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									2010 MCAS Alternate Assessment

 Collecting Instructional Data

      Presented by: Karen Orlando
      MCAS-Alt Teacher Consultant
             October 2009

  Why Collect Instructional Data?

1. To assess academic performance
2. To evaluate the effectiveness of
  – Which approaches/contexts work best
      for the student?
  – Determine what to teach and at what
      level of difficulty.
  – What services, supports, and
      interventions does the student need?

     Benefits of Data Collection
• Provide tangible evidence of performance
  and progress
• Leads to higher expectations
• Informs instructional decisions
• Accelerates learning
• Documents student learning for
  school/district accountability
• Promotes more efficient communication with
  families and other professionals
         (National Center on Progress Monitoring)

     Why Are Data Charts Required
            for MCAS–Alt?
Data charts provide:
 objective, detailed information on student performance
   – accuracy
   – independence
 visual display of progress over a defined period of time
 more information on which to base the portfolio score
 information on “generalized performance”
   – instructional approach, setting, methods of
     presentation and response (included in brief
     description of each activity)

       Data Chart Requirement
• Each strand must include at least one data chart,
  either a
   – Line Graph      Any one
                    of these is
   – Bar Graph      acceptable
   – Field Data
• Each data chart must include:
   – Student’s Name (First and Last)
   – At least 8 different dates measuring one skill
   – Brief description beneath each activity
   – Accuracy and independence
  Data charts are available in the Educator’s Manual online at:
 Why Include Eight Different Dates?

• More data provides better information about
  student growth and learning trends

• More data increases reliability of the final score

  Note: If data is collected multiple times on a
  single date, average the data to create a single
  data point for that date

This Sample Graph is NOT Scorable: Only
        Seven Different Dates

        Same    Same
         Date    Date

Data Collection: Additional Information
• Data collection may start as early as July 1, 2009
  for 2010 MCAS-Alt

• Science and Technology/Engineering may be
  collected over two consecutive school years
  (current and previous school year only)

• Dates may not include weekends, holidays, or
  school vacation UNLESS clearly labeled as
  homework, or if school was in session

   Brief Description for Each Activity
         Required on Data Chart
• Assists scorers to understand what the student did,
  verify that the same skill was addressed and skill is
  matched to learning standard and stated outcome
• Documents the activity and how it was conducted
  to monitor progress
  – each data point must have it’s own brief description
• Helpful for parents and other educators to know
  what the student did
• May show generalized performance
  – formats and approaches

This Sample Graph Shows Brief Descriptions

                  Insufficient Descriptions
Date   9/10/09    9/14/09 9/17/09   9/24/09   9/25/09 10/1/09   10/5/09   10/8/09
Brief   Reading   Speech Reading    Reading   Speech Reading    Reading   Speech

Date    9/10/09   9/14/09 9/17/09   9/24/09   9/25/09 10/1/09   10/5/09   10/8/09
Brief   Work      Same    Same      Same      Same    Same      Same      Same
Descrip sheet

      Baseline Data Requirement
• Data charts must show that a new skill was
 taught, not a skill the student already can do.

• Therefore, independence or accuracy (or both)
 must begin below 80%.

• Data charts that begin, remain,
 and end at 80-100% Accuracy AND
 Independence will be scored as “M”
 (i.e., missing or insufficient information).

Example of Data Chart That Would be
            Scored “M”

Example of Data Chart That is Scorable

How to Avoid Graphs That Are 80-100%
 • Collect Baseline Data (conduct pre-test)
    – If skill does not challenge the student, then
      increase level of complexity of the task
    – If skill is too challenging for the student
      level of complexity can be adjusted
    – When appropriate level of complexity is
      established (challenging and attainable)
      begin collecting data for the portfolio
 • When student masters the skill, raise the level
   of complexity or address a different skill
 • In either case: BEGIN A NEW CHART
Multiple Skills on One Data Chart will
           be Scored “M”

 • Data charts must address a SINGLE SKILL
 • Progress on one skill cannot be shown if
   multiple skills are documented
 • Data charts that address multiple skills will
   be scored “M”


