaced by a simpler equivalent
pattern that does the same job. He suggested that this method works well when the
document is constrained by a Document Type Definition. In 2002, Sebastian Maneth
and F. Neven [64] also studied program termination and the equivalence of pattern-
selection problems. They stated, ― An important drawback of XSL is that programs do
not always terminate. This is due to the ancestor function which allows programs to
move up in XML documents‖. To improve the transformation process, they introduced
Document Transformation Language ―DTLreg‖, which is based on the XSL
transformation process. The DTLreg uses regular expression as a pattern language for
selecting XML nodes. They also considered the ―DTL‖ with the Monadic Second Order
Logic ―DTLmso‖ where the XSL pattern matching is forced to process only top-down
transformations. They have also defined a dynamic restriction on the DTLmso that
restrict the number of times a node can be selected in the transformation process. Such



                                          19
approach prevents an XSLT program from selecting a node from an input tree several
times and forces the program to terminate. In 2002, Jixue Liu and Chengfei Liu [63]
studied the process of extracting data out of an XML document that does not conform
to any DTD document. To avoid problems associated with complexity and pattern
matching, they    described a declarative pattern definition language that depends on
XSL pattern definition and is built on top of the XSL processor to simplify any
variation in the pattern-definition. Algorithms that transfer the defined pattern to XSLT
pattern have been introduced.


5. Research Papers on XSLT
In 2000, Philip Walder [100] presented a formal demonstrable semantics of patterns
from the XSLT draft in December 1998. His formal semantics was developed using
standard programming-language techniques. He showed how the formal semantics is
more clear and concise then the English language description presented by the W3C
committees. It represents in one page, what has been described using about ten pages in
the specification. The formal semantics is aimed to be used to describe XSLT
properties and facilitates any further development in the language. In 2002, Geert Jan
Bex et al [8] investigated the specification of XSLT language defined in W3C
recommendation on November 1999. They introduced a formal model of a subset of
XSLT called ―XSLT0‖. The ―XSLT0‖ syntax limits the matching expressions to the
current node and divides the XSLT templates to selecting template and constructing
template. The former is to determine the variables while the later is to define the
template that is going to be applied to the pattern to generate the output. The model is
used to study the power of the XSLT and to show expressiveness of the language as
XML query language.


In 2002, Peter T. Wood [102] studied the pattern equivalence for a subset of XSLT
patterns by considering the containment between patterns. He defined an XML-based
structure for XML and semantic for XSLT patterns in the context of a datalog program,
to capture the semantics of XSLT patterns. He used a track procedure as a decision for
containment of datalog derived from XSLT patterns. The containment is to verify


                                           20
whether an XSLT pattern is contained in another XSLT pattern. A pattern P2 contains
pattern P1 if and only if P1  P2. For document d, the set of elements in d matched by
P2 contains the set matched by P1. P1 and P2 are equivalent if P1  P2 and P2  P1.
XSLT patterns are considered equivalent based on their corresponding datalog
program. A pattern can be replaced by a simpler equivalent pattern that does the same
job.


In 2002, Stephan Kepser [51] studied XQuery and XSLT to prove that both languages
are Turing-complete as query languages for XML documents. Where XQuery code is
human readable and faster to code, XSLT is an XML structure and simpler to define
and machine oriented. To prove the Turing-completeness of the languages he
investigated them with respect to a -recursive function. He stated that since both
languages are proved for Turing-completeness, they are theoretically interchangeable.


6. Extendions that have been made or suggested for XSLT
A considerable number of studies have been devoted to extend the functionality of
XSLT. In 2002, Karl Aberer et al extend the XSLT processor to separate data
representation, data structure, and process information [1]. Using this approach, both
data and processes can be transferred to active web pages. The idea is that both the data
structure and the process flow will be separated from the presentation of the data. The
system uses Business Offer Language (BOL) to encode the process description. The
system includes XSLT-BOL that contains the process-aware template. An interpreter is
used to transfer the template to an XSLT template, based on the flow of the process.
Then the final template is applied to the data structure represented by an XML file. The
application of the XSLT will display the interpretation of XML file based on the flow
of the process.


In 2002, Lionel Villard and Nabil Layaida presented a system called incXSLT [98].
The incXSLT is intended to facilitate the design of content and transformation of XSLT
stylesheet document. It represents the incremental update to an XML document after
some modifications have been made. What distinguishes the incXSLT system from


                                           21
other XSLT systems is that, other systems have two drawbacks. First, XML and XSLT
are usually designed in a batch mode, which does not precisely identify the error
source. Secondly, they do not identify the immediate effect of the source document.
The incXSLT overcomes these problems by improving some of the XSLT language
restriction but introduces some other restrictions. The increment execution process
relies on the tracing of the execution process to construct a history log. Using this
history log the memory state can be stored and re-evaluated. It is the selection of the
rules that are required to be re-executed based on the changes made to the documents.
All expression in the transformation sheet are converted to a set of patterns and for each
pattern a set of re-evaluation rules are built with the corresponding instructions.


In 2001, Milan Ojstersek et al [77] proposed a framework for (1) a tool that maps
between the object model and relational model to enable storing the object model in a
relational database and (2) a custom XSLT processor to allow transformation of regular
objects to XML. First, classes and their properties and relations are added to an object
model, and then tables are created to transfer the models to a relational database. The
modified XSLT processor ―EXPO‖ (Experimental XSLT Processor for Objects) is used
to transform between objects and XML format. The implementation of EXPO is based
on a modification of XPath expressions. Instead of matching XML nodes, XPath
expressions are used to match objects.


In 2002, Fabio Vitali et al [99] implemented an extension to XSLT processor called
―XSLT++‖. With this extension a pattern selection in XSLT is able to match not only
the XML element but also able to match the content of XML tags.




