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Driving in Singapore

Driving in Singapore
In Singapore cars drive on the left, the same asneighbouring Malaysia. Both countries were under British colonial rule and drive on the left as is done in the United Kingdom and other former British colonies including Australia, New Zealand and Hong Kong. The per capita car ownership rate in Singapore is 12 cars per 100 people. This compares with the per capita rate of 46 cars per 100 people in Australia.[1] In 2005, Singapore had the 24th highest per capita gross domestic product. For the same year, Australia was 20th in the world.[2]

The Pan Island Expressway, one of the main arteries in Singapore road network.


Life in Singapore Culture Dance Demographics Driving Economy Education Film Holidays Languages Literature Music Politics Religion Singlish Sports Transport Several steps have to be completed before a citizen can ultimately drive in Singapore. In addition to a driving license, a Certificate of Entitlement (CoE) is required, costing several thousand Singapore dollars. This permits the vehicle to be driven for a period of 10 years after which the vehicle must be scrapped. Certain roads in Singapore require users to pay per use via Singapore’s Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) system. These two measures have been taken to encourage people to use public transport such as the MRT.

Geylang Road was one of the earliest roads built in Singapore. The earliest roads in Singapore after its founding in 1819 were laid out in the Jackson Plan of 1822, in keeping with Sir Stamford Raffles’s directions. A grid system was adopted for the town area, with roads for carriages 16 yards (15 m) wide, and those for horses at four yards. Pedestrian paths along the roadsides were two yards wide, allowing room for two to walk abreast and giving rise to the five-foot ways that came to be associated with the sheltered walkways along roadside shophouses. These roads were fairly advanced for the time, with Macadam surfacing used on High Street, Singapore, in 1821, for instance. Roads were also constructed in the rest of


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the island, although they were usually unsurfaced. By 1842, Changi Point in the eastern tip was accessible via an extension of Geylang Road, while Pasir Panjang Road reached Jurong River in the west. The Bukit Timah Road was also extended to Kranji in the north by 1845, in proximity to where the Johor-Singapore Causeway was built almost 80 years later, in 1924. Still, only about 340 kilometres of road were built in the century after 1820, compared to more than 2,000 kilometres in the four decades after 1965. As was the case in other urban areas of the time, the earliest modes of road transport were via ponies, and then horse-drawn carriages. Batak ponies from the Sultanate of Deli in Sumatra were introduced into Malaya in the Dutch era. They were often called palonguins or, later, gharries; they proved too small for the larger carriages introduced later by the Europeans. Driven as fashion statements for the social elite, the carriages would be paraded by the Europeans around the Padang; soon they were joined by their affluent Chinese and Arabic counterparts. So important were these parades in the networking opportunities they provided that merchants were known to voluntarily pay to build the public roads or to speed up road construction. Collyer Quay, for example, was constructed purely by private funding. The most well-to-do would typically own their carriages and horses, often employing native Indian servants (popularly known as Syces) to maintain them. Carriages for hire soon became available as well, with hackneys and gharries being the earliest forms of taxis in Singapore. Another early use of ponydrawn carriages was that of the Singapore Fire Brigade, the predecessor of today’s Singapore Civil Defence Force.

Driving in Singapore
vehicles without a clutch pedal, typically automatic transmission cars, whereas a class 3 license allows the holder to drive all motor vehicles. Class 3A drivers may be optional to drive manual transmission cars.[3] Drivers must be 18 years old in order to qualify for a license including applying for theory lessons. Once a driver passes the Basic Driving Theory Test, he or she must apply for a Provisional Driving License (PDL), which lasts for six months, before taking practical driving lesson. However, a student can choose to apply and pass the Final Theory test before he/she applies for PDL and starts driving lesson. The last stage of obtaining a driving license is the practical driving test which student must have a passed FTT result slip and a PDL. The Basic Driving Theory Test (BTT) and Final Driving Theory Test (FTT) each contains 50 questions and last for 50 minutes, in order to pass the tests, one has to get at least 45 out of the 50 questions to be correct. The result will be shown immediately after the test on the same touchscreen monitor. There are a few websites offering online question banks which students can use them for practice like "ACE Online". http://www.aceonline.com.sg. , "SingaporeTests.com". http://www.singaporetests.com. and "SGDriving.net". http://www.sgdriving.net. . Also, there are textbooks available for the two tests above for those preferring to study by books.