Activities Address
  Multiple Skills

Steps in the data collection process:
 1. Determine the skill to be measured
 2. Develop an observable, measurable, and
    individualized outcome
 3. Individualize the instructional approach
 4. Select the type of data to be collected
 5. Set up a system for recording data on the
    student’s performance
 6. Collect data on a regular basis
 7. Monitor and analyze data on regularly
 8. Make systematic instructional decisions
    based on analysis of data
        Step 1: Determine the Skill
              to Be Measured
1. Refer to Resource Guide in the content area and
   strand to be assessed
2. Select a learning standard at student’s enrolled grade
3. Determine “entry point” at a challenging but
   attainable level of complexity

       Standard               Entry                   Access
       As Written             Point                    Skill
        (at grade          (below grade              (in academic
          level)               level)                   context)

                    high - medium - low complexity

  How to Use the Resource Guide
to Determine Skills to be Measured
Ask whether the student can:
 Address learning standards at grade level?
 If no, address higher complexity “entry points”?
 If no, address lower complexity “entry points” in
  the same topic, if possible?
 If no, address other learning standards in the
  required strand or General Standard.

If no to all of the above:
 Address access skills during standards-based
   instruction (e.g., making choices, interacting)

Important Reminders About MCAS-Alt

• If the learning standard or entry point contains
  multiple skills, select only ONE SKILL.
• When scrolling back to entry points in earlier grades,
  select an entry point that is related to the grade
  level standard to the maximum extent possible.
• While non-academic goals are addressed in the IEP,
  they are not included in the portfolio.
• Other academic outcomes that are not required for
  MCAS-Alt should still be taught.
• Only a few important academic outcomes/skills will
  be documented in the portfolio.

 Determine Skill to Be Measured
• Learning Standard:
  6.M.1: Apply the concepts of perimeter and area
  to the solution of problems. Apply formulas where

• Entry Point: Use appropriate units and tools to
  measure perimeter, make measurements,
  estimates, and compare areas.

• Skill to be assessed: Measure the length of sides
  of shapes.

            Measuring One Skill

William will count objects, compare amounts,
and write numbers with 80% accuracy and

William will compare quantities of objects with
80% accuracy and independence.

Step 2: Develop an Observable and
 Measurable Outcome for Student
How does the skill document learning standards at the
           student’s level of complexity?

      Skill: Measure the length of sides of shapes

         Now add:           behavior

   Avery will measure the length of sides of shapes
during math activities using a ruler marked with inches
     with 75% accuracy and 100% independence.

Observable vs. Non-observable
Alex will identify numbers…

Rather than:
Alex will know his numbers…

After listening to a story, Joshua will
answer comprehension questions.

Rather than:
Joshua will understand stories read to him.

Measurable vs. Not Measurable
        Daniel will identify numbers.

Now, add the measure of frequency:

 Daniel will identify the numbers 1 to 10 with
 80% accuracy and independence.
 Daniel will identify the numbers 1 to 10 with
 80% accuracy and independence during three
 consecutive math lessons.

       Step 3: Individualize the
        Instructional Approach
• What types of instruction match the skill to be measured?
   – Use Systematic Instruction Techniques
      • Time Delay
      • System of Least Prompts
   – Consider:
      • Adaptations/modifications
      • Student preferences (presentation and response)
      • Activity format and materials
• With whom will instruction occur?
• Where will instruction occur?
• How frequently will data be collected?

Step 4: Select the Type of Data
        to be Collected
1. Response-By-Response Instructional Data
    • Information on student performance at each
      step or by each item
    • Identify each item as correct or incorrect
    • Identify each item as independent or prompted
    • Can also specify prompt required for each item

Step 4: Select the Type of Data
        to be Collected

2. Baseline Data
   • Tests the student’s responses with
     no cues/prompts

  Step 4: Select the Type of Data
          to be Collected

3. Anecdotal Data
   ● Gather notes that describe and detail the
     instruction (activity description, setting, etc.)

              Data Must Be…
• Meaningful, understandable, and useful

In addition, Data Charts must include…
   Student’s name
   Date of each recorded activity (M/D/Y)
   % correct/accurate
   % independent
   Brief description
   Baseline and Progress

Step 5: Set Up a System for Recording
 Data on the Student’s Performance
Select/adapt or design data sheets that:
• Match the instructional approach
• Provide ease of use by teacher and other staff
• Allow for student involvement
• Include all required information

 Example: Set Up a System for Recording
   Data on the Student’s Performance
• Targeted skill: Student will identify the
  numbers 1-10 with 80% accuracy and 100%
  independence during 3 consecutive math
• Type of Data: Response-by-Response
   – Student verbally identifies number
• System for Recording Data: Field Data Chart
   – Teacher documents each response by
     student on a field data chart

