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Downtown Houston

Downtown Houston
Developers have invested more than 4 billion USD in the last decade to transform downtown into an active city center with residential housing, a nightlife scene and new transportation.[2] The Cotswold Project, a $62 million project started in 1998, has helped to rebuild the streets and transform 90 downtown blocks into a pedestrianfriendly environment by adding greenery, trees and public art.[3] The resurgence of downtown is the result of careful urban planning and local foresight. The baseball, basketball, and hockey teams have moved into downtown facilities. January 1, 2004 marked the opening of the "new" Main Street, a plaza with many eateries, bars and nightclubs, which brings many visitors to a newly renovated locale.[4]

Skyline District of Downtown at night

History
Downtown Houston was the original founding point of the city of Houston. After the Texas Revolution, two New York real estate promoters, John Kirby Allen and Augustus Chapman Allen purchased 6,642 acres (27 km²) of land T. F. L. Parrot (John Austin’s widow) for $9,428. The Allen brothers first landed in the area where the White Oak Bayou and Buffalo Bayou meet, a spot now known as Allen’s Landing. Gail Borden, Jr., a city planner, laid out wide streets for the town — this prevented gridlock that plague many other urban downtown areas. The city was granted incorporation by the state legislature on June 5, 1837. Houston was made as the temporary capital of Texas. In 1840, the town was divided into four wards, each with different functions in the community. The wards are no longer political divisions, but their names are still used to refer to certain areas. By 1906 what is now Downtown was divided between the six wards.[5] Downtown’s growth can be attributed to two major factors. The first arose after the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, when investors began seeking a location close to the ports of Southwest Texas, but apparently free of the dangerous hurricanes that frequently struck

Skyline District of Downtown Downtown Houston is the largest business district of Houston, Texas, United States. Downtown Houston contains the headquarters of many prominent companies. There is an extensive network of pedestrian tunnels and skywalks connecting the buildings of the district. The tunnel system is home to many fast food restaurants, shops and services. Most of the residential units in downtown are conversions of older buildings into modern loft spaces. The lofts are located around the performance halls of the theatre district and near Main Street in the Historic District. Downtown will be adding another 346 apartment units in the 2000s and 2010s with the development of Marvey Finger’s One Park Place.[1]

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Galveston and other port cities. Houston became a wise choice, as only the most powerful storms were able to reach the city. The second came a year later with the 1901 discovery of oil at spindletop, just south of Beaumont. Shipping and oil industries began flocking to east Texas, many settling in Houston. From that point forward the area grew substantially, as many skyscrapers were constructed, including the city’s tallest buildings. In the 1980s, however, economic recession canceled some projects and caused others to be scaled back, such as the Bank of the Southwest Tower. Areas which are, as of 2008, considered to be a part of Downtown Houston were once considered to be within the Third Ward and the Fourth Ward communities; the construction of Interstate 45 in the 1950s separated the areas from their former communities and placed them in Downtown. Additional freeway construction in the 1960s and 1970s formed the current boundaries of Downtown. Originally Downtown was the most important retail area of Houston. Suburban retail construction in the 1970s and 1980s reduced Downtown’s importance in terms of retail activity.[6] The Texas Legislature established the Downtown Houston Management District in 1995.[7] The arrival of major industry also saw the advent of skyscrapers in Houston. The building boom of the 1970s and 1980s saw the erection of major buildings, many of them ranking as the tallest in the state and the nation.

Downtown Houston
45, U.S. Highway 59, and Interstate 10.[7] Several areas exist in Downtown Houston. They include:[8] • Main Street Square has a pavilion and fountains built around the Main Street Square Station and the Downtown Macy’s (formerly a Foley’s) - Houston Pavilions is in the area • Skyline District - Includes many skyscrapers • Sports & Convention - Includes Minute Maid Park and the Toyota Center • Theater District - Includes many performing arts venues, Bayou Place, and the Houston Aquarium restaurant • Warehouse District Downtown Houston is in close proximity to the Sixth Ward, Houston Heights, and the Houston Museum District.[8]

Architecture

Composition

One Shell Plaza Main Street Square Station Downtown Houston is a 1,178-acre, 108-square-mile area bounded by Interstate In the 1960s, downtown comprised a modest collection of mid-rise office structures, but has since grown into one of the largest skylines in the United States. In 1960, the