                                            22
7. Other XSLT resources
XSLT is becoming increasingly popular. Some of the reasons for this popularity are
related to the amount of support for XSLT and the availability of its engines. The
amount of support for the language is through the availability of books, tutorials,
articles, web sites and discussion groups. Currently there are more than 40 books
written by different authors related to XSLT. The more recommended books are
Beginning XSLT by Jenny Tennison, XSLT Programmer’s Reference 2nd Edition by
Michael Kay, Essential XML Quick Reference by                 Aaron Skonnard, XSLT Cookbook
by Sal Mangano and XSLT by Doug Tidwell. There are also enormous amount of free
tutorials on the web. The more comprehensive and easy to use are the TopXML tutorial
at    http://www.vbxml.com/xsl/tutorials/intro/ws_1.asp,                 w3school      tutorial   at
http://www.w3schools.com/xsl/              and      the       Miloslav         Nic    tutorial    at
http://www.zvon.org/xxl/XSLTutorial/Books/Output/contents.html . There is also a
support through discussion groups in the form of mailing lists. These mailing lists allow
the XSLT users to communicate through email to discuss all features of language.
Some of these mailing lists are      XSL-List -- Open Forum on XSL offered by Mulberry
Technologies Inc. It is open to users and developers to duscuss the implementation and
application of XSLT. Only subscribes can post messages, however the subscription to
the      mailing    list   is   free.      The      mailing     list     can     be    reached    at
http://www.mulberrytech.com/xsl/xsl-list/. Another mailing list is offered by W3C at
http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/xsl-editors/. There are also another source of
information provided by Dave Pawson called XSLT Questions and Answers at
http://xml.web.cern.ch/XML/www.dpawson.co.uk/xsl/sect2/sect21.html. Mike Kay, the
implementer of Saxon XSLT processor and one of the contributors to the XSL_list
offers     online   chapter     of   his     book     XSLT      Programmer’s          Reference   at
http://www.softwareag.com/xml/Techn_Links/xslt_book/contents.htm .


There are more than 14 XSLT processors developed in the recent years. These
processors are written in different languages. The LotusXSL by IBM and Xalan, open
source Apache Project are written in Java and considered the best processors that




                                                 23
implements W3C's official recommendation [114]. Information about all XSLT
processors and editors can be found at www.XSLT.com.
There are also web sites that cover all aspects of the language including news,
conferences, links, tutorials, articles, software, specifications, and mailing lists. The
more    recommended      are   The    Extensible   Stylesheet   Language     (XSL)     at
http://www.w3.org/Style/XSL/,        www.XSLT.com            and       Codevista       at
http://www.codevista.com/cvHome/Browse.asp?mode=links&catname=XSL




                                           24
8. Conclusion
XSLT is relatively new standard for transforming XML documents to other XML
documents. Its first recommendation was published by W3C on November 16, 1999
and latest recommendation was published on October 15, 2001. XSLT applications
range from simple transformation process to sophisticated code generation. It has been
used to transform XML documents to HTML, XML, text, and other non-XML
structures. It has been used in applications such as database, software engineering and
e-commerce. XSLT is highly adequate for the transformations it was intended for. It is
faster to develop and has tight integration to XML. The fact that XSLT code is machine
oriented, allowed the language to be easily automated, extended and embedded inside
other systems. However XSLT language has some limitations and problems. XSLT
programs have been described as complex and difficult for novice user. Some of this
difficulty comes from lack of understanding of how the language works. XSLT
developer community has provided huge number of free resources on how to use
XSLT. Other problems and limitations of the language include pattern matching;
limited capabilities for handling variable input descriptions based on non-tightly
constrained schemas, and low performance when processing large documents. Other
drawback of XSLT is that its programs do not always terminate. Researchers have
investigated some of these limitations and problems and developed formal models of
language to improve its efficiency. An extension to XSLT processor has been
developed to separate data representation, data structure and process information, and
to transform between non-XML objects and XML format. Other extension has been
done to force the pattern selection in XSLT to match the content of XML. It is also
possible to write an extension functions to integrate other code with XSLT processor.
XSLT is currently the only transformation language for XML and the introduction of
XSLT version 0.2 working draft, with new capability will result in broader usage of the
language.




                                          25
Acknowledgment:

I would like to thank my supervisor Dr. J. Lu for his remarks, discussion and
encouragement.
 I also would like to thank Dr. R. Frost, for his valuable suggestions and comments




                                          26
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70.   Peter Murray-Rust and Henry S. Rzepa: STMML. A markup language for
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                                         33
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                                        36
Appendix A: Cross referencing Graph




                               37
Appendix B: Annotation on References

1- Separating Business Process from User Interaction Utilizing Process-Aware
XSLT Style-Sheets
This paper describes an extension to XSLT processor to separate data representation,
data structure, and process information. Using this approach, both data and process can
be transferred to active web page. The idea is that both the data structure and the
process flow will be separated from the presentation of the data. The extension uses
Business Offer Language (BOL) to encode the process description. The system
includes XSLT-BOL that contains the process aware template. And an Interpreter that
is used to transfers the template to XSLT template. Then the final template is applied to
the data structure represented by an XML file. The application of the XSLT will display
the interpretation of XML file based on the flow of the process.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, web-based information system, e-commerce system,
user interface, workflow management, information commerce


5- JavaML: a markup language for Java source code.
This paper presents a tool called ―JavaML‖ that converts Java source code to XML
structure and back to Java source code. It uses DTD to specify the rules that JavaML
accepts. The implementation of the tool is based on IBM Jikes java compiler,
XMLUparser and XSLT. The XSLT is mainly used to transfer the XML representation
to source code identical to the original source code.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, DTD, Java, Abstract syntax tree representation,
software engineering analysis, Jakes compiler, DOM, XMLUparser


6- An event-condition-action language for XML
This paper proposes a language for event-condition-action for XML. It is used to
automatically enforcing constrains on XML document. The language is used to support
a reactive functionality on XML to perform an action in response to a condition change.
The language consists of event, condition and action. The language is based on XPath
and XQuery. The article also argues that it is possible to use XSLT instead of XQuery.