Driving with a Foreign licence in Singapore
Visitors (without student pass, work permit, employment pass or Singapore Permanent Resident, or other social passes) who have been in Singapore less than six months may drive with their foreign issued license. Conversion to a Singapore license is possible only if the foreign license holder obtained the above privileges only after the person obtained the foreign license - by passing only the Basic Driving Theory test if the foreign issued license has not expired. No practical test is required.

Driving license
Obtaining a driving license
Class 3/3A
A class 3 or class 3A license permits the holder to drive motorcars weighing less than 3000kg when unladen and may not carry more than 7 passengers, excluding the driver. In addition, the holder may drive a motor tractor or other motor vehicles with an unladen weight of less than 2500kg. A class 3A license limits the holder to drive motor

Renewal of License
No renewal is required for Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents since the starting of the photocard license as the


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driving license will last the driver until they reach 65. Thereafter a medical check up every 3 years is required to renew their motorcar and/or motorcycle license (Class 3/3A/2B/2C/ 2). Heavy vehicles (Class 4/5) are annual renewals requiring annual medical checkups for 5 years until they reach the upper limit of 70 years old.

Driving in Singapore
Currently, drivers are now given demerit points if they commit certain traffic offences such as speeding and passengers not fastening their seat belts.[4]

Roads in Singapore

Foreign drivers in Singapore
Foreigners who have converted to/obtain a Singapore license are supplied with a limitedduration license which needs to be renewed between 1 month before expiry to 3 years after expiry. After this period, the conversion procedure or licensing theory and practical tests must be done all over again.

Riding motorcycles registered on a different holder
In Singapore, it is illegal to ride a motorcycle if the rider’s name is not entered in the insurance contract. For each motorcycle, only one co-rider can be entered.

ERP gantry The Land Transport Authority (LTA) in Singapore implemented an Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) scheme to deter traffic congestion during peak hours at various roads. The ERP scheme includes an electronic gantries over the road at designated locations and cars are require to be equipped with an In-Vehicle Unit (IU), a rectangular device pasted on the inside bottom right of the front windshield from the driver’s view, which will deduct the toll price from a CashCard which has to be inserted into the IU. It is a violation to drive through operating gantries without a topped up Cash Card in it. There is no charge for entering the area during certain non-peak times.

Driver Improvement Points System
The Driver Improvement Points System (DIPS) is a system whereby demerit points will be added to the driver’s record. The system is meant to deter drivers from infriging the rules-of-the-road and if they do, suspend their driving license for a period of time. This system requires offenders to re-sit and pass the driving test again from the beginning. If a driver accumulates 24 demerit points within a period of two years, he/she will be suspended from driving for three months. If he/she had been suspended before, he/she will only be allowed to accumulate less than 12 demerit points in a period of 12 months. Initially, this system was only used for Singapore driving license holders until November 1 1999, the traffic police extended the system to foreign driving license holders which states that any foreigner who accumulates 24 demerit points in two years, will be prohibited from driving in Singapore for three months (first time prohibition) and up to a maximum of three years for subsequent offender.

The cost of parking in many upgraded car parks can be deducted from the CashCard inserted in the IU of the vehicle thus eliminating the need for the car park to have an attendant. Although the cost of parking (which is published[5]) is variable, parking costs tend to be much less expensive compared to London and New York. For example, the Centrepoint shopping centre charges S$1 (approximately US$0.70) for the first hour. For comparison, garages in New York near 5th Avenue and 57th Street charge between US$12


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and US$26 for one hour of parking (though one garage charges as high as $47). [6] Some car parks in Singapore are even more advanced, containing car parking space sensors which detect whether the position is filled or not. This information is processed and displayed in signs around the car park, directing drivers to areas where there are free spaces.