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Downtown Houston

Wells Fargo Bank Plaza central business district had 10 million square feet (930,000 m²) of office space, increasing to about 16 million square feet (1,500,000 m²) in 1970. Downtown Houston was on the threshold of a boom in 1970 with 8.7 million square feet (800,000 m²) of office space planned or under construction and huge projects being launched by real estate developers. The largest proposed development was the 32-block Houston Center. Only a small part of the original proposal was ultimately constructed. Other large projects included the Cullen Center, Allen Center, and towers for Shell Oil Company. The surge of skyscrapers mirrored the skyscraper booms in other cities, such as Los Angeles and Dallas. Houston experienced another downtown construction spurt in the 1970s with the energy industry boom. The first major skyscraper to be constructed in Houston was the 50-floor, 218 m (714 ft) One Shell Plaza in 1971. A succession of skyscrapers were built throughout the 1970s, culminating with Houston’s tallest skyscraper, the 75-floor, 305 m (1,002 ft) JPMorgan Chase Tower (formerly the Texas Commerce Tower), which was completed in 1982. In 2002, it was the tallest structure in Texas, ninth-tallest building in the United States and

JPMorgan Chase Tower the 23rd tallest skyscraper in the world. In 1983, the 71-floor, 296 m (970 ft) Wells Fargo Bank Plaza was completed, which became the second-tallest building in Houston and Texas, and 11th-tallest in the country. Skyscraper construction in downtown Houston came to an end in the mid-1980s with the collapse of Houston’s energy industry and the resulting economic recession. When the 53-floor, 232 m Texaco Heritage Plaza was completed in 1987, it appeared that no more skyscrapers would be constructed for a while. Twelve years later, the Houston-based Enron Corporation began construction of a 40-floor skyscraper in 1999 (which was completed in 2002)[9] with the company collapsing in one of the most dramatic corporate failures in the history of the United States only two years later. Chevron bought this building to set up a regional upstream energy headquarters and in late 2006 announced further consolidation of employees downtown from satellite suburban buildings and even Ca. and La. offices by leasing the original Enron building across the street. Both buildings are connected by a second-floor unique walkacross, air-conditioned circular skybridge with 3 points of connection to both office

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buildings and a large parking deck. Other smaller office structures were built in the 2000–2003 period. As of September 2007, downtown Houston had over 40 million square feet (3,787,147 m²) of office space, including over 29 million square feet (1,861,704 m²) of class A office space.[10]

Downtown Houston

Notable buildings

Bank of America Center Notable buildings that form Houston’s downtown skyline: • The Sweeney, Coombs & Frederick building was built in 1889 and is located on the corner of Main Street and Congress Street at 301 Main Street. Sweeney is a jewelry firm which is still in business. It is one of the very very few Victorian structures in the Bayou City. Some people believe this building wasn’t entirely built by George Dickey. They believe parts of the W.A. Van Alstyne Building still live in the current structure, even though it was supposed to be demolished in 1861. • The Gulf Building, now called the JPMorgan Chase building, is one of the

Heritage Plaza preeminent Art Deco skyscrapers in the southern United States. Completed in 1929, it remained the tallest building in Houston until 1963, when the Exxon Building surpassed it in height. • The Esperson Buildings, ’Neils’ built in 1927 and ’Mellie’ in 1942, were modeled with Italian architecture. • The Houston City Hall was started in 1938 and completed in 1939. The original building is an excellent example of the Art Deco Era. In front of City Hall is the George Hermann Square. • One Shell Plaza was, at its completion in 1971, the tallest building in Houston. It

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stands 715 feet (218 m) tall, and when the antenna tower on its top is included, the height of One Shell Plaza is 1,000 feet (300 m). Houston Public Library’s Central Library, consists of two separate buildings: the Julia Ideson Building (1926) and the Jesse H. Jones Building (1976). The Houston Industries Building, formerly known simply as the 1100 Milam Building, was built in 1973. It went through major renovatedions in 1996. Pennzoil Place, designed by Philip Johnson,built in 1976, is Houston most award winning skyscraper known for its innovative design. Johnson’s forward thinking brought about a new era in skyscraper design. The First City Tower was built in 1981. The JPMorgan Chase Tower, designed by I.M. Pei built in 1981 and formerly the Texas Commerce Tower, is the tallest in Houston and the second tallest in the United States west of the Mississippi River. The Chevron Tower, formerly the Gulf Tower, was built in 1982. The Bank of America Center, formerly the RepublicBank Center and the NationsBank center, designed by Philip Johnson was built in 1983. The Enron Center North, also the Four Allen Center, was also built in 1983. The Wells Fargo Bank Plaza, formerly the Allied Bank Plaza and First Interstate Center, also built in 1983 is the second tallest building in the Houston Area. The Heritage Plaza was completed in 1987. The Enron Center South, also the Enron II, designed by Cesar Pelli was completed in 2002. (Note: Enron went bankrupt before the building’s completion and was sold soon after it was completed for about half of its $200 million construction cost). The Hobby Center for the Performing Arts was started in 2000 and completed in 2002. The Lyric Centre is filled with lawyers, but is named for its adjacency to the many performing arts venues in Houston’s Theater District.