                                            38
However it claims that using XSLT to transform a source document would have to
process the entire source document whenever an even is triggered to be able to produce
the result document. In contrast using XQuery as base of the language allow changing
to be applied to the source documents directly.
Keywords: XML, XSLT, XML repositories, event-condition-action rules, reactive
functionality, rule analysis

7- Enhancing Digital Library Documents by A Posteriori Cross Linking Using
XSLT
This paper points out a process that uses XSLT to enhance digital library document by
adding links (e.g. To biography reference and keywords) with out modifying the source
document. The added links are used to reference documents inside the source or outside
the source. The links are added at run-time, right before the document is displayed to
the user. XSLT is used to merge the original XML document and the linked
information, however retrieving the information and exchanging it with XSLT is done
using Java language. First the linked information retrieved from a database, and then a
complete URL is build and pointed to the linked document. The URL is passed to the
XSLT to create HTML document.
Keywords: digital library, XSL, XSLT, XML, XLink, Xpointer

8-A formal model for an expressive fragment of XSLT
This paper defines a formal abstract model from November 1999 XSLT specification to
proof that the 1999 specification is more capable and relationally complete than the
earlier draft. The syntax of the model     limits the matching expression to the current
node. It divides the XSLT template to selecting template and constructing template.
The former is to define the variables; while the later is to define the template that going
to be applied to a pattern for output generation. It states that XSLT is well suited for the
purpose it was developed for, however it does not recommend using XSLT as standard
query language for XML due to the complexity of some of its pattern matching
operation.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, Query Language, database, Expensiveness, Logic, Tree
transducer


                                            39
9- An XML-based approach to automated software testing
This paper introduces XML-based approach to automate software testing. It uses an
XML script as an intermediate description that is used as a driver tool test script and as
statements of tasks that is performed by the test. Using XSLT, XML script is translated
to HTML to be compared with specification, then converted to test program script to be
run on the driver tool.
Keywords: XSL, XSLT, XML. DTD, automated software testing, software validation


10- Using XML for Representing Domain Dependent Knowledge in Dialogos.
This paper outlines an extension to EasyDail (Developer toolkit for Dialogs). It is based
on XML and XSLT technologies. XML is used to define the structure of the language
that represents the system knowledge. It represents the parameter generation, natural
language phrases and some required procedures. The XML file is controlled by
predefined DTD file. XSLT is used to transfer the XML representation to data structure
and C language procedures the can be processed directly by the EsayDial system.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, DTD, EasyDail


11- Active rules for XML: A new paradigm for e-services
This paper shows that active rules for XML could be specified in the context of XSLT.
It demonstrates that XSLT can be used for implementation of e-commerce services.
XML content can be manipulated as result to any changes to the XML information. The
active rules are    defined in terms of events, conditions and action. The event part
represents the any changes in the XML document, the condition part represents query
on the XML and the action part represents the execution part. An XML active
document language was designed with data bindings being generated by event part and
used by the condition-action parts. They recommend using active rule for developing a
new e-service, however they did not recommend using it as tool for final
implementation of e-services
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, Dom, Active database, Document Management, Query
language for XML, e-service, Active rule for XML



                                           40
14- OpenMath, MathML and XSL
This paper argues that XSLT can be used to transform between OpenMath and
MathML. Both OpenMath and MathML are used to express mathematical notations.
―OpenMath is a language that models mathematical expression as tree structure‖.
―MathMl is a recommendation of W3C and defined in term of XML‖. It claims that the
two languages have much in common, and there is possible transformation between
them using XSLT
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, OpenMath, MathML, metadata translation


16- Presenting tailored resource descriptions: will XSLT do the job?.
This paper describes the possibility of using XSLT to create tailored descriptions from
RDF metadata. To overcome the difficult arises from handling the abbreviations syntax
in RDF, RDF data structure is first normalized using XSLT stylesheet for further
manipulation by another XSLT stylesheet. The study has concluded that despite of the
XSLT power, there are limitations of using it as tool for creating customized resource
descriptions form RDF metadata. XSLT is not suitable for generating a coherent textual
output from low constrained input.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, metadata, RDF, Information retrieval, Personalization


19- Distributed and scalable XML document processing architecture for E-
commerce systems
This paper describes an XML processing System. The System is to be used in
processing XML documents in context of e-commerce. The system consists of
Document Integrator (DI) and Server Transformation Modules. The application passes
an XML document with script file. The XML document is processed based on the steps
specified in the script file. The core functionality in the DI is based on XSLT processor.
The DI receives the input file and manipulates it based on the instruction in the script
file using XSLT. Then the file is passed to the appropriate TM module. The DI may
also Merges files to produce one file before returning the result to the application
program.



                                           41
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, HTTP, e-commerce, web server, WAP server


21- XSLT for tailored access to a digital video library
This paper presents approach that uses XSLT for tailored access to a digital video
library. The digital library information is transformed to XML to be displayed on the
browsers. XML and XSLT is used separation the digital data from the interface
presentation. The data first is requested through a query to the informedia database. The
results of the query are validated through XML Schema. To display the XML file in
different format based on the user requirements, different XSLT stylsheet are used to
transfer the XML to XML, XHTML and HTML documents. Examples are introduced
to show the possible enhancements to the library access when the XSL processing is
done on the client side.
Keywords: digital video library, XSL, XSLT, XML, XPath, surrogate, Information
access


24- Using XML and XSLT to process and render online journals
This paper describes approach that of uses XML and XSLT to process and present
online journals. The documents are first represented in XML format, and then XSLT is
used to display XML documents. It indicates that XSLT                 (November 1999
specification) is good enough for transformation XML document to XML, HTML, and
text format. However there are some limitations in using this version. The performance
of XSLT parser is slow in case of large document and the possibility of attaching the
XSLT stylsheet to XML document using XML processing instruction is incomplete.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, DTD, CSS, PDF


29- Verifying Software Requirements with XSLT.
This paper describes a tool for automatically verifying software requirements. It
provides immediate view to the user by representing the software requirements as an
XML documents. Then applying a default XSLT template to transform the XML file to
HTML document. The HTML document describes the requirements as sequence of
events. It provides the flow of events through the actor action and the software system



                                           42
response. Users can view the HTML file and consider any change in the requirements.
A change in the requirements will automatically change the representation of HTML
file and consequently changes the flow of the events. The XSLT default template can
be replaced by user-defined template that represents the requirements in deferent format
Keywords: XSL, XSLT, XML. DTD, requirements engineering, requirements
verification