Driving in Singapore
lane is red, as Singapore employs the lefthand traffic rule, thus making it very dangerous to make a right turn when one’s lane has the red light traffic signal. Right turns are permissible only when one’s lane has the green light signal and the opposing traffic lane, traveling in the opposite direction, is clear and favorable to execute a right turn. However green turning signals (the outline of a right-pointing arrow) are installed onto some traffic lights, which allow for a controlled version of "right turn on red". These rules in Singapore are similar to many countries that employ the Left-hand traffic rule. This is unlike a few countries in the world that allow either, or both Right turn on red and Left turn on red, such as the United States (certain states only) (Canada, Republic of Korea (South Korea), Myanmar, unverified)

Road Signs in Singapore
Road signs in Singapore are similar to their counterparts in the United Kingdom. For example, large signs over expressways in the United Kingdom are light blue. In Singapore, they are enclosed in a light blue box in an overall green background. The type font used is the Bureau Grotesque One Seven typeface. Most roads are marked with signposts with the road’s name. The expressways in Singapore are not numbered (unlike the M1 in the United Kingdom or I-95 in the United States). The expressways are named and are often sign posted by their contractions, such as the PIE or AYE, abbreviations for Pan Island Expressway or Ayer Rajah Expressway, respectively. The maximum permitted speed along certain sections of expressway is 80 - 90 km/h. The language used in road signs is English.

Traffic safety
Driving safety
Driving while using a hand held mobile phone is prohibited. Drinking and driving is also not permitted. The level of intoxication is considered 80 mg% (0.08%) of alcohol, although it is illegal to drive if impaired, even if the level of alcohol is under the limit. In 2007, Singaporean TV actor Christopher Lee was sentenced to 30 days in prison, later increased to 6 weeks, S$4,500 in fines, and disqualified from driving for three years after he caused injury to a motorcyclist during a hit and run injury. Reportedly, mitigating factors included that he paid over S$70,000 in compensation to the injured. He eventually served nearly a month in prison. (May 28-June 25, 2007) [7] [8]

Left Turn or Right Turn at a red traffic light
Left Turn It is not permissible to turn left in Singapore when the traffic light for one’s lane is red, that is, the Left Turn on Red rule does not apply in Singapore, even though Singapore employs the left-hand traffic rule. This rule, however, does not apply if there is a Zebra Crossing at the junction of the road where the motorist intends to turn left. The motorist has to get into the correct lane, in this case the extreme left lane before reaching the junction and make a left turn at the zebra crossing, regardless of the traffic signal in one’s lane, paying attention to pedestrians crossing the road using the zebra crossing and vehicles moving from right to left on the perpendicular lane. Right Turn It is strictly not permissible to turn right in Singapore when the traffic light for one’s

Car safety crash tests
The Singapore government accepts the crash safety standards of the EU and Japan. Cars made in the EU and Japan which pass local standards do not need to pass additional safety standards to be sold in Singapore. Cars may be privately imported into Singapore if they have an EU Certificate of Conformity or the Japanese Completion Inspection Certificate, both of which incorporate emissions and safety standards. [9] Not all cars sold in Singapore have been tested by


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the EuroNCAP, which is a car safety testing organization jointly operated by several European government agencies [10], that crash tests cars that can be legally sold in several European countries. [11]

Driving in Singapore
from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. on weekdays, Saturdays after 3 p.m., and all day Sunday. [15] Off peak license plates costs less than the regular license plates. Standard licence plates in Singapore are usually black with silver or white lettering or the newer white front/yellow rear plate combination.

Buying a car in Singapore
Some of the regulations concerning driving a car are administered by the Land Transport Authority.