   Guidelines: When to Use Each
        Type of Data Chart

Field Data Chart:
• Several related tasks or multiple trials in one or
  more settings
• Task does not result in a paper/pencil product
• Data collected at the moment student is
  participating in activity

Remember: Each chart measures one skill

Field Data Chart: recording
performance on each occasion

     Teacher Scribed Work Sample

• More detailed information than field data
   – Breaks task into steps or items
   – Clearly describes what is asked of student for
     each step or item
   – Clearly shows each response
   – Clearly shows prompt level for each response
• Does not need to have 8 data points
• Considered to be primary evidence

Guidelines: When to Use Each Type
           of Data Chart
Bar Graph:
• Summarizing results of student performance
  over time on related activities
• Showing student progress at-a-glance
• Can continue beyond 10 dates on successive

Remember: Each chart measures one skill

 Guidelines: When to Use Each Type
        of Data Chart/Graph
Line Graph:
• Shows same information as a bar graph
• Summarizes results of student performance in
  related activities
• Shows trend of student progress, but may be difficult
  to see performance on each date (e.g. crossing lines)
• Allows for 10 data points per chart
• May be more difficult to read than bar graph for
  parents or students

Remember: Each chart measures one skill

Dates are in

Work Samples collected over time…

   10  23    6     13  20    21    6   13  16    18

 Each sample labeled
    with required

Step 6: Collect Data on a Regular Basis

• Decide on daily, weekly, or even monthly collection,
  depending upon student and skill being assessed

• Once a schedule is established, be consistent with
  collecting data

• Avoid teaching same skill at same time each day

Example: Collect Data on a Regular Basis
  • Targeted skill: Student will identify the
    numbers 1-10 with 80% accuracy and 100%
    independence during 3 consecutive math
  • Type of Data: Response-by-response

  • System for Recording: Field Chart
  • Frequency Plan:
             » Baseline:   3 times within one week
             » Ongoing:    3 times weekly

Step 7: Monitor and Analyze Data
        on a Regular Basis

• Review data regularly
• Review at least the last 5 data points
• Share data with other members of the
 student’s IEP team

 Step 8: Review Data and Make
     Instructional Decisions

• Use trend of data to evaluate
  instruction and make necessary

• Effective instructional decisions
  lead to student success!

      Common Mistakes

•   More than one skill or outcome on a data chart
•   Not enough dates
•   Dates incorrect (wrong school year) or missing
•   Unclear descriptions
•   Missing two additional pieces of primary
    evidence that measure the same skill shown on
    the data chart

        Common Mistakes:
More than one skill or outcome addressed
           on the same chart

• Document only one skill or outcome on
  each chart
• Separate charts for each skill or outcome
• Progress cannot be shown if multiple skills
  are shown
• Data charts that do not address a single
  skill will be scored “M”

         Start a New Chart When…

• Student masters a skill and addresses a new skill
• Student masters a skill, so teacher increases
  level of difficulty

Use Multiple Charts When…
• Addressing multiple skills

Same skill practiced during different activities

Additional Evidence Submitted with Data Chart
 • “Core” set of evidence = one data chart and at
   least two related pieces of primary evidence
   showing SAME SKILL.
 • Once “Core” is included, additional evidence
   may be added.
    – Additional charts or work samples may be
      submitted showing different skills in the
      strand being assessed.
    – Supporting documentation:
      • Self-evaluation
      • Samples or templates
      • Notes from peers or teacher

Student Name

           Common Mistakes:
               Not Enough Dates

   Each data chart must record student’s
    performance of the same skill on at least 8
    different dates

   Skills assessed on multiple activities in a single
    day should be summarized as a single data point
    on a line or bar graph

   Okay to show multiple trials in one day on field
    data chart, but must have 8 different dates

    Avoiding Incomplete Portfolios
• Check for completeness of data charts

• Go beyond the minimum requirement
   – >8 data points and 2 pieces of related evidence
●   Label all evidence completely
     – Name, date, % accuracy, % independence
     – Include a brief, informational description

●   Check that targeted skill on data chart matches Strand
    Cover Sheet and Work Sample Description label
●   Verify that baseline (starting point) is NOT above
    80% accurate AND 80% independent


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