31- Composition of XML-Transformations.
This paper investigates the process of transforming an XML document from one format
to another. It introduces a system called         ―CoX‖ that is aimed to facilitate
transformation process. This system binds the XSLT templates to the DTDs of the
source and the target of the XML documents. It introduces the notion of composition
that represent the aggregation structure of the document and specialization, which cover
three types of specialization for XSLT and XML documents. They are specialization
through environment, restricted structure and restricted instances. Information about the
XML documents is stored to be used to build new XSLT from existing once.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, DTD, XPath, heterogeneous information systems, e-
commerce

32- XML Design Patterns Used in the EnterTheGrid Portal
This paper describes a management system ―EnterTheGrid‖ that works in a way similar
to traditional database. The system is based on XML and XSLT. The EnterTheGrid is
simply a community management system that contains information such as news
articles. The information is first stored in a XML format with the help of XSLT, and
then a search engine completely built from XSLT is used to query the XML data. The
article has introduced several example that show how XSLT templates are being used
to extract data out of XML structure.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, XPath, HPCN, Pattern Retrieval




                                           43
33- TIGRA - an architectural style for enterprise application integration.
This paper describes a distributed system ―TIGRA‖ for integrating different financial
front-office trading systems. It describes using XSLT to solve semantic data integration
problems. First data is represented in XML document; XSLT is used to translate it to
FixML/FpML standard notations and vice versa. It indicates that through the
transformation process, at some point, the need to use paradigms other than XSLT is
necessary. For example in case of complex computation required for calculating
accrued interest of bond. Java language and JavaScript has been used to define
application specific XSLT extension functions to overcome those problems
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, XPath, DTD, FixML, Data Integration, FpML, JMS


34- XML transformation flow processing
This paper states that XSLT programs are limited and complex in simple
transformation and restricted in complex transformation. It pointes out that the
limitation of the language is due to its complexity, lack of intelligibility, no self-
sufficiency and the limitation of power. To overcome these limitations, it provides a
framework for a system called ―trasmorpher‖. Trasmorpher relies on and compatible
with XSLT. It aims to make common basic transformation tasks easy. The efficiency
of the system has been compared with xalan and xalan pipeline and the results showed
that the difference in the performance between systems is insignificant
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, XPath, Xalan, metadata transformation


45- Supporting GI standards with a model-driven architecture
This paper describes a Model-driven architecture that is used to generate a Geography
Markup Language from UML conceptual model. To generate the code out of the UML
conceptual model, the UML model is first transferred to XMI. To reduce the
complexity of XMI tags structure, the XMI is constrained to produce what they called a
―simpleXMI‖. The smpleXMI is actually XMI that has been simplified by conforming
it to a predefined XML Schema. Then XSLT processor is used to generate the code out
of the smpleXMI file
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, ISOTC 211, OGC, GML, UML, XMI



                                           44
48- Combining RDF and XML schemas to enhance interoperability between
metadata application profiles.
This paper investigates the possibility of combining the semantics of RDF schema and
XML schema to facilitate information access over the web. It stated that XSLT is
inadequate to implement the semantic mapping between the schemas because of some
limitation. XSLT is inadequate for handling the non-tightly constrained schema
variables and string compression. However it recommends that XSLT can be used to
parse an XML structure and call some java procedures that determine the semantics
information based on thesaurus. The purpose of the thesaurus is to capture the
relationship between metadata from different schemas.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, metadata, Interoperability, Schema, RDF


50- Translating XSLT programs to Efficient SQL queries.
This paper presents a system that translate XSLT program to SQL queries. An XML
view of the database first constructed, then the system accepts the XSLT program over
the defined view and translates it to SQL query. The translation process includes
parsing of XSLT program and representing it in a direct cycle graph. Each node in the
graph represents a template defined in the XSLT program. The final SQL
representation is the union of the SQL query that represents each node. The system is
only tested on a portion of XSLT templates.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, SQL, Query optimization, virtual view, translation


51- A Proof of the Turing-completeness of XSLT and XQuery.
This paper proofs that both XSLT and XQuery languages are Turing- completeness as
query languages for XML. It describes XQuery code as human readable and faster to
code, and XSLT as simpler to define and machine oriented. It claims that all the
previous study on XSLT did not introduce a firm proof of that the language Turing-
completeness. To proof the Turing-completeness of the languages, it investigated them




                                         45
on what so called -recursive function. It stated that since both languages are proofed
for Turing-completeness, they are theoretically interchangeable
Keywords: XML, XSLT, XQuery, Turing completeness, -recursive function


54- Demonstrational interface for XSLT stylesheet generation
This paper presents XSLT rule generation system ―XSLTbyDemo‖. XSLTbyDemo
relies on a WYSIWYG HTML editor. The users of the system does not need any
knowledge about XSLT, they only need to be familiar with the editor. When users edit
the HTML file using WYSIWYG, their action is recorded. When the user finishes
editing the document, the system will generate a customized XSLT rule that is required
to transfer the original HTML document to the customized HTML document. The
limitation of the system is that it only guess what the users intended to do, which may
result in inappropriate results.
Keywords: XSL, XSLT, XML, DOM, authoring tool, WYSIWYG


55- Morphing towards interoperable catalogues
This paper studies the semantic mismatches between metadata standards. Particularly,
the semantic mismatch between ANZLIC (Australia and New Zealand Information
Council) metadata standard and the DIF (Directory Interchange format) metadata
standard. It describes a single point search that allow users to locate information on
different catalogue systems where each of these catalogue may have different metadata
standard. Both metadata standard first conformed to predefined DTD file. Then XSLT
templates are used map between the two standards. The XML and XSLT approach has
been compared with Perl script and SGML approach and showed that XSLT has
advantages of being used over the other two.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, DIF, Ontologies, Semantic interoperability, Resource
discovery, Approximate and imprecise, Geo-spatial metadata


57- Translating XQuery into XSLT
This paper describes a process to translate XQuery language to XSLT stylesheet. Both
XQuery and XSLT are query languages for XML. However, it states that writing