Downtown Houston

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Continental Center I, which contains the headquarters for Continental Airlines Downtown has more than 150,000 workers employed by 3,500 businesses. The Downtown District’s fact sheet says that projections estimated that the employee population would grow by about 1.4 percent per year. Major employers include Chevron, Continental Airlines, JPMorgan Chase, and Shell Oil Company.[7] Downtown Houston has between 35 and 40 percent of the Class A office locations of the business districts in Houston.[11]

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Economy
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Downtown Houston

Companies headquartered in Downtown
Halliburton’s corporate office is at 1401 McKinney Street in Downtown.[12] By 2012 Halliburton plans to close its Downtown Office, move its headquarters to northern Houston, and consolidate operations at its northern Houston and Westchase facilities.[13] Continental Airlines is headquartered at 1600 Smith Street in Downtown Houston.[14] At one point ExpressJet Airlines was headquartered in Continental’s complex.[15][16] In September 1997 Continental Airlines announced that it would consolidate its Houston headquarters in the Continental Center complex.[17] Dynegy is headquartered in the Wells Fargo Plaza building.[18] KBR’s corporate headquarters are in the KBR Tower; the KBR Heritage Federal Credit Union is headquartered from this office.[19][20] Shell Oil Company, a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, is headquartered in One Shell Plaza.[21][22][23] CenterPoint Energy is headquartered in the CenterPoint Energy Tower.[24][25] Reliant Energy is headquartered at 1000 Main Street.[26] Waste Management, Inc is headquartered in 1001 Fannin Street.[27] El Paso Corporation has headquarters in 1001 Louisiana Street.[28] The North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB), a representative organization for the oil and gas industry, is headquartered in Downtown Houston.[29] The previous incarnation, the Gas Industry Standards Board (GISB), was headquartered in Downtown in 1999.[30] Prior to its collapse in 2001, Enron was headquartered in Downtown.[31]

Diplomatic missions
The Consulate-General of the United Kingdom is located in Wells Fargo Plaza,[38] while the Consulate-General of Japan is located in Two Houston Center.[39] The Consulate-General of Switzerland, which resided in Downtown Houston, closed in 2006.[40][41][42][43]

Other venues

Minute Maid Park Downtown Houston has two major league sports venues. Minute Maid Park (formerly Enron Field), which opened in 2000, is home to the MLB Astros and the Toyota Center home to the NBA Rockets, WNBA Comets (who have since moved to Reliant Arena in nearby Reliant Park), and AHL Aeros opened in 2003. If negotiations with the city are successful, the new Houston Dynamo stadium should open in time for the MLS 2009 Season.

Companies with operations in Downtown
Hess Corporation has exploration and production operations in One Allen Center.[32] Total S.A. has United States offices in the Total Plaza.[33] ExxonMobil has Exploration and Producing Operations business headquarters at 800 Bell Street.[34] Qatar Airways operates an office within Two Allen Center;[35] it will later be in the Houston Pavilions.[36][37]

The Wortham Theater Center The Downtown Houston Theatre District is one of the largest in the country as measured by the number of theater seats. Houston is one of only five cities in the United States with permanent professional resident companies in all of the major performing art

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disciplines of opera, ballet, music, and theater. Venues in the theater district include the Wortham Center (opera and ballet), the Alley Theatre (theater), the Hobby Center (resident and traveling musical theater, concerts, events), the Verizon Wireless Theater (concerts and events) and Jones Hall (symphony). The George R. Brown Convention Center, with its 1,200,000 square feet (111,000 m2) of flexible exhibit, meeting, and registration space and adjacent hotel, is frequently used for conventions, trade shows, and community meetings.