Singapore as a car exporting nation
The result of the peculiarities of the Singapore car market has resulted in Singapore being the second largest exporter of used cars in the world after Japan. Approximately 100,000 cars are exported yearly. Cars are exported to many countries, including Libya and Trinidad. Used cars are often exported to other countries that have right hand drive arrangements, but there are exports to left hand drive countries. [16] New Zealand allows importation of used cars previously registered in Singapore without need for any modifications. [17] Part of the reason for the high number of used car exports from Singapore is the reduction in the costs of the COE and PARF between 2000 and 2005. Previously, the COE and PARF might have represented 80% of the price of a medium priced car, such as a Honda Accord. With the COE and PARF less expensive that in the past, in some cases the yearly drop in the COE and PARF rebate begins to become significant compared to the pre-tax (OMV) price of a new car. Furthermore, with the PARF rebate starting to diminish after a car is five years old, the net amount of credit (similar to resale value or trade in value) compared to the OMV begins to become less favorable for the owner of an older car. In contrast, in countries with low taxes, such as a low VAT or low sales tax, the most economical ownership strategy is to keep a car as long as possible until the repair costs exceed the cost of depreciation of a new car or financing costs. [18]

New car buyers are required to buy a Certificate of Entitlement. The term "bidding" is often used but, in practice, new car dealers assist in the process. The fee of each sucessfully obtained COE is added on the costs of a new car based on engine size (usually lower for cars with 1600cc engine or smaller, and higher vice versa). COE’s for car cost approximately S$14,000 to S$16,000 but the exact amount changes several times a year. The COE is valid for 10 years. There are provisions for a rebate of the COE if the car is scrapped before 10 years. The COE costs has declined in recent years. The April 2001 COE (Category B: 1601 cc engine and larger) was S$34,930 [12] The April 2007 COE for Category B was $15,989.

PARF is a commonly used abbreviation for the Preferential Additional Registration Fee. A car owner may apply for a portion of this fee if a car is de-registered [13]before 10 years. The term "Additional Registration Fee (ARF)" is calculated from 110% of Open Market Value (OMV). If a car is less than 5 years old, then the PARF is 75% of the ARF. [14]

OMV stands for "open market value". It is determined by Singapore customs and is equivalent to the price of the car, including freight and other incidental charges.

Licence plates
Vehicle licence plates in Singapore are the same 21 inch size found in many European countries. Red license plates indicate that the car may be driven only during off peak times unless a daily fee is paid. Off peak times are

Car market in Singapore
Car brands are typically sold by only one dealer although there are rare exceptions where two dealers sell the same brand. Several dealers have more than one location. Some dealers sell more than one brand, unlike the situation in some western European


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Driving in Singapore
European car manufacturers are well represented. On the more expensive segment of the market, European cars sold in Singapore include Aston Martin, Ferrari, Rolls Royce, Maserati, and others. Skoda, Fiat, Renault, and Citroen are among the less expensive European cars sold in Singapore. American cars have a low market share. Chrysler, Dodge, and Jeep vehicles are sold in Singapore, such as the Chrysler 300C, Chrysler PT Cruiser, and Dodge Caliber. Chevrolet markets only Korean made Daewoo cars, not its American made models. Ford markets some cars from its European line, not its American product line. Non-Japanese Asian car brands sold in Singapore include Perodua, Proton, Ssangyong, Hafei Motor, Chery, Geely, Kia, and Hyundai. Used cars that are more than three years cannot be imported into Singapore. [9] In 2005, there was significant local press coverage of the death of a car saleslady when a customer was involved in a collision during a test drive, reportedly after aggressive driving.[20] The driver’s license was suspended in April, 2007 for this incident although the court case was still pending at the time of license suspension. [21]

new car display at the Alfa Romeo dealer in Singapore countries in the past where some manufacturers prohibited dealers from selling competing brands. Negotiation during car purchases is customary but limited due to the lack of competing dealers. The limited size of the Singapore market results in some brands not offering the full model line in Singapore. Unlike in Australia, where the U.S. Honda Accord and the Japanese Honda Accord (re-badged as the Acura TSX in the United States) are sold, only the Japanese Honda Accord is sold in Singapore. Some brands, such as Saab and Volvo (except the Volvo S60R) are only offered with automatic transmission even though manual transmission cars are sold in the car’s home market. Some car dealerships are transnational. For example, Eurokars Group sells Rolls Royce, Porsche, Saab, and Mini in Singapore. The same company also sells Rolls Royce, Saab, and Porsche in Indonesia and BMW in Western Jakarta (Indonesia). [19] Although car prices are high, servicing costs are reasonable compared to in the United States and Western Europe from the standpoint of labour charges. SUV (sport utility vehicles) are not as common in Singapore as in the United States and Canada. Japanese car manufacturers have the largest market share. Some Japanese cars are imported from countries other than Japan. For example, the Toyota Camry is imported from Thailand. Initially the ninth generation Toyota Corolla sold in Singapore was a Japanese model, while the facelift version is a wider and longer Corolla Altis from Thailand.