                                            46
complex query using XSLT is difficult and error porn. On the other hand XSLT can be
use to rearrange XML documents and present it in different format. Providing a
translation between the two languages will combine the better of the two languages.
The proposed translation process is to be accomplished by a system called ―XQ2XSL‖.
XQ2XSL is represented by abstract state machine (ASM). It uses JavaCup parser to
map the XQuery to an object tree that further described using AST. The presented AST
statements can be coded in XSL or Java to transfer each node of the tree to XSLT
statement.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, XQuery, ASM, JavaCup parser


63- A Declarative Way of Extracting XML Data in XSL
This paper investigates the process of extracting data out of XML document. It assumes
that the source XML document does not confirm to any DTD file. It stated that
Querying an XML documents that do not conform to a specific DTD using XSLT can
be complex and error porn. To avoid this problem, it describes a declarative pattern
definition language to extract information out of XML document. It is built on top of
the XSL to simplify any variation in the pattern definition. Algorithms that transfer the
pattern to XSLT pattern have been introduced.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, pattern extraction, pattern retrieval


64- Structured Document Transformations Based on XSL
This paper studies the problems associated with XSL, such as program termination and
the equivalence of pattern.      It introduces a document transformation language
―DTLreg‖, which is based on the XSL transformation process. The DTLreg uses
regular expression as pattern language for selecting XML nodes. It also considers the
DTL with the monadic second order logic DTLmon where the XSL pattern matching is
forced to process only top-down transformation to forced program termination
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, DTD, MSO, Top-Down Transformation, Regular
Expression and Pattern Language




                                           47
68- Handling Conceptual Multidimensional Models Using XML through DTDs
This paper presents approach for handling the properties of multidimensional (MD)
models. These models are accomplished by object oriented conceptual approach based
on UML. XML is used to store all MD properties. The DTD is used to define the rules
and the structure for a valid XML document. XSLT is used to automatically generate
HTML documents for different presentation of the same MD model, which allows the
navigation between these presentations on the web browser.
Keywords: XSL, XSLT, XML, DTD, UML, multidimensional Models, presentation
of multidimensional Models


71- Effective Web data extraction with standard XML technologies
This paper suggests an XML approach for data extraction from web sites. It introduces
a software framework called ―ANDES‖ that describes the solution for problems
associated with data extraction from web sites. ANDES relies on XML and XSLT. It is
written in java language and consists of five parts: data retrieves, extractor, checker,
exporter and scheduler interface. The URL is passed to the extractor; the extractor
applies a set of XSLT templates by piping the URL from one XSLT stylesheet to
another to determine the structure of the final output document. The use of XSLT files
is to analyse, filter, validate and merge files. The Data export part of the system uses an
XSLT stylsheet to convert XML structure to relational tuples
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, Wrappers, Crawling, Data Extraction, Semi-structured
Data, Deep Web


77-How to build an E-city
This paper propose a framework for a tool that maps between objects model and
relational model to enable storing an object model in a relational database and a custom
XSLT processor to allow transformation of regular object to XML. First classes and
their properties and relation are added to an object model, and then tables are created to
transfer the models to a relational database. The modified XSLT processor ―EXPO‖
(Experimental XSLT processor for Object) is used to transform between the objects and
XML format. The implementation of EXPO is based on modification of XPath



                                            48
expression. Instead of matching XML nodes, XPath expressions are used to match
objects.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, XPath, RDB, Multimedia, object relational mapping


81- Internet-based medical teleconsultation system
This paper describes a web-based medical teleconsulting system. The system is aimed
to reduce the risk of transport a patient to a distant medical facility. The system is
constructed as three tiers: presentation service tier, containing web browser and Apache
web server. Process service tier contains Sablotron XSLT processor and PHP script.
And data service contains DBMS PostgreSQL tier. The PHP script is used to coordinate
system procedures. XSLT is used to transform XML data to HTML data, which then
passed to the presentation service. XSLT is used to separates any changes in the
database from affecting the transformation script.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, PHP script, SSL, SQL


85- Using XML to Manage Heterogeneous Data
This paper introduces a system ―ENCompss‖ that is used to manage multiple data
format required by a library. The system uses XML, XSLT and supports five types of
protocols; 239.50, HTTP, XMLgateways, a Voyager protocol and an ENCompass
protocol. It is designed to receive three type of data as search result; MARC, HTML
and XML. The MARC data is first mapped to XML document that retains the same
structure, then XSLT is used to transform the XML file to HTML for browser
rendering. The transformation process takes place on the server side.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, HTTP, XMLgateways, MARC


87- X2QL: An eXtensible XML Query Language Supporting User-Defined Foreign
Functions
This paper proposes an extensible XML query language ―X2QL‖, which is an
extension to XML-QL query language. The X2QL motivation is to overcome the
weakness of other XML query languages in cases such as processing document content
(e.g. ranking, summery generation). X2QL process the document content in context of



                                           49
XML-QL. The difference between XML-QL and X2QL is that X2QL can incorporate
user-defined functions. This paper also describes the implementation of X2QL on top
of the XSLT processor. It    claims that XSLT specification is difficult for beginner
users and using this approach makes it more declarative and easy. X2QL Query is
translated to XSLT template that is processed by the XSLT processor.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, XML-QL Query translation, DTD

90- Object-Z web environment and projections to UML
This paper presents approaches that use XSLT to display and transfer Z-notion and
object Z on the web or in form of UML diagrams. First, the object Z is defined in XML
format. Then using XSLT, the XML file is displayed on the web. The second approach
is to transfer XML file to XMI using the DOM/SAX parser, and XSLT processor, then
XMI file is transferred to UML diagrams using rational rose2000.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, DTD, UML, XMI, object-Z, DOM/SAX


94- A Caching System for Web Content Generated from XML Sources Using
XSLT
This paper introduces a caching system for database-driven web content using XML
and XSLT. The core of the caching system is the servlet that handles the user requests.
It maps the requests to a corresponding transformation document. The system contains
three caches; Document cache is to keep the final format of the document. XML cache
is to keep the XML format of the document. And XSLT cache to keep the object that
performs the transformation. When the request is received, if the XML document is
cacheable, it is fetched from the XML cache, otherwise it is generated and the XML
cache is updated. If the object that transform the document is in the XSLT cache, it is
used to transform the document otherwise it is read from a file and the XSLT cache is
updated.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, Cashing, Web Cashes, DTD