Downtown Houston
In 2006 this store, along with all other Foley’s stores, was renamed Macy’s. This is the only freestanding middle-market department store in a central business district in the Southern United States. The Shops in Houston Center, located within the Houston Center complex, is an enclosed shopping mall. It houses ninety stores and the building itself straddles two city blocks. The Houston Pavilions is a major project currently under construction Downtown. This project comes from the same developers of the Denver Pavilions in Denver; spanning three square blocks, however, Houston Pavilions is said to be larger. [44] The Houston Downtown Tunnel System is also home to many shops and restaurants.

Hotels and accommodations
In comparison to other major cities, Houston has relatively few hotel rooms downtown, partly because downtown Houston is not a large leisure travel market. There are approximately 5,000 hotel rooms in downtown Houston. Major hotels in downtown Houston are: • Hilton Americas Convention Center Hotel with 1,203 rooms • The Four Seasons Hotel and Residences • The Doubletree Hotel Downtown Houston • The Hyatt Regency Houston, which features a revolving restaurant, the Spindletop, located on the hotel’s 30th floor • The Crowne Plaza • Crowne Plaza Houston Downtown, located in the heart of downtown Houston with free area shuttle [1] • Club Quarters • Courtyard by Marriott The following are boutique hotels that are located mostly in the northeast section of downtown: • The Lancaster • Inn at the Ballpark • Magnolia Hotel • Hotel Icon • Alden Houston (formerly the Sam Houston Hotel)

Transportation

A METRORail train Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) operates Houston’s public transportation. Downtown Houston is served by five light rail stations on METRORail’s Red Line: Downtown Transit Center, Bell, Main Street Square, Preston, and UH–Downtown.[45] METRO operates several bus lines through Downtown.[46] There are a number of taxi cabs that can be hailed from the street, twenty-one taxi stands, or at the various hotels. Trips within downtown have a flat rate of $6 United States dollars by cab.[47]

Retail
Downtown Houston is home to the flagship Macy’s (former Foley’s) Department Store (founded in 1900), which moved to its current location in 1947. It has 10 levels and it occupies an entire Houston square city block.

Government
Local government
Two city council districts, District H and District I, cover portions of Downtown.[48][49] As

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Downtown Houston
Precinct 1.[57] As of 2008 Sylvia R. Garcia heads Precinct 2.[58] Much of Downtown is located in District 147 of the Texas House of Representatives. As of 2008, Garnet F. Coleman represents the district.[59] Some of Downtown is located in District 148 of the Texas House of Representatives. As of 2008, Jessica Farrar represents the district.[60] Downtown is within District 13 of the Texas Senate; as of 2008 Rodney Ellis represents that district.[61] Downtown Houston is in Texas’s 18th congressional district [62]. As of 2008 its representative is Sheila Jackson Lee. The United States Postal Service operates the 16-acre Houston Post Office at 401 Franklin Street.[63] In February 2009 the U.S. Postal Service announced that it was going to sell the Houston Post Office. The party buying the facility is required to build a replacement facility.[64] Regional offices of U.S. government agencies are located at the Mickey Leland Federal Building at 1919 Smith Street. The 22 story building, with a 6-story parking garage, was designated an Energy Star efficient building in 2000.[65]

Fire Station 8 Downtown of 2008 Mayor Pro-Tem Adrian Garcia and James G. Rodriguez, respectively, represent the two districts.[50] Houston Fire Department Station 8 Downtown at 1919 Louisiana Street serves the central business district. The station is in Fire District 8. Fire Station 1, which was located at 410 Bagby Street, closed in 2001.[51] The community is within the Houston Police Department’s Central Patrol Division[52], headquartered at 61 Riesner.[53] The Houston Downtown Management District is headquartered in Suite 1650 at 2 Houston Center at 909 Fannin Street; 2 Houston Center is a part of the Houston Center complex.[54]

Parks and recreation
Sam Houston Park, on the western edge of downtown between McKinney and Dallas/Allen Parkway, is home to the Houston Heritage Society and a collection of historic buildings and homes from around Houston.

County, federal and state representation

Houston Post Office Downtown is divided between Harris County Precinct 1 and Harris County Precinct 2.[55] As of 2008 Jerry Eversole heads the precinct.[56] As of 2008 El Franco Lee heads

George H.W. Bush statue in Sesquicentennial Park looking towards Downtown Houston. Tranquility Park, bound by Rusk, Smith, Walker, and Bagby, uses open green spaces and a series of interconnected fountains to commemorate NASA’s landing on the moon’s Sea of Tranquility.