Seating etiquette in cars
In Singapore, an honoured guest sometimes sits in the front seat opposite the driver. Seating etiquette is informal and not everyone follows the same guidelines. In most cases, it is customary for single passengers to sit beside the driver, as not for the driver to appear as the "chauffeur". In contrast, in South Korea, seating etiquette is more common with the honoured guest offered a seat in the back on the opposite side as the driver. In Singapore, only right hand drive cars are allowed. There are exceptions for special purpose vehicles, diplomatic vehicles and foreign registered vehicles driven by visitors.

Fuel situation in Singapore
Major companies in the retail petrol market
Unlike in some countries where there is a significant sector of independent branded


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petrol dealers, petrol dealers in Singapore are sell petrol under the brand name of multinational companies. Royal Dutch Shell, marketing petrol under the "Shell" brand, has the largest retail network of stations. [22] ExxonMobil has 23 Mobil stations and 19 Esso stations. [23] Caltex, formerly a joint venture between Chevron and Texaco, but now a subsidiary of Chevron, which acquired Texaco has stations in Singapore. Singapore Petroleum Company, marketing petrol under the "SPC" brand also has significant numbers of petrol stations in Singapore. Four grades of petrol is commonly sold in Singapore. Diesel and unleaded petrol with octane levels of 92, 95 and 98 is widely sold. Octane levels conform with European octane ratings and roughly correspond to American octane levels of 87, 90, and 93, respectively. Shell also markets a fifth brand of fuel under the V-Power label, in addition to 98 octane petrol. 98 octane V-Power is marketed as having an FMT additive and "formulated to improve performance and responsiveness" [24] and sells for approximately 15 cents per litre more than Shell’s other 98 octane fuel

Driving in Singapore
opposed to crude oil, some of it being imported from the Netherlands [32], a country that does not have significant oil drilling.

Effects of the price of petrol in Singapore on the Australian market
The wholesale price of Mogas 95 unleaded petrol is the regional benchmark, including the benchmark price for Australia. This is a result of Singapore having a large refining capacity. [33] Approximately 15% of refined petrol in Australia is from Singapore. The retail price of Australian petrol has been attributed to the Singaporean price as being one of four influencing factors. [34] [35]

Foreign assessment of Singapore motoring
The Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) submitted a report to the World Bank citing the objective of government regulation of motoring as congestion reduction with positive side effects of revenue collection and pollution control. It stated that the ERP system was fair, convenient, reliable, effective, at that goals were reached. [36] An expatriate advice website states that "driving in Singapore and owning a car is very expensive." [37] Wired, a website about technology, notes that "Singapore ... is a living laboratory for intelligent transport systems, a catch-all phrase for high tech strategies to gather data, manage flow, and inform drivers of congestion ahead. Traffic does indeed move noticeably smoother here than in American metropolitan areas of comparable size - Atlanta, for instance." [38]

Petrol stations frequently have loyalty schemes, such as Shell’s Escape points. The price of petrol is usually standardised such that the cost of a particular brand of fuel is the same regardless of which station sells it. Petrol is not rationed in Singapore. Petrol is cheaper in Malaysia than in Singapore. However, regulations require that Singapore registered cars leaving Singapore have at least 3/4 of a tank of fuel.