                                          50
98- An incremental XSLT transformation processor for XML document
manipulation.
This paper presents a system called "incXSLT‖. The incXSLT is aimed to facilitate the
design of content and transformation of XSLT stylesheet document. It represents the
incremental update to XML document after some modifications have been already
applied. What distinguishes the incXSLT system from other XSLT systems (e. g. web
browsers) is that these systems have two drawbacks. First, XML and XSLT are usually
designed in batch mode, which dose not precisely identifies the error source. Second,
they do not identify the immediate effect of the source document. The incXSLT
overcomes these problems by introducing better alternative. It improved some of XSLT
language restriction and introduces some other restrictions for performance reason. The
increment execution process relies on the tracing of the execution process to construct a
history log. Using this history log the memory state can be stored and re-evaluated. It is
the selection of the rules that are required to be re-executed based on the changes made
to the documents. All expression in the transformation sheet is converted to a set of
patterns and for each pattern a set of re-evaluation rules are built with the
corresponding instructions.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, authoring tools, Incremental Transformation


99- Two implementations of Xpointer
This paper describes two implementation of Xpointer. The first is ―XlinkProxy‖, which
based on Xlink and XML that allows the user to create external link for remote
document. The second is ―XSLT++‖, an extension to XSLT processor to support
XPointer. With the extension XSLT processor, a pattern selection in XSLT is able to
match not only the XML element but also the content of XML tag.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, XPointer , Xlink, XPath


100- A formal semantics of patterns in XSLT and XPath
This paper presents a formal semantic approach of XSLT language draft on 16
December 1998. It claims the specification of 1998 draft ambiguous and not clear to
understand due to the English language ambiguity of describing the specification,



                                           51
which led to improper implementation by IE5 and XT. It introduces more clear and
concise semantics of the language using standard techniques from the programming
languages.
Keywords: XML, XSLT, Pattern Matching, DOM, XSL, XPointer, XPath, DTD


102-On the Equivalence of XML Patterns
This paper studies the pattern equivalence problem for a subset of XSLT patterns by
considering the containment between patterns. It defines XML-based structure for
XML and semantic for XSLT pattern in context of a datalog programs. It uses a track
procedure as decision for containment of datalog derived from XSLT pattern. XSLT
pattern are considered equivalent based on their corresponding datalog program. A
pattern can be replaced by simpler equivalent pattern that does the same job. This
method works well in case of the document is constrained by Document Type
Definition.
Keywords: XML, XSLT, Pattern Matching, DTD, UML, semantics, XSL, XPointer,
containment, equivalence


103- Converting business documents: a classification of problems and solutions
using XML/XSLT
This paper discuses the trade-off between standards and conversion in e-commerce. It
classifies the process of converting business documents using XML and XSLT. It
included cases such as; converting XML document that differs only in element name,
converting XML document with the same structure and different format in the content
of elements, and converting XML documents that have different names and contain
different number of sub elements. Problem arises from such conversions are discussed
and possible solutions are provided.
Keywords: XML, XSL, XSLT, DTD, XPath, XML conversion




                                        52
Appendix C: Forthcoming Conferences


 Extreme Markup Languages 2003
Date: August 4-8, 2003
Location: Hilton Hotel, Montréal, Canada
http://www.mulberrytech.com/Extreme/index.html

Chair:
   - Tommie Usdin, Mulberry Technologies, Inc
Co-Chairs:
   - Deborah A. Lapeyre, Mulberry Technologies, Inc
   - C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, World Wide Web Consortium/MIT Laboratory for
       Computer Science
   - Steven R. Newcomb, Coolheads Consulting
   - James David Mason, Y-12 National Security Complex

Dates:
   - August 4 — 8, 2003
   - Tutorials: August 4, 2003
   - Extreme Conference: August 5—8, 2003

Schedule:
   - 20 March, 2003 Peer Review Applications Due
   - 20 March, 2003 Tutorial Proposal Deadline
   - 3 April, 2003 Paper Submission Deadline
   - 20 May, 2003 Speakers Notified
   - 24 June, 2003 Revised Papers Due
   - 4 August, 2003 Preconference Tutorials
   - 5 - 8 August, 2003 Extreme Markup Languages Conference

Questions
Email to Extreme@mulberrytech.com or call Tommie Usdin at +1 301/315-9634

Details, Logistics, and Instructions for authors:
http://www.mulberrytech.com/Extreme

Updates:
For information on previous Extreme conference, and for updated information on the
program as it becomes available, see http://www.extrememarkup.com/

More Information:
For updated information on the program and plans for the conference, see
http://www.extrememarkup.org.


                                         53
 Sixth International Conference on Information Technology
Date: December 22-25, 2003

Locution: Bhubaneswar, India,

http://www.citconference.org/

Organised by:
    - Orissa Information Technology Society
General chair:
    - Sajal K Das: Univ of Texas, Arlington
Organizing Chair:
    - Laxman Mohanty: Silicon School of Info. Tech. Bhubaneswar
Steering Chair:
    - Prasant Mohapatra: University of Carlifornia, Davis
Program Chairs:
    - Goutam Chakraborty
        goutam@soft.iwate-pu.ac.jp
        Iwate Prefectural University, Japa

    -   Sudeshna Sarkar
        cit2003@cse.iitkgp.ernet.in
        Computer Sc & Engg
        Dept, IIT Kharagpur

Tutorial Chairs:
   - Dr. Sushmita Mitra, ISI, Kolkata
       Nihar Mahapatra, University at Buffalo, SUNY

Poster Chairs:
   - Ravi P Reddy
       ravipreddy@yahoo.com
       NIST, Berhampur
    -   Madhabananda Das
        madhaba_nandadas@hotmail.com
        KIIT, Bhubaneswar