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Market Square, between Travis, Milam, Preston, and Congress, preserves the block formerly covered by Houston’s open air market which fronted the old City Hall. Allen’s Landing, on Buffalo Bayou at Smith and Preston, commemorates the landing site of the Allen Brothers, founders of the City of Houston. Sesquicentennial Park, across Buffalo Bayou from Allen’s Landing, contains a statue of George H.W. Bush, Houstonian and 41st President of United States. Main Street Square, a pedestrian mall with a reflection pool and fountains on the MetroRail line between Lamar and Dallas. Root Memorial Square, a one-block park across La Branch St from the Toyota Center. Sisters of Charity Park, a quiet area in St. Joseph’s Medical Center in the southeast corner of downtown. Discovery Green, west of the George R. Brown Convention Center, officially opened on April 13, 2008 with a Family Day event.[66] The park has underground parking, an amphitheater, two restaurants, a dog run, a jogging trail around the park, a great Lawn, an interactive fountain and more.[67] Harris County Precinct One operates the two acre Quebedeaux Park at 1115 Congress Street.[68] The park includes a stage area, picnic tables, and benches. The park surrounds the Harris County Family Law Center.[69] The Downtown YMCA is located at 1600 Louisiana Street. The 120,000 square foot Tellepsen Family Downtown YMCA at 808 Pease Street will open in 2010, and the previous YMCA facility will close. The Tellepsen facility will include a center for teenagers, a wellness center for females, a child watch area, a community meeting space, a chapel, group exercise rooms, and a racquetball court. The groundbreaking ceremony occurred on January 7, 2009.[70] The new facility will not have dormitories for homeless that exist in the current YMCA facility. The Downtown YMCA had provided dormitory space for around 100 years.[71]

Downtown Houston
• Harris County Civil Courts • Harris County Family Courts • Harris County Juvenile Courts • Harris County Criminal Courts All are located around a central surface parking lot, that will eventually be turned into a Plaza and has been nicknamed "Justice Square". Along with Harris County’s facilities, there are several Constable courts and support facilities nearby.

Corrections
The Harris County jail facilities are in northern Downtown on the north side of the Buffalo Bayou. The 1200 Jail,[72] the 1307 Jail, (originally a TDCJ facility, leased by the county)[73], and the 701 Jail (formed from existing warehouse storage space) are on the same site.[74] Kegans Unit, located in Downtown, is a Texas Department of Criminal Justice state jail for men. It is adjacent to the county facilities on the north side of the Buffalo Bayou.[75] The South Texas Intermediate Sanction Facility Unit, a parole confinement facility for males operated by Global Expertise in Outsourcing, is in Downtown Houston, west of Minute Maid Park.[76]

Education
Colleges and universities

Court system
The Majority of the County court systems are located in Downtown within a five block area bounded by Franklin, San Jacinto, Caroline, and Congress Streets including the following: • Harris County Justice Of the Peace

University of Houston–Downtown One Main Building (formerly the Merchants and Manufacturers Building) The University of Houston–Downtown ("UHD") is an open-enrollment university

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located at One Main Street and is the secondlargest institution within the University of Houston System. The school currently has an enrollment of 12,000 traditional and non-traditional students from around the Houston Area.Additionally, Downtown Houston is home to South Texas College of Law at 1303 San Jacinto Street.[77] Downtown is within the Houston Community College System, and it is in close proximity to the Central Campus in Midtown.[78][79] Downtown is also in proximity to the University of St. Thomas and Texas Southern University in the Third Ward area.[78][80]

Downtown Houston
Macy’s) at 1110 Main Street in Downtown Houston.[90] Before the start of the 2009-2010 school year J. Will Jones will be consolidated into Blackshear Elementary School, a campus in the Third Ward.[91][92] During its final year of enrollment J. Will Jones had more students than Blackshear. Many J. Will Jones parents referred to Blackshear as "that prison school" and said that they will not send their children to Blackshear. Jones will house Houston Community College classes after its closure as a school.[93] By Spring 2011 Atherton Elementary School and E.O. Smith will be consolidated with a new K-8 campus in the Atherton site.[94]