Singapore as a net exporter of refined petrol
As a result of the high petrol refining capacity in Singapore, Singapore is a net exporter of refined petroleum. ExxonMobil’s refineries in Jurong Island and Singapore has a 605,000 barrel capacity. [26] Shell’s 500,000 barrelsper-day Bukom refinery exports 90% of its products to other countries. [22] The Singapore Refining Company has a 285,000 barrel capacity refinery which is a 50/50 venture between Shell and SPC [27], though part of the Shell stake was previously owned by British Petroleum. [28] The United States, in contrast, has a shortage of oil refining capacity [29] [30] resulting in about 10% [31] of petrol being imported as a refined product, as

[1] "Electronic road pricing in Singapore". http://findarticles.com/p/articles/ mi_qa3927/is_199912/ai_n8875414/pg_2. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. [2] "FROM WORLD BANK DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS 2006". http://www.finfacts.ie/biz10/ globalworldincomepercapita.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.


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[3] "Driving In Singapore - Singapore Police Force". http://driving-insingapore.spf.gov.sg/services/ Driving_in_Singapore/Information/ drivinglicence/legalreq.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. [4] "About DIPS - Singapore Police Force". http://driving-in-singapore.spf.gov.sg/ services/Driving_in_Singapore/ Information/dips/about.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. [5] ONE.MOTORING - Downtown Rates [6] Compare Parking Rates Daily/Monthly Garages Lots NYC Boston New York [7] Channelnewsasia.com [8] Channelnewsasia.com [9] ^ Importing a Foreign Vehicle to Singapore - AngloINFO Singapore [10] Euro NCAP - For safer cars |Members [11] Euro NCAP - For safer cars |Test results [12] Getforme Singapore CERTIFICATE OF ENTITLEMENT - COE PRICES [13] Registering a Motor Vehicle in Singapore - AngloINFO Singapore [14] One.Motoring - Parf/Coe Rebates [15] Motoring Matters - Vehicle Ownership [16] Channelnewsasia.com [17] Infosheet 2.09 - Required documentation: entry-certification of used vehicles [18] Should You Keep Your Old Car? Kiplinger.com [19] Car BuyerGuide (newspaper), 7 October 2006, p.5 [20] http://sg.news.yahoo.com/070424/5/ singapore272087.html [21] http://motoring.asiaone.com.sg/ motorworld/20070426_001.html [22] ^ Shell in Singapore - Shell in Singapore [23] http://www.exxonmobil.com/AP-English/ Files/Station_listing_web_26Sep05.pdf [24] Shell in Singapore [25] http://www.shell.com/home/ Framework?siteId=sg-en&FC2=/sg-en/ html/iwgen/shell_for_motorists/fuels/ discounts/zzz_lhn.html&FC3=/sg-en/ html/iwgen/shell_for_motorists/fuels/ discounts/price_board_0720.html Retrieved 2007-04-26. Reference notes price of 16 April 2007 [26] Singapore Refinery

Driving in Singapore
[27] http://www.chevron.com/operations/ docs/singapore.pdf [28] http://www.chevron.com/news/press/ 2004/2004-07-01.asp [29] NPR: U.S. Shortage of Oil Refining Capacity Called Critical [30] U.S. refiners stretch to meet demand Oil & energy - MSNBC.com [31] United States Senator Richard Shelby : Press Room [32] WorldCity, Annual Report: No. 12 Netherlands - Exchange favors the U.S. |Connecting Local Business Leaders To The Global Economy [33] Microsoft Word 4330DA85-095C-081180.doc [34] untitled [35] Caltex - Pricing - Plain Facts [36] indesign.indd [37] Driving a car or motorcycle in Singapore [38] Wired 9.11: The Ultimate Jam Session

External links
• Land Transport Authority • ACE ONLINE:: Basic / Final Theory Tests Online • SingaporeTests.com - Singapore Driving Theory Test (Basic Theory, Final Theory, Riding Theory, PPCDL) • SGDriving.net - Singapore Driving Basic/ Final/Ridding Theory Test (BTT, FTT, RTT...) Questions • Schematic drawing of ERP system which uses pair of gantries and 5 step detection sequence [1] • TripSum.com(Efxsoft Solutions): 1st online Fuel/ ERP/ Taxi fare calculator to check and calculate Fuel, ERP and Taxi Fare amount needed for a motorist’s driving trip or taxi trip in Singapore • Automart.sg one place to sell and buy used and new cars

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Driving_in_Singapore" Categories: Transport in Singapore


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Driving in Singapore

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