Publication Chair:
   - R K Patnaik, ICFAITech
Finance Chair:
   -   Nitai G Dhall, Silicon Institute of Technology
Organising Committee:


                                         54
    -   Manas R Patra: Berhampur University
    -   Sanjeev Nayak: Silicon Institute of Tech.
    -   Aurabinda Mishra: Silicon School of IT
    -   S K Udagata: Berhampur University
    -   S Padhy: Utkal University
    -   Satya Panda: GIET, Gunupur
    -   Sanjib Rout: C V Raman College
    -   Binod Dash: Synergy Inst. of Engg & Tech.
    -   C R Tripathy; UCE, Burla
Advisory Committee:
    -   Prof. S P Misra: President, OITS
    -   Dr P K Das: Silicon Inst of Tech
    -   Prof. Damodar Acharya: VC, Biju Patnaik Tech University
    -   Prof. L M Patnaik: IISc, Bangalore

Important Dates:
   - May 30,2003: Papers Submissions Deadline
   - May 30,2003: Tutorial Proposals Deadline
   - June 30,2003: Poster Submissions Deadline
   - July 30,2003: Notification of Acceptance
   - Aug 30,2003: Camera-ready Paper due




 International Conference on Information Technology:
  Research and Education

Date: August 10-13, 2003

Location: Newark, New Jersey, USA

http://web.njit.edu/~itre2003/index.html

Sponsored by:
 New Jersey Commission on Higher Education sponsored NJ I-TOWER program at
NJIT
IEEE North Jersey Section and COMSOC Chapter
Technical co-sponsorship with IEEE Communications Society

General Chair:
    -   Nirwan Ansari, NJIT
Technical Program Chairs:
   - Fadi Deek, NJIT
   - Ching-Yung Lin, IBM Watson
   - Heather Yu, Panasonic


                                           55
Special Session Chairs:
    - Anthony Vetro, Mitsubishi Research
    - Uf Tureli, Stevens Ins. of Tech
Plenary/Panel Chairs:
    - Yucel Altunbask, Georgia Tech
    - K.P.Subbalakshmi, Stevens
Demo/Exhibition Chair:
    - Bartel Van De Walle, NJIT
    - K.P.Subbalakshmi, Stevens
    - Technical Track Chairs:
    - Timothy Shih, TamKang Univ
    - Danielle Kaplan, Columbia Univ.
    - Nasir Memon, Polytechnic Univ.
    - Gary Chan, Hong Kong Univ Sci&Tech
    - Symeon Papavassilou, NJIT
    - Chris Yang, Chinese U of Hong Kong
    - R. Chandramouli, Stevens
    - Shang-Hong Lai, Natl. Tsing-Hua Univ.


Important Dates:
   - January 15, 2003: Special session or workshop proposal due.
   - February 15, 2003: Panel proposal due.
   - February 15, 2003: Original, full-length, unpublished papers due.
   - March 1, 2003: Demo/Exhibition proposal due.
   - April 1, 2003: Notification of acceptance.
   - May 1, 2003: Final camera-ready manuscript due.



 XML Database Symposium (XSym 2003)
In Conjunction with VLDB 2003
Date: Monday, 8 September 2003

Location: Berlin, Germany

http://www.lirmm.fr/~bella/Xsym/

Paper Submission:
Paper submission site is at: http://msrcmt.research.microsoft.com/XSYM2003

Organizing Committee:

-   General Chair
    Zohra Bellahsene, LIRMM (France)


                                        56
-   Co-Chairs
    Michael Rys, Microsoft (USA)
    Akmal B. Chaudhri, IBM developerWorks (USA)
-   Local Chair
    Agnes Voisard, Fraunhofer ISST and Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)
-   Publications Chair
    Rainer Unland, University of Essen (Germany)
-   Publicity and Communications Chair
    Erhard Rahm, University of Leipzig (Germany)

-   Program Committee
    Bernd Amann, CNAM & INRIA (France)
    Valeria De Antonellis, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
    Zohra Bellahsene, LIRMM (France)
    Elisa Bertino, University of Milan (Italy)
    Timo Boehme, University of Leipzig (Germany)
    Akmal B. Chaudhri, IBM developerWorks (USA)
    Sophie Cluet, INRIA (France)
    Istvan Cseri, Microsoft (USA)
    Gillian Dobbie, University of Auckland (New Zealand)
    Mary F. Fernandez, AT&T Research (USA)
    Daniela Florescu, BEA (USA)
    Irini Fundulaki, Bell Labs/Lucent Technologies, (USA)
    Donald Kossmann, Technical University of Munich (Germany)
    Mong Li Lee, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
    Eng Wah Lee, Gintic (Singapore)
    Stuart Madnick, MIT (USA)
    Ioana Manolescu, INRIA (France)
    Jim Melton, Oracle (USA)
    Alberto Mendelzon, University of Toronto (Canada)
    Laurent Mignet, University of Toronto (Canada)
    Tova Milo, Tel Aviv University (Israel)
    Allen Moulton, MIT (USA)
    M. Tamer Oszu, University of Waterloo (Canada)
    Shankar Pal, Microsoft (USA)
    Erhard Rahm, University of Leipzig (Germany)
    Marie-Christine Rousset, LRI (France)
    Michael Rys, Microsoft (USA)
    Jerome Simeon, Bell Labs (USA)
    Zahir Tari, RMIT (Australia)
    Frank Tompa, University of Waterloo (Canada)
    Hiroshi Tsuji, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan)
    Rainer Unland, University of Essen (Germany)
    Agnes Voisard, Fraunhofer ISST and Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)
    Osamu Yoshie, Waseda University (Japan)
    Jeffrey Xu Yu, Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)



                                        57
Important Dates:
- 19 May 2003 Paper Submission Deadline
- 16 June 2003 Notification of Acceptance
- 7 July 2003 Camera Ready Copy
- 8 September 2003 Symposium