Primary and secondary education
Public schools
The grade-school children of Downtown are served by the Houston Independent School District. Four elementary schools have zoning boundaries that extend to areas of Downtown with residential areas; they are: • Bruce Elementary School[81] • Crockett Elementary School [82] • Gregory-Lincoln Education Center [83] (in the Fourth Ward) • J. Will Jones Elementary School [84] (in Midtown) E.O. Smith Education Center [85] (in the Fifth Ward) takes most of Downtown’s students at the middle school level. Marshall Middle School [86] (in Northside Village) takes students at the middle school level from a small section of northern Downtown. Davis High School [87] (north of Downtown) takes students from almost all of Downtown at the high school level. Reagan High School [88] (in the Houston Heights) take students in the high school level from a small section of northwest Downtown. The High School for the Performing and Visual Arts, located in Montrose, is in close proximity to Downtown.[78][80] History of public schools Booker T. Washington High School’s first location, 303 West Dallas, served as the school’s location from 1893 to 1959, when it moved to the north. Lockett Junior High School was established in the former Washington campus and closed in 1968.[89] Foley’s Academy was formerly located inside the Foley’s (now

Private schools

The former Sacred Heart School The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston oversees the Incarnate Word Academy, a Catholic all-girls’ school founded in 1873 and the only high school located in Downtown.[95] Trinity Lutheran School, a PreK-8 Lutheran School, is located at 800 Houston Avenue, northwest of and in close proximity to Downtown. Its early childhood center is located at 1316 Washington Avenue, near the K-8 center and in proximity to Downtown.[78][96] On September 27, 1897 a school in the two-story annex to the Sacred Heart Parish, staffed by Dominican sisters, opened with 28 enrolled students.[97] St. Thomas College (now known as St. Thomas High School) opened in Downtown in 1900.[98] In 1902 the parish bought a building used by St. Thomas and moved it from Franklin Street at Crawford Street to Pierce Street and Fannin Street. In 1905 he parish sought and received approval from the state to start a high

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school; in January 1907 St. Agnes Academy, outside of Downtown, opened and high school students were transferred to St. Agnes. In 1911 the former school building, known as the Green House, was demolished and replaced by a church building. In 1922 the existing Sacred Heart School building opened; the parish spent $52,800 to build the building.[97] St. Thomas moved to its current location, outside of Downtown, in 1940.[98] The Sacred Heart School provided Catholic elementary education for 70 years until its closing in May 1967 after declining enrollment and increased operation costs. As of 2009 the former Sacred Heart building houses the diocese’s parish religious education program.[97]

Downtown Houston
contains archives, manuscripts, and the Texas and Local History Department.[99] Houston’s first public library facility opened on March 2, 1904.[100] The Ideson building opened in 1926, replacing the previous building. The Jesse H. Jones Building opened in 1976 and received its current name in 1989.[101] The Jones Building closed for renovations on Monday April 3, 2006.[102] It reopened May 31, 2008.[103] In addition, HPL operates the HPL Express Discovery Green at 1300 McKinney R2, adjacent to Discovery Green Park.[104][105] HPL Express facilities are library facilities located in existing buildings.[106] The library opened in 2008.[107]

Public libraries

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • Architecture of Houston Houston Downtown Tunnel System Houston Theatre District Midtown Houston Neartown Houston Uptown Houston Greenspoint, Houston Westchase, Houston Memorial City, Houston Houston Energy Corridor Central business district

Jesse H. Jones Building

References
[1] "Project Statistics Summary." One Park Place. March 2007. Retrieved on December 8, 2008. [2] Microsoft Word - General Release.doc [3] Cotswold [4] http://www.houston.org/pdfs/ DowntownHoustonProject.pdf [5] "Where the wards are." Houston Chronicle. Tuesday September 7, 2004. E1. [6] "Study Area 11." City of Houston. Accessed October 21, 2008. [7] ^ "Fact Sheet." Downtown Houston Management District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [8] ^ "Neighborhoods/Districts." Downtown Houston. Retrieved on April 5, 2009. [9] Architecture of Enron Center South Houston, Texas, United States of America [10] Microsoft Word - 02-FactSheet .doc

Julia Ideson Building Houston Public Library has the Central Library in Houston. It consists of two buildings, including the Jesse H. Jones Building, which contains the bulk of the library facilities, and the Julia Ideson Building, which

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[11] "Office." Uptown Houston. Retrieved on January 18, 2009. [12] "Office Location." Halliburton. Retrieved on January 13, 2009. [13] Clanton, Brett. "Halliburton to consolidate in 2 locations." Houston Chronicle. April 3, 2009. Retrieved on April 3, 2009. [14] "Headquarters Location." Continental Airlines. Retrieved on December 7, 2008. [15] "Air Transportation." Opportunity Houston. Retrieved on December 10, 2008. [16] "Expressjet.com Terms, Conditions, And Notices." ExpressJet Airlines. June 8, 2003. Retrieved on May 19, 2009. [17] "Company History 1991 to 2000." Continental Airlines. Retrieved on February 11, 2009. [18] "Contact Us." Dynegy. Retrieved on December 10, 2008. [19] "Locations." KBR. Retrieved on January 13, 2009. [20] "Locations & Office Hours." KBR Heritage Federal Credit Union. Retrieved on December 10, 2008. [21] "Shell Wind Energy offices." Royal Dutch Shell. Retrieved on January 14, 2009. [22] "Request for a Grant from Shell." Royal Dutch Shell. Retrieved on January 14, 2009. [23] "Privacy Policy." Royal Dutch Shell. Retrieved on January 14, 2009. [24] "Contact Information." CenterPoint Energy. Retrieved on January 14, 2009. [25] "CenterPoint Energy Tower." Berger Iron Works. Retrieved on January 14, 2009. [26] "Contact Us." Reliant Energy. Retrieved on January 14, 2009. [27] "Contact Us." Waste Management, Inc. Retrieved on January 14, 2009. [28] "Corporate." El Paso Corporation. Retrieved on January 16, 2009. [29] "About NAESB." North American Energy Standards Board. Retrieved on May 13, 2009. [30] "REVISED MEETING ARRANGEMENTS AND MAP FOR THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING." Gas Industry Standards Board. April 30, 1999. Retrieved on May 13, 2009. [31] "Company News; Enron Plans to Sell Its Headquarters in Houston." The New York Times. August 21, 2003. [32] "Contact Hess." Hess Corporation. Retrieved on February 9, 2009.

Downtown Houston
[33] "Contact Gas & Power." Total S.A.. Retrieved on January 25, 2009. [34] "contact us business headquarters." ExxonMobil. Retrieved on January 26, 2009. [35] "Houston." Qatar Airways’. Retrieved on February 9, 2009. [36] Fact Sheet June 2007." Houston Pavilions. Retrieved on January 13, 2009. [37] "Retail Leasing." Houston Pavilions. Retrieved on January 13, 2009. [38] "Houston." Consulate-General of the United Kingdom. Retrieved on December 7, 2008. [39] "Contact Us." Consulate-General of Japan in Houston. Retrieved on December 7, 2008. [40] "Visa Desk." Consulate General of Switzerland in Houston. September 5, 2004. [41] "Essence of Switzerland." Paul Scherrer Institute. Retrieved on December 7, 2008. [42] "Location." Consulate General of Switzerland in Houston. October 23, 2002. [43] Hodge, Shelby. "MIXERS , ELIXIRS AND IMAX SUMMER SOCIALS / Party animals drink with the dinosaurs." Houston Chronicle. Star 3. June 22, 2006. Retrieved on January 10, 2009. [44] Houston Pavilions website [45] "Rail Map & Schedule." Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas. Retrieved on December 10, 2008. [46] "Central Business District/Downtown." Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas. Retrieved on December 10, 2008. [47] "Six in the City." City of Houston. Retrieved on December 10, 2008. [48] "COUNCIL DISTRICT MAPS > DISTRICT H." City of Houston. Retrieved on October 27, 2008. [49] "COUNCIL DISTRICT MAPS > DISTRICT I." City of Houston. Retrieved on October 27, 2008. [50] "City Council." City of Houston. Retrieved on May 10, 2008. [51] "Fire Stations." City of Houston. Retrieved December 4, 2008. [52] "Crime Statistics for Central Patrol Division." City of Houston. Retrieved May 23, 2008.