 2003 Dublin Core Conference
Date: 28 September –2 October 2003

Location: Seattle, Washington USA

http://www.ischool.washington.edu/dc2003/

Conference Oragizing Committee:
- Danielle Miller: The Information School, University of Washington, USA
- John F. Helmer: The Information School, University of Washington, USA
Workshop Committee:
- Makx Dekkers, Chair (Managing Director, DCMI Directorate
Tutorial Committee:
- Andy Powell, Chair (UKOLN–United Kingdom Office of Library Networking,
- Distributed Systems and Services Team)
Conference Organizers:
- Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
   http://www.dublincore.org
- Information School of the University of Washington
   http://www.ischool.washington.edu/
- Information Institute of Syracuse, Syracuse University
   http://iis.syr.edu/
- University of Washington Libraries
   http://www.lib.washington.edu/

Important Dates:
- May 3, 2003: Contributed papers due
- May 17, 2003: Proposals for posters due
- June 23, 2003: Authors and poster proposers notified
- July 28, 2003: Camera-ready copy due for papers and posters




                                        58
 4thInternational Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering
Conference Date: December 10th - 12th, 2003
Workshops Date:    December 13th, 2003

 Location:
Residenza di Ripetta
Via di Ripetta, 231, Roma
Italy

http://www.dis.uniroma1.it/~wise03/dinamico/dates.htm

General Chairs:
- Stefano Spaccapietra: EPFL Switzerland
- Stefano Ceri: Politecnico di Milano Italy

Program Co-chairs:
- Tiziana Catarci: Università di Roma "La Sapienza" Italy
- Maria E. Orlowska: University of Queensland Australia
- John Mylopoulos: University of Toronto Canada

Tutorial Co-Chairs:
- Paolo Atzeni: Università Roma Tre Italy
- Isabel Cruz: University of Illinois at Chicago USA

Workshop Co-Chairs:
- Wolfgang Klas: University of Wien Austria
- Giuseppe Santucci: Università di Roma "La Sapienza" Italy

Important Dates:
- Workshop Proposals March 11th, 2003
- Abstract April 29th, 2003
- Paper/tutorial submission May 6th, 2003
- Notice of acceptance July 15th, 2003
- Camera-ready paper September 10th, 2003
USTRIAL CHAIR




                                        59
Appendix D: List Of Researchers

 Dr. Loinel Villard
Postdoc Researcher at IBM Watson Research Center

Contact Info:
      IBM T. J. Watson Research Center
      P.O. Box 704
      Yorktown Heights, NY 10598-0704
      USA

       Phone: +1-914-784-691
       Lionel.Villard@imag.fr

       http://www.research.ibm.com/people/v/villard/main.html

Research interest:
Main interest is about document transformations and in particular incremental
transformations



   Dr. Frank Neven
    Assistant professor

Contact Info:
      University of Limburg (LUC)
      Department WNI
      Universitaire Campus
      B-3590 Diepenbeek
      Belgium
      Office: C263
      Tel: +32-(0)11-268217
      Fax: +32-(0)11-268299
      E-mail: frank.neven@luc.ac.be

       http://alpha.luc.ac.be/~lucg5503/

Research interest:
- database theory
- foundations of XML
- formal languages and automata
- logic in computer science




                                           60
 Dr. Peter Wood

Member of the Database and Web Technologies Group at the:
School of Computer Science and Information Systems

Contact Info:
      Birkbeck College, University of London
      Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX

       Tel: +44 171 873 2562
       Fax: +44 171 873 2851
       Email: ptw@dcs.kcl.ac.uk

       http://www.dcs.kcl.ac.uk/staff/ptw/

Research Interests:
- Graph-based data models and queries
- Visual query languages
- Query optimisation in deductive databases
- Querying object-oriented databases
- Implementation of logic programming languages




 Prof. Karl Aberer

Distributed Information Systems Laboratory (LSIR)
Institute for Core Computing Science (IIF)
School for Computer and Communication Science (I&C)
EPFL

Contact Info:
      1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
      Phone: +41-21-693 4679
      Mobile: +41-78-690 2777
      FAX: +41-21-693 8115

       Email: karl.aberer@epfl.ch

       http://lsirwww.epfl.ch/
       http://lsirpeople.epfl.ch/aberer/

Research interest:
- All aspects of self-organizing information systems
- P2P architectures


                                             61
-   Distributed and Mobile Information Management
-   Emergent Semantics
-   Trust and Reputation Management
-   Electronic Commerce Applications



 Dr. Geert Jan Bex
Contact Info:
      University of Limburg
      Department WNI, Building D
      Universitaire Campus
      B-3590 Diepenbeek
      Belgium

       Email: gjb@luc.ac.be

       http://alpha.luc.ac.be/~gjb/

Research interest:
- relational database theory, computational model theory
- constraint databases; spatial, temporal databases
- complex objects, object-oriented databases
- foundations of XML
- data mining
- programming languages, type systems, reflection, meta query languages
- constraint satisfaction problems
- web querying




                                        62
Appendix E: Sample Reply from Researcher


 From: Lionel Villard <villard@us.ibm.com>
 Subject: Re: Request infromation on XSLT
 Date: Thu, 27 Mar 2003 15:38:57 -0500
 To: "Ismail Jaghmani " <jaghman@uwindsor.ca>

 Ismail,
     thanks for your interest, I really appreciate. My research on incremental transformation is still
 underway, focusing more on static analysis. No new public information yet, the paper you
 mentionned is the most up to date. If you read french, you can also take a look at my thesis which is
 more formal.

 Regards
 Lionel




  "Ismail Jaghmani " <jaghman@uwindsor.ca>
                                                        To:      Lionel Villard/Watson/IBM@IBMUS
                                                        cc:
  03/27/2003 01:15 PM                                   Subject:     Request infromation on XSLT




 Dear Dr. Villard,

 I am a graduate student at University of Windsor, Canada. I
 am doing a literature survey on the application of XSLT. It
 includes the application, comments, problems and research
 aspects on XSLT language. I have read some of your papers
 such as “An Incremental XSLT Transformation Processor for
 XML Document Manipulation”.

 I am very appreciated if you could provide me any up to
 date information about any of your current application or
 research on XSLT. I am also very thankful for your
 personal home page.

 Sincerely yours,

 Ismail Jaghmani




                                                  63
Appendix F: Statement of Attestation

This survey is completely my own work.


Ismail Jaghmani




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