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[53] "Volunteer Initiatives Program, Citizens Offering Police Support." City of Houston. Retrieved May 23, 2008. [54] "Contact Us." Houston Downtown Management District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [55] "Maps: All Precincts." Harris County Precinct 3. Retrieved on November 22, 2008. [56] "Welcome to Precinct 4." Harris County Precinct 4. Retrieved on December 7, 2008. [57] "Harris County Precinct One Website!." Harris County Precinct 1. Retrieved on December 7, 2008. [58] "Welcome to Harris County Precinct Two Commissioner Sylvia R. Garcia Website!." Harris County Precinct 2. Retrieved on December 7, 2008. [59] "District 147." Texas House of Representatives. Retrieved on November 3, 2008. [60] "District 148." Texas House of Representatives. Retrieved on November 3, 2008. [61] "Senate District 13" Map. Senate of Texas. Retrieved on December 7, 2008. [62] nationalatlas.gov website [63] "Post Office™ Location - HOUSTON." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 4, 2008. [64] Sarnoff, Nancy. "Downtown Houston post office up for sale." Houston Chronicle. February 25, 2009. Retrieved on February 25, 2009. [65] "Mickey Leland Federal Building." U.S. General Services Administration. Retrieved on April 16, 2009. [66] Horswell, Cindy. "Houston’s Discovery Green park now open for business." Houston Chronicle. April 13, 2008. Retrieved on January 27, 2009. [67] "Features." Discovery Green Park. Retrieved on January 27, 2009. [68] "Quebedeaux Park." Harris County. Retrieved on January 3, 2009. [69] "Quebedeaux Park" Layout. Harris County. Retrieved on January 3, 2009. [70] "Work begins on Tellepsen Family YMCA." Houston Chronicle. January 14, 2009. Retrieved on January 28, 2009. [71] Dooley, Tara. "It’s been fun to stay at the Y." Houston Chronicle. August 22, 2008. Retrieved on January 28, 2009. [72] The 1200 Jail." Harris County, Texas. Accessed September 12, 2008.

Downtown Houston
[73] "The 1307 Jail." Harris County, Texas. Accessed September 12, 2008. [74] "The 701 Jail." Harris County, Texas. Accessed September 12, 2008. [75] "Kegans (HM)." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Accessed September 12, 2008. [76] "SOUTH TEXAS (XM)." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Accessed September 12, 2008. [77] Home page. South Texas College of Law. Retrieved on December 10, 2008. [78] ^ "Education/Schools." Downtown Houston. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [79] "Land Use & Development Map." Midtown Houston. Retrieved on April 4, 2009. [80] ^ Map of Montrose. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved October 20, 2008. [81] "Bruce Elementary Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [82] "Crockett Elementary Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [83] "Gregory-Lincoln Elementary Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [84] "J. Will Jones Elementary Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [85] "E. O. Smith Middle Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [86] "Marshall Middle Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [87] "Davis High School Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [88] "Reagan High School Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [89] "School Histories: the Stories Behind the Names." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on September 24, 2008. [90] "welcome to Foleys website [sic]." Foley’s Academy. November 22, 2004. [91] "Board of Education Votes on School Consolidations." Houston Independent School District. October 9, 2008. [92] Mellon, Ericka. "Tears and fears at HISD board meeting -- UPDATED." Houston Chronicle. October 9, 2008.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[93] Downing, Margaret. "Backlash Upon Backlash at HISD." Houston Press. December 2, 2008. 1. [94] "Board Approves School Closings and Consolidations." Houston Independent School District. November 14, 2008. [95] "Contact Incarnate Word Academy." Incarnate Word Academy. Retrieved on April 5, 2009. [96] "Enrolling." Trinity Lutheran School. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. [97] ^ "History of the Co-Cathedral." Roman Catholic Archdiocese of GalvestonHouston. Retrieved on April 5, 2009. [98] ^ "About St. Thomas." St. Thomas High School. Retrieved on April 5, 2009. [99] "Central Library Julia Ideson Building Texas Room and Archives." Houston Public Library. Retrieved on January 27, 2009. [100] hapman, Betty T. "Story of public C libraries took long time to write in Houston." Houston Business Journal. June 2, 2000. Retrieved on January 27, 2009. [101] ouston Public Library from the H Handbook of Texas Online [102]It’s Worth the Wait Exciting New " Renovation for the Central Library."

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Houston Public Library. February 23, 2006. Retrieved on January 27, 2009. [103]Central Library Grand Re-Opening " Celebration May 31 & June1, 2008." Houston Public Library. Retrieved on January 27, 2009. [104]HPL Express Discovery Green." Houston " Public Library. Accessed July 12, 2008. [105] nyder, Mike. "Houston’s new park S combines green space, amenities." Houston Chronicle. April 5, 2008. Retrieved on January 27, 2009. [106]HPL Express." Houston Public Library. " Accessed July 12, 2008. [107]Take to the air for short trips from " Tucson." Arizona Daily Star. June 19, 2008. Retrieved on January 27, 2009.

External links
• • • • • • Downtown at the official Houston web site Downtown Houston Management District Downtown District Downtown Houston Alliance Downtown Houston Interactive Map Houston Theater District

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Downtown_Houston" Categories: Neighborhoods in Houston, Texas, Central business districts, Economy of Houston, Texas This page was last modified on 19 May 2009, at 22:56 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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